A8509 Datasheet

A8509
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
Features and Benefits
Description
• Four integrated high current sinks for LED strings; can be
tied together for even higher currents
• Fixed frequency current mode control with integrated gate
driver / boost controller; powerful gate driver to drive an
external N-channel MOSFET allows significant scaling
capability on the number of LEDs per string
• Parallel operation with one boost controller (master) and
up to three additional slave controllers; can run up to
16 strings of LEDs while populating only a single master
boost regulator
• Active current sharing between LED strings for
0.7% accuracy and 0.8% matching
• Wide input voltage range: 9 to 40 V
• Internal bias supply for single-supply operation (typically
VIN = 12 or 24 V)
• Separate Enable and PWM pins as interface for Enable
and PWM Dimming functions
• Fset / Sync function to either set the boost converter
switching frequency or synchronize at up to 800 kHz
• Protection Features
▫ Open or shorted LED pin protection
▫ Open Schottky protection
▫ Pulse-by-pulse current limit
▫ Overtemperature protection (OTP)
The A8509 is a multi-output white LED driver for backlighting
LCD panels. It integrates a current-mode boost controller and
four individual current sinks.
Packages
The boost controller architecture allows for significant scaling
of boost voltage to optimize the solution for the required
number of LEDs per string. The FSET/SYNC pin either sets
the required boost switching frequency or synchronizes the
value in the range of 300 to 800 kHz.
The LED sink current value is set by an external ISET resistor
(see figure 1). The four LED sinks can also be combined to
achieve even higher current per LED string.
The A8509 provides protection against output shorts and
overvoltage, open or shorted LED pins, and overtemperature.
A dual-level, pulse-by-pulse current limit function provides
soft start and protects the external current switch against
high current overloads. As an option, the A8509 can drive an
¯T̄
¯ pin to disconnect the
external P-FET interfaced to the F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
input supply from the system in the event of short-to-ground
in the boost converter.
Package options are 24-pin TSSOP (suffix LP) and SOICW
(LB) packages. The TSSOP has an exposed thermal pad, and
the SOICW has four interally-fused pins, for enhanced thermal
dissipation. The Both packages are lead (Pb) free, with 100%
matte tin leadframe plating.
(Not to scale)
24-pin TSSOP with
Exposed Thermal Pad
(LP package)
24-pin SOICW with
Four Internally-Fused Pins
(LB package)
Typical Application
VIN
RISET Value versus LED Current
RISET (kΩ)
30.00
L1
VDD
25.00
VIN
FAULT
15.00
10.00
60
100
140
180
220
260
GATE SENP
ILED (mA)
Figure 1. Typical application circuit
showing 4 channels of LEDs; RZ-CZ
optional (component list shown in the
Typical Applications section)
CDR
CDD
RFSET
RISET
SENN
A8509
OVP
MODE
LED2
LED3
LED4
PAD
RZ
CZ CP
ROVP
LED1
EN
VDR
VDD
FSET/SYNC
ISET
COMP
300
VOUT
RSENSE
PWM
5.00
A8509-DS
COUT
Q1
R1
20.00
D1
CIN
AGND PGND
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Selection Guide
Part Number
Packing1
Package
A8509GLPTR-T
24-pin TSSOP with exposed thermal pad
A8509GLBTR-T2
24-pin SOICW with internally-fused leads
1Contact Allegro™ for additional packing options.
2Contact factory for availability.
4000 pieces per 13-in. reel
Contact factory
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Characteristic
Symbol
Notes
Rating
Unit
LEDx Pin Voltage
VLEDx
–0.3 to 55
V
OVP Pin Voltage
VOVP
–0.3 to 60
V
VIN Pin Voltage
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ Pin Voltage
F̄
COMP, EN, FSET/SYNC, ISET,
MODE, PWM, SENN, SENP, and VDD
Pin Voltage
VIN
–0.3 to 40
V
VFAULT
–0.3 to 40
V
–
–0.3 to 5.5
V
GATE, VDR Pin Voltage
–
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
Maximum Junction Temperature
Storage Temperature
–0.3 to 8
V
–40 to 105
ºC
TJ(max)
150
ºC
Tstg
–55 to 150
ºC
G temperature range
*Stresses beyond those listed in this table may cause permanent damage to the device. The absolute maximum ratings are
stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the Electrical
Characteristics table is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Thermal Characteristics may require derating at maximum conditions, see application information
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance
Symbol
RθJA
Test Conditions*
Value
Unit
Package LP, on 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard
28
ºC/W
Package LB, on 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard
35
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on the Allegro website
Table of Contents
Specifications
Functional Block Diagram
Pin-out Diagram and Terminal List
Electrical Characteristics Table
Functional Description
Enabling the IC
Powering up: LED pin short-to-GND check
Soft start function
Frequency selection
Synchronization
LED current setting and LED dimming
PWM dimming
Analog dimming
Boost switch overcurrent protection
Setting the current sense resistor
Current sense resistor routing
2
3
4
5
8
8
8
9
10
10
11
12
12
13
13
13
Pulse-by-pulse current limit
Secondary boost switch limit
Output overvoltage and undervoltage protection
LED Open Detect
Undervoltage Protection (UVP)
LED short detect
Input UVLO
VDD and VDR
Shutdown
Fault protection during operation
Application Information
Paralleling more than one A8509
Design Example
Typical Applications
Typical Applications
Package Drawings
14
14
14
15
15
16
16
16
17
17
19
19
21
24
25
27
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115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Functional Block Diagram
VDR
GATE SENP SENN
Regulator
UVLO
VIN
1.25 V
Ref
Internal VDD
∑
FSET/SYNC
Oscillator
VREF2
FB
AGND
–
Driver
Circuit
+
+
Fault
–
+
COMP
VREF
Current
Sense
Internal
Soft Start
–
VDD
ISS
MODE
Thermal
Shutdown
EN
Enable
Fault
100 kΩ
OVP/UVP
Sense
+
70 kΩ
OVP
VREF
–
50 μA
PWM
PWM
Open/Short
LED Detect
100 kΩ
ISS
VREF1
LED1
LED2
LED3
LED4
LED
Driver
ISET
ISET
FAULT
FB
AGND
PAD
LP Package Only
PGND
AGND
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115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
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Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Pin-out Diagrams
SENP 1
24 SENN
SENN 1
24 PGND
GATE 2
23 PGND
SENP 2
23 NC
VDR 3
22 LED1
GATE 3
22 LED1
VDR 4
21 LED2
COMP 4
21 NC
MODE 5
20 LED2
COMP 5
NC 6
19 AGND
MODE 6
NC 7
18 AGND
EN 7
EN 8
17 LED3
PWM 8
PWM 9
16 LED4
FSET/SYNC 9
16 LED3
15 VIN
ISET 10
15 LED4
ISET 11
14 OVP
VDD 11
14 VIN
VDD 12
13 FAULT
FSET/SYNC 10
20 NC
PAD
18 AGND
17 NC
13 OVP
FAULT 12
LB Package
19 AGND
LP Package
Terminal List Table
Name
Number
LB
LP
Function
AGND
18, 19
18, 19
COMP
4
5
LED ground.
Output of the error amplifier and compensation node. Connect a compensation network from this pin to ground.
EN
8
7
Enable for the A8509.
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯
F̄
13
12
This pin is used to indicate a fault condition. Connect a pull-up resistor between this pin and the required logic
level voltage. The pin is an open drain type configuration that will be pulled low when a fault occurs.
