A4954 Datasheet

A4954
Dual Full-Bridge
DMOS PWM Motor Driver
Description
Features and Benefits
• Low RDS(on) outputs
• Overcurrent protection (OCP)
▫ Motor short protection
▫ Motor lead short to ground protection
▫ Motor lead short to battery protection
• Low Power Standby mode
• Adjustable PWM current limit
• Synchronous rectification
• Internal undervoltage lockout (UVLO)
• Crossover-current protection
Designed for pulse width modulated (PWM) control of two
DC motors, the A4954 is capable of peak output currents to
±2 A and operating voltages to 40 V.
Input terminals are provided for use in controlling the speed and
direction of a DC motor with externally applied PWM control
signals. Internal synchronous rectification control circuitry is
provided to lower power dissipation during PWM operation.
Internal circuit protection includes overcurrent protection,
motor lead short to ground or supply, thermal shutdown with
hysteresis, undervoltage monitoring of VBB, and crossovercurrent protection.
Package: 16-pin TSSOP with exposed
thermal pad (suffix LP)
The A4954 is provided in a low-profile 16-pin TSSOP package
with exposed thermal pad (suffix LP) that is lead (Pb) free,
with 100% matte tin leadframe plating.
Not to scale
Functional Block Diagram
Load Supply
OSC
IN1
Charge
Pump
VBB
Control
Logic
Disable
TSD
UVLO
IN2
OUT1
OUT2
7V
GND
LSS12
VREF12
÷ 10
(Optional)
OSC
IN3
Charge
Pump
VBB
Control
Logic
Disable
IN4
TSD
UVLO
OUT3
OUT4
7V
GND
LSS34
VREF34
A4954-DS, Rev. 4
÷ 10
(Optional)
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
Selection Guide
Part Number
Packing
A4954ELPTR-T
A4954ELP-T
4000 pieces per 13-in. reel
96 pieces per tube
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Rating
Unit
Load Supply Voltage
Characteristic
Symbol
VBB
Notes
40
V
Logic Input Voltage Range
VIN
–0.3 to 6
V
VREF Input Voltage Range
VREF
–0.3 to 6
V
Sense Voltage (LSSx pin)
VS
–0.5 to 0.5
V
–2 to 42
V
2
A
Motor Outputs Voltage
VOUT
Output Current
IOUT
Duty cycle = 100%
Transient Output Current
iOUT
TW < 500 ns
Operating Temperature Range
Maximum Junction Temperature
Storage Temperature Range
5
A
–40 to 85
°C
TJ(max)
150
°C
Tstg
–55 to 150
°C
Temperature Range E
TA
Thermal Characteristics may require derating at maximum conditions, see application information
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance
Symbol
Test Conditions*
On 2-layer PCB with 3.8
RθJA
in2. exposed
2-oz. copper each side
On 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard
Value
Unit
43
ºC/W
34
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on the Allegro website.
Terminal List Table
Number
Name
1
GND
2
VREF34
3
IN3
Logic input 3
4
IN4
Logic input 4
16 VBB
5
IN2
Logic input 2
15 OUT4
6
IN1
7
VREF12
12 OUT2
8
GND
Ground
11 LSS12
9
VBB
Load supply voltage
Pin-out Diagram
GND 1
VREF34 2
14 LSS34
IN3 3
IN4 4
IN2 5
IN1 6
VREF12 7
GND 8
PAD
13 OUT3
10 OUT1
9 VBB
Function
Ground
Analog input for bridge 3-4
Logic input 1
Analog input for bridge 1-2
10
OUT1
DMOS full bridge output 1
11
LSS12
Power return – sense resistor connection for bridge 1-2
12
OUT2
DMOS full bridge output 2
13
OUT3
DMOS full bridge output 3
14
LSS34
Power return – sense resistor connection for bridge 3-4
15
OUT4
DMOS full bridge output 4
16
VBB
Load supply voltage
–
PAD
Exposed pad for enhanced thermal dissipation
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Valid at TJ = 25°C, unless otherwise specified
Characteristics
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
8
–
40
V
General
Load Supply Voltage Range
VBB
RDS(on) Sink + Source Total
RDS(on)
Load Supply Current
IBB
Body Diode Forward Voltage
Vf
IOUT = |1.5 A|, TJ = 25°C
–
0.8
1.12
Ω
IOUT = |1.5 A|, TJ = 125°C
–
1.28
1.8
Ω
fPWM < 30 kHz
–
10
–
mA
Low Power Standby mode
–
–
10
μA
Source diode, If = –1.5 A
–
–
1.5
V
Sink diode, If = 1.5 A
–
–
1.5
V
Logic Inputs
Logic Input Voltage Range
VIN(1)
2.0
–
–
V
VIN(0)
–
–
0.8
V
VIN(STANDBY) Low Power Standby mode
–
–
0.4
V
IIN(1)
VIN = 2.0 V
–
40
100
μA
IIN(0)
VIN = 0.8 V
–
16
40
μA
–
50
–
kΩ
VHYS
–
250
550
