Battery_Management_Soulutions_PowerPath.pdf

02
T O P O L O G Y O V E R V I E W — P O W E R PAT H C O N T R O L A N D B AT T E RY- F E D S Y S T E M S
Battery-Fed (Charger-Fed) Systems
First generation USB system applications incorporated a
current-limited battery charger directly between the USB port
and the battery (see Figure 1). In this battery-fed topology,
the battery directly powers the system and the power available
to the system from the USB can be expressed as:
AC ADAPTER
PSYS = IUSB • VBAT
VIN
USB
because VBAT is the only voltage available to the system load. For
linear chargers, input current approximately equals charge current,
so a simple current limit is sufficient. Connecting the system load
directly to the battery eliminates the need for a load sharing diode.
Disadvantages of this topology include low efficiency, 500mA
maximum charge current from the USB, no system power when
the battery voltage is low (i.e., a dead or missing battery), and loss
of nearly half of the available power within the linear battery charger element as heat. Furthermore, an additional resistor and signal
transistor is required to increase charge current when a wall
adapter is present.
LINEAR
CC/CV
CHARGER
BAT
+
BAT
SYSTEM
LOAD
Figure 1: Simplified Battery-Fed Control Circuit
Linear PowerPath Power Managers
Second generation USB charging systems, commonly referred to
as PowerPath systems, develop an intermediate voltage between
the USB port and the battery (see Figure 2). In PowerPath systems,
the USB port supplies current to an intermediate voltage, VOUT,
via a current-limited switch. VOUT powers both the linear battery
charger and the system load with priority going to the system load.
By decoupling the battery from the system load, charging can
be carried out opportunistically. PowerPath systems also offer
instant–on operation because the intermediate voltage is available
for system loads as soon as power is applied to the circuit—this
allows the end product to operate immediately when plugged in,
regardless of the battery’s state of charge. In a linear PowerPath
system, nearly all of the 2.5W available from the USB port is
accessible to the system load provided the system load does not
exceed the input current limit. Furthermore, if the system requires
more power than is available from the input, an ideal diode also
supplies current to the load from the battery. Thus, a linear
PowerPath system offers significant advantages over a battery-fed
system. But significant power may still be lost, especially if the
system load exceeds the input current limit and the battery voltage
is low, resulting in a large differential between the input voltage
and both the system voltage and the battery voltage. An optional
external PFET can reduce the ideal diode voltage drop during
heavy load conditions.
AC ADAPTER
USB
VBUS
LINEAR USB
CURRENT LIMIT
OUT
LINEAR
CC/CV
CHARGER
IDEAL
DIODE
OPTIONAL:
AUGMENTS
INTERNAL
IDEAL DIODE
GATE
BAT
+
Figure 2: Simplified Linear Power Manager Circuit
BAT
SYSTEM
LOAD
T O P O L O G Y O V E R V I E W — P O W E R PAT H C O N T R O L A N D B AT T E RY- F E D S Y S T E M S
Switch Mode PowerPath Power Managers
Third generation USB charging systems feature a switchmodebased topology (see Figure 3). This type of PowerPath device
produces an intermediate bus voltage from a USB-compliant
step-down switching regulator that regulates a small differential
voltage above the battery voltage. Linear Technology refers to
this as Bat-Track™ adaptive output control because the output
voltage tracks the battery voltage. The differential voltage between
the battery and the system is large enough to allow full charging
through the linear charger, but small enough to minimize power
lost in the charger, thereby increasing system efficiency and maximizing power available to the load. The switching average input
current limit allows the use of nearly all of the 2.5W available from
the USB port, independent of operating conditions. By ensuring
that the Bat-Track regulation loop does not allow the output voltage
to drop below 3.5V (even with severely discharged batteries)
this topology also provides instant-on functionality. As in linear
PowerPath systems, an ideal diode allows the battery to supplement input power during heavy load transients. An optional external
PFET can reduce the ideal diode voltage drop. This architecture
is suitable for systems with large (>1.5AHr) batteries and high
(>2W) system power.