FSET/SYNC
10
9
Frequency/synchronization pin. A resistor RFSET from this pin to ground sets the switching frequency. This pin
can also be used to synchronize two or more converters in the system.
GATE
2
3
Gate pin for driving external N-channel FET.
ISET
11
10
Connect the RISET resistor between this pin and ground to set the 100% LED current.
LED1
LED2
LED3
LED4
22
20
17
16
22
21
16
15
Connect the cathode of each LED string to these pins.
MODE
5
6
This pin is used to determine the mode of operation. MODE high tied to VDD allows parallel operation, and
MODE low is used for single IC operation.
NC
6, 7, 21
OVP
14
13
This pin is used to sense an Overvoltage (OVP) condition. Connect the ROVP resistor from VOUT to this pin to
adjust the overvoltage protection.
PAD
n.a.
–
For TSSOP package, this exposed pad provides enhanced thermal dissipation. This pad must be connected to
the ground plane(s) of the PCB with at least 8 vias, directly in the PAD solder pad.
PGND
23
24
Power ground for the internal gate driver circuit.
PWM
9
8
PWM dimming pin. Used to control the LED intensity by using pulse width modulation. The typical PWM
dimming frequency is in the range of 100 to 1000 Hz.
SENN
24
1
Negative sense line for boost switch current sensing.
SENP
1
2
Positive sense line for boost switch current sensing.
VDD
12
11
Output of internal LDO regulator. Connect a 0.1 μF decoupling capacitor between this pin and ground.
VDR
3
4
Output of the gate driver bias voltage regulator. Connect a 1 μF decoupling capacitor between this pin and
ground.
VIN
15
14
Input power to the A8509.
17, 20, 23 No connection.
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115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
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Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 Valid at VIN = 12 V, TA = 25°C, indicates specifications guaranteed by design and
characterization over the full operating temperature range with TA = TJ = –40°C to 105°C; unless otherwise noted
Characteristics
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
9
–
40
V
Input Voltage Specifications
Operating Input Voltage Range
VIN
UVLO Start Threshold
VUVLO(th)
VIN rising
−
–
8.5
V
UVLO Hysteresis
VUVLO(hys)
VIN falling
−
400
–
mV
EN = VIH ; fSW = 800 kHz, no load
−
7
−
mA
VIN = 12 V, EN = FSET/SYNC = 0 V
−
0.5
10.0
μA
Input Currents
Input Quiescent Current
Input Sleep Supply Current
IQ
IQSLEEP
Input Logic Levels (EN, PWM, MODE, FSET/SYNC)
Input Logic Level-Low
VIL
9 V < VIN < 40 V
–
–
400
mV
Input Logic Level-High
VIH
9 V < VIN < 40 V
1.5
–
–
V
Rpulldown
EN, PWM = 5 V
−
100
−
kΩ
MODE=2.5 V
−
70
−
kΩ
−
47
−
dB
EN, PWM pins Pull-Down Resistor
MODE Pin Pull-Down Resistor
RMODE
Error Amplifier
Open Loop Voltage Gain
Transconductance
Source Current
AVOL
gm
IEA(SRC)
ΔICOMP = ±10 μA
−
990
−
μA/V
VCOMP = 1.5 V
−
–360
−
μA
Sink Current MODE High
IEA(SINK)H
VCOMP = 1.5 V, MODE = VIH
−
80
−
μA
Sink Current MODE Low
IEA(SINK)L
VCOMP = 1.5 V, MODE = VIL
−
360
−
μA
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ =0
F̄
−
1.5
−
kΩ
−
200
−
mV
1.11
1.25
1.4
V
45
49
53
μA
VUVP(LOW) Falling
−
100
−
mV
VUVP(HIGH) Rising
−
120
−
mV
Measured at GATE pin
−
7
–
V
COMP Pin Pull-Down Resistor
Soft Start COMP Level
RCOMP
VCOMPSS
Overvoltage Protection
Overvoltage Threshold
OVP Sense Current
Output Undervoltage Threshold
VOVP(th)
OVP connected to VOUT
IOVPH
Boost Switch Gate Driver
Gate Driver Voltage
VDRV
Driver Pull-up and Pull-down
Resistance
RGATEUD
Measured at VGATE =VDRV / 2
−
4.5
–
Ω
Driver to Ground Resistance
RGATEG
EN = 0, VIN = 0
−
200
−
kΩ
Sense Positive
VSENSEP
85
100
115
mV
VSENSESEC
−
165
−
mV
Secondary Sense Positive
Continued on the next page…
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115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
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Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 (continued) Valid at VIN = 12 V, TA = 25°C, indicates specifications guaranteed by design
and characterization over the full operating temperature range with TA = TJ = –40°C to 105°C; unless otherwise noted
Characteristics
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
−
39
−
mV
Boost Switch Gate Driver (continued)
Soft Start Boost Current Limit
Reference Voltage
VSWSS(LIM)
Reference voltage for boost switch current
limit during soft start
Minimum Switch On-Time
tSWONTIME
−
−
110
ns
Minimum Switch Off-Time
tSWOFFTIME
−
−
85
ns
RFSET = 7.5 kΩ
725
800
875
kHz
RFSET = 10 kΩ
540
600
660
kHz
RFSET = 20 kΩ
−
300
−
kHz
RFSET = 8.25 kΩ
−
1.00
−
V
fSWSYNC
300
−
800
kHz
Synchronization Input
Minimum Off-Time
tPWSYNCOFF
150
−
−
ns
Synchronization Input
Minimum On-Time
tPWSYNCON
150
−
−
ns
–
0.7
–
%
Oscillator Frequency
Oscillator Frequency
FSET/SYNC Pin Voltage
fSW
VFSET
Synchronization
Synchronized PWM Frequency
LED Current Sinks
LEDx Accuracy
ErrLED
ISET = 80 μA
LEDx Matching
ΔLEDx
ISET = 80 μA
–
0.8
2.5
%
LEDx Regulation Voltage
VLED
VLED1 through VLED4 all equal, ISET = 80 μA
−
650
−
mV
ISET to ILEDx Current Gain
AISET
ISET = 80 μA
ISET Pin Voltage
VISET
Allowable ISET Current
ISET
−
2320
−
A/A
−
1.000
−
V
34
−
130
μA
4.6
−
−
V
LEDx Pin Short Detect
VLEDSC
While LED sinks are in regulation, sensed
from LEDx pin to GND
Soft Start LEDx Current Gain
ILEDSS
Current through each enabled LEDx pin
during soft start, RISET = 12.4 kΩ
−
88
−
A/A
PWM High to LED-On Delay
tdPWM(on)
Time between PWM enable and LEDx
current reaching 90% of maximum
−
0.5
1.1
μs
PWM Low to LED-Off Delay
tdPWM(off)
Time between PWM enable going low and
LEDx current reaching 10% of maximum
−
−
500
ns
Continued on the next page…
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115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 (continued) Valid at VIN = 12 V, TA = 25°C, indicates specifications guaranteed by design
and characterization over the full operating temperature range with TA = TJ = –40°C to 105°C; unless otherwise noted
Characteristics
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
IFAULT = 1 mA (400 Ω internal switch
resistance)
−
0.4
−
V
VFAULT = 5 V
−
−
1
μA
−
165
−
ºC
−
20
−
ºC
¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
¯T̄
¯ Pin
F̄
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ Pin Pull-Down Voltage
F̄
VFAULT
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ Pin Leakage Current
F̄
IFAULTLKG
Thermal Protection (TSD)
Thermal Shutdown Threshold2
TSD
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis2
TSDHYS
Temperature rising
1For
LEDx Regulation Voltage, VREGx (mV)
input and output current specifications, negative current is defined as coming out of the node or pin (sourcing), positive
current is defined as going into the node or pin (sinking).
