### AN58827 PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations.pdf

```AN58827
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Author: Mark Hastings
Associated Project: No
Associated Part Family: All PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP
parts
Software Version: PSoC Creator™ 1.0 or Higher
Related Application Notes: None
AN58827 discusses how internal trace and switch resistance can affect the performance of a design and how these
®
issues can be avoided by understanding a few basic details about the PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP internal analog
architecture. Trace and switch resistance are not a concern for most applications. However, this application note
teaches the designer when resistance in the signal path may cause measurement errors.
Introduction
amount of resistance in the signal path. This is also true
when adding signal paths and switches in an integrated
circuit. The only difference is the scale, but Ohms law still
holds true.
The PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP parts are possibly the most
flexible mixed signal controllers on the market today. The
internal analog switch matrix provides many options when
routing signals between analog blocks and GPIO (General
Purpose Input and Output) pins. The signal paths and
switches required to provide this flexibility also add
resistance between the signal source and its destination. A
detailed diagram of the analog blocks, GPIOs, and switch
matrix is located in the Appendix at the end of the
application note.
Calculating Path Resistance
To determine the resistance of a path between an analog
block and a GPIO pin, add up the resistance for each switch
and trace in the signal path. Table 1 gives an approximation
for the worse case resistance of each analog path and
switch.
Table 1. Typical Resistance of Internal Paths and Switches
Label
Typical
Resistance
Small Switch
(colored white)
500 - 700 Ω
Large Switch
(colored red)
200 - 350 Ω
XLarge Switch
(colored green)
~ 50 Ω
Analog Global
AGL[7:0], AGR[7:0]
~ 200 Ω
Analog Mux Bus
AMUXBUSR,
AMUXBUSL
~ 100 Ω
Analog Local Bus
AbusR[3:0], AbusL[3:0]
~ 100 Ω
Item
For a simple path between a GPIO pin and the ADC, an
estimation of the signal path resistance can be calculated.
See Figure 1 for a representation of a simple circuit where
P0[6] is connected to the positive input of the DelSig ADC.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
1
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Figure 2. Design with Equivalent Resistance
Figure 1. Simple Signal Route
Analog Block
VBlock
Rpath
Vin
RInput
The two resistors Rpath and RInput form a voltage divider so
the actual voltage seen at the input by the ADC (VBlock) is
not the same as the input voltage, Vin. The following
equation calculates the error created due to these resistors:
abusl3
RAG
Rsw2
abusl2
abusl0
GPIO
P0[6]
abusl1
Rsw1
MUXBUSL
+ dsm0
-
Vssa
DelSig
01 2 3 4 56 7
Analog Globals
RTotal  250SW 1  200AG  250SW 2  700 
Equation 1
Equation 2
Substituting the actual resistance values in the equation,
you get a signal path resistance of about 700 Ω. The actual
resistance may be less, because the resistance of the
analog global shown in Table 1 is the worst case. Values
between the absolute minimum and maximum were used for
this example. Most signals follow only a section of the
global, not the entire length, so its resistance will be less.
After calculating an approximate signal path resistance, the
designer must ask himself, “Does the 700 Ω affect the
design?” The buffered input to the ADC has an input
resistance of greater than 100 MΩ. Figure 2 shows how a
voltage divider is created for any analog block that has an
input resistance less than infinity and more than zero.
www.cypress.com
R path
( Rinput  R path )
*100
Equation 3
Substituting with the actual resistor values;
% Error 
The upper half of Figure 1 shows a schematic in
PSoC Creator™. The lower half of Figure 1 shows one
possible path routed by PSoC Creator to connect a GPIO
pin to the positive input of the ADC block. If we analyze the
signal path, the signal will pass through two switches and an
analog global bus. The total resistance of this path may be
approximated by the following equation for this example:
RTotal  RSW1  RAG  RSW 2
% Error 
700
(100,000,000  700 )
*100  0.0007 % Equation 4
Because the input resistance is greater than 100 MΩ and
the actual path resistance is less than 700 Ω, the error
introduced by the path resistance is less than 0.0007% or
7 ppm, which is insignificant for most applications. This is
also true when using the Comparator, Opamp, and PGA
where the input resistance is also greater than 100 MΩ.
