Advanced thermal protection for high power LEDs with 60 V LED controller IC ILD6150 02_02 | Mar 24, 2015 | PDF | 1.56 mb

ILD 6150
Advance d The rmal Prote cti on for Hi gh
Powe r LEDs wi th 60 V L ED D ri ve r IC IL D6 1 50
Application Note
About this document
Scope and purpose
This Application Note introduces Infineon’s Hysteritic Buck DC/DC LED driver ILD6150 for general lighting
application. It describes the demo board, performance as well as design ideas for various applications. The
ILD6150 offers high efficiency, various protection features, superior dimming performance & reliability for
high performance lighting system.
Intended audience
This document is intended for users, who wish to design high efficiency, high reliability lighting system with
Infineon’s ILD6150/ILD6070 DC/DC LED driver.
Table of Contents
About this document ................................................................................................................... 1
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................ 1
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
Introduction ............................................................................................................... 3
Features...................................................................................................................................................... 3
Applications ............................................................................................................................................... 4
Product Brief .............................................................................................................................................. 4
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
Application Information............................................................................................... 5
Schematic .................................................................................................................................................. 5
PCB Layout ................................................................................................................................................. 6
PCB Photo .................................................................................................................................................. 6
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Measurement Results .................................................................................................. 8
LED current vs supply voltage.................................................................................................................. 8
Analog dimming ......................................................................................................................................10
Contrast ratio...........................................................................................................................................12
Over temperature protection ................................................................................................................13
Efficiency ..................................................................................................................................................14
Transition from DC to switch mode ......................................................................................................15
Soft start ...................................................................................................................................................16
1
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Introduction
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
Over current protection ..........................................................................................................................18
PCB thermal resistance ..........................................................................................................................19
Thermal protection with NTC thermistor .............................................................................................20
Slow start with additional PMOS for hot swapping ............................................................................21
Driving of LEDs with current more than 1.5 A by external MOSFETs .................................................22
4
References ............................................................................................................... 23
Revision History........................................................................................................................ 23
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Introduction
1
Introduction
1.1
Features
•
Wide input voltage range from 4.5 V to 60 V
•
Capable to provide up to 1.5 A output current
•
Up to 1 MHz switching frequency
•
Soft-start capability
•
Analog and PWM dimming possible
•
Integrated PWM generator for analog dimming input
•
Typical 3 % output current accuracy
•
Very low LED current drift over temperature
•
Undervoltage lockout
•
Over current protection
•
Thermally optimized package: PG-DSO-8-27
•
Adjustable over temperature protection, reducing thermal load by decreasing the current
Figure 1
ILD6150
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Introduction
1.2
Applications
•
LED driver for general lighting
•
Retail, office and residential downlights
•
Street and tunnel lighting
•
LED ballasts
1.3
Product Brief
The ILD6150 is a hysteretic buck LED driver IC for driving high power LEDs in general lighting applications
with average currents up to 1.5 A.
The ILD6150 is suitable for LED applications with a wide range of supply voltages from 4.5 V to 60 V. A
multifunctional PWM input signal allows dimming of the LEDs with an analog DC voltage or an external PWM
signal. To minimize colorshifts of the LEDs an analog PWM voltage is converted to an internal 1.6 kHz PWM
signal modulating the LED current.
The ILD6150 incorporates an undervoltage lock-out that will shut down the IC when the minimum supply
voltage threshold is exceeded. The over-current protection turns off the output stage once the output
current exceeds the current threshold. An integrated over-temperature protection circuit will start to reduce
the LED current by internal PWM modulation once the adjustable junction temperature threshold of the IC is
exceeded. Realizing a thermal coupling between LED driver and LEDs this feature eliminates the need of
external temperature sensors as NTCs or PTCs.
The hysteretic concept the current control is extremely fast and always stable. A maximum contrast ratio of
3000:1 can be achieved depending of the dimensioning of the external components. The efficiency of the
LED driver is remarkable high, reaching up to 98 % of efficiency over a wide range. The output current
accuracy from device to device and under all load conditions and over temperature is limited to a minimum,
making ILD6150 the perfect fit for LED ballasts.
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Application Information
2
Application Information
In this application note, you will find more information about the demo board available for evaluation. The
demo board is configured to have an output current of 1 A. The operating voltage range for the demo board
can be from 4.5 V up to 60 V. The schematic, PCB layout and BOM list can be found in section 2.
2.1
Schematic
Figure 2
Schematic of the demonstration board
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Application Information
2.2
PCB Layout
Figure 3
PCB layout of the demonstration board
2.3
PCB Photo
Figure 4
PCB photo of the demonstration board
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Application Information
Table 1
Bill-Of-Materials
Symbol
Value
IC1
ILD6150
R1
Open
R2
Unit
Size
Manufacturer
Comment
DSO-8
INFINEON
Hysteretic Buck controller
and LED driver
1206
Current sense resistor
0.15
Ω
Ω
1206
Current sense resistor
R3
Open
Ω
1206
Current sense resistor
R4
Open
Ω
0805
Resistor for TSD adjustment
R6
0
Ω
0805
Series resistor for PWM pin
R7
Open
Ω
0805
Series resistor for Tadj pin
R9
Open
Ω
0805
Pull-up resistor for PWM pin
C1
4.7
µF
1812
TDK
C4532X7S2A475M, Ceramic,
100 V
C2
47
µF
G
PANASONIC
EEEFK1K470P, Electrolytic,
80 V
C3
Open
µF
1206
Filter capacitor for PWM pin
C4
Open
µF
1206
Filter capacitor for VB pin
C5
Open
µF
2220
Current ripple reduction
capacitor
J1
0
Ω
0805
Jumper
D1
B2100-13-F
L1
47
µH
SMB
DIODES INC.
Schottky diode, 100 V, 2 A
12 x 12 mm
EPCOS
Shielded Power Inductor
The demo boards are available on request. Please contact your local sales representative for the updated
information of the demo board’s status.
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3
Measurement Results
3.1
LED current vs supply voltage
The average LED current is determined by the value of the external current sense resistor (R sense), formed by
R1, R2 and R3 connected between Vs and Vsense. For ILD6150, the mean current sense threshold voltage is
152mV. The equation that determines the output LED current is given:
 =
 −  152
=


