48x50_1v201.pdf

HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
I/O Type 8-Bit MCU
Technical Document
· Tools Information
· FAQs
· Application Note
-
HA0003E Communicating between the HT48 & HT46 Series MCUs and the HT93LC46 EEPROM
HA0004E HT48 & HT46 MCU UART Software Implementation Method
HA0013E HT48 & HT46 LCM Interface Design
HA0021E Using the I/O Ports on the HT48 MCU Series
HA0055E 2^12 Decoder (8+4 - Corresponds to HT12E)
Features
· Operating voltage:
· 4096´15 program memory ROM
fSYS=4MHz: 2.2V~5.5V
fSYS=8MHz: 3.3V~5.5V
· 160´8 data memory RAM
· Buzzer driving pair and PFD supported
· Low voltage reset function
· HALT function and wake-up feature reduce power
· 35 bidirectional I/O lines (max.)
consumption
· 1 interrupt input shared with an I/O line
· 6-level subroutine nesting
· 8-bit programmable timer/event counter with overflow
· Up to 0.5ms instruction cycle with 8MHz system clock
interrupt and 8-stage prescaler
at VDD=5V
· 16-bit programmable timer/event counter and over-
· Bit manipulation instruction
flow interrupts
· 15-bit table read instruction
· On-chip RC oscillator, external crystal and RC oscil-
· 63 powerful instructions
lator
· All instructions in one or two machine cycles
· 32768Hz crystal oscillator for timing purposes only
· 28-pin SKDIP/SOP, 48-pin SSOP package
· Watchdog Timer
General Description
The advantages of low power consumption, I/O flexibility, timer functions, oscillator options, HALT and
wake-up functions, watchdog timer, buzzer driver, as
well as low cost, enhance the versatility of these devices
to suit a wide range of application possibilities such as
industrial control, consumer products, subsystem controllers, etc.
The HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1 are 8-bit high performance, RISC architecture microcontroller devices specifically designed for multiple I/O control product
applications. The mask version HT48C50-1 is fully pin
and functionally compatible with the OTP version
HT48R50A-1 device.
Rev. 2.01
1
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Block Diagram
M
T M R 1 C
T M R 1 L
T M R 1 H
IN T /P G 0
In te rru p t
C ir c u it
P ro g ra m
C o u n te r
U
IN T C
M
M P
fS
X
X
U
X
/4
T M R 0
X
fS
E N /D IS
D A T A
M e m o ry
W D T P r e s c a le r
M
P r e s c a le r
W D T S
U
Y S
T M R 1
M
T M R 0
P G 0
In s tr u c tio n
R e g is te r
U
T M R 0 C
S T A C K
P ro g ra m
R O M
M
W D T
M
U
Y S
U
fS
Y S
X
/4
R T C
X
O S C
W D T O S C
P A C
M U X
In s tr u c tio n
D e c o d e r
A L U
T im in g
G e n e ra to r
S h ifte r
P A
O S
P
R
V
V
C 1 /
G 1
E S
D D
S S
P B C
P G 1
P G 2
P O R T B
P B
P O R T C
P C
A C C
P D C
In te rn a l
R C O S C
P O R T D
P D
P G C
P G
Rev. 2.01
P A 0 ~ P A 7
B Z /B Z
S T A T U S
P C C
O S C 2 /
P G 2
P O R T A
2
P O R T G
P B 0 ~ P B 7
P C 0 ~ P C 7
P D 0 ~ P D 7
P G 0 ~ P G 2
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Pin Assignment
P B 5
1
4 8
P B 6
P B 4
2
4 7
P B 7
P A 3
3
4 6
P A 4
P A 2
4
4 5
P A 5
P A 1
5
4 4
P A 6
P A 0
6
4 3
P A 7
P B 3
7
4 2
N C
P B 2
8
4 1
N C
P B 1 /B Z
9
4 0
N C
P B 0 /B Z
1 0
3 9
N C
P B 5
1
2 8
P B 6
N C
1 1
3 8
O S C 2 /P G 2
P B 4
2
2 7
P B 7
N C
1 2
3 7
O S C 1 /P G 1
V D D
P A 3
3
2 6
P A 4
N C
1 3
3 6
P A 2
4
2 5
P A 5
N C
1 4
3 5
R E S
P A 1
5
2 4
P A 6
P D 7
1 5
3 4
T M R 1
P A 0
6
2 3
P A 7
P D 6
1 6
3 3
P D 3
P B 3
7
2 2
O S C 2 /P G 2
P D 5
1 7
3 2
P D 2
P B 2
8
2 1
O S C 1 /P G 1
P D 4
1 8
3 1
P D 1
P B 1 /B Z
9
2 0
V D D
V S S
1 9
3 0
P D 0
P B 0 /B Z
1 0
1 9
R E S
P G 0 /IN T
2 0
2 9
P C 7
V S S
1 1
1 8
P C 5 /T M R 1
T M R 0
2 1
2 8
P C 6
P G 0 /IN T
1 2
1 7
P C 4
P C 0
2 2
2 7
P C 5
P C 0 /T M R 0
1 3
1 6
P C 3
P C 1
2 3
2 6
P C 4
P C 1
1 4
1 5
P C 2
P C 2
2 4
2 5
P C 3
H T 4 8 R 5 0 A -1 /H T 4 8 C 5 0 -1 -A
2 8 S K D IP -A /S O P -A
H T 4 8 R 5 0 A -1 /H T 4 8 C 5 0 -1 -A
4 8 S S O P -A
Pin Description
Pin Name
PA0~PA7
I/O
Options
Description
I/O
Pull-high*
Wake-up
CMOS/Schmitt
trigger Input
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Each bit can be configured as a
wake-up input by options. Software instructions determine the CMOS output or Schmitt trigger or CMOS input with pull-high resistor (determined by
pull-high option).
PB0/BZ
PB1/BZ
PB2~PB7
I/O
Pull-high*
I/O or BZ/BZ
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Software instructions determine the
CMOS output or Schmitt trigger input with pull-high resistor (determined by
pull-high option).
The PB0 and PB1 are pin-shared with the BZ and BZ, respectively. Once
the PB0 and PB1 are selected as buzzer driving outputs, the output signals
come from an internal PFD generator (shared with Timer/Event Counter 0).
PD0~PD7
I/O
Pull-high*
Bidirectional I/O lines. Software instructions determine the CMOS output
or Schmitt trigger input with pull-high resistor (determined by pull-high option).
VSS
¾
¾
PG0/INT
TMR0
PC0~PC7
TMR1
Rev. 2.01
I/O
Pull-high*
I
¾
I/O
Pull-high*
I
¾
Negative power supply, ground
Bidirectional I/O lines. Software instructions determine the CMOS output
or Schmitt trigger input with pull-high resistor (determined by pull-high option). This external interrupt input is pin-shared with PG0. The external interrupt input is activated on a high to low transition.
Timer/Event Counter 0 Schmitt trigger input (without pull-high resistor)
Bidirectional I/O lines. Software instructions determine the CMOS output
or Schmitt trigger input with pull-high resistor (determined by pull-high option).
Timer/Event Counter 1 Schmitt trigger input (without pull-high resistor)
3
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Pin Name
I/O
Options
RES
I
¾
VDD
¾
¾
Pull-high*
OSC1/PG1
OSC2/PG2
I
O
Crystal
or RC
or Int. RC+I/O
or Int. RC+RTC
Description
Schmitt trigger reset input. Active low
Positive power supply
OSC1, OSC2 are connected to an RC network or Crystal (determined by
option) for the internal system clock. In the case of RC operation, OSC2 is
the output terminal for 1/4 system clock. These two pins can also be
optioned as an RTC oscillator (32768Hz) or I/O lines. In these two cases,
the system clock comes from an internal RC oscillator whose frequency
has 4 options (3.2MHz, 1.6MHz, 800kHz, 400kHz). If the I/O option is selected, the pull-high option can also be enabled or disabled. Otherwise the
PG1 and PG2 are used as internal registers (pull-high resistors are always
disabled).
Note: * The pull-high resistors of each I/O port (PA, PB, PC, PD, PG) are controlled by options.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Supply Voltage ...........................VSS-0.3V to VSS+6.0V
Storage Temperature ............................-50°C to 125°C
Input Voltage..............................VSS-0.3V to VDD+0.3V
Operating Temperature...........................-40°C to 85°C
Note: These are stress ratings only. Stresses exceeding the range specified under ²Absolute Maximum Ratings² may
cause substantial damage to the device. Functional operation of this device at other conditions beyond those
listed in the specification is not implied and prolonged exposure to extreme conditions may affect device reliability.
