A4989 Datasheet

A4989
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
Features and Benefits
Description
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The A4989 is a dual full-bridge gate driver with integrated
microstepping translator suitable for driving a wide range of
higher power industrial bipolar 2-phase stepper motors (typically
30 to 500 W). Motor power is provided by external N-channel
power MOSFETs at supply voltages from 12 to 50 V.
2-wire step and direction interface
Dual full-bridge gate drive for N-channel MOSFETs
Operation over 12 to 50 V supply voltage range
Synchronous rectification
Cross-conduction protection
Adjustable mixed decay
Integrated sinusoidal DAC current reference
Fixed off-time PWM current control
Enhanced low current control when microstepping
Pin compatible with the A3986
Package: 38 pin TSSOP (suffix LD)
This device contains two sinusoidal DACs that generate the
reference voltage for two separate fixed-off-time PWM current
controllers. These provide current regulation for external power
MOSFET full-bridges.
Motor stepping is controlled by a two-wire step and direction
interface, providing complete microstepping control at full-,
half-, quarter-, and sixteenth-step resolutions. The fixed-off
time regulator has the ability to operate in slow-, mixed-, or
fast-decay modes, which results in reduced audible motor noise,
increased step accuracy, and reduced power dissipation.
The translator is the key to the easy implementation of this
IC. Simply inputting one pulse on the STEP input drives the
motor one step (full, half, quarter, or sixteenth depending on
the microstep select input). There are no phase-sequence tables,
high frequency control lines, or complex interfaces to program.
This reduces the need for a complex microcontroller.
Approximate size
Continued on the next page…
Typical Application Diagram
4989-DS, Rev. 1
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
Description (continued)
The above-supply voltage required for the high-side N-channel
MOSFETs is provided by a bootstrap capacitor. Efficiency is
enhanced by using synchronous rectification and the power FETs
are protected from shoot-through by integrated crossover control
and programmable dead time.
In addition to crossover current control, internal circuit protection
provides thermal shutdown with hysteresis and undervoltage lockout.
Special power-up sequencing is not required.
This component is supplied in an 38-pin TSSOP (package LD). The
package is lead (Pb) free, with 100% matte tin leadframe plating.
Selection Guide
Part Number
A4989SLDTR-T
Packing
Tape and reel, 4000 pieces per reel
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Rating
Units
Supply Voltage
Characteristic
Symbol
VBB
Notes
–0.3 to 50
V
Logic Supply Voltage
VDD
–0.3 to 7
V
Logic Inputs and Outputs
SENSEx pins
Sxx pins
–0.3 to 7
V
–1 to 1
V
–2 to 55
V
LSSx pins
–2 to 5
V
GHxx pins
Sxx to Sxx+15
V
GLxx pins
–2 to 16
V
Cxx pins
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
Range S
–0.3 to Sxx+15
V
–20 to 85
ºC
Junction Temperature
TJ(max)
150
ºC
Storage Temperature
Tstg
–55 to 150
ºC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
Functional Block Diagram
VMOTOR
+5 V
VBB
VDD
VREG
Bandgap
Regulator
P
CREG
VREG
Phase 1A
Bridge1
C1A
CBOOT1A
REF
VREF
High-Side
Drive
GH1A
S1A
RGH1A
RGH1B
RGL1A
RGL1B
VREG
DAC
Low-Side
Drive
STEP
PWM Latch
Blanking
Mixed Decay
DIR
GL1A
LSS1
SENSE1
Phase 1B
RSENSE1
P
Low-Side
Drive
MS1
GL1B
S1B
Phase 1
Phase 1
Control Logic
MS2
High-Side
Drive
GH1B
CBOOT1B
C1B
Translator
VMOTOR
PFD1
Phase 2A
Bridge2
C2A
CBOOT2A
PFD2
Phase 2
Phase 2
Control Logic
High-Side
Drive
GH2A
S2A
RGH2A
RGH2B
RGL2A
RGL2B
VREG
ENABLE
Low-Side
Drive
GL2A
LSS2
RESET
PWM Latch
Blanking
Mixed Decay
SR
SENSE2
Low-Side
Drive
DAC
P
GL2B
S2B
OSC
High-Side
Drive
VREF
ROSC
RSENSE2
Phase 2B
Protection
UVLO
TSD
GH2B
CBOOT2B
C2B
GND
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS at TA = 25°C, VDD = 5 V, VBB = 12 to 50V, unless noted otherwise
Characteristics
Supply and Reference
Load Supply Voltage Range
Load Supply Current
Load Supply Idle Current
Logic Supply Voltage Range
Logic Supply Current
Logic Supply Idle Current
Regulator Output
Bootstrap Diode Forward Voltage
Gate Output Drive
Turn-On Rise Time
Turn-Off Fall Time
Turn-On Propagation Delay
Turn-Off Propagation Delay
Crossover Dead Time
Pull-Up On Resistance
Pull-Down On Resistance
Short-Circuit Current – Source1
Short-Circuit Current – Sink
GHx Output Voltage
Symbol
Test Conditions
VBB
IBB
IBBQ
VDD
IDD
IDDQ
VREG
VfBOOT
tr
tf
ROSC = 10 kΩ, CLOAD = 1000 pF
ENABLE = High, outputs disabled
RESET = 0
RESET = 0
IREGInt = 30 mA
IfBOOT = 10 mA
Typ.
