DN481 - 2-Phase, Dual Output Synchronous Boost Converter Solves Thermal Problems in Harsh Environments

2-Phase, Dual Output Synchronous Boost Converter Solves
Thermal Problems in Harsh Environments – Design Note 481
Goran Perica
Introduction
Boost converters are regularly used in automotive and
industrial applications to produce higher output voltages
from lower input voltages. A simple boost converter using a Schottky boost diode (Figure 1) is often sufficient
for low current applications. However, in high current or
space-constrained applications, the power dissipated
by the boost diode can be a problem especially in high
ambient temperature environments. Heat sinks and fans
may be needed to keep the circuit cool, resulting in high
cost and complexity.
To solve this problem, the Schottky output rectifier can be
replaced by a synchronous MOSFET rectifier (Figure 2).
If MOSFETs with very low RDS(ON) are used, the power
dissipation can be reduced to the point where no heat
sinks or active cooling is required, thus reducing costs
and saving space.
Advantages of Synchronous Rectification
Consider the power dissipation of the single output circuit
in Figure 1. The output diode D1 carries 6.7A of RMS
current to produce 3A of output current from a 5V input.
At this current level, diode D1’s voltage drop is 0.57V,
resulting in 1.6W of power lost as heat. Dissipating 1.6W
in an 85°C (or higher) automotive operating environment
is not trivial. To keep the circuit cool, heat sinks, cooling
fans and multilayer printed circuit boards must be used.
This, of course, adds complexity, cost and size to an
ostensibly simple boost converter.
INPUT*
5V TO 36V
54.9k
4.7nF
12k
80.6k
12.4k
115k
1
RUN
2
ITH
VIN
9
22μF
s2
LTC1871
10
SENSE
4
7 RJK0452
G
FREQ
5
8
MODE/SYNC INTVCC
4.7μF
3
6
VFB
GND
3.3μH
D1
MBRB2545
22μF
X7R
s4
OUTPUT
24V
3A
+
150μF
229k
DN481 F01
*VOUT FOLLOWS VIN FOR VIN > 24.6V
L1: PULSE PA1494.362
ALL CERAMIC CAPACITORS ARE X7R, TDK
Figure 1. Although This Simple Circuit is Capable of 3A of
Output Current, Beware of Power Dissipation in the Output
Diode D1
08/10/481
A far better solution (featured in a dual output configuration) is shown in Figure 2, where a synchronous power
MOSFET rectifier replaces the output diode. Under the
same conditions, the voltage drop across output synchronous MOSFET Q2 is only 42mV or 7.4% of the voltage
drop in the diode D1. The resulting power dissipation of
115mW in Q2 is relatively trivial. Another advantage of
using a MOSFET as the output rectifier is the elimination of
leakage current, about 10mA in the case of the MBR2545
diode—an additional 240mW of power dissipation in the
application of Figure 1.
Dual Output Automotive Boost Converter
Figure 2 illustrates a typical automotive boost application
with a 5V to 36V input voltage range. Here, the converter
produces a 12V output for generic automotive loads
such as entertainment systems, and a 24V output for
circuits such as high power audio amplifiers. The two
outputs are completely independent and can be controlled
separately.
Because the circuit in Figure 2 is a boost converter, the
output voltage can be regulated only for input voltages
that are lower than the output voltage. The output voltage regulation versus input voltage is shown in Figure 3.
When the input voltage is higher than the preset output
voltage, synchronous MOSFETs Q2 and Q4 are turned
continuously ON and boost MOSFETs are not switching.
This feature allows the converter to be used in applications
that require boosting only during load transients such as
cold-cranking of a car engine. In this case, the LTC ®3788
circuit’s input voltage could be as low as 2.5V.
The efficiency of this converter (Figure 4) is high enough
that it can be built entirely with surface mount components, requiring no heat sinks. A multilayer PCB with large
copper area may be sufficient to dissipate the small amount
of heat resulting from the MOSFETs’ DC resistance, even
at high ambient temperatures.
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks of
Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective
owners.
15nF
16.9k
100pF
+VIN
VOUT1
232k
0.1μF
10k
1nF
25
SW1
TG1
26
27
ILIM
PGOOD1
28
29
SS1
30
ITH1
31
VFB1
LTC3788
EXTVCC
PLLIN/MODE
INTVCC
RUN1
BG2
RUN2
BOOST
PA1494.362
BAS140W
24
22μF
s2
Q1
RJK0452
23
22
VOUT1
24V
3A
Q2
RJK0452
+
22μF
X7R
s4
150μF
VOUT2
0.1μF
21
20
4.7μF
0.003Ω
PA1294.132
Q4
RJK0452
VOUT2
12V
8A
19
Q3
RJK0452
18
22μF
X7R
s4
17
+
150μF
TG2
DN481 F02
0.1μF
16
SW2
BAS140W
15
SS2
14
9
33
GND
12.1k
PGOOD2
SGND
13
8
PGND
ITH2
7
VBIAS
CHKOUT
12
38.3k
6
PHASMD
VFB2
5
+VIN
BG1
11
4
0.004Ω
0.1μF
BOOST1
FREQ
SENSE2+
3
SENSE1–
10
2
SENSE2–
1
SENSE1+
32
12.1k
1nF
9.09k
10Ω
100pF
15nF 12.1k
110k
VOUT2
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
99
97
EFFICIENCY (%)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 2. The LTC3788 Converter is Over 95% Efficient Even Under Worst-Case Conditions.
When VIN > VOUT(SET), Efficiency Approaches 100% as Shown in Figure 4
24V OUTPUT
12V OUTPUT
95
93
91
89
12VIN, 12VOUT
12VIN, 24VOUT
5VIN, 12VOUT
5VIN, 24VOUT
87
5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35
DN481 F03
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
DN481 F04
IOUT (A)
Figure 3. The Output Voltage Follows the Input Voltage
when VIN > VOUT(SET)
Figure 4. The Converter in Figure 2 Peaks at 95%
Efficiency when Operating from a 5V Input
If higher output currents are required, or if lower output
ripple voltage is desired, the two LTC3788 channels can
be combined for a single current-shared output. Simply connect the two outputs and short the respective
FB, ITH, SS and RUN pins. Because the two channels
operate out of phase, output ripple currents are greatly
reduced—nearly canceling out at 50% duty cycle. Thus,
smaller output capacitors can be used with lower output
ripple currents and voltages.
Conclusion
The LTC3788 dual synchronous boost controller is a
versatile and efficient solution for demanding automotive
and industrial applications. By minimizing power losses
in the output rectifier, this converter can be designed
in a very small footprint and operate safely at elevated
ambient temperatures.
Data Sheet Download
www.linear.com
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 3788
Linear Technology Corporation
dn481f LT/AP 0810 226K • PRINTED IN THE USA
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
© LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2010
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
Similar pages