12W 5V Evaluation board using ICE2QR4765Z

Application Note, V1.0, 4 August 20111
Application Note
AN- EVAL-ICE2QR4765Z
12W5V Evaluation Board with QuasiResonant CoolSET® ICE2QR4765Z
Power Management & Supply
N e v e r
s t o p
t h i n k i n g .
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
© 2011 Infineon Technologies AG
All Rights Reserved.
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values stated herein and/or any information regarding the application of the device,
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including without limitation, warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights
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EVAL-ICE2QR4765Z-12W
Title
Revision History:
Previous Version:
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4 August 20111
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Subjects (major changes since last revision)
12W5V Evaluation Board with Quasi-Resonant CooLSET® ICE2QR4765Z
License to Infineon Technologies Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
V1.0
AN-PS0064
Winson Wong
[email protected]
Eric Kok
[email protected]
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Application Note
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EVAL-ICE2QR4765Z-12W
Table of Contents
1 Content ............................................................................................................... 6 2 Evaluation Board ............................................................................................... 6 3 List of Features .................................................................................................. 6 4 Technical Specifications ................................................................................... 7 5 Circuit Description............................................................................................. 7 5.1 Mains Input and Rectification ...................................................................................................... 7 5.2 Integrated MOSFET and PWM Control........................................................................................ 7 5.3 Snubber Network .......................................................................................................................... 7 5.4 Output Stage .................................................................................................................................. 7 5.5 Feedback Loop .............................................................................................................................. 7 6 Circuit Operation ............................................................................................... 7 6.1 Startup Operation.......................................................................................................................... 7 6.2 Normal Mode Operation ............................................................................................................... 8 6.3 Primary side peak current control............................................................................................... 8 6.4 Digital Frequency Reduction ....................................................................................................... 8 6.5 Burst Mode Operation .................................................................................................................. 8 7 Protection Features ........................................................................................... 8 7.1 Vcc under voltage and over voltage protection......................................................................... 8 7.2 Foldback point protection ............................................................................................................ 9 7.3 Open loop/over load protection................................................................................................... 9 7.4 Adjustable output overvoltage protection.................................................................................. 9 7.5 Short winding protection.............................................................................................................. 9 7.6 Auto restart for over temperature protection ............................................................................. 9 8 Circuit diagram ................................................................................................ 10 8.1 PCB Top overlayer ...................................................................................................................... 11 8.2 PCB Bottom Layer ...................................................................................................................... 12 9 Component List ............................................................................................... 13 10 Transformer Construction .............................................................................. 14 11 Test Results ..................................................................................................... 14 11.1 Efficiency and standby performance ........................................................................................ 14 12 Waveform and scope plots ............................................................................. 16 12.1 Startup @85Vac and 12W load .................................................................................................. 16 12.2 Working at different zero crossing point .................................................................................. 17 12.3 Load transient response ............................................................................................................ 17 12.4 AC Output ripple during full load .............................................................................................. 18 12.5 Burst mode operation ................................................................................................................. 18 13 References ....................................................................................................... 19 Application Note
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1
Content
This application note is a description of 12W switching mode power supply evaluation board designed in a
quasi resonant flyback converter topology using ICE2QR4765Z Quasi-resonant CoolSET®.The target
application of ICE2QR4765Z are for set-top box, portable game controller, DVD player, netbook adapter and
auxiliary power supply for LCD TV, etc. With the CoolMOS® integrated in this IC, it greatly simplifies the
design and layout of the PCB. Due to valley switching, the turn on voltage is reduced and this offers higher
conversion efficiency comparing to hard-switching flyback converter. With the DCM mode control, the
reverse recovery problem of secondary rectify diode is relieved. And for its natural frequency jittering with
line voltage, the EMI performance is better. Infineon’s digital frequency reduction technology enables a
quasi-resonant operation till very low load. As a result, the system efficiency, over the entire load range, is
significantly improved compared to conventional free running quasi resonant converter implemented with
only maximum switching frequency limitation at light load. In addition, numerous adjustable protection
functions have been implemented in ICE2QR4765Z to protect the system and customize the IC for the
chosen application. In case of failure modes, like open control-loop/over load, output overvoltage, and
transformer short winding, the device switches into Auto Restart Mode or Latch-off Mode. By means of the
cycle-by-cycle peak current limitation plus foldback point correction, the dimension of the transformer and
current rating of the secondary diode can both be optimized.Thus, a cost effective solution can be easily
achieved.