2Ensured by design and characterization, not production tested.
654
653
652
651
650
649
648
647
646
645
644
643
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Junction Temperature, TJ (°C)
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115 Northeast Cutoff
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Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Functional Description
Enabling the IC
The IC turns on when a logic high signal is applied on the EN
pin, and the input voltage present on the VIN pin is greater than
the 8.5 V necessary to clear the UVLO (VUVLOrise ) threshold.
Before the LEDs are enabled, the A8509 driver goes through a
system check to determine if there are any possible fault conditions that might prevent the system from functioning correctly.
Powering up: LED pin short-to-GND check
After the VIN pin goes above the UVLO threshold, and a high signal is present on the EN pin, the IC proceeds to check if any LEDx
pins are shorted to GND and/or are not used. Each unused pin
should be connected to GND with a 2.4 kΩ pull-down resistor.
After the voltage threshold on the LEDx pins exceeds 120 mV, a
timer of 1536 clock cycles (2 ms at 800 kHz switching frequency,
see figure 2) is applied during which the A8509 determines the
status of the pins. Any unused pin connected to GND with the
pull-down resistor will be taken out of regulation at this point and
will not contribute to the boost regulation loop (see figure 3). A
typical example is shown in figure 4. When a pin is connected
to GND through a 2.4 kΩ resistor, the voltage on that LEDx pin
during the LED detection period is about 200 mV. This is shown
in figure 2.
If an LEDx pin is shorted to ground such that LEDx pin voltage
is < 100 mV, the A8509 will not proceed with soft start until the
short is removed from the LEDx pin. This prevents the A8509
VOUT
C1
VEN
C2
VLEDa(not used)
C3
VLEDb(used)
C4
t
Figure 3. LED detect circuit operation for an LED pin that is not being
used; shows VOUT (ch1, 10 V/div.), VEN (ch2, 5 V/div.), an unused LEDx
with a 2.4 kΩ resistor from this pin to GND, VLEDa (ch3, 500 mV/div.), and
a used LEDx, VLEDb (ch4, 500 mV/div.), t = 2 ms/div.
A8509
A8509
GND
LED1
LED1
LED2
LED2
LED3
LED3
LED4
GND
LED4
2.4 kΩ
Figure 4. Channel select setup: (left) channel LED4 not used,
(right) using all channels.
VOUT
VOUT
C1
C2
VEN
C1
VEN
C2
VLEDa
C3
Short removed
LED detection period
C3
VLEDa (with temporary short)
LED detection period
C4
VLEDb
VLEDb (no short)
C4
t
Figure 2. LED detect circuit operation for two connected LEDs at fSW =
800 kHz; shows VOUT (ch1, 10 V/div.), VEN (ch2, 5 V/div.), an LEDx, VLEDa
(ch3, 500 mV/div.), another LEDx, VLEDb (ch4, 500 mV/div.), t = 2 ms/div.
t
Figure 5. LED detect circuit operation: device powers-up after the short
is removed from the LED pin; shows VOUT (ch1, 10 V/div.), VEN (ch2,
5 V/ div.), an LEDx with short, VLEDa (ch3, 500 mV/div.), and an LEDx
without short, VLEDb (ch4, 500 mV/div.), t = 2 ms/div.
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115 Northeast Cutoff
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Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
from powering-up and putting an uncontrolled amount of current
through the LEDs. After the short is removed the affected LEDx
pin will rise up to the 500 mV level. When the LEDx pin voltage
exceeds the 260 mV threshold, the IC detects connected LEDs
and proceeds with LED detection and soft start. Figure 2 shows
a case when two LED channels are enabled. During the LED
detection period, voltage on both LEDx pins > 260 mV. Figure 5
shows a case with LEDa temporarily shorted to ground and
LEDb in normal operation.
When the converter senses that there is enough voltage on the
LEDx pins, the converter proceeds to increase the LED current
to the preset regulation current and the boost switch current sense
voltage limit is switched to the ISW(LIM) level to allow the A8509
to deliver the necessary output power to the LEDs (figure 8).
Soft start function
VEN
During soft start the LED current gain is reduced to (ILEDSS).
As an example, for a 240 mA output current, the soft-start LED
current would be set to about 9 mA (see figure 7). Also during soft start the boost switch sense voltage is reduced to the
VSWSS(LIM) level, to limit the initial inrush current generated by
the charging of the output capacitors. The actual current limit
(ILIM) is equal to:
ILIM = VSWSS(LIM) / RSENSE
(1)
where VSWSS(LIM) is found in the Electrical Characteristics table,
and RSENSE is the current sense resistor value.
VEN
C1
IIN limited by boost switch
to VSWSS(lim) / RSENSE
C1
IIN limited by boost switch
to VSWSS(LIM) / RSENSE
IIN
C2
IOUT
C3
VOUT
C4
t
Figure 7. Start-up operation, individual LEDx current = 240 mA, boost
sense resistor = 0.010 Ω; shows VEN (ch1, 2 V/div.), IIN (ch2, 2 A/div.),
IOUT (ch3, 1 A/div.), and VOUT (ch4, 20 V/div.), t = 500 μs/div.
Boost starts operating in
normal current limit VSW(LIM)
VEN
C1
VCOMP
C2
IIN
IIN limited by boost switch
to VSWSS(LIM) / RSENSE
C2
C3
IOUT
IIN
C3
VOUT
C4
VOUT sufficient to begin
normal power-up
VOUT
t
Figure 6. Start-up operation, individual LEDx current = 120 mA, boost
sense resistor = 0.020 Ω; shows VEN (ch1, 2 V/div.), IIN (ch2, 1 A/div.),
IOUT (ch3, 200 mA/div.), and VOUT (ch4, 20 V/div.), t = 500 μs/div.
C4
t
Figure 8. Normal start-up behavior; shows VEN (ch1, 2 V/div.), VCOMP
(ch2, 2 V/div.), IIN (ch3, 1 V/div.), and VOUT (ch4, 10 V/div.), t = 500 μs/div.
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Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
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9
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Frequency selection
VOUT
The switching frequency on the boost regulator is set by connecting a resistor between the FSET/SYNC pin and ground.
The switching frequency range is 300 to 800 kHz, with example
values of:
RFSET Value
(kΩ)
800
10
600
IIN
FSET/SYNC shorted to GND
C1
Swtiching Frequency, fSW
(kHz)
7.5
VFSET/SYNC
C2
C3
IOUT
C4
The relationship of RFSET and fSW is shown in figure 9.
The FSET/SYNC pin has short-to-ground protection. If the
FSET/SYNC pin is held low for more than 4 μs typical, the
A8509 will stop switching and disable the LEDx pins (see figures
10 and 11). If the FSET/SYNC pin is released at any time after
7 μs, the A8509 will proceed to soft start but will not perform the
LED detection phase.
t
Figure 10. Shutdown when the FSET/SYNC pin is shorted to ground;
shows VOUT (ch1, 10 V/div.), VFSET/SYNC (ch2, 1 V/div.), IIN (ch3, 2 A/div.),
and IOUT (ch4, 500 mA/div.), t = 200 μs/div.