Max.
Units
12
–
–
–
3.0
–
–
11.25
0.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.8
50
10
6
100
5.5
10
300
13
1
V
mA
mA
μA
V
mA
μA
V
V
120
60
180
180
–
40
19
–110
200
–
160
80
–
–
1.2
55
24
–80
250
–
ns
ns
ns
ns
μs
Ω
Ω
mA
mA
V
–
–
V
–
–
300
–
–
0.3 VDD
–
–
1
1
V
V
mV
μA
μs
GLx Output Voltage
VGLx
80
40
–
–
0.6
30
14
–140
160
VC – 0.2
VREG –
0.2
Logic Inputs
Input Low Voltage
Input High Voltage
Input Hysteresis
Input Current1
RESET Pulse Width2
VIL
VIH
VIHys
IIN
twR
–
0.7 VDD
150
–1
0.2
tp(on)
tp(off)
tDEAD
CLOAD = 1000 pF, 20% to 80%
CLOAD = 1000 pF, 80% to 20%
ENABLE low to gate drive on
ENABLE high to gate drive off
ROSC = 10 kΩ,
IGH = –25 mA
IGL = 25 mA
Min.
RDS(on)UP
RDS(on)DN
ISC(source)
ISC(sink)
VGHx
CBOOTx fully charged
Continued on the next page...
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) at TA = 25°C, VDD = 5 V, VBB = 12 to 50V, unless noted otherwise
Characteristics
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max. Units
Current Control
Blank Time
tBLANK
ROSC = 10 kΩ,
1.2
1.5
1.8
μs
ROSC = 10 kΩ, , SR= High
18.12
–
23.16
μs
Fixed Off-Time
tOFF
Reference Input Voltage
VREF
0.8
–
2
V
Internal Reference Voltage
VREFInt 20 kΩ to VDD
1.9
2.0
2.1
V
Current Trip Point Error3
EITRIP
VREF = 2 V
–
–
±5
%
Reference Input Current1
IREF
–3
0
3
μA
ROSC = 10 kΩ
3.2
4
4.8
MHz
Oscillator Frequency
fOSC
Protection
VREG Undervoltage Lockout
VREGUV Decreasing VREG
7.5
8
8.5
V
VREG Undervoltage Lockout
VREGUVHys
100
200
–
mV
Hysteresis
Decreasing VDD
2.45
2.7
2.95
V
VDD Undervoltage Lockout
VDDUV
VDD Undervoltage Lockout
VDDUVHys
50
100
–
mV
Hysteresis
Temperature increasing
–
165
–
ºC
Overtemperature Shut Down
TTSD
Overtemperature Shut Down
TTSDHys Recovery = TTSD – TTSDHys
–
15
–
ºC
Hysteresis
Control Timing
STEP Low Duration
tSTEPL
1
–
–
μs
STEP High Duration
tSTEPH
1
–
–
μs
Input change to STEP pulse;
200
–
–
ns
Setup Duration
tSU
MS1, MS2, DIR
Input change from STEP pulse;
Hold Duration
tH
200
–
–
ns
MS1, MS2, DIR
Wake Time Duration
tWAKE
1
–
–
ms
1For input and output current specifications, negative current is defined as coming out of (sourcing) the specified device pin.
2A RESET pulse of this duration will reset the translator to the Home position without entering Sleep mode.