2
Evaluation Board
Figure 1 EVAL-ICE2QR4765Z-12W
3
List of Features
650V avalanche rugged CoolMOS® with built in depletion startup cell
Quasi-resonant operation
Digital frequency reduction with decreasing load
Cycle-by-cycle peak current limitation with foldback point correction
Built-in digital soft-start
Direct current sensing with internal Leading Edge Blanking Time
VCC under voltage protection: IC stop operation, recover with softstart
VCC over voltage protection: IC stop operation, recover with softstart
Openloop/Overload protection: Auto Restart
Output overvoltage protection: Latch-off with adjustable threshold
Short-winding protection: Latch-off
Over temperature protection: Autorestart
Application Note
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Technical Specifications
Input voltage
Input frequency
Output voltage and current
Output power
Efficiency
Standby power
Minimum switching frequency at full load,
minimum input voltage
5
85Vac~265Vac
50Hz, 60Hz
5V 2.4A
12W
>76% at full load
<[email protected] load
65kHz
Circuit Description
5.1
Mains Input and Rectification
The AC line input side comprises the input fuse F1 as overcurrent protection. The X2 Capacitors C1 and
Choke L1 form a main filter to minimize the feedback of RFI into the main supply. After the bridge rectifier
BR1, together with a smoothing capacitor C2, provide a voltage of 70VDC to 380 VDC depending on mains
input voltage.
5.2
Integrated MOSFET and PWM Control
ICE2QR4765Z is comprised of a power MOSFET and the quasi-resonant controller; this integrated solution
greatly simplifies the circuit layout and reduces the cost of PCB manufacturing. The PWM switch-on is
determined by the zero-crossing input signal and the value of the up/down counter. The PWM switch-off is
determined by the feedback signal VFB and the current sensing signal VCS. ICE2QR4765Z also performs all
necessary protection functions in flyback converters. Details about the information mentioned above are
illustrated in the product datasheet.
5.3
Snubber Network
A snubber network R1, C3 and D1 dissipate the energy of the leakage inductance and suppress ringing on
the SMPS transformer.
5.4
Output Stage
On the secondary side, 5V output, the power is coupled out via a schottky diode D21. The capacitors C21
provides energy buffering followed by the L-C filters L21 and C22 to reduce the output ripple and prevent
interference between SMPS switching frequency and line frequency considerably. Storage capacitors C21 is
designed to have an internal resistance (ESR) as small as possible. This is to minimize the output voltage
ripple caused by the triangular current.
5.5
Feedback Loop
For feedback, the output is sensed by the voltage divider of Rc1 and Rc3 and compared to TL431 internal
reference voltage. Cc1, Cc2 and Rc4 comprise the compensation network. The output voltage of TL431 is
converted to the current signal via optocoupler IC2 and two resistors Rc5 and Rc6 for regulation control.
6
Circuit Operation
6.1
Startup Operation
Since there is a built-in startup cell in the ICE2QR4765Z, there is no need for external start up resistor, which
can improve standby performance significantly.
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When VCC reaches the turn on voltage threshold 18V, the IC begins with a soft start. The soft-start
implemented in ICE2QR4765Z is a digital time-based function. The preset soft-start time is 12ms with 4
steps. If not limited by other functions, the peak voltageon CS pin will increase step by step from 0.32V to 1V
finally. After IC turns on, the Vcc voltage is supplied by auxiliary windings of the transformer.