D.C. Characteristics
Symbol
VDD
IDD1
Parameter
Operating Voltage
Operating Current
(Crystal OSC, RC OSC)
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
VDD
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
¾
fSYS=4MHz
2.2
¾
5.5
V
¾
fSYS=8MHz
3.3
¾
5.5
V
¾
1
2
mA
¾
2.5
5
mA
¾
4
8
mA
¾
¾
5
mA
¾
¾
10
mA
¾
¾
1
mA
¾
¾
2
mA
¾
¾
5
mA
¾
¾
10
mA
3V
No load, fSYS=4MHz
5V
IDD23
Operating Current
(Crystal OSC, RC OSC)
ISTB1
Standby Current
(WDT OSC Enabled RTC Off)
3V
Standby Current
(WDT OSC Disabled RTC Off)
3V
Standby Current
(WDT OSC Disabled, RTC On)
3V
VIL1
Input Low Voltage for I/O Ports
¾
¾
0
¾
0.3VDD
V
VIH1
Input High Voltage for I/O Ports
¾
¾
0.7VDD
¾
VDD
V
VIL2
Input Low Voltage (RES)
¾
¾
0
¾
0.4VDD
V
VIH2
Input High Voltage (RES)
¾
¾
0.9VDD
¾
VDD
V
VLVR
Low Voltage Reset
¾
LVR enabled
2.7
3.0
3.3
V
IOL
3V
VOL=0.1VDD
4
8
¾
mA
I/O Port Sink Current
5V
VOL=0.1VDD
10
20
¾
mA
ISTB2
ISTB3
Rev. 2.01
5V
No load, fSYS=8MHz
No load, system HALT
5V
No load, system HALT
5V
No load, system HALT
5V
4
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Symbol
IOH
RPH
Parameter
Test Conditions
VDD
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
3V
VOH=0.9VDD
-2
-4
¾
mA
5V
VOH=0.9VDD
-5
-10
¾
mA
3V
¾
20
60
100
kW
5V
¾
10
30
50
kW
I/O Port Source Current
Pull-high Resistance
A.C. Characteristics
Symbol
fSYS1
fSYS2
fSYS3
fTIMER
Parameter
System Clock (Crystal OSC)
System Clock (RC OSC)
System Clock
(Internal RC OSC)
Timer I/P Frequency (TMR)
tWDTOSC Watchdog Oscillator Period
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
VDD
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
¾
2.2V~5.5V
400
¾
4000
kHz
¾
3.3V~5.5V
400
¾
8000
kHz
¾
2.2V~5.5V
400
¾
4000
kHz
¾
3.3V~5.5V
400
¾
8000
kHz
3.2MHz
1800
¾
5400
kHz
1.6MHz
900
¾
2700
kHz
800kHz
450
¾
1350
kHz
400kHz
225
¾
675
kHz
5V
¾
2.2V~5.5V
0
¾
4000
kHz
¾
3.3V~5.5V
0
¾
8000
kHz
3V
¾
45
90
180
ms
5V
¾
32
65
130
ms
11
23
46
ms
8
17
33
ms
3V
tWDT1
Watchdog Time-out Period
(WDT OSC)
5V
Without WDT
prescaler
tWDT2
Watchdog Time-out Period
(System Clock)
¾
Without WDT
prescaler
¾
1024
¾
*tSYS
tWDT3
Watchdog Time-out Period
(RTC OSC)
¾
Without WDT
prescaler
¾
7.812
¾
ms
tRES
External Reset Low Pulse
Width
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tSST
System Start-up Timer Period
¾
¾
1024
¾
tSYS
tINT
Interrupt Pulse Width
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
¾
Wake-up from HALT
¾
Note: *tSYS= 1/fSYS1, 1/fSYS2 or 1/fSYS3
Rev. 2.01
5
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Functional Description
Execution Flow
When executing a jump instruction, conditional skip execution, loading PCL register, subroutine call, initial reset, internal interrupt, external interrupt or return from
subroutine, the PC manipulates the program transfer by
loading the address corresponding to each instruction.
The system clock for the microcontroller is derived from
either a crystal or an RC oscillator. The system clock is
internally divided into four non-overlapping clocks. One
instruction cycle consists of four system clock cycles.
The conditional skip is activated by instructions. Once
the condition is met, the next instruction, fetched during
the current instruction execution, is discarded and a
dummy cycle replaces it to get the proper instruction.
Otherwise proceed with the next instruction.
Instruction fetching and execution are pipelined in such
a way that a fetch takes an instruction cycle while decoding and execution takes the next instruction cycle.
However, the pipelining scheme causes each instruction to effectively execute in a cycle. If an instruction
changes the program counter, two cycles are required to
complete the instruction.
The lower byte of the program counter (PCL) is a readable and writeable register (06H). Moving data into the
PCL performs a short jump. The destination will be
within 256 locations.
Program Counter - PC
The program counter (PC) controls the sequence in
which the instructions stored in the program ROM are
executed and its contents specify a full range of program memory.
When a control transfer takes place, an additional
dummy cycle is required.
Program Memory - ROM
After accessing a program memory word to fetch an instruction code, the contents of the program counter are
incremented by one. The program counter then points to
the memory word containing the next instruction code.
S y s te m
C lo c k
T 1
T 2
T 3
T 4
T 1
The program memory is used to store the program instructions which are to be executed. It also contains
data, table, and interrupt entries, and is organized into
4096´15 bits, addressed by the program counter and table pointer.
T 2
T 3
T 4
T 1
T 2
T 3
T 4
O S C 2 ( R C o n ly )
P C
P C
P C + 1
F e tc h IN S T (P C )
E x e c u te IN S T (P C -1 )
P C + 2
F e tc h IN S T (P C + 1 )
E x e c u te IN S T (P C )
F e tc h IN S T (P C + 2 )
E x e c u te IN S T (P C + 1 )
Execution Flow
Mode
Program Counter
*11
*10
*9
*8
*7
*6
*5
*4
*3
*2
*1
*0
Initial Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
External Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Timer/Event Counter 0 Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Timer/Event Counter 1 Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
Skip
Program Counter+2
Loading PCL
*11
*10
*9
*8
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Jump, Call Branch
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
#1
#0
Return from Subroutine
S11
S10
S9
S8
S7
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
Program Counter
Note: *11~*0: Program counter bits
S11~S0: Stack register bits
#11~#0: Instruction code bits
Rev. 2.01
@[email protected]: PCL bits
6
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
· Table location
0 0 0 H
D e v ic e In itia liz a tio n P r o g r a m
0 0 4 H
Any location in the ROM space can be used as
look-up tables. The instructions ²TABRDC [m]² (the
current page, one page=256 words) and ²TABRDL
[m]² (the last page) transfer the contents of the
lower-order byte to the specified data memory, and
the higher-order byte to TBLH (08H). Only the destination of the lower-order byte in the table is
well-defined, the other bits of the table word are transferred to the lower portion of TBLH, and the remaining
1-bit words are read as ²0². The Table Higher-order
byte register (TBLH) is read only. The table pointer
(TBLP) is a read/write register (07H), which indicates
the table location. Before accessing the table, the location must be placed in the TBLP. The TBLH is read
only and cannot be restored. If the main routine and
the ISR (Interrupt Service Routine) both employ the
table read instruction, the contents of the TBLH in the
main routine are likely to be changed by the table read
instruction used in the ISR. Errors can occur. In other
words, using the table read instruction in the main routine and the ISR simultaneously should be avoided.
However, if the table read instruction has to be applied
in both the main routine and the ISR, the interrupt is
supposed to be disabled prior to the table read instruction. It will not be enabled until the TBLH has
been backed up. All table related instructions require
two cycles to complete the operation. These areas
may function as normal program memory depending
upon the requirements.
E x te r n a l In te r r u p t S u b r o u tin e
0 0 8 H
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0
In te r r u p t S u b r o u tin e
0 0 C H
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1
In te r r u p t S u b r o u tin e
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
n 0 0 H
L o o k - u p T a b le ( 2 5 6 w o r d s )
n F F H
L o o k - u p T a b le ( 2 5 6 w o r d s )
F F F H
1 5 b its
N o te : n ra n g e s fro m
0 to F
Program Memory
Certain locations in the program memory are reserved
for special usage:
· Location 000H
This area is reserved for program initialization. After
chip reset, the program always begins execution at location 000H.
· Location 004H
This area is reserved for the external interrupt service
program. If the INT input pin is activated, the interrupt
is enabled and the stack is not full, the program begins
execution at location 004H.
Stack Register - STACK
· Location 008H
This is a special part of the memory which is used to
save the contents of the Program Counter only. The
stack is organized into 6 levels and is neither part of the
data nor part of the program space, and is neither readable nor writeable. The activated level is indexed by the
stack pointer (SP) and is neither readable nor writeable.
At a subroutine call or interrupt acknowledge signal, the
contents of the program counter are pushed onto the
stack. At the end of a subroutine or an interrupt routine,
signaled by a return instruction (RET or RETI), the program counter is restored to its previous value from the
stack. After a chip reset, the SP will point to the top of the
stack.
This area is reserved for the Timer/Event Counter 0 interrupt service program. If a timer interrupt results from a
Timer/Event Counter 0 overflow, and if the interrupt is
enabled and the stack is not full, the program begins execution at location 008H.
· Location 00CH
This location is reserved for the Timer/Event Counter
1 interrupt service program. If a timer interrupt results
from a Timer/Event Counter 1 overflow, and the interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full, the program
begins execution at location 00CH.
Instruction
Table Location
*11
*10
*9
*8
*7
*6
*5
*4
*3
*2
*1
*0
TABRDC [m]
P11
P10
P9
P8
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
TABRDL [m]
1
1
1
1
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Table Location
Note: *11~*0: Table location bits
P11~P8: Current program counter bits
@[email protected]: Table pointer bits
Rev. 2.01
7
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
If the stack is full and a non-masked interrupt takes
place, the interrupt request flag will be recorded but the
acknowledge signal will be inhibited. When the stack
pointer is decremented (by RET or RETI), the interrupt
will be serviced. This feature prevents stack overflow allowing the programmer to use the structure more easily.