The target current setting for the demo board is 1 A. Based on above equation the Rsense is equal to 0.152 Ω. A
resistor at the value of 0.15 Ω is chosen for the demo board.
The measurement results in this session are based on the condition below, unless otherwise specified:
Table 2
Typical condition for measurement
Vs
Rsense
Inductance
LED load
48 V
0.15 Ω
47 µH
12 pcs
Figure 5 shows the actual operating waveforms. The actual measured V sense average voltage under this
condition is 150 mV, and the LED current is 1 A. The switching frequency is 467 kHz and the internal DMOS
transistor on duty-cycle is 73.8 %.
Vsense voltage
LED current
Vdrain voltage
Figure 5
Normal operation waveforms
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
The ILD6150 offer a high accuracy of output current despite the changes in supply voltage. Figure 6 shows
the output current vs supply voltage from the range of 40 V to 60 V. Over the supply range from 40 V to 60 V,
the output LED current only deviated by 2 %.
ILED
1.2
LED Current (A)
1.15
1.1
1.05
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
40
45
50
55
60
Supply Voltage (V)
Figure 6
Output LED current vs suppy voltage
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.2
Analog dimming
The multifunctional PWM input pin allows dimming of the LEDs with an analog DC voltage. To minimize the
colorshifts of the LEDs, the analog DC voltage is converted into a 1.6 kHz PWM signal modulating the LED
current.
The linear range of the analog dimming is from 0.5 V to 2.5 V. LEDs is fully turned on for voltage above 2.5 V
and fully turned off for voltage below 0.5 V.
Figure 7 shows the analog dimming ratio vs PWM pin voltage.
Analog Dimming Ratio Vs PWM voltage
Analog Dimming Ratio (%)
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
PWM Voltage (V)
Figure 7
Analog dimming ratio vs PWM pin voltage
Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the waveforms while the PWM pin voltage is equan to 1V and 2V. The output
current is modulated by the internal PWM signal at 1.6 kHz.
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
Vsense voltage
Vdrain voltage
LED current
Figure 8
Output waveforms at VPWM = 1 V
Vsense voltage
Vdrain voltage
LED current
Figure 9
Output waveforms at VPWM = 2 V
The multifunctional PWM pin allows both analog and PWM input for dimming control. However, it should
not be operated with combining both analog and PWM input. For example, input a PWM signal with the
input voltage of low level = 0 V and high level = 1.5 V, the output current will be modulated by the internal
and external PWM frequency.
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.3
Contrast ratio
The contrast ratio of a system depends on the dimensioning of the external components, PWM frequency as
well as supply voltage. The definition of the contrast ratio (CR) is given as:
 =
1

