AP32301 - XMC4000 - Digital to Analog Converter(DAC)

XMC 4000
32-bit Microcontroller Series for Industrial Applications
D igital to An alog Converter (DAC )
AP32301
Application Note
About this document
Scope and purpose
This document describes the features of the DAC peripheral and how to configure it for common cases such
as data processing, pattern generation and noise generation.
Applicable Products

XMC4000 Microcontrollers Family
References
Infineon: Example code: http://www.infineon.com/XMC4000 Tab: Documents
Infineon: XMC Lib, http://www.infineon.com/DAVE
Infineon: DAVE™, http://www.infineon.com/DAVE
Infineon: XMC Reference Manual, http://www.infineon.com/XMC4000 Tab: Documents
Infineon: XMC Data Sheet, http://www.infineon.com/XMC4000 Tab: Documents
V1.0
1
2015-07
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About this document .....................................................................................................................1
Table of Contents ..........................................................................................................................2
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) ...................................................................................3
XMC DAC operation modes ................................................................................................................. 3
XMC DAC input types ........................................................................................................................... 4
XMC DAC data refinement ................................................................................................................... 5
Basic DAC equations ........................................................................................................................... 6
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
Single Value mode .........................................................................................................7
XMC Lib configuration ......................................................................................................................... 7
XMC Lib initialization ........................................................................................................................... 8
Function implementation ................................................................................................................... 8
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
Data Processing mode ...................................................................................................9
XMC Lib configuration ......................................................................................................................... 9
XMC Lib initialization ........................................................................................................................... 9
Function implementation ................................................................................................................. 10
4
4.1
4.2
Pattern Generator mode .............................................................................................. 11
XMC Lib configuration ....................................................................................................................... 12
XMC Lib initialization ......................................................................................................................... 12
5
5.1
5.2
Noise Generator mode ................................................................................................. 13
XMC Lib configuration ....................................................................................................................... 14
XMC Lib initialization ......................................................................................................................... 14
6
6.1
6.2
Ramp Generator mode ................................................................................................ 15
XMC Lib configuration ....................................................................................................................... 16
XMC Lib initialization ......................................................................................................................... 16
7
Revision History .......................................................................................................... 17
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
1
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
Vdd
Binary
input
Figure 1
D
A
Analog
signal
output
Digital to Analog Converter
A digital to analog converter is a module to convert one or multiple bits digital value into an analog value. It
is defined through:

resolution

conversation rate

offset

accuracy of the analog output

drive capability
The DAC refill method has an influence on the system performance. To reduce the load on the CPU, the DAC
can be refilled by Direct Memory Access (DMA) or the DAC module itself provides waveform generating parts.
In addition in some applications a data refinement, for example a static offset or multiplication, is
necessary.
1.1
XMC DAC operation modes
The DAC module provides five operation modes:
Figure 2
DAC modes overview
The modes differentiate in the refill method to reduce the CPU load. The operation modes are described in
the following sections.
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
1.2
XMC DAC input types
For each operation mode a specific input type is available.
Single Value [12 Bit]
Data-FIFO [12 Bit]
Pattern [6 Bit]
Noise [12 Bit]
Ramp [12 Bit]
Output stage [12 Bit]
+
x
>>
Offset [8 Bit]
Negate [+/-]
Bit shift [L/R 7 Bit ]
Figure 3
DAC input types and data manipulation
The Single Value input provides a fast access to the analog output. This input is used for non-periodic or
software controlled output.
The Data-FIFO input enables the fill stage and the DAC output stage to be decoupled. This input is used for
periodic updates. The refill can be done by software (SW) or hardware (HW) via DMA trigger.
The Pattern generator has a 6 bit output. A customized symmetric pattern can be generated, where the first
quarter of the pattern is defined by the user.
The Noise generator provides a pseudo random value with 12 bit resolution.
The Ramp generator provides a ramp with 12 bit resolution, where the value is increased by each clock cycle
and the start and stop value can be defined by the user.
The five inputs represent also the five modes of the DAC