AC ADAPTER
USB
VBUS
SW
OUT
SWITCHING
USB CURRENT LIMIT
LINEAR
CC/CV
CHARGER
IDEAL
DIODE
OPTIONAL:
AUGMENTS
INTERNAL
IDEAL DIODE
GATE
BAT
+
Figure 3: Simplified Switch Mode Power Manager Circuit
BAT
SYSTEM
LOAD
03
04
T O P O L O G Y O V E R V I E W — P O W E R PAT H C O N T R O L A N D B AT T E RY- F E D S Y S T E M S
External High Voltage Switching Regulator Control
Several Linear Technology power manager ICs (both linear and
switching) provide the ability to adaptively control the output of
an external high voltage switching regulator (see Figure 4). The
WALL pin detects the presence of a high voltage supply (e.g., car
battery, 12V wall adapter, FireWire input) and enables Bat-Track
adaptive output control via the buck regulator’s VC pin. Similar
to a switching PowerPath system, the output of the high voltage
buck is regulated to a small differential voltage above the battery
voltage with a minimum output voltage of approximately 3.5V.
This functionality maximizes charger efficiency while still allowing
instant-on operation even when the battery is deeply discharged.
Compared to the traditional approach of converting a high
voltage input to 5V to power the system, this technique can
reduce system power dissipation by over 50%. By choosing an
LT®3653 as the high voltage regulator, further system improvements can be made (see Figure 5). The LT3653 accurately controls
its maximum output current, which eliminates the potential for
localized heating, reduces the required current rating of the power
components and provides a robust solution to withstand harsh
overload and short circuit conditions. In addition, the unique
LT3653 architecture eliminates a power PFET and output capacitor
from the application schematic.
SW
HV INPUT
VIN
LT3653
HIGH VOLTAGE
BUCK REGULATOR
SW
HIGH VOLTAGE
BUCK REGULATOR
REGULATOR
BUCK
VC
USB
VBUS
HV INPUT
FB
VC
WALL
CHARGER/POWER
MANAGER
VIN
ISENSE
VOUT
VC
HVOK
VC
WALL
ACPR
OUT
OPTIONAL:
AUGMENTS
INTERNAL
IDEAL DIODE
GATE
SYSTEM
LOAD
USB
BAT
+
VBUS
ACPR
OUT
CHARGER/POWER
MANAGER
OPTIONAL:
AUGMENTS
INTERNAL
IDEAL DIODE
GATE
BAT
BAT
+
Figure 4: Simplified HV Switching Regulator Control Circuit
BAT
Figure 5: Simplified LT3653 Control Circuit
Table 1: Comparison of USB-Compliant Battery Charging System Topologies
Attribute
Battery-Fed
Linear PowerPath
Switch Mode PowerPath
Size
Small
Moderate
Larger
Complexity
Simple
Moderate
More Complex
Solution Cost
Low
Moderate
Higher
USB Charge Current
Limited to 500mA
Limited to 500mA
500mA and Higher (~2.3W)
Autonomous Control of Input Power
Sources
No
Yes
Yes
Instant-On Operation
No
Yes
Yes
System Load Efficiency
(IBUS<USB Limit)
Good (VBAT/VBUS)
Exceptional (>90%)
Excellent (~90%)
System Load Efficiency (ISYS>USB Limit)
Good (VBAT/VBUS)
Good (VBAT/VBUS)
Excellent (~90%)
Battery Charger Efficiency
Good (VBAT/VBUS)
Good (VBAT/VBUS)
Excellent (~90%)
Power Dissipation
High
Moderate
Low