When does Resistance Matter?
The input resistance for most PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP blocks
is shown in Table 2. When the input resistance is greater
than 100 MΩ as in the example described earlier, the error
is insignificant. On the other hand, where the input
resistance is less than a 100 MΩ, the path resistance may
be significant. A couple of examples where this is a concern
is the un-buffered mode of the DelSig ADC and the inverting
input of the PGA.
Table 2. Typical Input Resistance to Some Analog Blocks
Analog Block
Input
Resistance
Affected by Routing
Resistance
(Buffered Input and
Internal source)
>100 MΩ
No
(Buffered Input and
GPIO source)
>10 MΩ
No, but the difference here
is because of the GPIO pin
leakage
(Un-buffered Input)
>80 KΩ
Input resistance is a function
capacitor
Op Amp
>100 MΩ
No
PGA
>100 MΩ
No
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
2
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Table 2. Typical Input Resistance to Some Analog Blocks
(continued)
Analog Block
Input
Resistance
Affected by Routing
Resistance
Example Project
20 KΩ or
40 KΩ
Yes
Mixer
20 KΩ or
40 KΩ
Yes
(PSoC 5LP only)
>150 KΩ
Input resistance is a function
of the sample rate
Comparator
>100 MΩ
No
Inverting PGA
When using the DelSig ADC in the un-buffered mode, the
input resistance may be low enough to adversely affect the
accuracy of the design. The input resistance of the DelSig
The input capacitance of the DelSig ADC is between 1 and
16 pF depending on the range and resolution. The actual
input capacitance for each range of the DelSig ADC may be
found in the ADC’s datasheet. The following equation is
used to calculate the input resistance of the DelSig ADC.
Rinput
1

(Cinput * Fclk )
R1 is either 20 K or 40 KΩ for in the Inverting PGA. If the
path resistance is as high as 700 Ω and R1 is 20 KΩ the
gain error is about 3.5% less than expected or about 1.7% if
R1 is 40 KΩ.
Equation 5
For example, if the DelSig ADC clock is 3.0 MHz, the
resolution is 15 bits and the range is set to ±1 V, the input
capacitance is about 4 pF. Using this equation, the input
resistance is about 83 KΩ. Using Equation 3, a path
resistance of about 700 Ω can introduce an error of 0.7%,
which may be significant. The user has the option to either
use the ADC’s input buffer to eliminate this error, or to
continue using the unbuffered input and compensate using
firmware.
In the case of the Inverting PGA, the input trace resistance
affects the gain. The path resistance adds to R1 in Figure 3.
The example project demonstrates a method to measure the
temperature of an external diode, called Delta-VBE. This is a
popular method to measure the die temperature of large
CPUs and FPGAs. Manufacturers of these parts place a PN junction on the die and expose the two terminals from this
junction to pins on the package. The Delta-VBE method is
immune to VBE offsets and does not require temperature
calibration. All that is required is an accurate voltmeter and
an adjustable current source. The current source only needs
to apply two different currents with a known ratio. The
absolute value of these currents is not important, just the
ratio of the two currents. When each of the currents is
applied, the voltage across the P-N junction is measured.
The ratio of the currents should be about 10 or more so that
the difference in VBE is large enough to make an accurate
measurement.
PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP contain the two components
required to perform this measurement, an accurate ADC
and an adjustable current source. The following equation is
used to calculate the temperature for this method.
VBE 
KT
(q  ln( N ))
Equation 7
Where:
 VBE is the difference in junction voltage measured at each
current
-23
K is Boltmann’s constant (1.380658x10 ) joules/K
q is the charge of an electron ( 1.602176x10
-19
) Coulombs
T is absolute temperature in Kelvin
N is the ratio of the two currents
Figure 3. PGA Schematic with Path Resistance
First solve for degrees Kelvin:
R2
VIN
Rpath
T K 
R1
VOUT
R2
R1
Equation 5
If you add the input path resistance to the equation, it is
easy to see how it affects the gain in Equation 5.