VOUT
VFSET/SYNC
C2
Synchronization
IIN
The A8509 can also be synchronized by using an external clock
connected to the FSET/SYNC pin. The synchronization function of IC was designed to work with a push-pull type of clock
driver. The amplitude of the clock signal should be between
1.5 and 3.3 V. The synchronization clock should have duty
cycles that meet the minimum on/off times. Figure 12 shows the
timing for a synchronization clock into the A8509 at 800 kHz.
The 150 ns minimum on-time and 150 ns minimum off-time are
Switching Frequency, fSW (kHz)
FSET/SYNC shorted to GND
900
800
C1
C3
IOUT
C4
t
Figure 11. Zoomed-in view of figure 9, showing quick shutdown when
FSET/SYNC shorted to ground, preventing IC running at very high
frequency; shows VOUT (ch1, 10 V/div.), VFSET/SYNC (ch2, 1 V/div.),
IIN (ch3, 2 A/div.), and IOUT (ch4, 1 A/div.), t = 10 μs/div.
700
t PWSYNCON
600
150 ns
500
950 ns
400
300
200
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
FSET Resistor Value, RFSET (kΩ)
Figure 9. Switching Frequency as determined by RFSET value.
21
150 ns
T = 1.25 μs
t PWSYNCOFF
Figure 12. SYNC pulse minimum on and off time
requirements, for an 800-kHz clock.
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10
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
indicated by the specifications for tPWSYNCON and tPWSYNCOFF .
Thus any pulse with a duty cycle of 19% to 85% at 800 kHz will
synchronize the IC.
It is recommended to also use the RFSET resistor with the
external clock signal. If a synchronization clock is lost during
operation, the IC will revert to the preset switching frequency
that is set by the RFSET resistor. In this configuration the preset
frequency does not have any restrictions other than the normal
operating range of 300 to 800 kHz. During the changeover period
the IC stops switching for an approximately 5 μs period to allow
for the synchronization detection circuitry to switch over to external preset switching frequency.
Although examples shown in figures 13 and 14 are extreme
cases of clock-to-resistor frequency changes, it is recommended
that actual applications not have such large switching frequency
changes. In most applications the RFSET resistor and clock frequency should be very close to each other in terms of frequency.
Setting the frequencies close together will prevent the system
from experiencing large changes on frequency-dependent signals
and components, such as the inductor ripple current and the compensation resistor and capacitor.
C1
VCOMP
C2
IOUT
C3
VFSET/SYNC
C4
t
Figure 13. Synchronization feature with 200 kHz difference between RFSET
and external clock signal. The synchronization frequency is 600 kHz,
and the resistor preset frequency is 800 kHz. Note that there is very little
disturbance in the LED current at the time of changeover; shows
VGATE (ch1, 5 V/div.), VCOMP (ch2, 1 V/div.), IOUT (ch3, 1 A/div.), and
VFSET/SYNC (ch4, 5 V/div.), t = 5 μs/div.
LED current per LED, ILED
(mA)
7.87
9.53
11.5
14.3
19.1
300
240
200
160
120
C1
fSW = 300 Hz
from SYNC pulse
VGATE
VCOMP
C2
(2)
where RISET is in Ω, and ILED is in A. This sets the maximum current through the LEDs, referred to as the 100% current. Standard
RISET values are as follows:
Standard Resistor Value
Closest to RISET
(kΩ)
Changeover
period
fSW = 800 Hz from
RFSET value
The maximum LED current can be up to 300 mA per channel.
The LED current is set through the RISET resistor connected
between the ISET pin and ground. The ILED current is set according to the following formula:
fSW = 600 kHz
from SYNC pulse
VGATE
LED current setting and LED dimming
RISET = (1.000 / ILED ) × 2320
Changeover
period
fSW = 800 kHz from
RFSET value
IOUT
C3
VFSET/SYNC
C4
t
Figure 14. Synchronization feature with 500 kHz difference between RFSET
and external clock signal, illustrating the flexibility of the RFSET/SYNC pin;
synchronization frequency is 300 kHz, and the resistor preset frequency
is 800 kHz; shows VGATE (ch1, 5 V/div.), VCOMP (ch2, 1 V/div.),
IOUT (ch3, 1 A/div.), and VFSET/SYNC (ch4, 5 V/div.), t = 10 μs/div.
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11
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
The cited values are for 1% tolerance resistors. If the calculated
value was not present, the next lowest value of 1% resistor was
chosen.
VOUT
IOUT
PWM dimming
C1
Applying an external PWM signal on the PWM pin performs
PWM dimming. When the PWM pin is pulled high, the A8509
enables the LEDx pins to sink 100% current. When PWM is
pulled low, the boost converter and LEDx sinks are turned off.
The compensation (COMP) pin is floated, and critical internal
circuits are kept active.
C2
C3
C4
VPWM
The typical PWM dimming frequencies fall between 100 and
1000 Hz. Figures 15 and 16 show examples of dimming at 50%
and 0.5% duty cycles.
t
Figure 15. PWM dimming: fSW = 200 Hz, 50% duty cycle, VOUT = 30 V, VIN
= 12 V, and ILED = 240 mA per LED string; shows VOUT (ch1, 10 V/div.),
IOUT (ch2, 500 mA/div.), VCOMP (ch3, 2 V/div.), and PWM (ch4, 5 V/div.),
t = 2 ms/div.
Analog dimming
VOUT
The A8509 can also be dimmed by using an external DAC or
other voltage source applied either directly to the ground side
of the RISET resistor or through an external resistor to the ISET
pin (see figure 17). The ISET current can be varied in the range
between 34 μA and 130 μA.
VISET – VDAC
RISET
C2
C3
(3)
where VISET is the ISET pin voltage and VDAC is the DAC output
voltage.
• For a dual-resistor configuration (panel B of figure 17), the
ISET current is controlled by the following formula:
ISET =
VISET
VDAC – VISET
–
RISET
R1
(4)
The advantage of this circuit is that the DAC voltage can be
higher or lower, thus adjusting the LED current to a higher or
lower value of the preset LED current set by the RISET resistor:
▫ VDAC = 1.00 V: output is strictly controlled by RISET
▫ VDAC > 1.00 V: LED current is reduced
▫ VDAC < 1.00 V: LED current is increased
C1
IOUT
• For a single-resistor configuration (panel A of figure 17), the
ISET current is controlled by the following formula:
ISET =
VCOMP
C4
VCOMP
VPWM
t
Figure 16. PWM dimming: fSW = 200 Hz, 0.5% duty cycle, VOUT = 30 V,
VIN = 15 V, ILED = 240 mA per LED string; shows VOUT (ch1, 10 V/div.),
IOUT (ch2, 500 mA/div.), VCOMP (ch3, 2 V/div.), and VPWM (ch4, 5 V/div.),
t = 10 μs/div.
DAC
R ISET
VDAC
GND
DAC
GND
A
R1
A8509
VDAC
GND
A8509
ISET
ISET
R ISET
GND
B
Figure 17. Typical application simplified diagram of voltage LED current
control using a DAC to control LED current.