Bat-Track Adaptive Output Control/
Interface to HV Buck
No
Yes
Yes
SYSTEM
LOAD
AC Present Signal
Integrated Pass Transistor
Charge Termination
Standalone
Battery Charge Current
(Max), A
Number of Battery Cells
(Series)
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.5
1.25
1.25
1.5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~‡
~
‡
~‡
~
~
~
1
1
2
1.25
0.95
0.95
1.2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
* Current C/10
† Current C/x
‡ Timer
§ µC
¶Timer + Current Indication
# PROG Pin Tracks Charge Current
** Gas Gauge Capability
1
1
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
–
†
~
~
–
~†
~†
~
‡
~‡
~
~
~¶
~
~
¶
~
~
~
~¶
–
~
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~**
–
~
~
~‡
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
¶
~
~
~
~
~¶
~
¶
~¶
~¶
~¶
Li-Ion/Polymer 4.2V/Cell & 4.1V/Cell Linear Battery Chargers
1.5
1
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
–
~
~
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
–
~
~
~
~
–
–
–
–
DFN-10
DFN-10
–
DFN-10
DFN-10
MSOP-10
MSOP-10
DFN-10
DFN-10
DFN-10
DFN-14
DFN-12
QFN-16
UTQFN-24
DFN-22
DFN-22
DFN-14
UTQFN-20
UTQFN-20
UTQFN-20
Package
–
–
~
~
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
Temperature Control
Li-Ion/Polymer 4.2V/Cell & 4.1V/Cell Linear Battery Chargers with PowerPath Control (Power Managers)
ICHARGE Monitor #
Status Signals
End-of-Charge Signal
Charge Termination & Integration
Thermal Regulation
Battery
Thermistor Interface
MASTER INDEX—Power Managers and Linear Battery Chargers
07, 10
LTC4066
06
06
06
06, 07
06
06
06
06
LTC4061
LTC4062
LTC4063
LTC4050
LTC4053
LTC4078/X
LTC4075/X
LTC4096/X
07, 10
07, 10
LTC4089
LTC4085
10
LTC4090
10
10
LTC4088
07, 10
07, 10
LTC4098
LTC4067
07, 10
LTC4055
07, 10
Least
LTC4160
Integration/Features
Page Number
LTC4099
Most
Part Number
24
ICHARGE Monitor #
Integrated Pass Transistor
Charge Termination
Standalone
Battery Charge Current
(Max), A
Number of Battery Cells
(Series)
0.9
0.8
1
0.7
1
1
1
1
–
~
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
0.9
0.25
0.18
1
1
1
* Current C/10
† Current C/x
‡ Timer
§ µC
¶Timer + Current Indication
# PROG Pin Tracks Charge Current
** Gas Gauge Capability
0.15
1
–
~
–
~
~
~
§
~‡
~§
~*
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
–
§
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~‡
~
§
~§
–
~
–
~
~‡
~
‡
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~¶
*
~‡
–
–
–
~‡
–
‡
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~*
~
†
~¶
~†
~†
Li-Ion/Polymer Coin Cell Battery Chargers
0.75
0.7
0.75
1
1
0.8
1
1.5
1
1
0.95
1
2
0.95
2
0.95
1
1
1, 2
0.95
1
1, 2
0.95
1
Li-Ion/Polymer 4.2V/Cell & 4.1V/Cell Linear Battery Chargers
End-of-Charge Signal
Status Signals
~
–
~
–
~
–
~
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
–
~
~
–
–
~
–
~
–
~
–
–
~
–
~
~
~
–
~
–
~
~
~
–
~
~
~
–
~
~
~
~
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