R2
Gain 
( R1  R path )
www.cypress.com
Equation 8
Normally the gain equation for the Inverting PGA is:
Gain 
VBE q

ln( N ) K
Equation 6
 VBE

TC  
 11604  273
ln(
N
)


Equation 9
If we fix the current ratio to 10, the equation gets even
simpler.
TC  (VBE  5040 )  273
Equation 10
Now that the method and equation are fixed, all that is left is
to implement it with a PSoC. Figure 4 shows the schematic
from PSoC Creator with an external 2N3904 NPN transistor,
as the temperature sensor.
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
3
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Figure 6 shows the actual internal routing for this project and
correlates the schematic resistors with the actual switches.
Figure 4. Temperature Sensor Schematic
Figure 6. Actual Routing of Project
GPIO
P0[5]
R3
GPIO
P0[6]
R4
GPIO
P0[7]
C
B
E
V0
I0
V2
I2
R1
Because the circuit uses a current source and we know that
switches and internal traces are resistive, an I*R drop is the
most likely suspect. Adding the actual resistors to the
schematic that are inherent from routing generates a more
accurate schematic as shown in Figure 5. The input
resistance to the ADC is relatively high; therefore, the
voltage drop across R2, R4, and R5 are insignificant. There
is a voltage drop across R1, but it is out of the measurement
path. R3 on the other hand, is directly in the measurement
path. The current path between the current source (IDAC8)
and the external transistor is directly through R3, which
causes a significant I*R drop across R3. When the ADC
measures the Base-Emitter voltage (VBE) of the external
transistor, it also measures this voltage drop across R3.
Figure 5. Schematic Showing Routing Resistance
R1
R2
abusl3
abusl2
VIDAC
R2-b
+ dsm0
-
R5
MUXBUSL
the temperature measurement is much higher than
expected, over 60 °C. You had expected something closer
to 25 °C, room temperature. This is an error of about 35 °C,
what could have caused this error?
abusl0
Test the Project
abusl1
R2-a
Vssa
DelSig
01 2 3 4 56 7
With a current ratio of 10, the volts per degree Centigrade is
approximately 200 µV/C. The temperature error is the
measured temperature minus the actual temperature. In this
case, it is about 35 °C (60 °Cmeasured – 25 °Cactual). So, the
voltage error is 35 °C * 200 µV/°C or about 7 mV. This
voltage error is the I*R drop across R3.
The resistance of the switches and the path is estimated by
dividing the error voltage by the difference in current.
Remember, this method switches between 10 µA and
100 µA so the current delta is 90 µA. The resistance is the
voltage drop divided by the current delta, 7 mV/90 µA =
78 Ω. This can easily be explained by the resistance of a
switch (XLarge) and some internal routing resistance
defined in Table 1 on page 1, which confirms that the error
is caused by the routing resistance.
IDAC Current Path
C
B
E
www.cypress.com
R3
R4
R5
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
4
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Fixing the Problem
Alternative Solution
Now that the mystery is solved, how do you fix the problem?
One way is to route the current source out to its own pin.
This eliminates the switch resistance that was shared by
both the current source and measurement path. The ADC
now measures only VBE and not the extra voltages caused
by an I*R drop. See Figure 7 for the new schematic. When
the project is rebuilt, compiled, and run, the calculated
temperature is within a couple degrees of the actual
temperature expected. This small change in the circuit has a
big impact on the accuracy of the design, but does cost an
extra GPIO pin. This design is a corner case, but it
emphasizes how a designer should always be aware of
trace resistance both inside and outside the device. Review
the internal routing in Figure 8.
With PSoC there is almost always an alternative solution to
every design. In the previous solution the temperature error
was eliminated, but at the cost of an additional GPIO pin.
This may not always be an alternative if your design is tight
on pins. Perhaps a better solution is to use the fact that
there is both the standard analog global connection as well
as the dedicated high current connection to GPIO P0[6].
