A3968 Datasheet

A3968
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver
Features and Benefits
Description
▪ ±650 mA continuous output current
▪ 30 V output voltage rating
▪ Internal fixed-frequency PWM current control
▪ Satlington® sink drivers
▪ Brake mode
▪ User-selectable blanking window
▪ Internal ground-clamp and flyback diodes
▪ Internal thermal-shutdown circuitry
▪ Crossover-current protection and UVLO protection
The A3968 bidirectionally controls two DC motors. The device
includes two full-bridges capable of continuous output currents
of ±650 mA and operating voltages to 30 V. Motor winding
current can be controlled by the internal fixed-frequency,
pulse-width modulated (PWM), current-control circuitry. The
peak load current limit is set by user selection of a reference
voltage and current-sensing resistors.
The fixed-frequency pulse duration is set by a user-selected
external RC timing network. The capacitor in the RC timing
network also determines a user-selectable blanking window that
prevents false triggering of the PWM current-control circuitry
during switching transitions.
To reduce on-chip power dissipation, the full-bridge power
outputs have been optimized for low saturation voltages. The
sink drivers feature the Allegro™ patented Satlington® output
structure. The Satlington outputs combine the low voltage drop
of a saturated transistor and the high peak current capability
of a Darlington.
Package: 16 pin SOIC (suffix LB)
For each bridge, the INPUTA and INPUTB terminals determine
the load-current polarity by enabling the appropriate source and
sink driver pair. When a logic low is applied to both INPUTs
Continued on the next page…
Not to scale
Typical Application
MOTOR 1
MOTOR 2
16
1
V
INPUT1A
2
INPUT1B
3
4
LOGIC
BB
LOGIC
15
INPUT2A
14
INPUT2B
13
0.5 Ω
0.5 Ω
5
12
+5 V
VREF
RC
Dwg. EP-047-6
29319.29G
V
CC
+
47 μF
BB
+5 V
10
9
680 pF
7
8
10 kΩ
11
V
56 kΩ
39 kΩ
6
+24 V
A3968
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver with Brake
Description (continued)
of a bridge, the braking function is enabled. In brake mode, both
source drivers are turned off and both sink drivers are turned on,
thereby dynamically braking the motor. When a logic high is applied
to both INPUTs of a bridge, all output drivers are disabled.
and flyback diodes, and crossover-current protection.
Special power-up sequencing is not required. Internal circuit
protection includes thermal shutdown with hysteresis, ground-clamp
pins are at ground potential and need no electrical isolation. The
The A3968 is supplied in a 16-lead plastic SOIC with two pins
internally fused to the die pad for enhanced thermal dissipation. These
device is lead (Pb) free, with 100% matte tin leadframe plating.
Selection Guide
Part Number
A3968SLBTR–T
Packing
Ambient Temperature Range
(°C)
1000 pieces / reel
–20 to 85
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Characteristic
Symbol
Notes
Rating
Units
Load Supply Voltage
VBB
30
V
Logic Supply Voltage
VCC
7.0
V
Input Voltage
VIN
–0.3 to VCC + 0.3
V
Sense Voltage
VS
1.0
V
±750
mA
±650
mA
1.8
W
Range E
–40 to 85
ºC
Range S
Peak
Output Current*
IOUT
Continuous
Output current rating may be limited by duty
cycle, ambient temperature, and heat sinking.
Under any set of conditions, do not exceed the
specified current rating or TJ(max)
TA = 25°C; per SEMI G42-88 Specification, Thermal Test
Board Standardization for Measuring Junction-to-Ambient
Thermal Resistance of Semiconductor Packages.