In a similar case, if the stack is full and a ²CALL² is subsequently executed, stack overflow occurs and the first
entry will be lost (only the most recent 6 return addresses are stored).
0 0 H
In d ir e c t A d d r e s s in g R e g is te r 0
0 1 H
M P 0
0 2 H
In d ir e c t A d d r e s s in g R e g is te r 1
0 3 H
M P 1
0 4 H
A C C
0 5 H
Data Memory - RAM
0 6 H
P C L
0 7 H
T B L P
0 8 H
T B L H
0 9 H
W D T S
0 A H
S T A T U S
0 B H
IN T C
0 C H
The data memory is designed with 184´8 bits. The
data memory is divided into two functional groups: special function registers and general purpose data memory (160´8). Most are read/write, but some are read
only.
The special function registers include the indirect addressing registers (00H, 02H), Timer/Event Counter 0
(TMR0;0DH), Timer/Event Counter 0 control register
(TMR0C;0EH), Timer/Event Counter 1 higher-order
byte register (TMR1H;0FH), Timer/Event Counter 1
lower-order byte register (TMR1L;10H), Timer/Event
Counter 1 control register (TMR1C;11H), Program
counter lower-order byte register (PCL;06H), Memory
pointer registers (MP0;01H, MP1;03H), Accumulator
(ACC;05H), Table pointer (TBLP;07H), Table
higher-order byte register (TBLH;08H), Status register
(STATUS;0AH), Interrupt control register (INTC;0BH),
Watchdog Timer option setting register (WDTS;09H),
I/O registers (PA;12H, PB;14H, PC;16H, PD;18H,
PG;1EH) and I/O control registers (PAC;13H,
PBC;15H, PCC;17H, PDC;19H, PGC;1FH). The remaining space before the 60H is reserved for future expanded usage and reading these locations will get
²00H². The general purpose data memory, addressed
from 60H to FFH, is used for data and control information under instruction commands.
0 D H
T M R 0
0 E H
T M R 0 C
0 F H
T M R 1 H
1 0 H
T M R 1 L
1 1 H
T M R 1 C
1 2 H
P A
1 3 H
P A C
1 4 H
P B
1 5 H
P B C
1 6 H
P C
1 7 H
P C C
1 8 H
P D
1 9 H
P D C
S p e c ia l P u r p o s e
D A T A M E M O R Y
: U n u s e d
1 A H
1 B H
R e a d a s "0 0 "
1 C H
1 D H
1 E H
P G
1 F H
2 0 H
P G C
5 F H
6 0 H
G e n e ra l P u rp o s e
D A T A M E M O R Y
(1 6 0 B y te s )
F F H
RAM Mapping
All of the data memory areas can handle arithmetic,
logic, increment, decrement and rotate operations directly. Except for some dedicated bits, each bit in the
data memory can be set and reset by ²SET [m].i² and
²CLR [m].i². They are also indirectly accessible through
memory pointer registers (MP0 or MP1).
Accumulator
The accumulator is closely related to ALU operations. It
is also mapped to location 05H of the data memory and
can carry out immediate data operations. The data
movement between two data memory locations must
pass through the accumulator.
Indirect Addressing Register
Arithmetic and Logic Unit - ALU
Location 00H and 02H are indirect addressing registers
that are not physically implemented. Any read/write operation of [00H] ([02H]) will access data memory pointed
to by MP0 (MP1). Reading location 00H (02H) itself indirectly will return the result 00H. Writing indirectly results
in no operation.
This circuit performs 8-bit arithmetic and logic operations.
The ALU provides the following functions:
· Arithmetic operations (ADD, ADC, SUB, SBC, DAA)
· Logic operations (AND, OR, XOR, CPL)
· Rotation (RL, RR, RLC, RRC)
· Increment and Decrement (INC, DEC)
The memory pointer registers (MP0 and MP1) are 8-bit
registers.
· Branch decision (SZ, SNZ, SIZ, SDZ ....)
The ALU not only saves the results of a data operation but
also changes the status register.
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Status Register - STATUS
rupt requires servicing within the service routine, the
EMI bit and the corresponding bit of the INTC may be set
to allow interrupt nesting. If the stack is full, the interrupt
request will not be acknowledged, even if the related interrupt is enabled, until the SP is decremented. If immediate service is desired, the stack must be prevented from
becoming full.
This 8-bit register (0AH) contains the zero flag (Z), carry
flag (C), auxiliary carry flag (AC), overflow flag (OV),
power down flag (PDF), and watchdog time-out flag
(TO). It also records the status information and controls
the operation sequence.
With the exception of the TO and PDF flags, bits in
the status register can be altered by instructions like
most other registers. Any data written into the status
register will not change the TO or PDF flag. In addition operations related to the status register may give
different results from those intended. The TO flag
can be affected only by system power-up, a WDT
time-out or executing the ²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction. The PDF flag can be affected only by executing the ²HALT² or ²CLR WDT² instruction or
during a system power-up.
All these kinds of interrupts have a wake-up capability.
As an interrupt is serviced, a control transfer occurs by
pushing the program counter onto the stack, followed by
a branch to a subroutine at specified location in the program memory. Only the program counter is pushed onto
the stack. If the contents of the register or status register
(STATUS) are altered by the interrupt service program
which corrupts the desired control sequence, the contents should be saved in advance.
External interrupts are triggered by a high to low transition of the INT and the related interrupt request flag (EIF;
bit 4 of INTC) will be set. When the interrupt is enabled,
the stack is not full and the external interrupt is active, a
subroutine call to location 04H will occur. The interrupt
request flag (EIF) and EMI bits will be cleared to disable
other interrupts.
The Z, OV, AC and C flags generally reflect the status of
the latest operations.
In addition, on entering the interrupt sequence or executing the subroutine call, the status register will not be
pushed onto the stack automatically. If the contents of
the status are important and if the subroutine can corrupt the status register, precautions must be taken to
save it properly.
The internal Timer/Event Counter 0 interrupt is initialized by setting the Timer/Event Counter 0 interrupt request flag (T0F; bit 5 of INTC), caused by a timer 0
overflow. When the interrupt is enabled, the stack is not
full and the T0F bit is set, a subroutine call to location
08H will occur. The related interrupt request flag (T0F)
will be reset and the EMI bit cleared to disable further interrupts.
Interrupt
The device provides an external interrupt and internal
timer/event counter interrupts. The Interrupt Control
Register (INTC;0BH) contains the interrupt control bits
to set the enable or disable and the interrupt request
flags.
The internal timer/even counter 1 interrupt is initialized
by setting the Timer/Event Counter 1 interrupt request
flag (;bit 6 of INTC), caused by a timer 1 overflow. When
the interrupt is enabled, the stack is not full and the T1F
is set, a subroutine call to location 0CH will occur. The
related interrupt request flag (T1F) will be reset and the
EMI bit cleared to disable further interrupts.
Once an interrupt subroutine is serviced, all the other interrupts will be blocked (by clearing the EMI bit). This
scheme may prevent any further interrupt nesting. Other
interrupt requests may occur during this interval but only
the interrupt request flag is recorded. If a certain interBit No.
Label
Function
0
C
C is set if the operation results in a carry during an addition operation or if a borrow does not
take place during a subtraction operation; otherwise C is cleared. C is also affected by a rotate
through carry instruction.
1
AC
AC is set if the operation results in a carry out of the low nibbles in addition or no borrow from
the high nibble into the low nibble in subtraction; otherwise AC is cleared.
2
Z
3
OV
OV is set if the operation results in a carry into the highest-order bit but not a carry out of the
highest-order bit, or vice versa; otherwise OV is cleared.
4
PDF
PDF is cleared by system power-up or executing the ²CLR WDT² instruction.
PDF is set by executing the ²HALT² instruction.
5
TO
TO is cleared by system power-up or executing the ²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction.
TO is set by a WDT time-out.
6~7
¾
Unused bit, read as ²0²
Z is set if the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero; otherwise Z is cleared.
Status (0AH) Register
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Bit No.
Label
0
EMI
Function
Controls the master (global) interrupt (1= enabled; 0= disabled)
1
EEI
Controls the external interrupt (1= enabled; 0= disabled)
2
ET0I
Controls the Timer/Event Counter 0 interrupt (1= enabled; 0= disabled)
3
ET1I
Controls the Timer/Event Counter 1 interrupt (1= enabled; 0= disabled)
4
EIF
External interrupt request flag (1= active; 0= inactive)
5
T0F
Internal Timer/Event Counter 0 request flag (1= active; 0= inactive)
6
T1F
Internal Timer/Event Counter 1 request flag (1= active; 0= inactive)
7
¾
Unused bit, read as ²0²
INTC (0BH) Register
Oscillator configuration
During the execution of an interrupt subroutine, other interrupt acknowledge signals are held until the ²RETI² instruction is executed or the EMI bit and the related
interrupt control bit are set to 1 (if the stack is not full). To
return from the interrupt subroutine, ²RET² or ²RETI²
may be invoked. RETI will set the EMI bit to enable an interrupt service, but RET will not.
There are 3 oscillator circuits in the microcontroller.