mV
Crossover Delay
tCOD
50
–
500
ns
VREF Input Voltage Range
VREF
Logic Input Current
Logic Input Pull-Down Resistance
Input Hysteresis
RR
RLOGIC(PD) VIN = 0 V = IN1 = IN2 = IN3 = IN4
Timing
Current Gain
Blank Time
Constant Off-time
AV
0
–
5
V
VREF / ISS , VREF = 5 V
9.5
–
10.5
V/V
VREF / ISS , VREF = 2.5 V
9.0
–
10.0
V/V
VREF / ISS , VREF = 1 V
8.0
–
10.0
V/V
tBLANK
2
3
4
μs
toff
16
25
34
μs
–
1
1.5
ms
–
–
30
μs
VBB increasing
7
7.5
7.95
V
–
500
–
mV
Temperature increasing
–
160
–
°C
Recovery = TJTSD – TTSDhys
–
15
–
°C
Standby Timer
tst
Power-Up Delay
tpu
IN1 = IN2 = IN3 = IN4 < VIN(STANDBY)
Protection Circuits
UVLO Enable Threshold
UVLO Hysteresis
Thermal Shutdown Temperature
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
VBBUVLO
VBBUVLOhys
TJTSD
TTSDhys
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
Characteristic Performance
PWM Control Timing Diagram
VIN(1)
IN1,
IN3
GND
VIN(1)
IN2,
IN4
GND
+IREG
IOUTx
0A
-IREG
Forward/
Fast Decay
Reverse/
Fast Decay
Forward/
Slow Decay
Reverse/
Slow Decay
PWM Control Truth Table
IN1, IN3
IN2, IN4
10×VS > VREF
OUT1, OUT3
OUT2, OUT4
0
1
1
0
0
1
Function
False
L
H
Reverse
False
H
L
Forward
1
True
H/L
L
Chop (mixed decay), reverse
0
True
L
H/L
1
1
False
L
L
Brake (slow decay)
0
0
False
Z
Z
Coast, enters Low Power Standby mode after 1 ms
Chop (mixed decay), forward
Note: Z indicates high impedance.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
Functional Description
Device Operation
The A4954 is designed to operate two DC motors. The output
drivers are all low-RDS(on) , N-channel DMOS drivers that feature
internal synchronous rectification to reduce power dissipation.
The current in each of the two output full bridges is regulated
with fixed off-time pulse width modulated (PWM) control circuitry. The IN1-IN2 and IN3-IN4 inputs allow two-wire control
for each bridge.
Protection circuitry includes internal thermal shutdown, and protection against shorted loads, or against output shorts to ground
or supply. Undervoltage lockout prevents damage by keeping the
outputs off until the driver has enough voltage to operate normally.
Standby Mode
Low Power Standby mode is activated when all four input (INx)
pins are low for longer than 1 ms. Low Power Standby mode
disables most of the internal circuitry, including the charge pump
and the regulator. When the A4954 is coming out of standby
mode, the charge pump should be allowed to reach its regulated
voltage (a maximum delay of 200 μs) before any PWM commands are issued to the device.
Internal PWM Current Control
Initially, a diagonal pair of source and sink FET outputs are
enabled and current flows through the motor winding and the
optional external current sense resistor, RSx . When the voltage
across RSx equals the comparator trip value, then the current
sense comparator resets the PWM latch. The latch then turns off
the sink and source FETs (Mixed Decay mode).
VREF
The maximum value of current limiting is set by the selection
of RSx and the voltage at the VREFx pin in each channel. The
transconductance function is approximated by the maximum
value of current limiting, ITripMAX (A), which is set by:
ITripMAX =
VREF
AV RS
where VREF is the input voltage on the VREFx pin (V) and RS is
the resistance of the sense resistor (Ω) on the corresponding LSSx
terminal.
Overcurrent Protection
A current monitor will protect the IC from damage due to output
shorts. If a short is detected, the IC will latch the fault and disable the outputs. Each channel has independent OCP protection.
The fault latch can only be cleared by coming out of Low Power
Standby mode or by cycling the power to VBB. During OCP
events, Absolute Maximum Ratings may be exceeded for a short
period of time before the device latches.
Shutdown
If the die temperature increases to approximately 160°C, the full
bridge outputs will be disabled until the internal temperature falls
below a hysteresis, TTSDhys , of 15°C. Internal UVLO is present
on VBB to prevent the output drivers from turning-on below the
UVLO threshold.