3Current Trip Point Error is the difference between actual current trip point and the target current trip point, referred to full
scale (100%) current: EITRIP = 100 × (ITRIPActual – ITRIPTarget) / IFullScale %
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance
Symbol
RθJA
Test Conditions*
Value Units
4-layer PCB, based on JEDEC standard
51
ºC/W
1-layer PCB with copper limited to solder pads
127
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on Allegro website.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
RESET
tSTEPL
tSTEPH
tWAKE
STEP
tSU
tH
MSx, DIR
Figure 1. Logic Interface Timing Diagram
Table 1. Microstep Resolution Truth Table
MS2
MS1
Microstep Resolution
0
0
Full Step
0
1
Half Step
1
0
Quarter Step
1
1
Sixteenth Step
Table 2. Mixed Decay Selection Truth Table
Microstep
Setting
Magnitude
of Current
Full Step
(MS2 = 0, MS1 = 0)
Rising
Half Step
(MS2 = 0, MS1 = 1)
PFDx State
PFD2 = 0, PFD1 = 0
PFD2 = 0, PFD1 = 1
PFD2 = 1, PFD1 = 0
PFD2 = 1, PFD1 = 1
Rising
Slow
Slow
Slow
Slow
Falling
Slow
Slow
Slow
Slow
Slow
Slow
Slow
Slow
Falling
Slow
11%
26%
Fast
1/4 Step
(MS2 = 1, MS1 = 0)
Rising
Slow
Step 1: 11%
Step 1: 11%
Step 1: 11%
Falling
Slow
11%
26%
Fast
1/16 Step
(MS2 = 1, MS1 = 1)
Rising
Slow
Steps 1 to 5: 11%
Steps 1 to 5: 11%
Steps 1 to 5: 11%
Falling
Slow
11%
26%
Fast
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
Table 3. Step Sequencing Settings
Home microstep position at Step Angle 45º; DIR = H
Full
Step
(#)
Half
Step
(#)
1/4
Step
(#)
1
1
2
1
2
3
4
3
5
6
2
4
7
8
5
9
1/16
Phase 2
Phase 1
Step
Step
Current
Current
Angle
(#) (% ITRIP(max)) (% ITRIP(max))
(°)
Full
Step
(#)
Half
Step
(#)
1/4
Step
(#)
5
9
1/16
Phase 2
Phase 1
Step
Step
Current
Current
Angle
(#) (% ITRIP(max)) (% ITRIP(max))
(°)
1
0.00
100.00
0.0
2
9.38
100.00
5.6
3
18.75
98.44
11.3
35
–18.75
–98.44
191.3
4
29.69
95.31
16.9
36
–29.69
–95.31
196.9
5
37.50
92.19
22.5
37
–37.50
–92.19
202.5
6
46.88
87.50
28.1
38
–46.88
–87.50
208.1
7
56.25
82.81
33.8
39
–56.25
–82.81
213.8
8
64.06
76.56
39.4
40
–64.06
–76.56
219.4
9
70.31
70.31
45.0
41
–70.31
–70.31
225.0
10
76.56
64.06
50.6
42
–76.56
–64.06
230.6
11
82.81
56.25
56.3
43
–82.81
–56.25
236.3
12
87.50
46.88
61.9
44
–87.50
–46.88
241.9
13
92.19
37.50
67.5
45
–92.19
–37.50
247.5
14
95.31
29.69
73.1
46
–95.31
–29.69
253.1
15
98.44
18.75
78.8
47
–98.44
–18.75
258.8
16
100.00
9.38
84.4
48
–100.00
–9.38
264.4
17
100.00
0.00
90.0
49
–100.00
0.00
270.0
18
100.00
–9.38
95.6
50
–100.00
9.38
275.6
19
98.44
–18.75
101.3
51
–98.44
18.75
281.3
20
95.31
–29.69
106.9
21
92.19
–37.50
112.5
22
87.50
–46.88
23
82.81
24
76.56
25
10
3
6
11
12
7
13
33
0.00
–100.00
180.0
34
–9.38
–100.00
185.6
52
–95.31
29.69
286.9
53
–92.19
37.50
292.5
118.1
54
–87.50
46.88
298.1
–56.25
123.8
55
–82.81
56.25
303.8
–64.06
129.4
56
–76.56
64.06
309.4
70.31
–70.31
135.0
57
–70.31
70.31
315.0
26
64.06
–76.56
140.6
58
–64.06
76.56
320.6
27
56.25
–82.81
146.3
59
–56.25
82.81
326.3
28
46.88
–87.50
151.9
60
–46.88
87.50
331.9
29
37.50
–92.19
157.5
61
–37.50
92.19
337.5
30
29.69
–95.31
163.1
62
–29.69
95.31
343.1
31
18.75
–98.44
168.8
63
–18.75
98.44
348.8
32
9.38
–100.00
174.4
64
–9.38
100.00
354.4
33
0.00
–100.00
180.0
1
0.00
100.00
360.0
14
4
8
15
16
1
1
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
STEP
100
100
71
71
Slow
Phase = 1,
Direction = H
–71
–100
100
Home Microstep Position
0
Home Microstep Position
Phase = 1,
Direction = H
Slow
Slow
Mixed
Mixed
Mixed
0
–71
–100
100
71
71
IOUT2B (%*)
Phase = 2,
Direction = H
Slow
IOUT1B (%*)
Home Microstep Position
IOUT1B (%*)
0
Slow
IOUT2B (%*)
Mixed
Phase = 2,
Direction = H
0
Home Microstep Position
STEP
Slow
Slow
Mixed
Mixed
Slow