Where
 =
=
 + 

1

Figure 10 shows the relationship of the PWM and LED current waveforms.
Figure 10
Contrast ratio definitions
Figure 11 shows the PWM and LED current waveform and Table 3 shows the measurement results for the
demo board.
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
Vdrain voltage
(PWM)’ voltage
LED current
Figure 11
Contrast ratio – PWM and LED current waveforms
Table 3
Contrast ratio calculation
fPWM
T
tD
tSU
DMIN
CR
500 Hz
2 ms
1 µs
2.32 µs
1.66 x 10-3
600
200 Hz
5 ms
1 µs
2.32 µs
6.64 x 10
-4
1500
100 Hz
10 ms
1 µs
2.32 µs
3.32 x 10
-4
3000
With the PWM frequency of 500 Hz, the contrast ratio of 600:1 can be achieved. On the other hand, with the
PWM frequency of 100 Hz, the contrast ratio of 3000:1 can be achieved.
3.4
Over temperature protection
The ILD6150 feature with an integrated over temperature protection (OTP) circuit will start to reduce the
LED current by internal PWM modulation once the adjustable junction temperature threshold of the IC is
exceeded. The OTP profile can be adjusted by using a resistor connect between between the Tadj pin and
GND pin.
Figure 12 shows the measurement results of OTP profile with output LED current’s duty cycle vs junction
temperature of the ILD6150 by using 0 Ω, 10 kΩ, 20 kΩ, 35 kΩ and open at Tadj pin.
With the adjustable OTP, it offers a great flexibility which the starting point of the current reduction at high
temperature can be designed according to LED lamp requirement. This new OTP feature offers a great
flexibility for the adjustable of the roll-off temperature and eliminates the use of the NTC/PTC thermistor in
the system.
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
Iout Duty Cycle vs Tj
R_Tadj = 0 Ohm
R_Tadj = 10k Ohm
R_Tadj = 36k Ohm
R_Tadj = Open
R_Tadj = 20k Ohm
Iout Duty cycle (%)
120.0%
100.0%
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%
0.0%
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Tj (°C)
Figure 12
Over temperature protection
3.5
Efficiency
The measurement results of efficiency of the system for Vs = 40 V to 60 V can be found in Figure 13. For 12pcs
LED as a load, the efficiency is keep above 92 % to 96 % in the voltage range from 40 V to 60 V.
Efficiency
1.00
Efficiency
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
40
45
50
55
60
Supply Voltage (V)
Figure 13
Efficiency vs Supply voltage
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.6
Transition from DC to switch mode
While the input supply voltage is lesser or close to the LEDs load forward voltage’s requirement, the output
current is not reaching the target setting value. Under this condition, the ILD6150 is working in the DC mode,
meaning that the DMOS is fully turned on and no switching activities.
One of the nice features that ILD6150 offer is during the transition from the DC mode to switch mode, it will
not have any overshoot in the output current.
Figure 14 shows the LED current measurement results for the entire operating voltage range from 4.5 V to 60
V, Rsense = 0.1 Ω with different number of LEDs as load.
Figure 14
LED current at the transition from DC to switch mode
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.7
Soft start
The soft start of the LED light can be achieved by adding a capacitor at the PWM pin. The ILD6150 having an
internal current source of 18 µA will charge up the capacitor at the PWM pin from 0 V to 4.7 V linearly. The
soft start timing can be calculated using below equation:
=
∴  =