Package Power Dissipation
PD
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
–20 to 85
ºC
Maximum Junction Temperature
TJ(max)
150
ºC
Tstg
–55 to 150
ºC
Storage Temperature
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
2
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver with Brake
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
LOAD
SUPPLY
OUTB
OUTA
LOGIC
SUPPLY
(One Half of Circuit Shown)
V CC
INPUTA
+
CONTROL LOGIC
V BB
UVLO
& TSD
INPUTB
SOURCE
ENABLE
PWM LATCH
BLANKING
GATE
CURRENT-SENSE
COMPARATOR
SENSE
+
–
R
Q
TO OTHER
BRIDGE
TO OTHER
BRIDGE
S
÷4
GROUND
RS
OSC
RC
RT
TO OTHER
BRIDGE
REFERENCE
A3968
CT
Dwg. FP-036-4
TRUTH TABLE
INPUTA
L
L
H
H
INPUTB
L
H
L
H
OUTA
L
L
H
Z
OUTB
L
H
L
Z
Description
Brake mode
“Forward”
“Reverse”
Disable
Z = High impedance
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
3
A3968
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver with Brake
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS at TA = +25°C, VBB = 30 V, VCC = 4.75 V to 5.5 V, VREF = 2 V,
VS = 0 V, 56 kΩ & 680 pF RC to Ground (unless noted otherwise)
Limits
Characteristic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
VCC
—
30
V
Output Drivers
Load Supply Voltage Range
VBB
Operating, IOUT = ±650 mA, L = 3 mH
Output Leakage Current
ICEX
VOUT = 30 V
—
<1.0
50
μA
VOUT = 0 V
—
<-1.0
-50
μA
Source Driver, IOUT = -400 mA
—
1.7
2.0
V
Source Driver, IOUT = -650 mA
—
1.8
2.1
V
Sink Driver, IOUT = +400 mA, VS = 0.5 V
—
0.3
0.5
V
Sink Driver, IOUT = +650 mA, VS = 0.5 V
—
0.7
1.3
V
IF = 400 mA
—
1.1
1.4
V
IF = 650 mA
—
1.4
1.6
V
IBB(ON)
Both bridges ON (forward or reverse)
—
3.0
5.0
mA
IBB(OFF)
All INPUTs = 2.4 V
—
<1.0
200
μA
4.75
—
5.50
V
Output Saturation Voltage
Clamp Diode Forward Voltage
Motor Supply Current
(No Load)
VCE(SAT)
VF
Control Logic
Logic Supply Voltage Range
VCC
Operating
Logic Input Voltage
VIN(1)
2.4
—
—
V
VIN(0)
—
—
0.8
V
IIN(1)
VIN = 2.4 V
—
<1.0
20
μA
IIN(0)
VIN = 0.8 V
—
<-20
-200
μA
Reference Input Volt. Range
VREF
Operating
0.1
–
2.0
V
Reference Input Current
IREF
-2.5
0
1.0
μA
Reference Divider Ratio
VREF/VTRIP
3.8
4.0
4.2
—
Logic Input Current
Current-Sense Comparator
Input Offset Voltage
VIO
VREF = 0.1 V
-6.0
0
6.0
mV
Current-Sense Comparator
Input Voltage Range
VS
Operating
-0.3
—
1.0
V
Sense-Current Offset
ISO
IS – IOUT, 50 mA ≤ IOUT ≤ 650 mA
12
18
24
mA
NOTES:1. Typical Data is for design information only.
2. Negative current is defined as coming out of (sourcing) the specified device terminal.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
4
A3968
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver with Brake
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS at TA = +25°C, VBB = 30 V, VCC = 4.75 V to 5.5 V, VREF = 2 V,
VS = 0 V, 56 kΩ & 680 pF RC to Ground (unless noted otherwise) (cont.)
Limits
Characteristic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
CT = 680 pF, RT = 56 kΩ
22.9
25.4
27.9
kHz
Comparator Trip to Source OFF
—
1.0
1.4
μs
Cycle Reset to Source ON
—
0.8
1.2
μs
Control Logic (continued)
PWM RC Frequency
PWM Propagation Delay Time
fosc
tPWM
Cross-Over Dead Time
tcodt
1 kΩ Load to 25 V
0.2
1.8
3.0
μs
Propagation Delay Times
tpd
IOUT = ±650 mA, 50% to 90%:
Disable OFF to Source ON
Disable ON to Source OFF
Disable OFF to Sink ON
Disable ON to Sink OFF
Brake Enable to Sink ON
Brake Enable to Source OFF
—
—
—
—
—
—
100
500
200
200
2200
200
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
TJ
—
165
—
°C
ΔTJ
—
15
—
°C
—
4.1
4.6
V
0.1
0.6
—
V
Thermal Shutdown Temp.