Single Value input:
Single Value mode

Data-FIFO input:
Data Processing mode

Pattern input:
Pattern Generator mode

Noise input:
Noise Generator mode

Ramp input:
Ramp Generator mode
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
1.3
XMC DAC data refinement
The Output stage is the 12 bit value which is transformed into an analog value. It can be interpreted as
unsigned or signed value. In unsigned mode, a 0 is interpreted as lowest analog value. In signed mode, a 0
generates the center voltage. The data can be refined between input and the Output stage. The refinement
options are: Offset, Negate and Bit shift.
The XMC provides an 8 bit Offset which is added to the input. The sign interpretation of the Offset follows
the Output stage.
A Negate bit inverts the sign of the input. This can be used with the Single Value or Data Processing mode
as HW inversion, in the Pattern Generator mode to start with a negative half wave or in Ramp Generator
mode to generate a falling ramp. The negate bit is available on specific devices only.
The Bit shift allows a multiplication or division of the input. This means the input can either multiplied or
divided by 21 to 27 [2…128]. This can then used for the following use cases:

scaling in Single Value or Data Processing mode

scale the pattern from the Pattern Generator mode to the DAC output range

reduce the scale in the Noise Generator mode

expand the minimum and maximum frequency in the Ramp Generator mode
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
1.4
Basic DAC equations
The transformation from unsigned output stage to analog value can be done with following calculations.