Slow
–71
–71
–100
–100
*For precise definition of output levels, refer to table 3
*For precise definition of output levels, refer to table 3
Figure 2. Decay Mode for Full-Step Increments
Figure 3. Decay Modes for Half-Step Increments
STEP
100
92
71
Phase = 1,
Direction = H
38
Slow
Slow
Mixed
Mixed
Slow
0
Mixed
–38
–71
–92
–100
100
92
Home Microstep Position
IOUT1B (%*)
Mixed
Mixed
71
38
IOUT2B (%*)
Phase = 2,
Direction = H
Mixed
Slow
Mixed
Slow
Mixed
0
Slow
Mixed
Mixed
–38
–71
–92
–100
*For precise definition of output levels, refer to table 3
Figure 4. Decay Modes for Quarter-Step Increments
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
STEP
100
96
88
83
77
71
63
56
47
38
29
20
IOUT1B (%*)
Phase = 1,
Direction = H
10
Slow
0
–10
Mixed
Slow
Mixed
Mixed
Mixed
–20
–29
Home Microstep Position
–38
–47
–56
–63
–71
–77
–83
–88
–96
–100
100
96
88
83
77
71
63
56
47
38
29
IOUT2B (%*)
Phase = 2,
Direction = H
20
10
Mixed
0
–10
Slow
Slow
Mixed
Mixed
Slow
Mixed
–20
–29
–38
–47
–56
–63
–71
–77
–83
–88
–96
–100
*For precise definition of output levels, refer to table 3
Figure 5. Decay Modes for Sixteenth-Step Increments
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
9
A4989
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
Functional Description
Basic Operation
The A4989 is a complete microstepping FET driver with
built-in translator for easy operation with a minimum number
of control inputs. It is designed to operate 2-phase bipolar
stepper motors in full-, half-, quarter, and sixteenth-step
modes. The current in each of the two external power fullbridges, all N-channel MOSFETs, is independently regulated
by a fixed off-time PWM control circuit. The full-bridge
current at each step is set by the value of an external current sense resistor, RSENSEX , in the ground connection to the
bridge, a reference voltage, VREF, and the output of the DAC
controlled by the translator.
The use of PWM with N-channel MOSFETs provides the
most cost-effective solution for a high efficiency motor
drive. The A4989 provides all the necessary circuits to
ensure that the gate-source voltage of both high-side and
low-side external MOSFETs are above 10 V, and that there is
no cross-conduction (shoot through) in the external bridge.
Specific functions are described more fully in the following
sections.
Power Supplies
Two power connections are required. The motor power supply should be connected to VBB to provide the gate drive
levels. Power for internal logic is provided by the VDD
input. Internal logic is designed to operate from 3 to 5.5 V,
allowing the use of 3.3 or 5 V external logic interface circuits.
GND The ground pin is a reference voltage for internal logic
and analog circuits. There is no large current flow through
this pin. To avoid any noise from switching circuits, this
should have an independent trace to the supply ground star
point.
VREG The voltage at this pin is generated by a low-drop-out
linear regulator from the VBB supply. It is used to operate the low-side gate drive outputs, GLxx, and to provide
the charging current for the bootstrap capacitors, CBOOTx.
To limit the voltage drop when the charge current is provided, this pin should be decoupled with a ceramic capacitor, CREG, to ground. The value CREG should typically
be 40 times the value of the bootstrap capacitor for PWM
frequencies up to 14 kHz. Above 14 kHz, the minimum
recommended value can be determined from the following
formula:
CREG > CBOOT × 3 × fPWM ,
where CREG and CBOOT are in nF, and fPWM is the maximum
PWM frequency, in kHz. VREG is monitored, and if the voltage becomes too low, the outputs will be disabled.
