DN424 - Buck-Boost Controller Simplifies Design of DC/DC Converters for Handheld Products

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Buck-Boost Controller Simplifies Design of DC/DC Converters for
Handheld Products – Design Note 424
David Burgoon
range. The high level of integration yields a simple, low
parts-count solution. The LTC3785 provides for currentlimit and shutdown in all modes of operation (which is
not normally available with boost converters).
Introduction
A number of conventional solutions have been available for
the design of a DC/DC converter where the output voltage
is within the input voltage range—a common scenario
in Li-Ion battery-powered applications—but none were
very attractive until now. Conventional topologies, such
as SEPIC or boost followed by buck, have numerous
disadvantages, including low efficiency, complex magnetics, polarity inversion and/or circuit complexity/cost. The
LTC®3785 buck-boost controller yields a simple, efficient,
low parts-count, single-converter solution that is easy
to implement, thus avoiding the drawbacks associated
with traditional solutions.
Very high efficiency is achieved by synchronous rectification, high side drive (allowing the use of N-channel
MOSFETs), RDS(ON) current sensing, and Burst Mode ®
operation for efficient light load operation. Protection
features include soft-start, overvoltage, undervoltage
and foldback current-limit with burp-mode or latch-off
for extended faults.
3.3V, 3A Converter Operates from 2.7V – 10V Source
The circuit shown in Figure 1 utilizes the LTC3785 controller to produce a synchronous, 4-switch, buck-boost
design. It provides a fixed 3.3V, 3A output from a 2.7V
– 10V input. It is short-circuit protected: the controller
offers a choice of recycling or latch-off protection for
severe overload faults.
High Efficiency Controller Capabilities
The LTC3785 serves applications requiring input and
output voltages in the range of 2.7 to 10V—ideal for
applications powered from one or two Li-Ion cells or
multiple cell NiMH, NiCad or Alkaline batteries. It supports
a single inductor, 4-switch, buck-boost topology, which is
ideal for an output voltage that is within the input voltage
2.2nF
VOUT
215k
, LTC, LT, LTM and Burst Mode are registered trademarks of Linear Technology
Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
1
130k
1nF
3
21.5k 2
130k
4
215k
42.2k 5
6
59k
7
8
9
15
13
14
RUN/SS
FB
VC
VIN
24
23
4.7μF
VCC
LTC3785EMS
22
ISVIN
VSENSE
VBST1
ILSET
TG1
CCM
SW1
RT
ISSW1
BG1
MODE
VDRV
SYNC
ISVOUT
BG2
VBST2
SW2
ISSW2 GND
25
TG2
21
VIN
2.7V TO 10V
CMDSH-3
Q1A
20
19
22μF
16V
0.22μF
FDS6894A
18
Q1B
17
L1
3μH
16
VOUT
3.3V
3A
10
11
CMDSH-3
12
47μF
6.3V
Q2A
0.22μF
FDS6894A
Q2B
L1: TOKO B1000AS-3RON
DN424 F01
Figure 1. Schematic of Buck-Boost Converter Using the LTC3785 to Provide 3.3V at 3A from a 2.7V to 10V Source
09/07/424_conv
The circuit produces seamless operation throughout the
entire input voltage range, operating as a synchronous
buck converter, synchronous boost converter, or a combination of the two through the transition region. At input
voltages well above the output, the converter operates in
buck mode. Switches Q1A and Q1B commutate the input
voltage, and Q2A stays on, connecting L1 to the output. As
the input voltage is reduced and approaches the regulated
output voltage, the converter approaches maximum duty
cycle on the input (buck) side of the bridge, and the output
(boost) side of the bridge starts to switch, thus entering
the buck-boost or 4-switch region of operation. As the
input is reduced further, the converter enters the boost
region at the minimum boost duty cycle. Switch Q1A stays
on, connecting the inductor to the input while switches
Q2A and Q2B commutate the output side of the inductor between the output capacitor and ground. In boost
mode, this converter has the ability to limit input current,
and also to shut down and disconnect the source from
the output—two desirable features that a conventional
boost converter cannot provide. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show
input side and output side switch waveforms along with
inductor current for buck (10V input), boost (2.7V input)
and buck-boost (3.8V input) modes of operation.
VSW1
5V/DIV
IL1
2A/DIV
VSW2
5V/DIV
1μs/DIV
DN424 F02
Figure 2. Input Side and Output Side Switch Waveforms
Along with Inductor Current for Buck (10V Input) Mode
Operation for the Circuit in Figure 1
VSW1
5V/DIV
IL1
2A/DIV
VSW2
5V/DIV
1μs/DIV
Figure 4. Input Side and Output Side Switch Waveforms
Along with Inductor Current for Buck-Boost (3.8V Input)
Mode Operation for the Circuit of Figure 1
95% Efficiency
Figure 5 shows efficiency curves for both normal (not
forced continuous conduction) and Burst Mode operation.
Exceptional efficiency of 95% is achieved at typical loads,
resulting from sophisticated controller features including high side drivers and RDS(ON) current sensing. Even
higher efficiencies are possible by using a larger ferrite
inductor. This circuit easily fits in 0.6in2 with components
on both sides of the board. The curves show how Burst
Mode operation improves efficiency at extremely light
loads—an important determinant of battery run time.
Conclusion
The LTC3785 is the latest addition to our class of buckboost converters developed by Linear Technology to
satisfy the requirements of battery-powered applications,
specifically those requiring an output voltage that is within
the input voltage range. A topology based on the LTC3785
controller overcomes the deficiencies of conventional
designs. It is elegant in its simplicity, high in efficiency,
and requires only a small number of inexpensive external
components.
100
90
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
VSW1
5V/DIV
IL1
2A/DIV
DN424 F04
Burst Mode
OPERATION
70
VIN
60
50
40
30
2.7V
3.0V
4.2V
20
VSW2
5V/DIV
10
0.001
1μs/DIV
DN424 F03
Figure 3. Input Side and Output Side Switch Waveforms
Along with Inductor Current for Boost (2.7V Input) Mode
Operation for the Circuit in Figure 1
0.01
0.1
1
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
10
DN424 F05
Figure 5. Efficiency in Normal and Burst Mode Operation
for the Circuit in Figure 1
Data Sheet Download
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 3420
www.linear.com
Linear Technology Corporation
dn424f_conv LT/TP 0907 305K • PRINTED IN THE USA
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
© LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2007
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
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