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
UVLO Enable Threshold
UVLO Hysteresis
Logic Supply Current
VT(UVLO)+
Increasing VCC
VT(UVLO)hys
ICC(ON)
Both bridges ON (forward or reverse)
—
—
50
mA
ICC(OFF)
All INPUTs = 2.4 V
—
—
9.0
mA
ICC(BRAKE)
All INPUTs = 0.8 V
—
—
95
mA
NOTES:1. Typical Data is for design information only.
2. Negative current is defined as coming out of (sourcing) the specified device terminal.
Typical output saturation voltages showing
Satlington sink-driver operation.
OUTPUT SATURATION VOLTAGE IN VOLTS
2.5
TA = +25°C
2.0
SOURCE DRIVER
1.5
1.0
0.5
SINK DRIVER
0
200
300
400
500
600
7 00
OUTPUT CURRENT IN MILLIAMPERES
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
5
A3968
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver with Brake
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Internal PWM Current Control. The A3968 dual
full-bridges bidirectionally control two DC motors. An
internal fixed-frequency PWM control circuit controls the
the load current in each motor. The current-control circuitry
works as follows: when the outputs of the full-bridge are
turned on, current increases in the motor winding. The load
current is sensed by the current-control comparator via
an external sense resistor. RS. Load current continues to
increase until it reaches the predetermined value, set by the
selection of external current-sensing resistors and reference
input voltage (VREF) according to the equation:
ITRIP = IOUT + ISO = VREF/(4 RS)
where ISO is the sense-current error (typically 18 mA) due
to the base-drive current of the sink driver transistor.
At the trip point, the comparator resets the source-enable latch, turning off the source driver of that full-bridge.
The source turn-off of one full-bridge is independent of
the other full-bridge. Load inductance causes the current to
recirculate through the sink driver and ground-clamp diode.
The current decreases until the internal clock oscillator sets
the source-enable latches of both Full-bridges, turning on
the source drivers of both bridges. Load current increases
again, and the cycle is repeated.
The frequency of the internal clock oscillator is set by
the external timing components RTCT. The frequency can
be approximately calculated as:
fosc = 1/(RT CT + tblank)
where tblank is defined below.
The range of recommended values for RT and CT are
20 to 100 k and 470 to 1000 pF respectively. Nominal
values of 56 k and 680 pF result in a clock frequency of
25.4 kHz.
Current-Sense Comparator Blanking. When the
source driver is turned on, a current spike occurs due to the
reverse-recovery currents of the clamp diodes and switching transients related to distributed capacitance in the load.
To prevent this current spike from erroneously resetting the
source enable latch, the current-control comparator output
is blanked for a short period of time when the source driver
is turned on. The blanking time is set by the timing component CT according to the equation:
tblank = 1900 CT (μs).
A nominal CT value of 680 pF will give a blanking time
of 1.3 μs.
The current-control comparator is also blanked when
the load current changes polarity (direction or phase
change). This internally generated blank time is approximately 1.8 μs.
V
BB
V PHASE
See Enlargement A
BRIDGE
ON
+
I
OUT
BRIDGE ON
ALL
OFF
0
SOURCE OFF
–
ALL OFF
BRIDGE
ON
I TRIP
Enlargement A
SOURCE
OFF
td
t
INTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
R TC T
RS
blank
Dwg. WM-003-2
Dwg. EP-006-16
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
6
A3968
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver with Brake
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (continued)
Load Current Regulation. Due to internal logic and
switching delays, td , the actual load current peak will be
slightly higher than the ITRIP value. These delays, plus the
blanking time, limit the minimum value the current control
circuitry can regulate. To produce zero current in a winding, the INPUTA and INPUTB terminals should be held
high, turning off all output drivers for that full-bridge.