REF The reference voltage, VREF, at this pin sets the
maximum (100%) peak current. The REF input is internally
limited to 2 V when a 20 kpull-up resistor is connected
between VREF and VDD. This allows the maximum reference voltage to be set without the need for an externallygenerated voltage. An external reference voltage below the
maximum can also be input on this pin. The voltage at VREF
is divided by 8 to produce the DAC reference voltage level.
OSC The internal FET control timing is derived from a
master clock running at 4 MHz typical. A resistor, ROSC,
connected from the OSC pin to GND sets the frequency (in
MHz) to approximately:
fOSC ≈ 100 / (6 + 1.9 × ROSC) ,
where ROSC, in k, is typically between 50 k and 10 k.
The master oscillator period is used to derive the PWM offtime, dead time, and blanking time.
Gate Drive
The A4989 is designed to drive external power N-channel
MOSFETs. It supplies the transient currents necessary to
quickly charge and discharge the external FET gate capacitance in order to reduce dissipation in the external FET
during switching. The charge and discharge rate can be
controlled using an external resistor , RGx, in series with
the connection to the gate of the FET. Cross-conduction is
prevented by the gate drive circuits which introduce a dead
time, tDEAD , between switching one FET off and the complementary FET on. tDEAD is at least 3 periods of the master
oscillator but can be up to 1 cycle longer to allow oscillator
synchronization.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
10
A4989
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
C1A, C1B, C2A, and C2B High-side connections for the
bootstrap capacitors, CBOOTx, and positive supply for highside gate drivers. The bootstrap capacitors are charged to
approximately VREG when the associated output Sxx terminal
is low. When the output swings high, the voltage on this terminal rises with the output to provide the boosted gate voltage needed for the high-side N-channel power MOSFETs.
The bootstrap capacitor should be ceramic and have a value
of 10 to 20 times the total MOSFET gate capacitance.
GH1A, GH1B, GH2A, and GH2B High-side gate drive
outputs for external N-channel MOSFETs. External series
gate resistors can be used to control the slew rate seen at
the gate, thereby controlling the di/dt and dv/dt at the motor
terminals. GHxx = 1 (high) means that the upper half of the
driver is turned on and will source current to the gate of the
high-side MOSFET in the external motor-driving bridge.
GHxx = 0 (low) means that the lower half of the driver is
turned on and will sink current from the external MOSFET’s
gate circuit to the respective Sxx pin.
S1A, S1B, S2A, and S2B Directly connected to the
motor, these terminals sense the voltages switched across the
load and define the negative supply for the floating high-side
drivers. The discharge current from the high-side MOSFET
gate capacitance flows through these connections which
should have low impedance traces to the MOSFET bridge.
GL1A, GL1B, GL2A, and GL2B Low-side gate drive
outputs for external N-channel MOSFETs. External series
gate resistors (as close as possible to the MOSFET gate)
can be used to reduce the slew rate seen at the gate, thereby
controlling the di/dt and dv/dt at the motor terminals.
GLxx = 1 (high) means that the upper half of the driver is
turned on and will source current to the gate of the low-side
MOSFET in the external motor-driving bridge. GLxx = 0
(low) means that the lower half of the driver is turned on and
will sink current from the gate of the external MOSFET to
the LSSx pin.
LSS1 and LSS2 Low-side return path for discharge of the
gate capacitors, connected to the common sources of the
low-side external FETs through low-impedance traces.
Motor Control
Motor speed and direction is controlled simply by two logic
inputs, and the microstep level is controlled by a further two
logic inputs. At power-up or reset, the translator sets the
DACs and phase current polarity to the initial Home state
(see figures 2 through 5 for home-state conditions), and sets
the current regulator for both phases to mixed-decay mode.
When a step command signal occurs on the STEP input, the
translator automatically sequences the DACs to the next
level (see table 3 for the current level sequence and current
polarity).
The microstep resolution is set by inputs MS1 and MS2 as
shown in table 1. If the new DAC level is higher or equal to
the previous level, then the decay mode for that full-bridge
will normally be slow decay. If the new DAC output level
is lower than the previous level, the decay mode for that
full-bridge will be set by the PFD1 and PFD2 inputs. The full
range of settings available is given in table 2. This automatic
current-decay selection improves microstepping performance
by reducing the distortion of the current waveform due to the
motor BEMF.
STEP A low-to-high transition on the STEP input sequences
the translator and advances the motor one increment. The
translator controls the input to the DACs as well as the direction of current flow in each winding. The size of the increment is determined by the state of the MSx inputs.