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12
A8509
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
Boost switch overcurrent protection
RSENSE
SENN
Current
Sense
–
Setting the current sense resistor
The current sense resistor (see figure 18) is set according to the
following formula:
VSENP
(5)
ILIM =
RSENSE
SENP
A8509
+
The boost switch is protected with pulse-by-pulse current limiting
set by the external RSENSE resistor. There also is a secondary
current limit that is sensed on the boost switch.
Figure 18. Simplified schematic of the current sense resistor connections
to the current sense amplifier.
where VSENP is found in the Electrical Characteristics table, and
RSENSE is the current sense resistor value.
The current limit is calculated by the following formula:
∆IL
ILIM = IIN(max) + 2
RSENSE
A
A
(6)
where IIN(max) is the maximum input current, and ΔIL is the
inductor current ripple.
Current sense resistor routing
The current sense resistor must be routed as a differential pair to
minimize measurement accuracy errors. For most current sense
resistors the resistance is measured between the inside edges of
the mounting pads of the RSENSE resistor.
Figure 19 shows correct differential current sensing connections
to the A8509. The individual current sense traces are kept short
and side-by-side to get proper signal voltage levels. The trace for
the positive sense pin (SENP) must be routed to the inside edge
of the mounting pad on the high side of RSENSE. The trace for
the negative sense pin (SENN) must be routed to the inside edge
of the mounting pad on the ground side of RSENSE.
It should be noted that when designing the PCB layout, the trace
for the negative sense pin (SENN) is often automatically merged
with the ground flood fill and with the mounting pad on the
ground side of RSENSE (shown in figure 20). However, the trace
must be kept separate and dedicated, and careful attention must
be given when routing the PCB.
GND
B
A8509LP
SENN
SENP
Figure 19. Correct layout of current sense resistor traces: (A) connect to
inside edges of pads, (B) parallel and dedicated
RSENSE
A
SENN
SENP
B
GND
A8509LP
Figure 20. Incorrect layout of current sense resistor traces: (A) do not
connect to outside edge of pad, (B) do not merge trace into ground
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13
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Pulse-by-pulse current limit
Figure 21 illustrates the normal waveform for the current sense
signal. The pulse-by-pulse current limit is designed to limit the
current through the external MOSFET to prevent failure. When
the VSENSEP threshold is reached, the IC stops switching to allow
the inductor current to fall. Operation of pulse-by-pulse current
limiting is shown in figure 22.
Secondary boost switch limit
In case there is an inductor short during operation ,the A8509 has
a secondary switch current limit. When this threshold is reached,
the IC immediately shuts down. The level of this current limit is
set above the pulse-by-pulse current limit to protect the switch
from destructive currents when the boost inductor is shorted.
Output overvoltage and undervoltage
protection
IL
C1
C2
C3
Normal spikes
due to switching
VSENSE
The OVP pin on the A8509 controls both the overvoltage (OVP)
and undervoltage (UVP) protection features. The pin circuit is
shown in figure 23. The OVP protection protects the boost converter from excessive voltage levels when the feedback control
loop is broken, usually caused by an open connection from output
voltage to the LEDs. The UVP function provides output voltageto-ground short protection when an external disconnect switch is
used. For more detailed information on disconnect switch application, see the Undervoltage Protection (UVP) section.
For proper operation of this pin, due to the relatively low voltage
level, special care has to be taken during PCB layout. Figure 24 is
an example of a proper PCB layout.
VGATE
t
VOUT
ROVP
A8509
+
–
Figure 21. Current sense signal (VSENSE) during normal operation,
showing large spikes that are filtered out by a blanking period to avoid
false overcurrent tripping; RSENSE = 10 mΩ; shows inductor current IL (ch1,
1 A/div.), VSENSE (ch2, 20 mV/div.), and gate voltage of the main boost
switch VGATE (ch3), t = 500 ns/div.
OVP
–
+
UVP
50 μA
100 mV
Figure 23. Simplified schematic of the Overvoltage Protection section.
IL
VOUT
OVP
A8509LP
C2
C1
OVP
1.25 V
A
VCOMP
ROVP
VOUT
C3
B
C4
VGATE
t
Figure 22. Typical pulse-by-pulse current limit; shows IL (ch1, 2 A/div.),
VOUT (ch2, 10 V/div.), VCOMP (ch3, 2 V/div.), and VGATE (ch4),
t = 500 ns/div.
Figure 24. Simplified schematic of the OVP resistor connections; (A)
connection should be short, (B) connection to VOUT can be long, and
ROVP should be as close to the OVP pin as possible.
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14
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
LED Open Detect
When any LED string opens, the boost control circuit increases
the output voltage until it reaches the overvoltage protection
level. The OVP event causes any LED string that is below regulation level to be disabled. After disabling the open string, the
output voltage returns to normal operating voltage. An EN low
signal will reset the LED string regulation lock.
Figure 25 shows a typical overvoltage condition when the output
voltage is disconnected from the LED load. Figure 26 shows an
VOUT
Undervoltage Protection (UVP)
If the output voltage is shorted to ground the OVP pin will sense
an undervoltage condition (UVP). When UVP is sensed, the IC
sets the Fault flag low which, if used to interface to the outputdisconnect switch, will shut off the P-FET device. Figure 28 is a
schematic showing the input disconnect switch implementation.
OVP limit is reached,
and string is removed
from control loop
VOUT (30 V)
OVP level
Fault occurrence
IOUT
C2
extended view of the same situation. Figure 27 shows an OVP
condition created by a single open LED string.
VLEDx
VCOMP
C2
C1
Control loop reduces VOUT
to new regulation level
LED string opens
IOUT
C3
VCOMP begins to decrease
C3
t
t
Figure 25. OVP operation with all LEDx pins open. VOUT rises to the
overvoltage level and stays there until the IC is shut down; shows VOUT
(ch1, 20 V/div.), IOUT (ch2, 1 A/div.), and VCOMP (ch3, 2 V/div.),
t = 2 ms/div.
Figure 27. OVP condition created by an open LED string; shows VOUT
(ch1, 2 V/div.), pin voltage VLEDx (ch2, 5 V/div.), and IOUT (ch3,
200 mA/div.), t = 2 ms/div.
OVP level
10 kΩ
VOUT
C2
L1
VIN
IOUT
Periodic switch node
bursts occur when all
LEDx pins are open
C1
VCOMP
C3
VDR
CIN (optional)
AO4421
1 kΩ
1 kΩ
2N7002
VSW
A8509
FAULT
C4
t
Figure 26. Extended view of the OVP condition in figure 25; shows VOUT
(ch1, 20 V/div.), IOUT (ch2, 1 A/div.), VCOMP (ch3, 1 V/div.), and switch node
(VSW) (ch4, 20 V/div.), t = 10 ms/div.
Figure 28. Simplified schematic of an external disconnect switch
implementation.
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15
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
The waveforms in figure 29 show the operation of the disconnect
feature.
LED short detect
All LEDx pins are rated for 55 V, thus allowing LEDx pin-toVOUT short protection in case of a connector short. Any LEDx
pin that has a voltage exceeding VLEDSC will be removed from
operation. This is to prevent the IC dissipating too much power
by having a large voltage present on the LEDx pins.
Input UVLO
When VIN rises above the UVLO threshold (VUVLO(th) ), the
A8509 is enabled. It is disabled when VIN falls below VUVLO(th)
– VUVLO(hys) for more than 2 μs. This lag is to avoid shutdown
because of momentary glitches in the power supply.