6.2
Normal Mode Operation
The secondary output voltage is built up after startup. The secondary regulation control is adopted with
TL431 and optocoupler. The compensation network Cc1, Cc2 and Rc4 constitute the external circuitry of the
error amplifier of TL431. This circuitry allows the feedback to be precisely controlled with respect to
dynamically varying load conditions, therefore providing stable control.
6.3
Primary side peak current control
The MOSFET drain source current is sensed via external resistor R4 and R4A. Since ICE2QR4765Z is a
current mode controller, it would have a cycle-by-cycle primary current and feedback voltage control which
can make sure the maximum power of the converter is controlled in every switching cycle.
6.4
Digital Frequency Reduction
During normal operation, the switching frequency for ICE2QR4765Z is digitally reduced with decreasing load.
At light load, the MOSFET will be turned on not at the first minimum drain-source voltage time, but on the nth.
The counter is in range of 1 to 7, which depends on feedback voltage in a time-base. The feedback voltage
decreases when the output power requirement decreases, and vice versa. Therefore, the counter is set by
monitoring voltage VFB. The counter will be increased with low VFB and decreased with high VFB. The
thresholds are preset inside the IC.
6.5
Burst Mode Operation
At light load condition, the SMPS enters into Active Burst Mode. At this stage, the controller is always active
but the Vcc must be kept above the switch off threshold. During active burst mode, the efficiency increase
significantly and at the same time it supports low ripple on Vout and fast response on load jump.
For determination of entering Active Burst Mode operation, three conditions apply:
.the feedback voltage is lower than the threshold of VFBEB(1.25V). Accordingly, the peak current sense
voltage across the shunt resistor is 0.18;
.the up/down counter is 7;
.and a certain blanking time (tBEB).
Once all of these conditions are fulfilled, the Active Burst Mode flip-flop is set and the controller enters Active
Burst Mode operation. This multi-condition determination for entering Active Burst Mode operation prevents
mistriggering of entering Active Burst Mode operation, so that the controller enters Active Burst Mode
operation only when the output power is really low during the preset blanking time.
During active burst mode, the maximum current sense voltage is reduced from 1V to 0.34V so as to reduce
the conduction loss and the audible noise. At the burst mode, the FB voltage is changing like a sawtooth
between 3.0 and 3.6V.
The feedback voltage immediately increases if there is a high load jump. This is observed by one comparator.
As the current limit is 34% during Active Burst Mode a certain load is needed so that feedback voltage can
exceed VLB (4.5V). After leaving active busrt mode, maximum current can now be provided to stabilize VO.
In addition, the up/down counter will be set to 1 immediately after leaving Active Burst Mode. This is helpful
to decrease the output voltage undershoot
7
Protection Features
7.1
Vcc under voltage and over voltage protection
Application Note
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During normal operation, the VCC voltage is continuously monitored. When the Vcc voltage falls below the
under voltage lock out level (VCCoff) or the Vcc voltage increases up to VCCovp, the IC will enter into
autorestart mode.
7.2
Foldback point protection
For a quasi-resonant flyback converter, the maximum possible output power is increased when a constant current
limit value is used for all the mains input voltage range. This is usually not desired as this will increase additional
cost on transformer and output diode in case of output over power conditions.
The internal fold back protection is implemented to adjust the VCS voltage limit according to the bus voltage. Here,
the input line voltage is sensed using the current flowing out of ZC pin, during the MOSFET on-time. As the result,
the maximum current limit will be lower at high input voltage and the maximum output power can be well limited
versus the input voltage.
7.3
Open loop/over load protection
In case of open control loop, feedback voltage is pulled up with internally block. After a fixed blanking time
30ms, the IC enters into auto restart mode. In case of secondary short-circuit or overload, regulation voltage
VFB will also be pulled up, same protection is applied and IC will auto restart.