MS1 and MS2 These Microstep Select inputs are used
to select the microstepping format, per table 1. Changes to
these inputs do not take effect until the next STEP input rising edge.
DIR This Direction input determines the direction of rotation
of the motor. When low, the direction is “clockwise” and
“counterclockwise” when high. A change on this input does
not take effect until the next STEP rising edge.
Internal PWM Current Control
Each full-bridge is independently controlled by a fixed offtime PWM current control circuit that limits the load current
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11
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
in the phase to a desired value, ITRIP. Initially, a diagonal pair
of source and sink MOSFETs are enabled and current flows
through the motor winding and the current sense resistor,
RSENSEx. When the voltage across RSENSEx equals the
DAC output voltage, the current sense comparator resets
the PWM latch, which turns off the source MOSFET (slow
decay mode) or the sink and source MOSFETs (fast decay
mode). The maximum value of current limiting is set by the
selection of RSENSE and the voltage at the REF input, with a
transconductance function approximated by:
ITRIP(max) = VREF / (8 × RSENSE )
The DAC, controlled by the translator, reduces the reference voltage, VREF , in precise steps to produce the required
sinusoidal reference levels for the current sense comparator.
This limits the phase current trip level, ITRIP, to a portion of
the maximum current level, ITRIP(max), defined by:
ITRIP = (% ITRIP(max) / 100) × ITRIP(max)
See table 3 for % ITRIP(max) at each step.
Fixed Off-Time The internal PWM current control
circuitry uses the master oscillator to control the length of
time the power MOSFETs remain off. The off-time, tOFF ,
is nominally 87 cycles of the master oscillator (21.75 μs at
4 MHz), but may be up to 1 cycle longer to synchronize with
the master oscillator.
Blanking This function blanks the output of the current
sense comparator when the outputs are switched by the
internal current control. The comparator output is blanked to
prevent false overcurrent detection due to reverse recovery
currents of the clamp diodes and switching transients related
to the capacitance of the load. The blank time, tBLANK , is
6 cycles of the master oscillator (1.5 μs at 4 MHz). Because
the tBLANK follows after the end of tOFF, no synchronization
error occurs.
Dead Time To prevent cross-conduction (shoot through)
in the power full-bridge, a dead time is introduced between
switching one MOSFET off and switching the complementary MOSFET on. The dead time, tDEAD, is 3 cycles of the
master oscillator (750 ns at 4MHz), but may be up to 1 cycle
longer to synchronize with the master oscillator.
ENABLE This input simply turns off all the power
MOSFETs. When set at logic high, the outputs are disabled.
When set at logic low, the internal control enables the outputs as required. Inputs to the translator (STEP, DIR, MS1,
and MS2) and the internal sequencing logic are all active
independent of the ENABLE input state.
RESET An active-low control input used to minimize
power consumption when not in use. This disables much of
the internal circuitry, including the output MOSFETs and
internal regulator. When set at logic high, allows normal
operation and start-up of the device in the home position.
When coming out of sleep mode, wait 1 ms before issuing a
STEP command, to allow the internal regulator to stabilize.
The outputs can also be reset to the home position without
entering sleep mode. To do so, pulse the RESET input low,
with a pulse width between twR(min) and twR(max).
Mixed Decay Operation
Mixed decay is a technique that provides greater control
of phase currents while the current is decreasing. When a
stepper motor is driven at high speed, the back EMF from
the motor will lag behind the driving current. If a passive
current decay mode, such as slow decay, is used in the current control scheme, then the motor back EMF can cause the
phase current to rise out of control. Mixed decay eliminates
this effect by putting the full-bridge initially into fast decay,
and then switching to slow decay after some time. Because
fast decay is an active (driven) decay mode, this portion of
the current decay cycle will ensure that the current remains
in control. Using fast decay for the full current decay time
(off-time) would result in a large ripple current, but switching to slow decay once the current is in control will reduce
the ripple current value. The portion of the off-time that the
full-bridge has to remain in fast decay will depend on the
characteristics and the speed of the motor.
When the magnitude of the phase current is rising, the motor
back EMF will not affect the current control and slow decay
may be used to minimize the phase current ripple. The
A4989 automatically switches between slow decay, when the
current is rising, and mixed decay, when the current magnitude is falling. The portion of the off-time that the full-bridge
remains in fast decay is defined by the PFD1 and PFD2
inputs. However, when high VBB voltages are used with
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12
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
motors having low values of DC phase resistance, the minimum
current that can be controlled can be higher than the target value
required in some microstepping modes. Errors in the average
current amplitude delivered to the phases of a motor can lead to
positional errors in the holding condition and/or excessive torque
ripple and acoustic noise at low speeds.