Braking
The braking function is implemented by driving the device in
Slow Decay mode, which is done by applying a logic high to both
inputs of both channels, after a bridge-enable Chop command
(see PWM Control Truth Table). Because it is possible to drive
current in both directions through the DMOS switches, this configuration effectively shorts-out the motor-generated BEMF, as
long as the Chop command is asserted. The maximum current can
be approximated by VBEMF / RL . Care should be taken to ensure
that the maximum ratings of the device are not exceeded in worse
case braking situations: high speed and high-inertia loads.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
Synchronous Rectification
When a PWM off-cycle is triggered by an internal fixed off-time
cycle, load current will recirculate. The A4954 synchronous rectification feature turns-on the appropriate DMOSFETs during the
current decay, and effectively shorts out the body diodes with the
low RDS(on) driver. This significantly lowers power dissipation.
When a zero current level is detected, synchronous rectification is
turned off to prevent reversal of the load current.
Mixed Decay Operation
The bridges operate in Mixed Decay mode. Referring to the
lower panel of the figure below, as the trip point is reached, the
device goes into fast decay mode for 50% of the fixed off-time
period. After this fast decay portion the device switches to slow
decay mode for the remainder of the off-time. During transitions
from fast decay to slow decay, the drivers are forced off for the
Crossover Delay, tCOD . This feature is added to prevent shootthrough in the bridge. During this “dead time” portion, synchronous rectification is not active, and the device operates in fast
decay and slow decay only.
Mixed Decay Mode Operation
VPHASE
+
IOUT
See Enlargement A
0
–
Enlargement A
Fixed Off-Time, toff = 25 μs
0.50 × toff
0.50 × toff
ITrip
IOUT
Fast Decay
tCOD
tCOD
Slow Decay
tCOD
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
Application Information
Sense Pins (LSSx)
In order to use PWM current control, a low-value resistor is
placed between the LSSx pin and ground for current sensing purposes. To minimize ground-trace IR drops in sensing the output
current level, the current sensing resistor should have an independent ground return to the star ground point. This trace should be
as short as possible. For low-value sense resistors, the IR drops in
the PCB can be significant, and should be taken into account.
of the device makes a good location for the star ground point. The
exposed pad can be connected to ground for this purpose.
When selecting a value for the sense resistor be sure not to
exceed the maximum voltage on the LSSx pin of ±500 mV at
maximum load. During overcurrent events, this rating may be
exceeded for short durations.
Layout
The PCB should have a thick ground plane. For optimum
electrical and thermal performance, the A4954 must be soldered
directly onto the board. On the underside of the A4954 package is
an exposed pad, which provides a path for enhanced thermal dissipation. The thermal pad must be soldered directly to an exposed
surface on the PCB in order to achieve optimal thermal conduction. Thermal vias are used to transfer heat to other layers of the
PCB.
Ground
A star ground should be located as close to the A4954 as possible.
The copper ground plane directly under the exposed thermal pad
The load supply pin, VBB, should be decoupled with an electrolytic capacitor (typically 100 μF) in parallel with a lower valued
ceramic capacitor placed as close as practicable to the device.
GND
GND
OUT4
RS12
OUT3
A4954
OUT2
1 GND
VBB
RS34
C1
OUT1
VBB
BULK
CAPACITANCE
PAD
OUT3
IN2
OUT2
IN1
LSS12
VREF12
OUT1
GND
GND
LSS34
IN3
IN4
C2
OUT4
VREF34
RS34
RS12
VBB
VBB
C1
GND
C2
Bill of Materials
Item
Reference
Value
Units
Description
1
RS12, RS34
0.25
(for VREF = 5 V, IOUT = 2 A)
Ω
2512, 1 W, 1% or better,
carbon film chip resistor
2
C1
0.22
μF
X5R minimum, 50 V or greater
3
C2
100
μF
Electrolytic, 50 V or greater
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
Package LP, 16-Pin TSSOP
with exposed thermal pad
0.45
5.00±0.10
16
0.65
16
8º
0º
0.20
0.09
1.70
B
3 NOM
4.40±0.10
3.00
6.40±0.20
6.10
0.60 ±0.15
A
1
1.00 REF
2
3 NOM
0.25 BSC
Branded Face
16X
SEATING
PLANE
0.10 C
0.30
0.19
C
3.00
C
PCB Layout Reference View
For Reference Only; not for tooling use (reference MO-153 ABT)
Dimensions in millimeters
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
1.20 MAX
0.65 BSC
1 2
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
0.15
0.00
A Terminal #1 mark area
B
Exposed thermal pad (bottom surface); dimensions may vary with device
C Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351
SOP65P640X110-17M);
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as
necessary to meet application process requirements and PCB layout
tolerances; when mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal vias at the
exposed thermal pad land can improve thermal dissipation (reference
EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
Dual Full-Bridge DMOS
PWM Motor Driver
A4954
Revision History
Revision
Revision Date
Rev. 4
August 6, 2012
Description of Revision
Update PWM table
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Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in life support devices or systems, if a failure of an Allegro product can reasonably be expected to cause the
failure of that life support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system.
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use; nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
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115 Northeast Cutoff
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1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
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