7.4
Adjustable output overvoltage protection
During off-time of the power switch, the voltage at the zero-crossing pin ZC is monitored for output
overvoltage detection. If the voltage is higher than the preset threshold 3.7V for a preset period 100μs, the
IC is latched off.
7.5
Short winding protection
The source current of the MOSFET is sensed via two shunt resistors R5 and R5A in parallel. If the voltage at
the current sensing pin is higher than the preset threshold VCSSW of 1.68V during the on-time of the power
switch, the IC is latched off. This constitutes a short winding protection. To avoid an accidental latch off, a
spike blanking time of 190ns is integrated in the output of internal comparator.
7.6
Auto restart for over temperature protection
The IC has a built-in over temperature protection function. When the controller’s temperature reaches 140 °C,
the IC will shut down switch and enters into autorestart. This can protect power MOSFET from overheated.
Application Note
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Circuit diagram
Figure 2 – Schematics
Application Note
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8.1
PCB Top overlayer
Figure 3 –Component Legend – View from topside
Application Note
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8.2
PCB Bottom Layer
Figure 4 Solder side copper – View from bottom side
Application Note
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9
Component List
Table 1– Component List
Items
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Application Note
Designator
BR1
F1
L21
R1
R2
R3
R4
R4A
R5
Rc1
Rc3
Rc4
Rc5
Rc6
R21
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C13
C21
C22
Cc1
Cc2
C23
EMI
TR1
IC2
IC3
D1
D2
ZD1
D21
Part Type
2KBB80R
1.6A/250Vac
1.5uH
150k/2W
2R, SMD
6.8k, SMD
1.5R
20R, SMD
51k, SMD
10k, SMD
10k, SMD
22k
2.2K
470R
*
0.1uF/305V
47uF/400V
2.2nF/630V
1nF/250V,Y1
22uF/50V
0.1uF, SMD
68pF
1nF
0.1uF/50V
1800uF/25V
220uF/25V
0.1uF
1nF
*
2 x 47mH, 0.4A
1370uH
SFH617A-3
TL431
UF4005
1N4148
22V zenor diode
IR90SQ045
13
Part No.
Manufacturer
B32922C3104K000
B43504A9476M
Epcos
Epcos
DE1E3KX102MA4BL01
B41851A6226M000
Murata
Epcos
RPER71H104K2K1A03B
Murata
RPER71H104K2K1A03B
Murata
B82731R2401A30
Epcos
Epcos
UF4005
Vishay
4 August 2011
EVAL-ICE2QR4765Z-12W
10
Transformer Construction
Core and material: EF20/10/6, EPCOS N87
Bobbin: Horizontal Version
Primary Inductance, Lp=707μH, measured between pin 5 and pin 4 (Gapped to Inductance)
Figure 5 – Transformer structure
Figure 6 – Transformer complete – top view
Table 2 wire gauge used of the transformer windings
11
11.1
Start
1
Stop
2
No. of turns
15
Wire size
1XAWG#29
Layer
Auxiliary
3
6
5
9
30(15+15)
5
1XAWG#27
2XAWG#25
/2 Primary
Secondary
4
3
30(15+15)
1XAWG#27
1
1
/2 Primary
Test Results
Efficiency and standby performance
Application Note
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EVAL-ICE2QR4765Z-12W
Input Voltage (Vac) 85 85 85 85 115 115 115 115 230 230 230 230 Input Power (W) 3.725 7.59 11.399 15.679 3.715 7.44 11.156 15.126 3.79 7.499 11.206 14.79 Vo (V) 4.996 4.995 4.994 4.991 4.996 4.995 4.994 4.993 4.995 4.995 4.993 4.992 Io (A) 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4 Po (W) 2.9976 5.994 8.9892 11.9784 2.9976 5.994 8.9892 11.9832 2.997 5.994 8.9874 11.9808 Efficiency (%) 80.47 78.97 78.86 76.40 80.69 80.56 80.58 79.22 79.08 79.93 80.20 81.01 Table 3 – Efficiency vs. Load
Figure 7 – Efficiency vs. Load
Figure 8 Efficiency vs AC line voltage
Application Note
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Figure 9 Standby Power vs AC line voltage
12
Waveform and scope plots
All waveform and scope were recorded with LeCroy 44Xi oscilloscope.