V
O S C 1
Interrupts, occurring in the interval between the rising
edges of two consecutive T2 pulses, will be serviced on
the latter of the two T2 pulses, if the corresponding interrupts are enabled. In the case of simultaneous requests
the following table shows the priority that is applied.
These can be masked by resetting the EMI bit.
No.
Interrupt Source
External Interrupt
1
04H
b
Timer/Event Counter 0 Overflow
2
08H
c
Timer/Event Counter 1 Overflow
3
0CH
C r y s ta l O s c illa to r
( In c lu d e 3 2 7 6 8 H z )
fS Y S /4
N M O S O p e n D r a in
O S C 1
O S C 2
R C O s c illa to r
System Oscillator
All of them are designed for system clocks, namely the
external RC oscillator, the external Crystal oscillator and
the internal RC oscillator, which are determined by options. No matter what oscillator type is selected, the signal provides the system clock. The HALT mode stops
the system oscillator and ignores an external signal to
conserve power.
The Timer/Event Counter 0/1 interrupt request flag
(T0F/T1F), external interrupt request flag (EIF), enable
Timer/Event Counter 0/1 interrupt bit (ET0I/ET1I), enable external interrupt bit (EEI) and enable master interrupt bit (EMI) constitute an interrupt control register
(INTC) which is located at 0BH in the data memory. EMI,
EEI, ET0I and ET1I are used to control the enabling or
disabling of interrupts. These bits prevent the requested
interrupt from being serviced. Once the interrupt request
flags (T0F, T1F, EIF) are set, they will remain in the INTC
register until the interrupts are serviced or cleared by a
software instruction.
If an RC oscillator is used, an external resistor between
OSC1 and VDD is required and the resistance must
range from 24kW to 1MW. The system clock, divided by
4, is available on OSC2, which can be used to synchronize external logic. The RC oscillator provides the most
cost effective solution. However, the frequency of oscillation may vary with VDD, temperatures and the chip itself due to process variations. It is, therefore, not
suitable for timing sensitive operations where an accurate oscillator frequency is desired.
If the Crystal oscillator is used, a crystal across OSC1
and OSC2 is needed to provide the feedback and phase
shift required for the oscillator. No other external components are required. In stead of a crystal, a resonator can
also be connected between OSC1 and OSC2 to get a
frequency reference, but two external capacitors in
OSC1 and OSC2 are required. If the internal RC oscillator is used, the OSC1 and OSC2 can be selected as
general I/O lines or an 32768Hz crystal oscillator (RTC
It is recommended that a program does not use the
²CALL subroutine² within the interrupt subroutine. Interrupts often occur in an unpredictable manner or
need to be serviced immediately in some applications.
If only one stack is left and enabling the interrupt is not
well controlled, the original control sequence will be damaged once the ²CALL² operates in the interrupt subroutine.
Rev. 2.01
4 7 0 p F
O S C 2
Priority Vector
a
D D
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
OSC). Also, the frequencies of the internal RC oscillator
can be 3.2MHz, 1.6MHz, 800kHz and 400kHz (depends
on the options).
WS2
WS1
WS0
Division Ratio
0
0
0
1:1
0
0
1
1:2
The WDT oscillator is a free running on-chip RC oscillator,
and no external components are required. Even if the system enters the power down mode, the system clock is
stopped, but the WDT oscillator still works within a period
of 65ms at 5V. The WDT oscillator can be disabled by options to conserve power.
0
1
0
1:4
0
1
1
1:8
1
0
0
1:16
1
0
1
1:32
1
1
0
1:64
1
1
1
1:128
Watchdog Timer - WDT
WDTS (09H) Register
The WDT clock source is implemented by a dedicated
RC oscillator (WDT oscillator), RTC clock or instruction
clock (system clock divided by 4), determines the options. This timer is designed to prevent a software malfunction or sequence from jumping to an unknown
location with unpredictable results. The Watchdog
Timer can be disabled by options. If the Watchdog Timer
is disabled, all the executions related to the WDT result
in no operation. The RTC clock is enabled only in the internal RC+RTC mode.
The WDT overflow under normal operation will initialize
²chip reset² and set the status bit ²TO². But in the HALT
mode, the overflow will initialize a ²warm reset² and only
the Program Counter and SP are reset to zero. To clear
the contents of WDT (including the WDT prescaler),
three methods are adopted; external reset (a low level to
RES), software instruction and a ²HALT² instruction.
The software instruction include ²CLR WDT² and the
other set - ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2². Of these
two types of instruction, only one can be active depending on the option - ²CLR WDT times selection option². If
the ²CLR WDT² is selected (i.e. CLRWDT times equal
one), any execution of the ²CLR WDT² instruction will
clear the WDT. In the case that ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR
WDT2² are chosen (i.e. CLRWDT times equal two),
these two instructions must be executed to clear the
WDT; otherwise, the WDT may reset the chip as a result
of time-out.
Once the internal WDT oscillator (RC oscillator with a
period of 65ms at 5V normally) is selected, it is first divided by 256 (8-stage) to get the nominal time-out period of 17ms at 5V. This time-out period may vary with
temperatures, VDD and process variations. By invoking
the WDT prescaler, longer time-out periods can be realized. Writing data to WS2, WS1, WS0 (bit 2,1,0 of the
WDTS) can give different time-out periods. If WS2,
WS1, and WS0 are all equal to 1, the division ratio is up
to 1:128, and the maximum time-out period is 2.1s at 5V
seconds. If the WDT oscillator is disabled, the WDT
clock may still come from the instruction clock and operates in the same manner except that in the HALT state
the WDT may stop counting and lose its protecting purpose. In this situation the logic can only be restarted by
external logic. The high nibble and bit 3 of the WDTS are
reserved for user's defined flags, which can be used to
indicate some specified status.
Power Down Operation - HALT
The HALT mode is initialized by the ²HALT² instruction
and results in the following...
· The system oscillator will be turned off but the WDT
oscillator remains running (if the WDT oscillator is selected).
· The contents of the on chip RAM and registers remain
unchanged.
If the device operates in a noisy environment, using the
on-chip RC oscillator (WDT OSC) or 32kHz crystal oscillator (RTC OSC) is strongly recommended, since the HALT
will stop the system clock.
S y s te m
R T C
· WDT and WDT prescaler will be cleared and re-
counted again (if the WDT clock is from the WDT oscillator).
C lo c k /4
O S C
W D T P r e s c a le r
O p tio n
S e le c t
8 - b it C o u n te r
W D T
O S C
7 - b it C o u n te r
8 -to -1 M U X
W S 0 ~ W S 2
W D T T im e - o u t
Watchdog Timer
Rev. 2.01
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
· All of the I/O ports maintain their original status.
V D D
· The PDF flag is set and the TO flag is cleared.
R E S
The system can leave the HALT mode by means of an
external reset, an interrupt, an external falling edge signal on port A or a WDT overflow. An external reset
causes a device initialization and the WDT overflow performs a ²warm reset². After the TO and PDF flags are
examined, the reason for chip reset can be determined.
The PDF flag is cleared by system power-up or executing the ²CLR WDT² instruction and is set when executing the ²HALT² instruction. The TO flag is set if the WDT
time-out occurs, and causes a wake-up that only resets
the Program Counter and SP; the others remain in their
original status.
S T
S S T T im e - o u t
C h ip
R e s e t
Reset Timing Chart
V
D D
0 .0 1 m F *
1 0 0 k W
R E S
1 0 k W
0 .1 m F *
The port A wake-up and interrupt methods can be considered as a continuation of normal execution. Each bit
in port A can be independently selected to wake-up the
device by options. Awakening from an I/O port stimulus,
the program will resume execution of the next instruction. If it awakens from an interrupt, two sequence may
occur. If the related interrupt is disabled or the interrupt
is enabled but the stack is full, the program will resume
execution at the next instruction. If the interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full, the regular interrupt response takes place. If an interrupt request flag is set to
²1² before entering the HALT mode, the wake-up function of the related interrupt will be disabled. Once a
wake-up event occurs, it takes 1024 tSYS (system clock
period) to resume normal operation. In other words, a
dummy period will be inserted after a wake-up. If the
wake-up results from an interrupt acknowledge signal,
the actual interrupt subroutine execution will be delayed
by one or more cycles. If the wake-up results in the next
instruction execution, this will be executed immediately
after the dummy period is finished.
Reset Circuit
Note:
²*² Make the length of the wiring, which is connected to the RES pin as short as possible, to
avoid noise interference.
H A L T
W a rm
R e s e t
W D T
R E S
C o ld
R e s e t
S S T
1 0 - b it R ip p le
C o u n te r
O S C 1
S y s te m
R e s e t
Reset Configuration
TO PDF
To minimize power consumption, all the I/O pins should
be carefully managed before entering the HALT status.
The RTC oscillator still runs in the HALT mode (if the
RTC oscillator is enabled).
Reset
There are three ways in which a reset can occur:
RESET Conditions
0
0
RES reset during power-up
u
u
RES reset during normal operation
0
1
RES wake-up HALT
1
u
WDT time-out during normal operation
1
1
WDT wake-up HALT
Note: ²u² stands for ²unchanged²
· RES reset during normal operation
To guarantee that the system oscillator is started and
stabilized, the SST (System Start-up Timer) provides an
extra-delay of 1024 system clock pulses when the system reset (power-up, WDT time-out or RES reset) or the
system awakes from the HALT state.