DECtarget
Target decimal value in the DAC output register

S_DECtarget
Target signed decimal value in the DAC output register

DECres
Decimal resolution of the DAC

Vtarget
Target DAC output Voltage

Vmax
Maximum DAC output Voltage

Voffset
DAC offset Voltage
DACres, Vmax and Voffset can be found in the Datasheet.
If the Output stage is interpreted as signed, the following calculations can be used:
The following example shows the equations with Vmax=2.5V, Voffset=0.3V, DACres=(212-1):
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Single Value mode
2
Single Value mode
The single value mode can be used for simple digital to analog conversion. Writing to the DATA Register
leads to a change of the analogue output. The DAC can be modified to accept unsigned or signed data. The
following data refinement is available: offset, scaling and negation.
If channel 0 and channel 1 are used and have to be updated simultaneously, the synchronization feature can
be used. In this mode the data for both channels can be written into one register. With a trigger of channel 0
both values are updated. A trigger can either be a software trigger or a pseudo write access to the original
channel 0 data register.
2.1
XMC Lib configuration
This example shows two DAC configurations in Single Value mode. The DACs are filled by software. If a new
value is written into the data register it is emitted with the next DAC clock. The channels are not
synchronized. The first channel is configured for unsigned, the second for signed values. Both channels do
not use the scaling and negation feature. Both channels are initialized with the corresponding configuration:
Channel 0 as unsigned DAC and channel 1 as signed DAC.
#define DAC_CH_NR_0
#define DAC_CH_NR_1
0U
1U
XMC_DAC_CH_CONFIG_t ch_config0=
{
.output_offset =
0U,
.data_type
=
XMC_DAC_CH_DATA_TYPE_UNSIGNED,
.output_scale
=
XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_SCALE_NONE,
.output_negation =
XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_NEGATION_DISABLED,
};
XMC_DAC_CH_CONFIG_t ch_config1=
{
.output_offset =
0U,
.data_type
=
XMC_DAC_CH_DATA_TYPE_SIGNED,
.output_scale
=
XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_SCALE_NONE,
.output_negation =
XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_NEGATION_DISABLED,
};
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Single Value mode
2.2
XMC Lib initialization
The DAC channel is initialized in general and then configured to the specific mode.
XMC_DAC_CH_Init(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0, &ch_config0);
XMC_DAC_CH_Init(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_1, &ch_config1);
After the initialization the DAC mode is changed to “Single Value Mode”.
XMC_DAC_CH_StartSingleValueMode(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0);
XMC_DAC_CH_StartSingleValueMode(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_1);
2.3
Function implementation
And the DAC channels are filled with the value 0. As the channel 0 is configured as unsigned the zero will be
interpreted as minimum voltage. While the channel 1 is configured as signed the value zero will be
interpreted as center voltage. Channel 0 needs to be filled with unsigned 12 bit values and channel 1 with
signed 12 bit values. The “XMC_DAC_CH_Write()” function can be called periodically in order to update and
trigger the DAC conversion. The call frequency should not exceed the maximum DAC update frequency.
XMC_DAC_CH_Write(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0, 0x0000U);
XMC_DAC_CH_Write(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_1, 0x0000U);
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Data Processing mode
3
Data Processing mode
The Data Processing mode is similar to the Single Value mode expect that it supports an interrupt based
reload of the DAC. The reload does not trigger a conversion and can be done via DMA or SW.
The Data Processing mode allows large and precise tables for waveform generation, where data are stored
in the flash or RAM.
3.1
XMC Lib configuration
This example shows a DAC configuration in Data Processing mode. When a trigger occurs the DAC is filled by
software in the interrupt service routine (ISR). The DAC module generates a trigger with 10 kHz by itself.
#define DAC_CH_NR_0
#define Trigger_ISR
0U
DAC0_0_IRQHandler
XMC_DAC_CH_CONFIG_t ch_config0=
{
.output_offset
=
0U,
.data_type
=
XMC_DAC_CH_DATA_TYPE_UNSIGNED,
.output_scale
=
XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_SCALE_NONE,
.output_negation =
XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_NEGATION_DISABLED,
};
3.2
XMC Lib initialization
The DAC channel is initialized in general and then configured to the specific mode.
XMC_DAC_CH_Init(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0, &ch_config0);
After the general initialization the DAC needs to be configured to Data Process mode (“DataMode”). The DAC
trigger is generated by the DAC module. Therefore the frequency is set to 10 kHz. If an external trigger is
used, the frequency selection is not required and can be set to zero. After the DAC is initialized, the DAC
event and service request are enabled.
XMC_DAC_CH_StartDataMode(XMC_DAC0,DAC_CH_NR_0,
XMC_DAC_CH_TRIGGER_INTERNAL,
10000U);
XMC_DAC_CH_EnableEvent(XMC_DAC0,DAC_CH_NR_0);
NVIC_EnableIRQ(DAC0_0_IRQn);
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Data Processing mode
3.3
Function implementation
In the DAC0 ISR the new value from the data table is written into the DATA register.
void DAC0_0_IRQHandler(void)
{
XMC_DAC_CH_Write(XMC_DAC0,DAC_CH_NR_0,table_u[table_i]);
table_i++;
if(table_i>=LENGTH_OF_TABLE)
{table_i=0;}
};
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Pattern Generator mode
4
Pattern Generator mode
The Pattern Generator mode generates a pattern without software load. One quarter of the waveform needs
to be defined. The rest of the waveform is generated by horizontal and vertical mirroring of the first quarter.
31
16
0
Figure 4
012345678
DAC pattern configuration
Pattern 8 to 1
Configured
Pattern -8 to -1
Copied
Horizontal
Copied
Pattern 0 to 7
Vertical
Copied
Vertical
&
Horizontal
Pattern -0 to -7
Figure 5
DAC pattern wave
The wave is fixed to a length resolution of 32 steps and an amplitude resolution of 64 steps. The 6 bit
amplitude resolution can be scaled to reach the 12 bit DAC output.
With negation enabled the wave starts inverted:
Normal
16
Figure 6
Negated
32
16
32
DAC Pattern negated
An offset can also be added. The offset is in the Pattern Generator scale (6 bit). If a scaling is added, the
pattern is scaled after adding the offset.
The Pattern Generator also provides a sign output. This can be used to trigger the ADC or routed through the