The conditions for the loss of current control due to this effect are
just after a current zero crossing, as the magnitude of the cur-
rent increases. Introducing mixed decay over the range of steps
affected enhances current control. Because the requirements are
closely related to the microstep settings used, the relationship
between MSx and PFDx is tabulated in table 2 for clarity.
The overall result is an extension of the minimum current control
range the 4989 can achieve. The effect can be seen clearly in
figures 6 and 7, below.
Phase Voltage (2B)
Phase Voltage (2A)
Step Voltage
Missed Steps
Phase Current (2)
Figure 6. An example of missed steps when 1/16 microstepping a
motor at low stepping speeds
Phase Voltage (2B)
Phase Voltage (2A)
Step Voltage
Current Control
Correct
Phase Current (2)
Figure 7. A 4989 driving the same motor as in figure 6, using these
settings: MS1=MS2=1, PFD1=PFD2= 1
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13
A4989
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
PFD1 and PFD2 The Percent Fast Decay pins are used to
select the portion of fast decay, according to table 2, to be used
when mixed decay is enabled. Mixed decay is enabled when a
STEP input signal commands an output current that is lower than
for the previous step. In mixed decay mode, as the trip point is
reached, the A4989 goes into fast decay mode until the specified
number of master oscillator cycles has completed. After this fast
decay portion, the A4989 switches to slow decay mode for the
remainder of the fixed off-time, tOFF.
Using PFD1 and PFD 2 to select 0% fast decay will effectively
maintain the full-bridge in slow decay at all times. This option
can be used to keep the phase current ripple to a minimum when
the motor is stationary or stepping at very low rates.
Selecting 100% fast decay will provide the fastest current control
when the current is falling and can help when the motor is being
driven at very high step rates.
SR Input used to set synchronous rectification mode. When a
PWM off-cycle is triggered, load current recirculates according
to the decay mode selected by the control logic. The synchronous
rectification feature turns on the appropriate MOSFETs during
the current decay and effectively shorts out the body diodes with
the low RDS(ON) of the MOSFET. This lowers power dissipation significantly and eliminates the need for additional Schottky
diodes. Synchronous rectification can be set to either active mode
or disabled mode.
• Active Mode When the SR pin input is logic low, active mode
is enabled and synchronous rectification will occur. This mode
prevents reversal of the load current by turning off synchronous rectification when a zero current level is detected. This
prevents the motor winding from conducting in the reverse
direction.
• Disabled Mode When the SR pin input is logic high, synchronous rectification is disabled. This mode is typically used when
external diodes are required to transfer power dissipation from
the power MOSFETs to external, usually Schottky, diodes.
Shutdown Operation In the event of an overtemperature
fault, or an undervoltage fault on VREG, the MOSFETs are
disabled until the fault condition is removed. At power-up, and
in the event of low voltage at VDD, the under voltage lockout
(UVLO) circuit disables the MOSFETs until the voltage at VDD
reaches the minimum level. Once VDD is above the minimum
level, the translator is reset to the home state, and the MOSFETs
are reenabled.
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14
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
Application Information
Current Sensing
To minimize inaccuracies in sensing the IPEAK current
level caused by ground-trace IR drops, the sense resistor,
RSENSEx, should have an independent return to the supply
ground star point. For low-value sense resistors, the IR drops
in the sense resistor PCB traces can be significant and should
be taken into account. The use of sockets should be avoided
as they can introduce variation in RSENSEx due to their contact resistance.
3. The GND pin should be connected by an independent low
impedance trace to the supply common at a single point.
4. Check the peak voltage excursion of the transients on
the LSS pin with reference to the GND pin using a close
grounded (tip and barrel) probe. If the voltage at LSS
exceeds the absolute maximum specified in this datasheet,
add additional clamping, capacitance, or both between the
LSS pin and the AGND pin.
Thermal Protection
Other layout recommendations:
All drivers are turned off when the junction temperature
reaches 165°C typical. This is intended only to protect the
A4989 from failures due to excessive junction temperatures.
Thermal protection will not protect the A4989 from continuous short circuits. Thermal shutdown has a hysteresis of
approximately 15°C.
1. Gate charge drive paths and gate discharge return paths
may carry transient current pulses. Therefore, the traces from
GHxx, GLxx, Sxx, and LSSx should be as short as possible to
reduce the inductance of the circuit trace.