VDD and VDR
The VDD pin provides the regulated bias supply for the internal
circuits. A capacitor with a value in the range 0.1 to 1 μF should
be used to decouple the internal analog and digital circuitry.
VOUT
VOUT
VEN
C1
Output short
occurrence
C2
IIN
C2
FAULT
C3
IOUT
C1
C3
VLEDx
VGATE(PMOS)
IIN
C4
C4
t
Figure 29. Input disconnect switch shutdown during an output short
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ (ch3,
condition; shows VOUT (ch1, 20 V/div.), IIN (ch2, 10 A/div.), F̄
5 V/div.), and PMOS device VGATE (ch4, 5 V/div.), t = 50 μs/div.
VLEDSC is detected
t
Figure 30. Typical shorted LED: when voltage exceeds VLEDSC , the LED
is disabled and remains disables until either the EN pin is toggled or the
power cycled; shows VOUT (ch1, 20 V/div.), VEN (ch2, 5 V/div.), IOUT (ch3,
0.5 A/div.), and VLEDx (ch4, 10 V/div.), t = 10 μs/div.
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16
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
The VDR circuit provides power to the gate driver of the A8509.
For VDR the decoupling capacitor value should fall in the range
0.47 to 1 μF. A 1 μF capacitor is recommended.
Shutdown
If the EN pin is pulled low, the IC will shut down immediately.
Fault protection during operation
The A8509 device constantly monitors the state of the system to
determine if any fault conditions occur during normal operation.
The response to a triggered fault condition is summarized in
table 1. The possible fault conditions that the part can detect are:
• Open LED pin
• Shorted inductor with second level switch current protection
• VOUT short-to-ground
• ISET pin short-to-ground
• FSET pin short-to-ground
• Shorted LED
• Open Schottky diode
• Short Schottky diode protection with second level switch current protection
• Thermal shutdown (TSD)
• Overvoltage protection (OVP)
VOUT
1
C1
2
IIN
C2
Soft start and
power-up
FAULT
C4
C3
LED detection
period
VGATE(PMOS)
t
Figure 31. Input disconnect switch power-up: (1) VOUT charges via 10 kΩ
resistor, (2) IIN current spike from charging COUT when the PMOS is
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ (ch3,
enabled; shows VOUT (ch1, 20 V/div.), IIN (ch2, 2 A/div.), F̄
5 V/div.), and PMOS device VGATE (ch4, 5 V/div.), t = 2 ms/div.
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17
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Table 1. Fault Modes
Fault Name
Type
Active
Fault
Flag
Set
Primary switch current
protection (pulse-bypulse current limit)
Auto-restart
Always
No
Secondary switch
current limit
Latched
Always
LEDx pin short to GND
protection
Auto-restart
Startup
LEDx pin open
LED short protection
FSET pin short
protection
Auto-restart
Auto-restart
Auto-restart
Normal
operation
Always
Always
Boost
Sink
driver
This fault condition is triggered by the pulse-by-pulse current limit
when the SENSP pin voltage exceeds VSENSEP .
Off for
a single
cycle
On
Yes
When the current through the boost switch exceeds the secondary
current limit (VSENSESEC) the IC immediately shuts down the LED
drivers and the boost. To re-enable the A8509 the EN pin must be
toggled.
Off
Off
Yes
This fault prevents the IC from starting-up if any of the LEDx pins are
shorted. The IC stops soft start from starting while any of the LEDx
pins are determined to be shorted. After the short is removed, soft
start is allowed to start.
Off
Off
No
When an LEDx pin is open the device will determine which LEDx
pin is open by increasing the output voltage until OVP is reached.
Any LED string below regulation will be turned off. The device then
goes back to normal operation by reducing the output voltage to the
appropriate voltage level.
On
Off for
open
pins. On
for all
others
No
This fault occurs when the LED pin voltage exceeds VLEDSC . When
the LED short protection is detected, the LED string that is above the
threshold will be removed from operation.
On
Off for
shorted
pins. On
for all
others
No
This fault occurs when the FSET pin current goes above 150% of the
maximum current. The boost stops switching, and the IC disables
the LED sinks until the fault is removed. When the fault is removed
the IC tries to restart with soft start.
Off
On in
soft
start
current
Off
Off
Stop
during
OVP
event
On
Description
ISET pin short
protection
Auto-restart
Always
No
This fault occurs when the ISET pin current goes above 150% of the
maximum current. The boost stops switching and the IC disables the
LED sinks until the fault is removed. When the fault is removed the
IC tries to regulate to the preset LED current.
Overvoltage protection
Auto-restart
Always
No
The fault occurs when the OVP pin voltage exceeds the VOVP(th)
threshold. The A8509 immediately stops switching to try to reduce
the output voltage. If the output voltage decreases then the A8509
restarts switching to regulate the output voltage.
Output undervoltage
protection
Auto-restart
Always
Yes
This fault occurs when the OVP pin senses less than 100 mV on the
pin. The IC disables the external P-FET switch, if one is used.
Off
Off
Overtemperature
protection
Auto-restart
Always
Yes
The fault occurs when the die temperature exceeds the
overtemperature threshold, typically 165°C.
Off
Off
VIN UVLO
Auto-restart
Always
No
This fault occurs when VIN drops below VUVLO(th)(max), 8.5 V. This
fault resets all latched faults.
Off
Off
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18
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Application Information
Paralleling more than one A8509
The A8509 can be paralleled together by using a single boost
converter (master) to provide output power for up to a total of
four A8509s (slaves). The MODE pin of each device must be tied
to the VDD pin of the same device for proper mode selection.
¯T̄
¯ pins and the COMP pins become a biIn this mode, the F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
direction signal bus for the system to communicate.
At initial power-up, each IC will release a pull-down resistor
on the COMP pin and start in soft start mode. When 200 mV is
detected on the COMP pin, the master will then switch to normal
¯T̄
¯ pins must be
mode. Also, for proper operation all of the F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
tied together to prevent the parallel ICs from powering-up into
¯T̄
¯ pins are pulled
a shorted LEDx pin situation. While the F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
low, the system will not proceed with start-up.
Below is a simple list of necessary connections for the master,
to ensure proper parallel operation (refer to Application C in the
Typical Applications section):
• COMP pin
• VOUT node
¯T̄
¯ pin
• F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
• EN pin
• PWM pin
Each one of these must be connected to the corresponding signal
on the slave devices.
OVP setting for parallel operation
A notable exception to the list is the OVP pin. In this system
each OVP pin must be set with a dedicated resistor. To make sure
that the system will operate properly, the overvoltage protection
on the master IC should be set higher than on the slave IC. The
A8509 checks open LED condition upon hitting the OVP voltage.
If the master OVP voltage is set lower than the slave OVP, the
slave OVP pin will not trip to permit the open LED check. This in
turn will not remove the corresponding LEDx pins from regulation. Therfore, the output voltage will stay at the master OVP
limit and never decrease the output voltage to the lower regulation level.
The required slave OVP resistor value can be calculated using the
following formula:
VOUT(OVP) – 1.25 V
(7)
ROVP(slave) =
IOVPH(min)
where VOUT(OVP) is the required OVP voltage level, and
IOVPH(min) is the current into the OVP pin found in the Electrical
Characteristics table. The minimum value should be used in this
calculation.
The required master OVP voltage level can be calculated using
the following formula:
VOVP(master) = ROVP(slave) × IOVPH(max) + 1.25 V
(8)
where VOVP(master) is the minimum minimum OVP voltage level
of the master IC, IOVPH(max) is current into the OVP pin found in
the Electrical Characteristics table. The maximum value should
be used in this calculation.