This way, the path from the IDAC8 and the path from the
at GPIO P0[6], and not require a separate pin. See the
routing schematic at Figure 9.
Figure 9. Alternative Solution Schematic
Figure 7. Schematic with Separate Current Path
R1
R1
R2
R5
B
R5
R6
C
R6
P05_BC
R3
IDAC Current Path
R3
P06_iDAC
R2
R4
E
C
B
R4
E
If you evaluate the internal routing in Figure 10, you can see
that the current and measurement paths are truly
independent up to P0[6]. If the external diode sensor is near
the PSoC, or the PCB trace resistance is low, this is a good
solution. If the sensor is connected via a resistive path from
the PSoC, the initial solution may be a better alternative,
since sharing the current and measurement path is what
originally caused the problem.
Figure 8. Actual Routing of Solution
R6
GPIO
P0[5]
R3
Figure 10. Routing of Alternative Solution
GPIO
P0[6]
GPIO
P0[5]
R4
GPIO
P0[7]
V0
I0
V2
I2
VIDAC
R6
R4
GPIO
P0[7]
abusl3
abusl2
abusl1
R1
abusl0
R3
GPIO
P0[6]
R1
V0
I0
V2
I2
DelSig
abusl2
Vssa
R2
+ dsm0
-
R5
MUXBUSL
01 2 3 4 56 7
VIDAC
abusl3
MUXBUSL
R5
abusl0
+ dsm0
-
abusl1
R2
Vssa
DelSig
01 2 3 4 56 7
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
5
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
The schematic of the alternative solution and the original
have the same schematic Figure 4, so how do you force this
different route? As of PSoC Creator 2.0, an additional tool
was added to allow the designer to review and change the
route taken by any path. This tool is called the “Analog
Device Editor”. It allows the designer to alter a signal path,
and to select alternate analog blocks. The route and block
can then be locked so that the route will be static even if you
rebuild the project.
Figure 12. Analog Device Editor view of Alternative Solution
Separate Current Path
P0[6]
P0[7]
Figure 11 shows a partial view from the Analog Device
Editor of the original temperature sensor design. Notice that
Diagram provide in the appendix, Figure 15.
Figure 11. Analog Device Editor View of Original Project
P0[6]
Measurement Path
P0[7]
Analog Device Editor Documentation
A complete description of the Analog Device Editor and how
to use it can be found in the PSoC Creator Document
Manager. To find this document, click on the “Help” menu
and select “Document Manager”. See Figure 13.
Shared Current and
Measurement Path
Figure 13. Document Manager Location
By rerouting the design, you can see the difference in the
actual route. The voltage measurement point becomes the
actual GPIO, P0[6]. No current from the IDAC8 flows in the
measurement path from the ADC. Although these two
solutions are the exact same schematic, they are routed
differently. The Analog Device Editor allows you to make
minor changes in just a few minutes. In the case of this
example project, it reduced the temperature measurement
error from totally unacceptable to down to a degree or two.
In the Document Manager, select “PSoC Creator Help”
under the “Contents” tab and navigate down to Using
Design Entry Tools/Design-Wide Resources/Analog Device
Editor. This section of the help manual will show you how to
examine and to edit your circuit’s analog. See Figure 14.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
6
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Figure 14. Analog Device Editor Documentation
Summary
This application note helps you to think about what is going
on inside the PSoC. Usually, the current through the
switches and internal traces is so low, that you can
completely ignore voltage drops that may occur. When
dealing with current sources or inputs that do not have high
input resistance, pay extra attention to the signal path and
any voltage drops that may occur. Also, remember that
Ohms Law is the same whether the circuit is implemented
inside the PSoC or the old way, using discrete components
on a PCB. Make use of the Analog Device Editor to review
how you design has been routed. If you do find an issue,
to achieve optimal performance.