12.1
Startup @85Vac and 12W load
Figure 10 Constant charging VCC during startup
Figure 11 Softstart of current in 4 steps
Ch1 Drain source voltage
Ch1 Drain source voltage
Ch2 VCC supply voltage
Ch2 VCC supply voltage
Ch3 Zero crossing voltage
Ch3 Zero crossing voltage
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Test condition: input 85Vac output 2.4A load
Test condition: input 85Vac output 2.4A load
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12.2
Working at different zero crossing point
Figure 12 Working at first ZC point
Figure 13 Working at 7th ZC point
Ch1 Drain source voltage
Ch1 Drain source voltage
Ch2 VCC supply voltage
Ch2 VCC supply voltage
Ch3 Zero crossing voltage
Ch3 Zero crossing voltage
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Test condition:5V/2.4A @85Vac
Test condition:5V/0.5A @85Vac
12.3
Load transient response
Figure 14 AC output ripple undershoot
Figure 15 AC output ripple overshoot
Ch1 Output ripple voltage div 100mv
Ch1 Output ripple voltage div 110mv
Ch4 Output current
Ch4 Output current
Measured with decouple capacitor 0.1uF+10uF, scope
bandwidth 20MHz
Measured with decouple capacitor 0.1uF+10uF, scope
bandwidth 20MHz
Test condition:0A to 2.4A
Test condition:2.4A to 0A
Application Note
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12.4
AC Output ripple during full load
Figure 16 AC output ripple at 85 Vac input
Figure 17 AC output ripple at 265 Vac input
Ch1 Output ripple voltage div 20mV
Ch1 Output ripple voltage div 20mV
Measured with decouple capacitor 0.1uF+10uF, scope
bandwidth 20MHz
Measured with decouple capacitor 0.1uF+10uF, scope
bandwidth 20MHz
Test condition: 85V 5V/2.4A
Test condition: 265V 5V/2.4A
12.5
Burst mode operation
Figure 18 Entering burst mode
Figure 19 Leaving burst mode
Ch1 Drain source voltage
Ch1 Drain source voltage
Ch2 Supply voltage VCC
Ch2 Supply voltage VCC
Ch3 Feedback voltage Vfb
Ch3 Feedback voltage Vfb
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Test condition: load jump from 2.4A to 0.1A at 85Vac line
Test condition: load jump from 0A to 2.4A at 85Vac line
Application Note
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Figure 20 AC output ripple during 85Vac
Figure 21 AC output ripple during 265V
Ch1 AC output ripple div 50mv
Ch1 AC output ripple div 50mv
Ch2 Supply voltage VCC
Ch2 Supply voltage VCC
Ch3 Feed back voltage Vfb
Ch3 Feed back voltage Vfb
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Ch4 Current sense voltage
Measured with decouple capacitor 0.1uF+10uF, scope
bandwidth 20MHz
Measured with decouple capacitor 0.1uF+10uF, scope
bandwidth 20MHz
Test condition : 85V ac line, 5V/0.1A
Test condition : 265V ac line, 5V/0.1A
13
References
[1]
ICE2QR4765Z datasheet, Infineon Technologies AG, 2011
[2]
ICE2QS03G Design Guide Infineon Technologies AG,2010
[3]
Design Tips for flyback converters using the Quasi-Resonant (ANPS0005), Infineon Technologies
AG, 2006
[4]
Converter Design Using the Quasi-Resonant PWM Controller ICE2QS01 (ANPS0003), Infineon
Technologies AG, 2006
[5]
Determine the Switching Frequency of Quasi-Resonant Flyback Converters Designed with
ICE2QS01 (ANPS0004), Infineon Technologies AG, 2006
Application Note
19
4 August 2011
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