–
–
–
–
–
–
~
–
ThinSOT
DFN-6
DFN-6
ThinSOT
ThinSOT
MSOP-10E
ThinSOT
DFN-6
ThinSOT
DFN-6
–
–
DFN-6
ThinSOT
MSOP-10E
MSOP-8
MSOP-10
DFN-8
DFN-8
DFN-8
DFN-10
DFN-10
Package
~
–
~
–
–
–
–
~
–
–
Temperature Control
Thermal Regulation
Charge Termination & Integration
Thermistor Interface
Battery
AC Present Signal
MASTER INDEX—Power Managers and Linear Battery Chargers (Continued)
Most
Part Number
06, 08
LTC4065L/LX
06, 08
06, 08
06
LTC4054L
LTC4059/A
LTC1734L
06, 07
LTC4064
06, 07
06, 08
06
06
06
LTC4065/A
LTC4056
LTC4059/A
06
LTC4070
LTC4057
06, 07
06
LTC1733
06, 07
LTC4054/X
06, 07
LTC1732
06
LTC4058/X
LTC1731
06
06
LTC4095
06
LTC4068/X
06
LTC4076
LTC1734
Least
LTC4077
Integration/Features
Page Number
25
Standalone
Battery Charge
Current (Max), A
Number of Battery
Cells (Series)
4
2
1-16
1-4
~
~
~
Charge Termination
~§
~#
~#
2
4
4
2
1.5
4
1-2
3-4
2-4
1-2
1-2, adj
1-2
~
†
–
~
~
~
~
~
* Current C/10
Current C/x
‡ Timer
¶ µC
§ T, t, -dV
# T, t, -dV, dT/dt
** Timer + Current
†† for Li-Ion Termination, use LTC1729
‡‡ PROG Pin Tracks Charge Current
2
1
~‡
~
¶,††
~‡
~
–
~
~
–
~
–
–
–
~
~
–
–
~
~
~
–
~
~
‡
–
–
‡
~
–
–
–
–
–
~
~
–
–
–
Integrated Power
Transistor
~**
~‡
Li-Ion/Polymer Switch Mode Battery Chargers
4
1-16
NiMH/NiCd Battery Chargers
ICHARGE
Monitor ‡‡
Status Signals
End-of-Charge Signal
Charge Termination & Integration
–
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
–
–
–
–
–
~
–
–
–
–
~
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
Temperature Control
Thermal Regulation
Battery
Thermistor Interface
MASTER INDEX—Switch Mode Battery Chargers
14
14
LT1571
LTC4002
DFN-10
SO-8
07
LTC1980
SSOP-24
SSOP-16
SSOP-28
14
07, 14
LTC4007
SSOP-24
LTC4006
07, 14
LT3650
SSOP-16
07, 14
LTC4001/-1
DFN-12
09
SSOP-24
DFN-16
TSSOP-16
09
LTC4010
Switch Mode
TSSOP-16E
Least
09
LTC4060
Linear
Integration/Features
Page
Number
LTC4011
Switch Mode
Most
Part Number
TSSOP-20E
Package
26
AC Present Signal
3
4
8
4
4
VBAT Range
3.5-18V
3.5-28V
3-21V
3.5-26V
LTC4101
~
~
~
~
~
Charge
Termination
Method(s)
–
–
–
–
¶
SMBus
–
–
SMBus¶
SMBus
–
–
–
¶
–
Integrated Pass
Transistor
SMBus¶
SMBus‡,¶
Status
Signals
ICHARGE Monitor
8
4
4
4
3
0.75
2
2
1.5
1
2.5-23V
2-28V
2-28V
3-28V
2.5-26V
1.5-20V
1.5-20V
2.5-26V
2.5-26V
2.5-26V
* Current C/10
† Current C/x
‡ Timer
¶ µC
§ T, t, -dV
# T, t, -dV, dT/dt
** Timer + Current
†† for Li-Ion Termination, use LTC1729
‡‡ PROG Pin Tracks Charge Current
8
3.5-28V
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
~¶,††
~¶,††
~¶,††
~¶,††
~
¶,††
~¶,††
~¶
~¶
~¶
~¶,††
SPI¶
~
~
~
~
~
~
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
~
~
–
–
Lead Acid, NiMH/NiCd, Li-Ion/Polymer Switch Mode Battery Chargers
Battery Charge
Current (Max), A
Smart Battery Chargers
Standalone
Charge Termination & Integration
End-of-Charge
Signal
–
–
–
–
–
–
~
–
–
~
–
–
–
–
–
–
AC Present
Signal
–
–
–
–
–
–
~
~
~
–
–
~
~
~
–
~