· RES reset during HALT
· WDT time-out reset during normal operation
The WDT time-out during HALT is different from other
chip reset conditions, since it can perform a ²warm re set² that resets only the Program Counter and SP, leaving the other circuits in their original state. Some registers remain unchanged during other reset conditions.
Most registers are reset to the ²initial condition² when
the reset conditions are met. By examining the PDF and
TO flags, the program can distinguish between different
²chip resets².
Rev. 2.01
tS
When a system reset occurs, the SST delay is added
during the reset period. Any wake-up from HALT will enable the SST delay.
An extra option load time delay is added during system
reset (power-up, WDT time-out at normal mode or RES
reset).
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
The functional unit chip reset status are shown below.
Program Counter
000H
Interrupt
Disable
Prescaler
Clear
WDT
Clear. After master reset, WDT begins counting
Timer/Event Counter
Off
Input/Output Ports
Input mode
Stack Pointer
Points to the top of the stack
The states of the registers is summarized in the table.
Register
Reset
(Power-on)
WDT Time-out
RES Reset
(Normal Operation) (Normal Operation)
RES Reset
(HALT)
WDT Time-out
(HALT)*
TMR0
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR0C
00-0 1000
00-0 1000
00-0 1000
00-0 1000
uu-u uuuu
TMR1H
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR1L
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR1C
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
uu-u u---
Program
Counter
000H
000H
000H
000H
000H
MP0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
MP1
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ACC
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TBLP
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TBLH
-xxx xxxx
-uuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
STATUS
--00 xxxx
--1u uuuu
--uu uuuu
--01 uuuu
--11 uuuu
INTC
-000 0000
-000 0000
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
WDTS
0000 0111
0000 0111
0000 0111
0000 0111
uuuu uuuu
PA
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PAC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PB
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PBC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PCC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PD
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PDC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PG
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -uuu
PGC
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -uuu
Note:
²*² stands for ²warm reset²
²u² stands for ²unchanged²
²x² stands for ²unknown²
Rev. 2.01
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January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Timer/Event Counter
(can always be optioned) or fRTC (enable only the system oscillator in the Int. RC+RTC mode) by options.
Using external clock input allows the user to count external events, measure time internals or pulse widths, or
generate an accurate time base. While using the internal clock allows the user to generate an accurate time
base.
Two timer/event counters (TMR0, TMR1) are implemented in the microcontroller. The Timer/Event Counter
0 contains an 8-bit programmable count-up counter and
the clock may come from an external source or from the
system clock or RTC.
The Timer/Event Counter 1 contains an 16-bit programmable count-up counter and the clock may come from
an external source or from the system clock divided by 4
or RTC.
The Timer/Event Counter 0 can generate PFD signal by
using external or internal clock and PFD frequency is
determine by the equation fINT/[2´(256-N)].
Using the internal clock sources, there are 2 reference
time-bases for Timer/Event Counter 0. The internal
clock source can be selected as coming from fSYS (can
always be optioned) or fRTC (enabled only system oscillator in the Int. RC+RTC mode) by options.
There are 2 registers related to the Timer/Event Counter
0; TMR0 ([0DH]), TMR0C ([0EH]). Two physical registers
are mapped to TMR0 location; writing TMR0 makes the
starting value be placed in the Timer/Event Counter 0
preload register and reading TMR0 gets the contents of
the Timer/Event Counter 0. The TMR0C is a timer/event
counter control register, which defines some options.
Using the internal clock sources, there are 2 reference
time-bases for Timer/Event Counter 1. The internal
clock source can be selected as coming from fSYS/4
Bit No.
Label
0
1
2
T0PSC0
T0PSC1
T0PSC2
3
T0E
4
T0ON
5
¾
6
7
T0M0
T0M1
Function
To define the prescaler stages, T0PSC2, T0PSC1, T0PSC0=
000: fINT=fSYS/2 or fRTC/2
001: fINT=fSYS/4 or fRTC/4
010: fINT=fSYS/8 or fRTC/8
011: fINT=fSYS/16 or fRTC/16
100: fINT=fSYS/32 or fRTC/32
101: fINT=fSYS/64 or fRTC/64
110: fINT=fSYS/128 or fRTC/128
111: fINT=fSYS/256 or fRTC/256
To define the TMR0 active edge of Timer/Event Counter 0
(0=active on low to high; 1=active on high to low)
To enable or disable timer 0 counting (0=disabled; 1=enabled)
Unused bit, read as ²0²
To define the operating mode
01=Event count mode (external clock)
10=Timer mode (internal clock)
11=Pulse width measurement mode
00=Unused
TMR0C (0EH) Register
Bit No.
Label
0~2, 5
¾
3
T1E
4
T1ON
To enable or disable timer 1 counting (0=disabled; 1=enabled)
T1M0
T1M1
To define the operating mode
01=Event count mode (external clock)
10=Timer mode (internal clock)
11=Pulse width measurement mode
00=Unused
6
7
Function
Unused bit, read as ²0²
To define the TMR1 active edge of Timer/Event Counter 1
(0=active on low to high; 1=active on high to low)
TMR1C (11H) Register
Rev. 2.01
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
In the pulse width measurement mode with the
T0ON/T1ON and T0E/T1E bits equal to one, once the
TMR0/TMR1 has received a transient from low to high
(or high to low if the T0E/T1E bits is ²0²) it will start
counting until the TMR0/TMR1 returns to the original
level and resets the T0ON/T1ON. The measured result
will remain in the Timer/Event Counter 0/1 even if the
activated transient occurs again. In other words, only
one cycle measurement can be done. Until setting the
T0ON/T1ON, the cycle measurement will function again
as long as it receives further transient pulse. Note that,
in this operating mode, the Timer/Event Counter 0/1
starts counting not according to the logic level but according to the transient edges. In the case of counter
overflows, the counter 0/1 is reloaded from the
Timer/Event Counter 0/1 preload register and issues the
interrupt request just like the other two modes. To enable the counting operation, the timer ON bit (T0ON: bit
4 of TMR0C; T1ON: bit 4 of TMR1C) should be set to 1.
In the pulse width measurement mode, the T0ON/T1ON
will be cleared automatically after the measurement cycle is completed. But in the other two modes the
T0ON/T1ON can only be reset by instructions. The
overflow of the Timer/Event Counter 0/1 is one of the
wake-up sources. No matter what the operation mode
is, writing a 0 to ET0I/ET1I can disable the corresponding interrupt services.
There are 3 registers related to Timer/Event Counter 1;
TMR1H (0FH), TMR1L (10H), TMR1C (11H). Writing
TMR1L will only put the written data to an internal
lower-order byte buffer (8 bits) and writing TMR1H will
transfer the specified data and the contents of the
lower-order byte buffer to TMR1H and TMR1L preload
registers, respectively. The Timer/Event Counter 1
preload register is changed by each writing TMR1H operations. Reading TMR1H will latch the contents of
TMR1H and TMR1L counters to the destination and the
lower-order byte buffer, respectively. Reading the
TMR1L will read the contents of the lower-order byte
buffer. The TMR1C is the Timer/Event Counter 1 control
register, which defines the operating mode, counting enable or disable and active edge.
The T0M0, T0M1 (TMR0C), T1M0, T1M1 (TMR1C) bits
define the operating mode. The event count mode is
used to count external events, which means the clock
source comes from an external (TMR0/TMR1) pin. The
timer mode functions as a normal timer with the clock
source coming from the fINT clock/instruction clock or RTC
clock (Timer0/Timer1). The pulse width measurement
mode can be used to count the high or low level duration of
the external signal (TMR0/TMR1). The counting is based
on the f INT clock/instruction clock or RTC clock
(Timer0/Timer1).
In the event count or timer mode, once the Timer/Event
Counter 0/1 starts counting, it will count from the current
contents in the Timer/Event Counter 0/1 to FFH or FFFFH.
Once overflow occurs, the counter is reloaded from the
Timer/Event Counter 0/1 preload register and generates
the interrupt request flag (T0F/T1F; bit 5/6 of INTC) at the
same time.
fS
Y S
fR
T C
M
U
In the case of Timer/Event Counter 0/1 OFF condition,
writing data to the Timer/Event Counter 0/1 register
will also reload that data to the Timer/Event Counter 0/1.
But if the Timer/Event Counter 0/1 is turned on, data
written to it will only be kept in the Timer/Event Counter
0/1 preload register. The Timer/Event Counter 0/1 will still
8 - s ta g e P r e s c a le r
X
f IN
8 -1 M U X
D a ta B u s
T
T 0 M 1
T 0 M 0
M a s k O p tio n
T 0 P S C 2 ~ T 0 P S C 0
T M R 0
R e lo a d
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
T 0 E
T 0 M 1
T 0 M 0
T 0 O N
T im e r /E v e n t
C o u n te r 0
P u ls e W id th
M e a s u re m e n t
M o d e C o n tro l
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
1 /2
B Z
B Z
Timer/Event Counter 0
fS
Y S /4
fR
T C
M
D a ta B u s
U
T 1 M 1
T 1 M 0
X
T M R 1
M a s k O p tio n
1 6 B its
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
R e lo a d
T 1 E
T 1 M 1
T 1 M 0
T 1 O N
L o w B y te
B u ffe r
1 6 B its
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
(T M R 1 H /T M R 1 L )
P u ls e W id th
M e a s u re m e n t
M o d e C o n tro l
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
Timer/Event Counter 1
Rev. 2.01
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
For output function, CMOS is the only configuration.