Some Analog Device Editor features include:

View actual signal paths

Examine Analog Mux routing and configuration

Measure the resistance of a signal path

Lock components to a specific analog block

Change which analog blocks are used for a given
component

Re-route signal paths and analog mux routes

View individual switch resistance

Display individual switch control register address
www.cypress.com
Name:
Mark Hastings
Title:
Applications Engineer MTS
Background:
degree
from
Washington
State
University in 1984. For most of the last
29 years he has been involved in
embedded and mixed signal designs.
In his free time he can be found hiking
State.
Contact:
[email protected]
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
7
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Appendix
Vssd
Vcca
*
Vssa
Vdda
*
*
*
AGR[5]
AGL[6]
AGR[6]
AGR[7]
*
AGL[6]
AGL[7]
AGL[4]
AGL[5]
swinp
01 2 3 4 56 7 0123
*
opamp1
swfol
swfol
GPIO
P3[5]
GPIO
swinp P3[4]
GPIO
swinn P3[3]
GPIO
P3[2]
GPIO
P3[1]
GPIO
P3[0]
GPXT
*P15[1]
GPXT
*P15[0]
swinn
swfol
swfol
opamp3
3210 76543210
swinn
*
+
- comp2
sc0
Vin
Vref
out
vssa
sc0_bgref
(1.024V)
sc2_bgref
(1.024V)
Vssa
sc1_bgref
(1.024V)
sc3_bgref
(1.024V)
Vin
Vref
out
sc3
ABUSL0
ABUSL1
ABUSL2
ABUSL3
v0
DAC0
i0
DAC1
v1
i1
v2
DAC2
i2
DAC3
v3
i3
USB IO
USB IO
* P15[6]
GPIO
P5[7]
GPIO
P5[6]
GPIO
P5[5]
GPIO
P5[4]
SIO
P12[7]
SIO
P12[6]
GPIO
*P1[7]
GPIO
*P1[6]
dac_vref (0.256V)
vssd
dsm0_vcm_vref1 (0.8V)
dsm0_vcm_vref2 (0.7V)
+
DSM0
-
vssa
DSM
vcm
refs
qtz_ref
vref_vss_ext
dsm0_qtz_vref2 (1.2V)
dsm0_qtz_vref1 (1.024V)
Vdda/3
Vdda/4
ExVrefL
ExVrefR
refmux[2:0]
PSoC 5LP Only
Vp (+)
Vn (-) SAR0
Vrefhi_out
refs
SAR_vref1 (1.024V)
SAR_vref2 (1.2V)
(+) Vp
SAR1 (-) Vn
Vrefhi_out
refs
SAR_vref1 (1.024V)
SAR_vref2 (1.2V)
Vdda
Vdda/2
ExVrefL2
ExVrefL1
en_resvda
refmux[2:0]
01 23456 7 0123
3210 76543210
Vbat
Vssd
Ind
Vboost
*
*
Vssb
Vddio1
GPIO
P2[5]
GPIO
P2[6]
GPIO
P2[7]
SIO
P12[4]
SIO
P12[5]
GPIO
P6[4]
GPIO
P6[5]
GPIO
P6[6]
GPIO
P6[7]
*
www.cypress.com
*
*
X- Large ( ~50 Ohms)
*
*
Switch Resistance
Small ( ~500 to 700 Ohms )
Large ( ~200 - 350 Ohms)
*
*
Connection
*
*
AMUXBUSL
Mux Group
Switch Group
AGR[3]
AGR[2]
AGR[1]
AGR[0]
AMUXBUSR
XRES
*
AGL[1]
AGL[0]
Notes:
* Denotes pins on all packages
LCD signals are not shown.