Output Drivers. To minimize on-chip power dissipation, the sink drivers incorporate a Satlington structure.
The Satlington output combines the low VCE(sat) features
of a saturated transistor and the high peak-current capability of a Darlington (connected) transistor. A graph showing
typical output saturation voltages as a function of output
current is on page 5.
Logic Inputs. The direction of current in the motor winding is determined by the state of the INPUTA and INPUTB
terminals of each bridge (see Truth Table). An internally
generated dead time, tcodt , of approximately 1.8 μs prevents
cross-over current spikes that can occur when switching the
motor direction.
Miscellaneous Information. Thermal protection
circuitry turns off all output drivers should the junction
temperature reach 165 °C typical. This is intended only to
protect the device from failures due to excessive junction
temperatures and should not imply that output short circuits
are permitted. Normal operation is resumed when the junction temperature has decreased about 15°C.
A logic high on both INPUTs turns off all four output drivers of that full-bridge. This results in a fast current decay
through the internal ground clamp and flyback diodes.
The A3968 current control employs a fixed-frequency,
variable duty cycle PWM technique. As a result, the current-control regulation may become unstable if the duty
cycle exceeds 50%.
The appropriate INPUTA or INPUTB can be pulse-width
modulated for applications that require a fast current-decay PWM. If external current-sensing circuitry is used, the
internal current-control logic can be disabled by connecting
the RTCT terminal to ground.
To minimize current-sensing inaccuracies caused by
ground trace IR drops, each current-sensing resistor should
have a separate return to the ground terminal of the device.
For low-value sense resistors, the I x R drops in the printedwiring board can be significant and should be taken into account. The use of sockets should be avoided as their contact
resistance can cause variations in the effective value of RS.
A logic low on the INPUTA and the INPUTB terminals will
place that full-bridge in the brake mode. Both source drivers are turned off and both sink drivers are turned on. This
has the effect of shorting the DC motor back-EMF voltage,
resulting in a current flow that dynamically brakes the motor. Note that, during braking, the internal current-control
circuitry is disabled. Therefore, care should be taken to
ensure that the motor current does not exceed the absolute
maximum rating of the A3968.
The REFERENCE input voltage is typically set with a
resistor divider from VCC. This reference voltage is internally divided down by 4 to set up the current-comparator
trip-voltage threshold. The reference input voltage range is
0 to 2 V.
The LOAD SUPPLY terminal, VBB, should be decoupled with an electrolytic capacitor (47 μF recommended)
placed as close to the device as physically practical. To
minimize the effect of system ground I x R drops on the
logic and reference input signals, the system ground should
have a low-resistance return to the load supply voltage.
The frequency of the clock oscillator will determine the
amount of ripple current. A lower frequency will result in
higher current ripple, but reduced heating in the motor and
driver IC due to a corresponding decrease in hysteretic core
losses and switching losses respectively. A higher frequency will reduce ripple current, but will increase switching
losses and EMI.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
7
A3968
Dual Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver with Brake
Package LB, 16-pin SOICW
10.30±0.20
4° ±4
16
1.27
0.65
16
+0.07
0.27 –0.06
10.30±0.33
7.50±0.10
9.50
A
+0.44
0.84 –0.43
2.25
1
2
1
2
0.25
B
16X
SEATING
PLANE
0.10 C
0.41 ±0.10
1.27
C
PCB Layout Reference View
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
2.65 MAX
0.20 ±0.10
For Reference Only
Pins 4 and 13 internally fused
Dimensions in millimeters
(reference JEDEC MS-013 AA)
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
A Terminal #1 mark area
B
Reference pad layout (reference IPC SOIC127P1030X265-16M)
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as necessary
to meet application process requirements and PCB layout tolerances
Copyright ©1997–2013, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Satlington® is a registered trademark of Allegro MicroSystems, LLC (Allegro), and Satlington devices are manufactured under U. S. Patent
No. 5,684,427.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in life support devices or systems, if a failure of an Allegro product can reasonably be expected to cause the
failure of that life support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its use;
nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
www.allegromicro.com
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
8
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