 × 

Refer to the specification of the analog dimming; the linear range of the output current from 0 % to 100 % is
within the range from 0.67 V to 2.43 V. Hence the value of dv is equal to 1.76 V and the current i is equal to 18
µA.
For example if a capacitor in the value of 10 µF is connected to the PWM pin, the soft start timing for the light
output from 0 % to 100 % require 0.978 second.
Figure 15 shows the LED current waveform which modulated by the PWM signal from 0 % to 100 % output.
The actual measurement result for the soft start is 1.08 second. Figure 16 shows the average of the LED
current during the soft start-up phase.
LED current
Figure 15
Soft-start with 10 µF at the PWM pin
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
Average LED Current
Average LED current (A)
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
Time (s)
Figure 16
Average of LED current during the soft start with 10 µF at the PWM pin
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.8
Over current protection
The ILD6150 feature with over current protection (OCP), in case when the R sense is shorted accidentally, the
driver will not be damaged by the large current flowing through the internal MOSFET. However, the over
current protection feature does not guarantee the protection for the LEDs load. This is because different
type of LEDs having different maximum rating on the current specification. The threshold current to trigger
the OCP for ILD6150 is 2.5 A.
Figure 17 below shows the waveforms where the ILD6150 in the OCP mode. The R sense is shorted, the LEDs
load is replaced by a 3 Ω resistor and input supply voltage is 20 V.
During the OCP, the MOSFET will be turned off for about 60 µs when the 2.5 A current threshold is reached.
Vdrain voltage
Vsense voltage
LED current
Figure 17
Over current protection waveforms
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.9
PCB thermal resistance
As a reference for designing the surface area for the grounding for the PCB using FR4 to achieve a certain
thermal resistance between desired solder point temperature and expected ambient temperature, the
following chart can be used.
Figure 18
Thermal resistance of PCB-FR4 versus ground copper area
The data in the above Figure 18 were measured with the following conditions:

Two copper layers.

2 oz copper (70 µm thick) and board thickness of about 1.6 mm.

FR4 material.

No forced convection.

No heat sink.

No special mask opening for improved heat dissipation.