Circuit Layout
Because this is a switch-mode application, where rapid current changes are present, care must be taken during layout of
the application PCB. The following points are provided as
guidance for layout. Following all guidelines will not always
be possible. However, each point should be carefully considered as part of any layout procedure.
Ground connection layout recommendations:
1. Decoupling capacitors for the supply pins VBB, VREG,
and VDD should be connected independently close to the
GND pin and not to any ground plane. The decoupling
capacitors should also be connected as close as possible to
the corresponding supply pin.
2. The oscillator timing resistor ROSC should be connected
to the GND pin. It should not be connected to any ground
plane, supply common, or the power ground.
2. Provide an independent connection from each LSS pin
to the common point of each power bridge. It is not recommended to connect LSS directly to the GND pin. The LSS
connection should not be used for the SENSE connection.
3. Minimize stray inductance by using short, wide copper
runs at the drain and source terminals of all power FETs.
This includes motor lead connections, the input power bus,
and the common source of the low-side power FETs. This
will minimize voltages induced by fast switching of large
load currents.
4. Consider the use of small (100 nF) ceramic decoupling
capacitors across the source and drain of the power FETs to
limit fast transient voltage spikes caused by trace inductance.
The above are only recommendations. Each application is
different and may encounter different sensitivities. Each
design should be tested at the maximum current, to ensure
any parasitic effects are eliminated.
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15
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
Pin-out Diagram
C2A 1
38 C2B
GH2A 2
37 GH2B
S2A 3
36 S2B
GL2A 4
NC 5
VREG 6
35 GL2B
Control
Logic
VBB 7
33 LSS2
32 SENSE2
GL1A 8
31 PFD1
S1A 9
30 DIR
GH1A 10
29 MS2
C1A 11
28 MS1
C1B 12
27 PFD2
GH1B 13
26 STEP
25 VDD
S1B 14
GL1B 15
LSS1 16
SENSE1 17
Terminal List Table
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
34 NC
Translator
24 NC
23 OSC
22 RESET
SR 18
21 REF
ENABLE 19
20 GND
Name
C2A
GH2A
S2A
GL2A
NC
VREG
VBB
GL1A
S1A
GH1A
C1A
C1B
GH1B
S1B
GL1B
LSS1
SENSE1
SR
ENABLE
GND
REF
RESET
OSC
NC
VDD
STEP
PFD2
MS1
MS2
DIR
PFD1
SENSE2
LSS2
NC
GL2B
S2B
GH2B
C2B
Description
Phase 2 bootstrap capacitor drive A connection
Phase 2 high-side gate drive A
Phase 2 motor connection A
Phase 2 low-side gate drive A
No internal connection
Regulator decoupling capacitor connection
Motor supply voltage
Phase 1 low-side gate drive A
Phase 1 motor connection A
Phase 1 high-side gate drive A
Phase 1 bootstrap capacitor drive A connection
Phase 1 bootstrap capacitor drive B connection
Phase 1 high-side gate drive B
Phase 1 motor connection B
Phase 1 low-side gate drive B
Phase 1 low-side source connection
Phase 1 bridge current sense input
Synchronous rectification enable
Output enable
Ground
Reference voltage
Reset input
Oscillator input, ROSC resistor connection
No internal connection
Logic supply voltage
Step input
Percent Fast Decay input 2
Microstep Select input 1
Microstep Select input 2
Direction input
Percent Fast Decay input 1
Phase 2 bridge current sense input
Phase 2 low-side source connection
No internal connection
Phase 2 low-side gate drive B
Phase 2 motor connection B
Phase 2 high-side gate drive B
Phase 2 bootstrap capacitor drive B connection
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16
Dual Full-Bridge MOSFET Driver
with Microstepping Translator
A4989
LD Package, 38-Pin TSSOP
1.60
9.70 ±0.10
4º
0.50
38
0.30
38
+0.06
0.15 –0.05
4.40 ±0.10
6.40 ±0.20
6.00
A
1 2
1 2
0.25
38X
SEATING
PLANE
0.10 C
0.22 ±0.05
0.50
C
1.20 MAX
0.10 ±0.05
B
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
PCB Layout Reference View
All dimensions nominal, not for tooling use
(reference JEDEC MO-153 BD-1)
Dimensions in millimeters
A Terminal #1 mark area
B
Reference pad layout (reference IPC SOP50P640X110-38M)
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as necessary
to meet application process requirements and PCB layout tolerances
Copyright ©2010-2013, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in life support devices or systems, if a failure of an Allegro product can reasonably be expected to cause the
failure of that life support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its
use; nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
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17
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