ERU to trigger other peripherals such as a timer. The signal can also be routed through the ERU to a GPIO.
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Pattern Generator mode
4.1
XMC Lib configuration
This example shows how the DAC can be configured in Pattern Generator mode. Channel 0 is configured to
generate a 500Hz sine wave. The output of the Pattern Generator is a 6 bit signed data. Therefore the DAC is
configured in signed mode. To reach the 12 bit DAC scale the data need to be multiplied by 64 (shifted by 6
bit). Neither the offset nor the negation is used.
The channel 0 is initialized with the corresponding configuration:
#define DAC_CH_NR_0
0U
XMC_DAC_CH_CONFIG_t ch_config0=
{
.output_offset =
0U,
.data_type
= XMC_DAC_CH_DATA_TYPE_SIGNED,
.output_scale
= XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_SCALE_MUL_64,
.output_negation = XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_NEGATION_DISABLED,
};
4.2
XMC Lib initialization
The DAC channel is initialized in general and then configured to the specific mode.
XMC_DAC_CH_Init(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0, &ch_config0);
After the general initialization the DAC needs to be configured to Pattern Generator mode (“PatternMode”).
One of the three predefined patterns, the sine pattern, is used. The sign output is disabled, the DAC clock
source is set to intern and the pattern frequency is set to 500Hz.
const uint8_t pattern[] = XMC_DAC_PATTERN_SINE;
XMC_DAC_CH_StartPatternMode(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0,
pattern,
XMC_DAC_CH_PATTERN_SIGN_OUTPUT_DISABLED,
XMC_DAC_CH_TRIGGER_INTERNAL,
500);
An additional function implementation is not necessary.
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Noise Generator mode
5
Noise Generator mode
The noise generator mode provides a 20 bit linear feedback shift register to produce a pseudo random
number. The 12 bit random numbers are sampled with the preselected trigger. The output can be
additionally scrambled by changing the scaling, the offset, the negation and the signed/unsigned
interpretation at runtime.
By using negative scaling (division by 2x) the amplitude can be limited. If the Output stage is interpreted as
signed value, an offset of half the DAC output is generated.
Unsigned
output stage
Signed
output stage
t
t
Figure 7
DAC noise sign and unsigned output stage
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Noise Generator mode
5.1
XMC Lib configuration
In this example the DAC is configured in Noise Generator mode. The output of the noise generator is 12 bit
unsigned data. Therefore the offset is set to zero, the data type is set to unsigned and the scaling and the
negation are disabled.
The channel 0 is initialized with the corresponding configuration:
#define DAC_CH_NR_0
0U
XMC_DAC_CH_CONFIG_t ch_config0 =
{
.output_offset =
0U,
.data_type
= XMC_DAC_CH_DATA_TYPE_UNSIGNED,
.output_scale
= XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_SCALE_NONE,
.output_negation = XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_NEGATION_DISABLED,
};
5.2
XMC Lib initialization
The DAC channel is initialized in general and then configured to the specific mode.
XMC_DAC_CH_Init(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0, &ch_config0);
After the general initialization the DAC needs to be configured to Noise Generator mode (“NoiseMode”). The
DAC clock source is set to internal and the noise frequency is set to 50 kHz.
XMC_DAC_CH_StartNoiseMode(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0,
XMC_DAC_CH_TRIGGER_INTERNAL,
50000U);
An additional function implementation is not necessary.
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Ramp Generator mode
6
Ramp Generator mode
The Ramp Generator mode generates a voltage ramp with a 12 bit resolution. The amplitude is defined by
the start and stop value. The slope is defined by the clock input.
stop
start
t
Figure 8
DAC ramp mode
The negation feature allows also a negative ramp. The negation bit builds the 2’s complement of the start
and stop value in 12 bit format. Therefore the initial start and stop values also need to be 2’s complement
format and swapped. For example original start value is 100U and stop value is 3500U. The 2’s complement
of 100 in 12 bit format is 3996U and of 3500U is 569U. Now the values need to be swapped. The new start
value is 596U and stop value is 3996U.
stop
stop
start
start
t
Figure 9
t
DAC ramp positive and negative slope
With the scaling feature minimum and maximum ramp frequency can be enlarged:
The slope of the ramp is defined by the DAC clock. Each clock cycle increases the digital output by one.
When small amplitudes are used, this can limit the minimum ramp frequency. This can be compensated by
doubling the start and stop value and adding a negative scale 2x-1.
This can also be done in the opposite way. Full scaled amplitude limits the maximum ramp frequency. This
can be changed by halving the start and stop values and multiplying two. This reduces the ramp resolution.
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Ramp Generator mode
6.1
XMC Lib configuration
This example configures a DAC channel in Ramp Generator mode. The Ramp Generator output is a 12 bit
unsigned value. Therefore the DAC channel is configured as unsigned and unscaled. The offset and the
negation are disabled.
#define DAC_CH_NR_0
0U
XMC_DAC_CH_CONFIG_t ch_config0=
{
.output_offset =
0U,
.data_type
= XMC_DAC_CH_DATA_TYPE_UNSIGNED,
.output_scale
= XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_SCALE_NONE,
.output_negation = XMC_DAC_CH_OUTPUT_NEGATION_DISABLED,
};
6.2
XMC Lib initialization
The DAC channel is initialized in general and then configured to the specific mode.
XMC_DAC_CH_Init(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0, &ch_config0);
After the general initialization the DAC needs to be configured to Ramp Generator mode (“RampMode”). The
START_VALUE is defined as 80 the STOP_VALUE as 3500. The DAC clock source is set to internal and the
ramp frequency is set to 500Hz.
#define START_VALUE
#define STOP_VALUE
80
3500
XMC_DAC_CH_StartRampMode(XMC_DAC0, DAC_CH_NR_0,
START_VALUE,
STOP_VALUE,
XMC_DAC_CH_TRIGGER_INTERNAL,
500U);
An additional function implementation is not necessary.
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Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
AP32301
Revision History
7
Revision History
Current Version is V1.0, 2015-07
Page or Reference
Description of change
V1.0, 2015-07
Initial Version
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Application Note
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Edition 2015-07
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