These control registers are mapped to locations 13H,
15H, 17H, 19H and 1FH.
operate until overflow occurs (a Timer/Event Counter 0/1
reloading will occur at the same time). When the
Timer/Event Counter 0/1 (reading TMR0/TMR1) is read,
the clock will be blocked to avoid errors. As clock blocking
may results in a counting error, this must be taken into
consideration by the programmer.
After a chip reset, these input/output lines remain at high
levels or floating state (depending on the pull-high option). Each bit of these input/output latches can be set or
cleared by ²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² (m=12H, 14H,
16H, 18H or 1EH) instructions.
The bit0~bit2 of the TMR0C can be used to define the
pre-scaling stages of the internal clock sources of
Timer/Event Counter 0. The definitions are as shown.
The overflow signal of Timer/Event Counter 0 can be
used to generate PFD signals for buzzer driving.
Some instructions first input data and then follow the
output operations. For example, ²SET [m].i², ²CLR
[m].i², ²CPL [m]², ²CPLA [m]² read the entire port states
into the CPU, execute the defined operations
(bit-operation), and then write the results back to the
latches or the accumulator.
Input/Output Ports
There are 35 bidirectional input/output lines in the
microcontroller, labeled from PA to PD and PG, which are
mapped to the data memory of [12H], [14H], [16H], [18H]
and [1EH], respectively. All of these I/O ports can be used
for input and output operations. For input operation, these
ports are non-latching, that is, the inputs must be ready at
the T2 rising edge of instruction ²MOV A,[m]² (m=12H,
14H, 16H, 18H or 1EH). For output operation, all the data
is latched and remains unchanged until the output latch is
rewritten.
Each line of port A has the capability of waking-up the device. The highest 5-bit of port G are not physically implemented; on reading them a ²0² is returned whereas writing
then results in no-operation. See Application note.
There is a pull-high option available for all I/O lines.
Once the pull-high option of an I/O line is selected, the
I/O line have pull-high resistor. Otherwise, the pull-high
resistor is absent. It should be noted that a non-pull-high
I/O line operating in input mode will cause a floating
state.
Each I/O line has its own control register (PAC, PBC,
PCC, PDC, PGC) to control the input/output configuration. With this control register, CMOS output or Schmitt
trigger input with or without pull-high resistor structures
can be reconfigured dynamically (i.e. on-the-fly) under
software control. To function as an input, the corresponding latch of the control register must write ²1². The
input source also depends on the control register. If the
control register bit is ²1², the input will read the pad
state. If the control register bit is ²0², the contents of the
latches will move to the internal bus. The latter is possible in the ²read-modify-write² instruction.
P G 1 /P G 2 I/O
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
C o n tr o l B it
Q
D
The PB0 and PB1 are pin-shared with BZ and BZ signal,
respectively. If the BZ/BZ option is selected, the output
signal in output mode of PB0/PB1 will be the PFD signal
generated by Timer/Event Counter 0 overflow signal.
The input mode always remain in its original functions.
Once the BZ/BZ option is selected, the buzzer output
signals are controlled by the PB0 data register only.
M o d e O n ly
P u ll- H ig h
O p tio n
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
S
P A
P B
P C
P D
P G
( P B 0 , P B 1 O n ly )
P B 0
B Z /B Z
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
S y s te m W a k e -u p
( P A o n ly )
D a ta B it
Q
D
C K
D D
Q
C K
C h ip R e s e t
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
V
S
0 ~
0 ~
0 ~
0 ~
0 ~
P A
P B
P C
P D
P G
7
7
7
7
2
Q
M
M
U
U
X
B Z E N
( P B 0 , P B 1 O n ly )
X
O P 0 ~ O P 7
IN T fo r P G 0 O n ly
Input/Output Ports
Rev. 2.01
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
The I/O functions of PB0/PB1 are shown below.
PB0 I/O
I
I
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
PB1 I/O
I
O
I
I
I
O
O
O
O
O
PB0 Mode
x
x
C
B
B
C
B
B
B
B
PB1 Mode
x
C
x
x
x
C
C
C
B
B
PB0 Data
x
x
D
0
1
D0
0
1
0
1
PB1 Data
x
D
x
x
x
D1
D
D
x
x
PB0 Pad Status
I
I
D
0
B
D0
0
B
0
B
PB1 Pad Status
I
D
I
I
I
D1
D
D
0
B
Note:
²I² input, ²O² output, ²D, D0, D1² data,
²B² buzzer option, BZ or BZ, ²x² don't care
²C² CMOS output
The PG0 is pin-shared with INT.
The LVR includes the following specifications:
In case of ²Internal RC+I/O² system oscillator, the PG1
and PG2 are pin-shared with OSC1 and OSC2 pins.
Once the ²Internal RC+I/O² mode is selected, the PG1
and PG2 can be used as general purpose I/O lines. Otherwise, the pull-high resistors and I/O functions of PG1
and PG2 will be disabled.
· The low voltage (0.9V~VLVR) has to remain in its origi-
nal state for longer than 1ms. If the low voltage state
does not exceed 1ms, the LVR will ignore it and will
not perform a reset function.
· The LVR uses an ²OR² function with the external RES
signal to perform a chip reset.
The relationship between VDD and VLVR is shown below.
It is recommended that unused or not bonded out I/O
lines should be set as output pins by software instruction
to avoid consuming power under input floating state.
V D D
5 .5 V
V
O P R
5 .5 V
Low Voltage Reset - LVR
V
The microcontroller provides low voltage reset circuit in
order to monitor the supply voltage of the device. If the
supply voltage of the device is within the range
0.9V~VLVR, such as when changing a battery, the LVR
will automatically reset the device internally.
2 .2 V
0 .9 V
Note:
V
L V R
3 .0 V
VOPR is the voltage range for proper chip operation at 4MHz system clock.
D D
5 .5 V
V
L V R D e te c t V o lta g e
L V R
0 .9 V
0 V
R e s e t S ig n a l
N o r m a l O p e r a tio n
R e s e t
R e s e t
*1
*2
Low Voltage Reset
Note:
*1: To make sure that the system oscillator has stabilized, the SST provides an extra delay of 1024
system clock pulses before starting the normal operation.
*2: Since low voltage has to be maintained its original state for longer than 1ms, therefore a 1ms delay
enters the reset mode.
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Options
The following table shows all kinds of options in the microcontroller. All of the options must be defined to ensure proper
system functioning.
Items
Options
1
WDT clock source: WDT oscillator or fSYS/4 or RTC oscillator or disable
2
CLRWDT instructions: 1 or 2 instructions
3
Timer/Event Counter 0 clock sources: fSYS or RTCOSC
4
Timer/Event Counter 1 clock sources: fSYS/4 or RTCOSC
5
PA bit wake-up enable or disable
6
PA CMOS or Schmitt input
7
PA, PB, PC, PD, PG pull-high enable or disable (By port)
8
BZ/BZ enable or disable
9
LVR enable or disable
10
System oscillator
Ext. RC, Ext.crystal, Int.RC+RTC or Int.RC+PG1/PG2
11
Int.RC frequency selection 3.2MHz, 1.6MHz, 800kHz or 400kHz
Rev. 2.01
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Application Circuits
V
D D
R
O S C
O S C 1
4 7 0 p F
V
O S C 2
N M O S o p e n d r a in
D D
0 .0 1 m F *
C 1
V D D
1 0 0 k W
R E S
1 0 k W
O S C 1
P A 0 ~ P A 7
P B 2 ~ P B 7
0 .1 m F
C 2
P C 0 ~ P C 7
O S C 2
R 1
V S S
O S C 1
P B 0 /B Z
P B 1 /B Z
O S C
C ir c u it
C ry s ta l S y s te m
F o r th e v a lu e s ,
s e e ta b le b e lo w
O s c illa to r
P D 0 ~ P D 7
0 .1 m F *
O S C 2
In te r n a l R C O s c illa to r
O S C 1 a n d O S C 2 le ft
u n c o n n e c te d
O S C 1
O S C 2
T M R 0
O S C 1
T M R 1
S e e R ig h t S id e
1 0 p F
3 2 7 6 8 H z
P G 0 /IN T
In te r n a l R C
w ith R T C
O s c illa to r
O S C 2
H T 4 8 R 5 0 A -1 /H T 4 8 C 5 0 -1
Note:
R C S y s te m O s c illa to r
2 4 k W < R O S C < 1 M W
O S C
C ir c u it
The resistance and capacitance for reset circuit should be designed to ensure that the VDD is stable and remains in a valid range of the operating voltage before bringing RES high.
²*² Make the length of the wiring, which is connected to the RES pin as short as possible, to avoid noise
interference.
The following table shows the C1, C2 and R1 values corresponding to the different crystal values. (For reference only)
Crystal or Resonator
C1, C2
R1
4MHz Crystal
0pF
10kW
4MHz Resonator
10pF
12kW
3.58MHz Crystal
0pF
10kW
3.58MHz Resonator
25pF
10kW
2MHz Crystal & Resonator
25pF
10kW
1MHz Crystal
35pF
27kW
480kHz Resonator
300pF
9.1kW
455kHz Resonator
300pF
10kW
429kHz Resonator
300pF
10kW
The function of the resistor R1 is to ensure that the oscillator will switch off should low voltage conditions occur. Such a low voltage, as mentioned here, is one which is less than the lowest value of the
MCU operating voltage. Note however that if the LVR is enabled then R1 can be removed.