The required master OVP resistor value can be calculated using
the following formula:
VOVP(master) – 1.25 V
(9)
ROVP(master) =
IOVPH(min)
where VOVP(master) is the minimum required master OVP voltage
level, and IOVPH(min) is the current into the OVP pin found in the
Electrical Characteristics table. The minimum value should be
used in this calculation.
Following the above formulas will guarantee that there is no
overlap in OVP voltage levels in the system. All slave A8509s
in the system can have the same OVP voltage setting. Figure 32
shows a proper master-slave OVP setting, and figure 33 shows
the result of setting the master OVP too low.
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19
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
OVP limit is reached,
and string is removed
from control loop
VOUT (30 V)
VLEDx
VOUT
Control loop reduces VOUT
to new regulation level
LED string opens
C2
System VOUT clamped to
OVP setting of master IC
VLEDx
C2
C1
IOUT
OVP of slave is never
exceeded, so VOUT remains
higher than necessary
LED string opens
IOUT
C3
C3
t
Figure 32. Proper OVP setting for the master and slave configuration. The
master OVP is set higher than the slave, shows VOUT (ch1, 2 V/div.), pin
voltage VLEDx (ch2, 2 V/div.), and IOUT (ch3, 200 mA/div.), t = 2 ms/div.
t
Figure 33. OVP on the master IC is set too low and the IC does not
respond properly to the open LED condition on the slave IC; shows VOUT
(ch1, 10 V/div.), VLEDx (ch2, 5 V/div.), and IOUT (ch3, 200 mA/div.),
t = 100 ms/div.
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20
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Design Example
This section provides a method for selecting component values
when designing an application using the A8509.
Assumptions: For the purposes of this example, the following are
given as the application requirements:
Electrical Characteristics table. Choose a value of resistor that is
the closest value higher than the calculated ROVP . In this design
example, a value of 750 kΩ is selected.
Below is the actual value of the minimum OVP trip level with the
selected resistor, applying equation 8:
VOVP(master) = ROVP × IOVPH + 1.25 V
• VIN: 10 to 16 V
• Quantity of LED channels, #CHANNELS: 4
• Quantity of series LEDs per channel, #SERIESLEDS : 10
• LED current per channel, ILED : 240 mA
• Vf(240) at 240 mA: 3.2 V (max)
• fSW : 600 kHz
• TA(max): 65°C
• PWM dimming frequency: 200 Hz, 1% duty cycle
= 750 kΩ × 49 μA + 1.25 V
= 38.75 V
STEP 4: Determine the inductor. The inductor must be chosen
such that it can handle the necessary input current. In most applications, due to stringent EMI requirements, the inductor must
operate in continuous conduction mode throughout the whole
input voltage range.
Step 1: Connect LEDs to pins LED1 through LED4.
STEP4a: Determine the maximum duty cycle of the system:
Step 2: Determine the LED current by setting resistor RISET . To
do so, apply equation 2:
VIN(min) × η
(12)
VOUT(OVP) + Vf(boost)
10 V × 0.9
=1–
34.65 V+ 0.4 V
= 74.5%
A good approximation of efficiency (η) is 90%. The voltage drop
of the boost diode can be approximated to be about 0.4 V.
RISET = (1.000 / ILED ) × 2320
= (1.000 V / 0.240 A ) × 2320
= 9.67 kΩ
Choose an 9.53 kΩ resistor.
STEP 3: Determine the OVP resistor. The OVP resistor is
connected between the OVP pin and the output voltage of the
converter. The first step is to determine the maximum voltage
based on the LED requirements. Then the regulation voltage of
650 mV should be added, along with 2 V for noise and regulation.
Given the regulation voltage (VLED) of the A8509 is 650 mV, the
minimum required voltage can be determined as follows:
VOUT(OVP) = #SERIESLEDS ×Vf(240) + VLED + 2 V
(10)
= 10 × 3.2 V + 0.650 V + 2 V
VOUT(OVP)(min) = 34.65 V
The OVP resistor (ROVP) value can be calculated as:
ROVP =
VOUT(OVP)(min) – VOVP(th)(min)
IOVPH(min)
34.65 V – 1.11 V
45 μA
= 745 kΩ
=
where both IOVP(th)(min) and VOVP(th)(min) are found in the
(11)
D(max) =1–
STEP 4b: Determine the maximum and minimum input current
to the system. The minimum input current dictates the inductor
value. The maximum current rating dictates the current rating of
the inductor.
To calculate the maximum input current, first determine the
required output current:
IOUT = #CHANNELS × ILED
(13)
= 4 × 240 mA
= 0.960 A
Then substitute into the formula for maximum input current:
IIN(max) =
VOUT × IOUT
VIN(min) × η
(14)
34.65 V × 0.960 A
10 V × 0.90
= 3.7 A
=
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21
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
The minimum input current can be calculated as:
V
×I
IIN(min) = OUT OUT
VIN(max) × η
(15)
34.65 V × 0.960 A
16 V × 0.90
= 2.31 A
STEP 4c: Determining the inductor value. To assure that the
inductor operates in continuous conduction mode, the value of
inductor must be set such that 1/2 of the inductor ripple current is
not greater than the average minimum input current.
=
As a first pass, take Iripple to be 30% of the maximum inductor
current:
∆IL = IIN(max) × (Iripple / IIN(max))
= 3.72 A × 0.30
= 1.1 A
(16)
IIN(min) > 1 × ∆IL
2
2.31 A > 0.56 A
The inductor value can be calculated as:
(17)
10 V
× 0.745
1.1 A × 600 kHz
= 10.62 μH
A good inductor value to use would be Lused = 10 μH.
STEP 4d: Determining the inductor current rating. The inductor
current rating must be greater than the IIN(max) value plus the
ripple current ΔIL , calculated as:
1 ∆I
× Lused
2
= 3.72 A + 0.56 A
= 4.28 A
STEP 4e: Choosing the RSENSE resistor. The sense resistor
value can be calculated as follows:
=
0.086 V
4.28 A
(19)
= 0.02 Ω
0.018 Ω is a good value to use for the resistor.
STEP 4f: This step is used to verify that there is sufficient slope
compensation for the inductor chosen. The internal slope compensation value is determined by the following formula:
Slope Compensation = 2.81×10–7 × fSW
where fSW is in Hz. Substituting:
= 0.168 V / μs
With RSENSE = 0.02 Ω this translates to:
(20)
Next invert equation 17 and insert the inductor value used in the
design:
V (min)
∆ ILused = IN
× D(max)
Lused × fSW
(21)
where fSW is in MHz. Substituting:
10 V
× 0.745
10 μH × 600 kHz
= 1.24 A
∆ ILused× 1 × 10 –6
(22)
Inductor Current Slope =
1 × (1 – D(max))
fSW
1.24 A × 1 × 10 –6
=
1 × (1 – 0.745)
600 kHz
= 2.91 A / μs
Note: that the 1×10 –6 is a constant multiplier. This slope should
be smaller than the internal slope compensation.
=
=
IL(min) = IIN(max) +
VSENSEP
IL(min)
0.168 / 0.02 = 8.4 A/μs
Check to make sure that 1/2 of the inductor ripple current is less
than IIN(min):
V (min)
L = IN
× D(max)
∆ IL × fSW
RSENSE =
(18)
STEP 5: To determine the resistor values for a switching frequency use figure 9.