In the chart, only three points are marked by diamond symbol. These are measured data. The
broken line represents intermediate points which can be derived by linear interpolation.
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.10
Thermal protection with NTC thermistor
The build in thermal protection offers flexibility for the adjustment of roll-off temperature. However, the
ILD6150 is required to be placed near the LEDs lamp to optimize this feature.
In case where the ILD6150 is placed far away from the LEDs (for example, in the electronic control gear), an
external NTC thermistor can be used to realize the thermal protection. The NTC thermistor shall be placed
near to the LEDs to sense the temperature of the LEDs accurately. Please refer to Figure 19 for the
schematic. When the NTC thermistor is heated up, the resistance of the thermistor will drop and the voltage
on the PWM pin will decrease. As the DC voltage on the PWM pin decreased, the output LED current will be
reduced by analog dimming and the temperature of the LEDs will be reduced also.
Figure 19
Thermal sensing with NTC thermistor
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.11
Slow start with additional PMOS for hot swapping
In the event where the LED light is require for hot swappable, there is a possibility where the rise time of Vs
voltage is very fast. In order to prevent the fast rising time of the Vs which might trigger the internal ESD
structure of the ILD6150, it is require a larger blocking capacitor on the Vs pin as described in the datasheet,
page 10.
To address this, with an additional PMOS by means of limiting the current flow during the hot swapping
allows user to choose a smaller size of ceramic capacitor. Figure 20 shows the option of using the PMOS for
hot swapping application with a smaller size of capacitor.
Figure 20
Schematic of additional PMOS circuitry
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
Measurement Results
3.12
Driving of LEDs with current more than 1.5 A by external MOSFETs
The build-in MOSFET in the ILD6150 limits the output current up to 1.5 A. In the situation where the LED
current of more than 1.5 A is needed, the ILD6070 can be used as a controller to drive an external MOSFET in
order to boost the output current. This chapter describes the design idea on how to achieve higher output
current for driving high power LEDs.
Figure 21 shows the schematic example of applying ILD6070 as a controller and additional components. The
extra components required are: 2 pull-up resistors, 2 zener diodes and 2 MOSFETs. The zener diodes at the
gates are to prevent the Vgs breakdown of the external MOSFETs as the Vs could be higher than the
maximum rating of the MOSFETs.
The ILD6070 is a DC/DC LED driver with build in MOSFET up to 700 mA. For more information about the
ILD6070, refer to next chapter - References for the link to datasheet.
Figure 21
ILD6070 as a controller to drive external MOSFETs for high power LED application
Application Note
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Advanced Thermal Protection for High Power LEDs with 60V LED Driver IC ILD6150
References
4
References
Please refer to the ILD6150 Datasheet for more information:
Link to ILD6150 Data sheet
Please refer to the ILD6150 Datasheet for more information:
Link to ILD6070 Data sheet
Revision History
Major changes since the last revision
Page or Reference
Description of change
Revision 1.0
Figure 2
Schematic updated
Revision 1.1
Table 1
EN pin changes to VB pin
Figure 2
Schematic updated
Figure 3
Schematic updated
Figure 4
Schematic updated
Revision 2.1
16
Additional – Soft start
17
Additional – Over current protection
13
Additional – Contrast ratio waveforms and CR at 200Hz
1
Tittle description
5
Features description
18
Additional – PCB thermal resistance
19
Additional – Thermal protection with NTC thermistor
Revision 2.2
21
Additional - Slow start with additional PMOS for hot swapping
22
Additional - Driving of LEDs with current more than 1.5 A by external MOSFETs
Application Note
23
Revision 2.2, 20 March 2015
Trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG
AURIX™, C166™, CanPAK™, CIPOS™, CIPURSE™, CoolGaN™, CoolMOS™, CoolSET™, CoolSiC™, CORECONTROL™, CROSSAVE™, DAVE™, DI -POL™, DrBLADE™,
EasyPIM™, EconoBRIDGE™, EconoDUAL™, EconoPACK™, EconoPIM™, EiceDRIVER™, eupec™, FCOS™, HITFET™, HybridPACK™, ISOFACE™, IsoPACK™, iWafer™, MIPAQ™, ModSTACK™, my-d™, NovalithIC™, OmniTune™, OPTIGA™, OptiMOS™, ORIGA™, POWERCODE™, PRIMARION™, PrimePACK™,
PrimeSTACK™, PROFET™, PRO-SIL™, RASIC™, REAL3™, ReverSave™, SatRIC™, SIEGET™, SIPMOS™, SmartLEWIS™, SOLID FLASH™, SPOC™, TEMPFET™,
thinQ!™, TRENCHSTOP™, TriCore™.
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USA. muRata™ of MURATA MANUFACTURING CO., MICROWAVE OFFICE™ (MWO) of Applied Wave Research Inc., OmniVision™ of OmniVision Technologies,
Inc. Openwave™ of Openwave Systems Inc. RED HAT™ of Red Hat, Inc. RFMD™ of RF Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUS™ of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. SOLARIS™ of
Sun Microsystems, Inc. SPANSION™ of Spansion LLC Ltd. Symbian™ of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO YUDEN™ of Taiyo Yuden Co. TEAKLITE™ of CEVA,
Inc. TEKTRONIX™ of Tektronix Inc. TOKO™ of TOKO KABUSHIKI KAISHA TA. UNIX™ of X/Open Company Limited. VERILOG™, PALLADIUM™ of Cadence
Design Systems, Inc. VLYNQ™ of Texas Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKS™, WIND RIVER™ of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEX™ of Diodes Zetex
Limited.
Last Trademarks Update 2014-07-17
www.infineon.com
Edition 20 March 2015
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
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