Rev. 2.01
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Instruction Set
subtract instruction mnemonics to enable the necessary
arithmetic to be carried out. Care must be taken to ensure correct handling of carry and borrow data when results exceed 255 for addition and less than 0 for
subtraction. The increment and decrement instructions
INC, INCA, DEC and DECA provide a simple means of
increasing or decreasing by a value of one of the values
in the destination specified.
Introduction
Central to the successful operation of any
microcontroller is its instruction set, which is a set of program instruction codes that directs the microcontroller to
perform certain operations. In the case of Holtek
microcontrollers, a comprehensive and flexible set of
over 60 instructions is provided to enable programmers
to implement their application with the minimum of programming overheads.
Logical and Rotate Operations
For easier understanding of the various instruction
codes, they have been subdivided into several functional groupings.
The standard logical operations such as AND, OR, XOR
and CPL all have their own instruction within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set. As with the case of most
instructions involving data manipulation, data must pass
through the Accumulator which may involve additional
programming steps. In all logical data operations, the
zero flag may be set if the result of the operation is zero.
Another form of logical data manipulation comes from
the rotate instructions such as RR, RL, RRC and RLC
which provide a simple means of rotating one bit right or
left. Different rotate instructions exist depending on program requirements. Rotate instructions are useful for
serial port programming applications where data can be
rotated from an internal register into the Carry bit from
where it can be examined and the necessary serial bit
set high or low. Another application where rotate data
operations are used is to implement multiplication and
division calculations.
Instruction Timing
Most instructions are implemented within one instruction cycle. The exceptions to this are branch, call, or table read instructions where two instruction cycles are
required. One instruction cycle is equal to 4 system
clock cycles, therefore in the case of an 8MHz system
oscillator, most instructions would be implemented
within 0.5ms and branch or call instructions would be implemented within 1ms. Although instructions which require one more cycle to implement are generally limited
to the JMP, CALL, RET, RETI and table read instructions, it is important to realize that any other instructions
which involve manipulation of the Program Counter Low
register or PCL will also take one more cycle to implement. As instructions which change the contents of the
PCL will imply a direct jump to that new address, one
more cycle will be required. Examples of such instructions would be ²CLR PCL² or ²MOV PCL, A². For the
case of skip instructions, it must be noted that if the result of the comparison involves a skip operation then
this will also take one more cycle, if no skip is involved
then only one cycle is required.
Branches and Control Transfer
Program branching takes the form of either jumps to
specified locations using the JMP instruction or to a subroutine using the CALL instruction. They differ in the
sense that in the case of a subroutine call, the program
must return to the instruction immediately when the subroutine has been carried out. This is done by placing a
return instruction RET in the subroutine which will cause
the program to jump back to the address right after the
CALL instruction. In the case of a JMP instruction, the
program simply jumps to the desired location. There is
no requirement to jump back to the original jumping off
point as in the case of the CALL instruction. One special
and extremely useful set of branch instructions are the
conditional branches. Here a decision is first made regarding the condition of a certain data memory or individual bits. Depending upon the conditions, the program
will continue with the next instruction or skip over it and
jump to the following instruction. These instructions are
the key to decision making and branching within the program perhaps determined by the condition of certain input switches or by the condition of internal data bits.
Moving and Transferring Data
The transfer of data within the microcontroller program
is one of the most frequently used operations. Making
use of three kinds of MOV instructions, data can be
transferred from registers to the Accumulator and
vice-versa as well as being able to move specific immediate data directly into the Accumulator. One of the most
important data transfer applications is to receive data
from the input ports and transfer data to the output ports.
Arithmetic Operations
The ability to perform certain arithmetic operations and
data manipulation is a necessary feature of most
microcontroller applications. Within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set are a range of add and
Rev. 2.01
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Bit Operations
Other Operations
The ability to provide single bit operations on Data Memory is an extremely flexible feature of all Holtek
microcontrollers. This feature is especially useful for
output port bit programming where individual bits or port
pins can be directly set high or low using either the ²SET
[m].i² or ²CLR [m].i² instructions respectively. The feature removes the need for programmers to first read the
8-bit output port, manipulate the input data to ensure
that other bits are not changed and then output the port
with the correct new data. This read-modify-write process is taken care of automatically when these bit operation instructions are used.
In addition to the above functional instructions, a range
of other instructions also exist such as the ²HALT² instruction for Power-down operations and instructions to
control the operation of the Watchdog Timer for reliable
program operations under extreme electric or electromagnetic environments. For their relevant operations,
refer to the functional related sections.
Instruction Set Summary
The following table depicts a summary of the instruction
set categorised according to function and can be consulted as a basic instruction reference using the following listed conventions.
Table Read Operations
Table conventions:
Data storage is normally implemented by using registers. However, when working with large amounts of
fixed data, the volume involved often makes it inconvenient to store the fixed data in the Data Memory. To overcome this problem, Holtek microcontrollers allow an
area of Program Memory to be setup as a table where
data can be directly stored. A set of easy to use instructions provides the means by which this fixed data can be
referenced and retrieved from the Program Memory.
Mnemonic
x: Bits immediate data
m: Data Memory address
A: Accumulator
i: 0~7 number of bits
addr: Program memory address
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1Note
1Note
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
C
1
1
1
1Note
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
1
1Note
1
1Note
Z
Z
Z
Z
Arithmetic
ADD A,[m]
ADDM A,[m]
ADD A,x
ADC A,[m]
ADCM A,[m]
SUB A,x
SUB A,[m]
SUBM A,[m]
SBC A,[m]
SBCM A,[m]
DAA [m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Add ACC to Data Memory
Add immediate data to ACC
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Add ACC to Data memory with Carry
Subtract immediate data from the ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry, result in Data Memory
Decimal adjust ACC for Addition with result in Data Memory
Logic Operation
AND A,[m]
OR A,[m]
XOR A,[m]
ANDM A,[m]
ORM A,[m]
XORM A,[m]
AND A,x
OR A,x
XOR A,x
CPL [m]
CPLA [m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Logical AND immediate Data to ACC
Logical OR immediate Data to ACC
Logical XOR immediate Data to ACC
Complement Data Memory
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment & Decrement
INCA [m]
INC [m]
DECA [m]
DEC [m]
Rev. 2.01
Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment Data Memory
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Decrement Data Memory
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Mnemonic
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
None
None
C
C
None
None
C
C
Move Data Memory to ACC
Move ACC to Data Memory
Move immediate data to ACC
1
1Note
1
None
None
None
Clear bit of Data Memory
Set bit of Data Memory
1Note
1Note
None
None
Jump unconditionally
Skip if Data Memory is zero
Skip if Data Memory is zero with data movement to ACC
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is zero
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Subroutine call
Return from subroutine
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Return from interrupt
2
1Note
1note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
2
2
2
2
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
2Note
2Note
None
None
No operation
Clear Data Memory
Set Data Memory
Clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Enter power down mode
1
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
1
None
None
None
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
None
None
TO, PDF
Rotate
RRA [m]
RR [m]
RRCA [m]
RRC [m]
RLA [m]
RL [m]
RLCA [m]
RLC [m]
Data Move
MOV A,[m]
MOV [m],A
MOV A,x
Bit Operation
CLR [m].i
SET [m].i
Branch
JMP addr
SZ [m]
SZA [m]
SZ [m].i
SNZ [m].i
SIZ [m]
SDZ [m]
SIZA [m]
SDZA [m]
CALL addr
RET
RET A,x
RETI
Table Read
TABRDC [m]
TABRDL [m]
Miscellaneous
NOP
CLR [m]
SET [m]
CLR WDT
CLR WDT1
CLR WDT2
SWAP [m]
SWAPA [m]
HALT
Note:
1. For skip instructions, if the result of the comparison involves a skip then two cycles are required,
if no skip takes place only one cycle is required.
2. Any instruction which changes the contents of the PCL will also require 2 cycles for execution.
3. For the ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2² instructions the TO and PDF flags may be affected by
the execution status. The TO and PDF flags are cleared after both ²CLR WDT1² and
²CLR WDT2² instructions are consecutively executed. Otherwise the TO and PDF flags
remain unchanged.