STEP 6: Choosing the proper switching diode. The switching
diode must be chosen for three characteristics when it is used in
LED lighting circuitry: reverse voltage rating, current rating, and
reverse current characteristic of the diode.
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22
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
The reverse voltage rating should be such that, during any operation condition, the voltage rating of the device is larger than the
maximum output voltage. In this case, the maximum output voltage is VOUT(OVP) .
The peak current through the diode is:
Id(peak) = IIN(max) + ∆ILused
The other major component in determining the switching diode is
the reverse current characteristic of the diode. This characteristic
is especially important when PWM dimming is implemented.
During PWM off-time the boost converter is not switching. This
results in a slow bleeding-off of the output voltage due to leakage
currents (IR). IR , or reverse current, can be a huge contributor
especially at high temperatures. On the diode that was selected in
this design, the current varies between 1 and 100 μA.
STEP 7: Choosing the output capacitors. The output capacitors
must be chosen such that they can provide filtering for both the
boost converter and for the PWM dimming function. The biggest
factor that contributes to the size of the output capacitor is PWM
dimming frequency and the PWM duty cycle. Another major
contributor is leakage current (ILK ). This current is the combination of the OVP current sense as well as the reverse current of the
switching diode.
In this design the PWM dimming frequency is 200 Hz and the
minimum duty cycle is 1%. Typically the voltage variation on the
output during PWM dimming must be less than 250 mV (VCOUT)
so that no audible hum can be heard:
1 – DPWM(min)
(24)
COUT = ILK×
fPWM × VCOUT
1 – 0.01
= 300 μA ×
200 Hz × 0.250 V
= 5.94 μF
A capacitor larger than 5.94 μF should be selected due to degradation of capacitance at high voltages on the capacitor. Two
ceramic 4.7 μF 50 V capacitors are a good choice to fulfill this
requirement.
The rms current through the capacitor is given by:
ICOUTrms = IOUT
= 0.960 A
(23)
= 3.72 A + 0.56 A
= 4.28 A
∆ILused
IIN(max) 12
1 – D(max)
D(max) +
(25)
1.24 A
12
3.72 A
1 – 0.745
0.745 +
= 1.67 A
The output capacitor must have a current rating of at least 1.67 A.
The output capacitors selected in this design have a combined
rms current rating of 2 A.
STEP 8: Selection of input capacitor. The input capacitor must be
selected such that it provides a good filtering of the input voltage
waveform. A good rule of thumb is to set the input voltage ripple
(ΔVIN) to be 1% of the minimum input voltage. The minimum
input capacitor requirements are as follows:
CIN =
∆ILused
fSW
8
∆VIN
1.24 A
=
8 600 kHz 0.1 V
= 2.65 μF
The rms current through the capacitor is given by:
IINrms =
IOUT ×
∆ILused
IIN(max)
(26)
(27)
(1 – D(max)) 12
0.960 A × 1.24 A
3.72 A
=
(1 – 0.765) 12
= 0.363 A
A good ceramic input capacitor with ratings of 50 V, 4.7 μF will
suffice for this application.
Corresponding capacitors include:
Vendor
Value
Part number
Murata
4.7 μF 50 V
GRM32ER71H475KA88L
Murata
2.2 μF 50 V
GRM31CR71H225KA88L
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23
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Typical Applications
The following is the component list for the typical application circuit shown in figure 1.
Designator
Description
CDD
0.1 μF / 10 V
CDR
1 μF / 16 V
CIN
4.7 μF / 50 V
COUT
10 μF / 50 V
CP
1 μF / 16V
CZ
DNP
D1
60 V / 5 A Schottky
L1
Q1
Part Number
GRM2195C1H104JA01D
DRM188R61A105K
GRM32ER71H475KA88L
GRM32ER71H475KA88L
Manufacturer
Murata
Murata
Murata
Murata
GRM188R61A474K
Murata
CMSH5-60-AMI
Central Semi
10 μH / 5 A
74477110
Wurth Electronics
NMOS
FQD13N06LTM
Faichild
R1
100 kΩ
RFSET
8.45 kΩ 1%
RISET
12.4 kΩ 1%
ROVP
732 kΩ 1%
RSENSE
0.015 Ω
RZ
DNP
U1
A8509
DigiKey
A8509
Allegro
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24
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Typical Applications
10 kΩ
CIN
VIN
Q2
VDR
1 kΩ
L1
D1
(Optional)
Q1
COUT
Q3
1 kΩ
VOUT
ROVP
RSENSE
R1
VIN
FAULT
GATE SENP
SENN
LED1
PWM
CDR
CDD
EN
VDR
VDD
FSET/SYNC
ISET
COMP
RFSET
RISET
OVP
LED2
A8509
LED3
LED4
PAD
CP
MODE
AGND PGND
Application A. Typical schematic for boost application with disconnect switch application
R2
10 kΩ
L1
VIN
L2
CF
CIN
VC
D1
COUT
VIN
FAULT
GATE SENP
SENN
CDD
OVP
LED1
PWM
EN
VDR
VDD
FSET/SYNC
ISET
COMP
RFSET
ROVP
RSENSE
R1
CDR
VOUT
A8509
LED2
LED3
LED4
PAD
RISET
CP
MODE
AGND PGND
Application B. Typical application showing SEPIC configuration
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Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
L1
VIN
CIN
D1
Q1
COUT
VC
R1
GATE
SENP
CDD
SENN
OVP
LED1
A8509
(master)
EN
VDR
VDD
MODE
FSET/SYNC
ISET
COMP
RFSET
ROVP
RSENSE
VIN
FAULT
PWM
CDR
VOUT
LED2
LED3
LED4
PAD
RISET
AGND PGND
CP1
VIN
VOUT
ROVP
RGATE
50 kΩ
VIN
FAULT
GATE
PWM
EN
VDR
VDD
MODE
FSET/SYNC
ISET
COMP
CDR
RFSET
CDD
RISET
SENP
SENN
OVP
LED1
A8509
(one slave)
LED2
LED3
LED4
PAD
AGND PGND
CP2
Application C. Parallel operation of two A8509s; overvoltage protection on master must be
set higher than the OVP on the slave
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26
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
A8509
Package LP, 24-Pin TSSOP
with Exposed Thermal Pad
7.80±0.10
24
0.65
0.45
8º
0º
0.20
0.09
B
3 NOM
4.40±0.10
3.00
6.40±0.20
6.10
0.60 ±0.15
A
1
2
1.00 REF
4.32 NOM
0.25 BSC
24X
SEATING
PLANE
0.10 C
0.30
0.19
0.65 BSC
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
C
1.65
4.32
C
PCB Layout Reference View
For Reference Only; not for tooling use (reference MO-153 ADT)
Dimensions in millimeters
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
1.20 MAX
0.15
0.00
A Terminal #1 mark area
B
Exposed thermal pad (bottom surface); dimensions may vary with device
C Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351
TSOP65P640X120-25M); all pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all
adjacent pads; adjust as necessary to meet application process
requirements and PCB layout tolerances; when mounting on a multilayer
PCB, thermal vias at the exposed thermal pad land can improve thermal
dissipation (reference EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
Contact factory for LB package.
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A8509
Wide Input Voltage Range, High Efficiency
4-Channel Fault Tolerant LED Driver
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