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
~
~
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Temperature Control
Thermal Regulation
Battery
–
–
–
–
–
–
~
–
–
–
–
~
~
~
~
~
Thermistor
Interface
MASTER INDEX—Switch Mode Battery Chargers (Continued)
SO-8
SSOP-16
SO-16
TSSOP-16
SSOP-28
TSSOP-20
SSOP-28
DD Pak
TO-220
SO-8
SO-24
SSOP-20
QFN-20
QFN-20
SSOP-28
SSOP-36
QFN-38
SSOP-24
SSOP-24
SSOP-36
TSSOP-48
QFN-38
Package
LTC1960
LT1505
16
LTC4101
09, 14
09, 15
09, 15
09, 14
14
09, 14
LT1513
LT1769
LT1571
LT1510
07, 09, 14
LTC4008
LT1512
07, 09, 14
LTC4009/1/-2
LT1511
07, 09, 14
LTC4012/1/-2/-3
09, 14
07, 09, 14,
16
07, 16
09, 16
LTC1759
LTC4100
07, 16
LTC1760
Least
07, 15, 16
Integration/Features
Page
Number
LTC4110
Most
Part Number
27
Li-Ion/Polymer
Charger
LDO(s) (IOUT)
Buck-Boost
(BB)/ Boost
(IOUT)
Buck(s) (IOUT)
Number of
Regulators
400mA
x2
600mA,
400mA
x2
400mA
x 2,
1A
400mA
x2
600mA,
400mA
x2
1A,
400mA
x2
400mA,
600mA
–
–
400mA
400mA
x2
400mA,
800mA
600mA
300mA
300mA
5
5
4
4
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
0.4A BB
1A BB
1A BB
–
–
–
1A BB
–
10-LED
Boost
1A BB,
0.8A
Boost
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.3V, 25mA
3.3V, 25mA
Flexible Gain
Block for
LDO
Controller
3.3V, 25mA
3.3V, 25mA
3.3V, 25mA
3.3V, 20mA
2 x 150mA
3.3V, 20mA
Linear
Linear
Linear
Linear
Linear
Linear
Sync Buck
+ Linear
Sync Buck
+ Linear
Linear
Sync Buck
+ Linear
Linear
Sync Buck
+ Linear
Sync Buck
+ Linear
Linear
Sync Buck
+ Linear
0.5
0.5
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
1.5
1.5
0.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
Switch Mode
Switch Mode
Linear
Switch Mode
Linear
Switch Mode
Switch Mode
Linear
Switch Mode
Li-Ion/Polymer Multifunction Power Management Integrated Circuits (PMICs)
Maximum
Charge
Current (A)
Battery Charger/Power Manager
PowerPath
Topology
Onboard Regulators
Ideal
Diode
–
–
–
–
–
–
Int + Ext (opt.)
Int + Ext (opt.)
–
Int + Ext (opt.)
Int + Ext (opt.)
Int + Ext (opt.)
Int + Ext (opt.)
Int + Ext (opt.)
Int + Ext (opt.)
Other Features
2.7 to 4.5
2.7 to 4.5
4.3 to 8
4.25 to 8
5, USB
5, USB
4.25 to 5.5
4.25 to 5.5
5, USB, Li Ion
5, USB, Li Ion
5, USB, Li Ion,
Hi-V 38V max
5, USB, Li Ion
5, USB, Li-Ion,
Hi-V 38V with
60V transients;
OVP: 68V
5, USB, Li Ion,
Hi-V Bat-Track,
OVP
5, USB, Li Ion
Input Voltage
(V)
MASTER INDEX—Multifunction PMICs
Interface
–
–
–
–
–
3x3 DFN-10
3x3 DFN10,
MSOP-10E
3x5 DFN-16
3x5 DFN-16
3x3 QFN-16
3x3 QFN-20
4x4 QFN-24
I2 C
–
4x4 QFN-24
4x4 QFN-24
–
–
4x5 QFN-24
I2 C
4x5 QFN-28
I2 C
4x4 QFN-28
4x6 QFN-38
I2 C
–
4x7 QFN-44
4x6 QFN-38
–
–
Package
LTC3455/-1
LTC3566
13
13
LTC4081
13
LTC3552/-1
13
07, 13
LTC3559/-1
LTC4080
13
LTC3558
LTC3550/-1
11
LTC3567
11
07, 12
07, 11
07, 12
LTC3557/-1
LTC3555/1/-3
11
LTC3556
07, 11
07, 12
LTC3577/-1/-3/-4
Least
07, 11
LTC3576/-1
Integration/Features
Page #
LTC3586/-1
Most
Part Number
28
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