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Instruction Definition
ADC A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADCM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,x
Add immediate data to ACC
Description
The contents of the Accumulator and the specified immediate data are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADDM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
AND A,[m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
AND A,x
Logical AND immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical AND
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ANDM A,[m]
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
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HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
CALL addr
Subroutine call
Description
Unconditionally calls a subroutine at the specified address. The Program Counter then increments by 1 to obtain the address of the next instruction which is then pushed onto the
stack. The specified address is then loaded and the program continues execution from this
new address. As this instruction requires an additional operation, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Stack ¬ Program Counter + 1
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m]
Clear Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m] ¬ 00H
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m].i
Clear bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR WDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT1
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT2 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT2 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT2 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT2
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT1 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT1 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT1 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
Rev. 2.01
24
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
CPL [m]
Complement Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
CPLA [m]
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa. The complemented result
is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
DAA [m]
Decimal-Adjust ACC for addition with result in Data Memory
Description
Convert the contents of the Accumulator value to a BCD ( Binary Coded Decimal) value resulting from the previous addition of two BCD variables. If the low nibble is greater than 9 or
if AC flag is set, then a value of 6 will be added to the low nibble. Otherwise the low nibble
remains unchanged. If the high nibble is greater than 9 or if the C flag is set, then a value of
6 will be added to the high nibble. Essentially, the decimal conversion is performed by adding 00H, 06H, 60H or 66H depending on the Accumulator and flag conditions. Only the C
flag may be affected by this instruction which indicates that if the original BCD sum is
greater than 100, it allows multiple precision decimal addition.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + 00H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 06H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 60H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 66H
Affected flag(s)
C
DEC [m]
Decrement Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
DECA [m]
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
HALT
Enter power down mode
Description
This instruction stops the program execution and turns off the system clock. The contents
of the Data Memory and registers are retained. The WDT and prescaler are cleared. The
power down flag PDF is set and the WDT time-out flag TO is cleared.
Operation
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
Rev. 2.01
25
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
INC [m]
Increment Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
INCA [m]
Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
JMP addr
Jump unconditionally
Description
The contents of the Program Counter are replaced with the specified address. Program
execution then continues from this new address. As this requires the insertion of a dummy
instruction while the new address is loaded, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,[m]
Move Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,x
Move immediate data to ACC
Description
The immediate data specified is loaded into the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV [m],A
Move ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the Accumulator are copied to the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC
Affected flag(s)
None
NOP
No operation
Description
No operation is performed. Execution continues with the next instruction.
Operation
No operation
Affected flag(s)
None
OR A,[m]
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 2.01
26
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
OR A,x
Logical OR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ORM A,[m]
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
RET
Return from subroutine
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
Affected flag(s)
None
RET A,x
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the Accumulator loaded with the
specified immediate data. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
RETI
Return from interrupt
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the interrupts are re-enabled by setting the EMI bit. EMI is the master interrupt global enable bit. If an interrupt was pending
when the RETI instruction is executed, the pending Interrupt routine will be processed before returning to the main program.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
EMI ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
RL [m]
Rotate Data Memory left
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
RLA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 2.01
27
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
RLC [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RLCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7 replaces
the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into the bit 0. The rotated result is stored in
the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RR [m]
Rotate Data Memory right
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into
bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data
Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRC [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
RRCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0 replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is
stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
Rev. 2.01
28
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
SBC A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result
of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or
zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SBCM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry and result in Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is
positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SDZ [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0 the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SDZA [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m]
Set Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ FFH
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m].i
Set bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 2.01
29
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
SIZ [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SIZA [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SNZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is not 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i ¹ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SUB A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUBM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUB A,x
Subtract immediate data from ACC
Description
The immediate data specified by the code is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will
be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
Rev. 2.01
30
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
SWAP [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged.
Operation
[m].3~[m].0 « [m].7 ~ [m].4
Affected flag(s)
None
SWAPA [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged. The
result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.3 ~ ACC.0 ¬ [m].7 ~ [m].4
ACC.7 ~ ACC.4 ¬ [m].3 ~ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0
Description
If the contents of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As
this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a
two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZA [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0 with data movement to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator. If the value is
zero, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the
program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is not 0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDC [m]
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (current page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDL [m]
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (last page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 2.01
31
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
XOR A,[m]
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XORM A,[m]
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XOR A,x
Logical XOR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical XOR
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 2.01
32
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Package Information
28-pin SKDIP (300mil) Outline Dimensions
A
B
2 8
1 5
1
1 4
H
C
D
E
Symbol
A
Rev. 2.01
F
I
G
Dimensions in mil
Min.
Nom.
Max.
1375
¾
1395
B
278
¾
298
C
125
¾
135
D
125
¾
145
E
16
¾
20
F
50
¾
70
G
¾
100
¾
H
295
¾
315
I
¾
¾
375
33
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
28-pin SOP (300mil) Outline Dimensions
2 8
1 5
A
B
1
1 4
C
C '
G
H
D
E
a
F
· MS-013
Symbol
Rev. 2.01
Dimensions in mil
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
393
¾
419
B
256
¾
300
C
12
¾
20
C¢
697
¾
713
D
¾
¾
104
E
¾
50
¾
F
4
¾
12
G
16
¾
50
H
8
¾
13
a
0°
¾
8°
34
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
48-pin SSOP (300mil) Outline Dimensions
4 8
2 5
A
B
2 4
1
C
C '
G
H
D
F
E
Symbol
Rev. 2.01
a
Dimensions in mil
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
395
¾
420
B
291
¾
299
C
8
¾
12
C¢
613
¾
637
D
85
¾
99
E
¾
25
¾
F
4
¾
10
G
25
¾
35
H
4
¾
12
a
0°
¾
8°
35
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Product Tape and Reel Specifications
Reel Dimensions
D
T 2
A
C
B
T 1
SOP 28W (300mil)
Symbol
Description
A
Reel Outer Diameter
Dimensions in mm
330.0±1.0
B
Reel Inner Diameter
100.0±1.5
C
Spindle Hole Diameter
13.0+0.5/-0.2
D
Key Slit Width
T1
Space Between Flange
T2
Reel Thickness
2.0±0.5
24.8+0.3/-0.2
30.2±0.2
SSOP 48W
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
A
Reel Outer Diameter
330.0±1.0
B
Reel Inner Diameter
100.0±0.1
C
Spindle Hole Diameter
13.0+0.5/-0.2
D
Key Slit Width
T1
Space Between Flange
T2
Reel Thickness
Rev. 2.01
2.0±0.5
32.2+0.3/-0.2
38.2±0.2
36
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Carrier Tape Dimensions
P 0
D
P 1
t
E
F
W
C
D 1
B 0
P
K 0
A 0
R e e l H o le
IC p a c k a g e p in 1 a n d th e r e e l h o le s
a r e lo c a te d o n th e s a m e s id e .
SOP 28W (300mil)
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
W
Carrier Tape Width
24.0±0.3
P
Cavity Pitch
12.0±0.1
E
Perforation Position
1.75±0.10
F
Cavity to Perforation (Width Direction)
11.5±0.1
D
Perforation Diameter
1.5+0.1/-0.0
D1
Cavity Hole Diameter
1.50+0.25/-0.00
P0
Perforation Pitch
4.0±0.1
P1
Cavity to Perforation (Length Direction)
A0
Cavity Length
10.85±0.10
B0
Cavity Width
18.34±0.10
K0
Cavity Depth
2.97±0.10
t
Carrier Tape Thickness
0.35±0.01
C
Cover Tape Width
21.3±0.1
Rev. 2.01
2.0±0.1
37
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
P 0
D
P 1
t
E
F
W
D 1
C
B 0
K 1
P
K 2
A 0
R e e l H o le ( C ir c le )
IC
p a c k a g e p in 1 a n d th e r e e l h o le s
a r e lo c a te d o n th e s a m e s id e .
R e e l H o le ( E llip s e )
SSOP 48W
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
W
Carrier Tape Width
32.0±0.3
P
Cavity Pitch
16.0±0.1
E
Perforation Position
1.75±0.10
F
Cavity to Perforation (Width Direction)
14.2±0.1
D
Perforation Diameter
2 Min.
D1
Cavity Hole Diameter
1.50+0.25/-0.00
P0
Perforation Pitch
4.0±0.1
P1
Cavity to Perforation (Length Direction)
2.0±0.1
A0
Cavity Length
12.0±0.1
B0
Cavity Width
16.2±0.1
K1
Cavity Depth
2.4±0.1
K2
Cavity Depth
3.2±0.1
t
Carrier Tape Thickness
0.35±0.05
C
Cover Tape Width
25.5±0.1
Rev. 2.01
38
January 9, 2009
HT48R50A-1/HT48C50-1
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Headquarters)
No.3, Creation Rd. II, Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Tel: 886-3-563-1999
Fax: 886-3-563-1189
http://www.holtek.com.tw
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Taipei Sales Office)
4F-2, No. 3-2, YuanQu St., Nankang Software Park, Taipei 115, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2655-7070
Fax: 886-2-2655-7373
Fax: 886-2-2655-7383 (International sales hotline)
Holtek Semiconductor (China) Inc. (Dongguan Sales Office)
Building No. 10, Xinzhu Court, (No. 1 Headquarters), 4 Cuizhu Road, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, China 523808
Tel: 86-769-2626-1300
Fax: 86-769-2626-1311
Holtek Semiconductor (USA), Inc. (North America Sales Office)
46729 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538
Tel: 1-510-252-9880
Fax: 1-510-252-9885
http://www.holtek.com
Copyright Ó 2009 by HOLTEK SEMICONDUCTOR INC.
The information appearing in this Data Sheet is believed to be accurate at the time of publication. However, Holtek assumes no responsibility arising from the use of the specifications described. The applications mentioned herein are used
solely for the purpose of illustration and Holtek makes no warranty or representation that such applications will be suitable
without further modification, nor recommends the use of its products for application that may present a risk to human life
due to malfunction or otherwise. Holtek¢s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices
or systems. Holtek reserves the right to alter its products without prior notification. For the most up-to-date information,
please visit our web site at http://www.holtek.com.tw.
Rev. 2.01
39
January 9, 2009
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