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
*
AGL[3]
AGL[2]
AGR[0]
AMUXBUSR
AGR[3]
AGR[2]
AGR[1]
LPF
GPIO
P5[0]
GPIO
P5[1]
GPIO
P5[2]
GPIO
P5[3]
GPIO
P1[0]
GPIO
P1[1]
GPIO
P1[2]
GPIO
P1[3]
GPIO
P1[4]
GPIO
P1[5]
AGL[1]
AGL[2]
AGL[3]
VBE
Vss ref
*
TS
AMUXBUSR
ANALOG ANALOG
BUS
GLOBALS
*
AMUXBUSL
AGL[0]
ANALOG ANALOG
GLOBALS
BUS
:
Vdda
Vdda/2
en_resvda
refmux[2:0]
AMUXBUSL
Vssd
Vddd
* P15[7]
VIDAC
vcmsel[1:0]
Vccd
ABUSR0
ABUSR1
ABUSR2
ABUSR3
*
*
Vddio2
refbuf_vref1 (1.024V)
refbuf_vref2 (1.2V)
refsel[1:0]
sc1
Vin
Vref
out
SC/CT
Vin
Vref
out
sc2
out
ref
in
*
*
Vddd
refbufr
AGR[4]
AMUXBUSR
CAPSENSE
out
ref
in refbufl
refsel[1:0]
GPIO
P6[0]
GPIO
P6[1]
GPIO
P6[2]
GPIO
P6[3]
GPIO
P15[4]
GPIO
P15[5]
GPIO
P2[0]
GPIO
P2[1]
GPIO
P2[2]
GPIO
P2[3] *
GPIO
P2[4] *
i1
bg_vda_swabusl0
refbuf_vref1 (1.024V)
refbuf_vref2 (1.2V)
Vssd
+
-
cmp0_vref
(1.024V)
cmp1_vref
Vdda
Vdda/2
Vccd
comp3
ExVrefR
i3
refbufr_
cmp
refbufl_
cmp
vref_cmp1
(0.256V)
bg_vda_res_en
comp1 +
-
COMPARATOR
cmp_muxvn[1:0]
abuf_vref_int
(1.024V)
swin
AGR[7]
AGR[6]
AGR[5]
GPIO
P4[2]
GPIO
P4[3]
GPIO
P4[4]
GPIO
P4[5]
GPIO
P4[6]
GPIO
P4[7]
swout
out1
comp0
+
-
cmp1_vref
cmp0_vref
(1.024V)
in1
out0
swin
i2
*
LPF
in0
swout
abuf_vref_int
(1.024V)
cmp1_vref
i0
*
*
opamp2
*
*
opamp0
*
*
*
*
AMUXBUSL
*
AGL[5]
ExVrefL2
swinp
GPIO
P0[4]
GPIO
P0[5]
GPIO
P0[6]
GPIO
P0[7]
*
AGR[4]
AGL[7]
ExVrefL
ExVrefL1
*
*
AMUXBUSR
AMUXBUSL
AGL[4]
*
swinp
Vddio3
GPIO
P3[6]
GPIO
P3[7]
SIO
P12[0]
SIO
P12[1]
GPIO
P15[2]
GPIO
P15[3]
SIO
P12[2]
SIO
P12[3]
GPIO
P4[0]
GPIO
P4[1]
GPIO
P0[0]
GPIO
P0[1]
GPIO
P0[2]
GPIO
P0[3]
Vddio0
swinn
Rev #62
26-Mar-2013
8
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
Document History
®
Document Title: PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations – AN58827
Document Number: 001-58827
Revision
ECN
Orig. of
Change
Submission
Date
Description of Change
**
2859800
MEH
01/20/2010
New application note
*A
2991568
SRIH
07/22/2010
Fixed branding discrepancies
*B
3132534
MEH
12/08/2010
Changed title to “Internal Routing Considerations for PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5 Analog
Designs”.
Updated description of Figure 1.
*C
3506342
MEH
01/23/2012
Updated template according to current Cypress standards.
Changed the title.
Updated Figure 15.
*D
3811873
MEH
11/15/2012
Updated Associated Part Family as “All PSoC 3 and PSoC 5LP parts”.
Replaced PSoC 5 with PSoC 5LP in all instances across the document.
*E
3956041
www.cypress.com
MEH
4/05/2013
Add alternative routing solution and introduce the reader to the PSoC Creator
Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
9
PSoC® 3 and PSoC 5LP Internal Analog Routing Considerations
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Document No. 001-58827 Rev. *E
10
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