Highly Integrated and Performance Optimized 32-bit Microcontrollers for Automotive and Industrial Applications www.infineon.com/TriCore 2 Contents TriCore™ Family Concept 04 TriCore™ Based Product Roadmap 06 PRO-SIL™ Safety Concept 07 TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications 08 TriCore™ for Safety Applications 18 TriCore™ for Body Applications 28 TriCore™ for Industrial Applications 30 AUDO Family System Architecture 36 AURIX™ Family System Architecture 44 Embedded Software (AUTOSAR etc.) 48 Development Support 52 Tool Partners 54 3 Evolution of TriCore™ Generations In 1999, Infineon launched the first generation of AUDO (AUtomotive unifieD processOr) family. Based on a unified RISC/MCU/DSP processor core, this 32-bit TriCore™ micro controller was a computational power horse. And the company has evolved and optimized the concept ever since – culminating in what is now the fourth TriCore™ generation. Based on the TriCore™ architecture, the new AUDO MAX family (version 1.6) sets a new performance standard for automotive microcontrollers. The TriCore™ success story is continuing with the introduction of the AURIX™ multicore family. AURIX™ combines easy‑to‑use functional safety support, strong increase in performance and a future-proven security solution in a highly scalable product family. AUDO AUDO NG (Next Generation) AUDO Future AUDO MAX AURIX™ Infineon’s AUDO families are designed to handle highly complex algorithms. They are the perfect match for gasoline and diesel engine management systems – meeting rising market demands for lower emissions and higher efficiency levels. These trends are being accelerated by the Euro 5 and Euro 6 standards and increasingly stringent CO2 regulations. In addition to engine management, the AUDO family is also ideal for applications in hybrid and electric vehicles as well as for transmission, active and passive safety and chassis applications. TriCore™-based products also deliver the versatility required for the industrial sector, excelling in optimized motor control applications and signal processing. Infineon’s broad product portfolio allows engineers to choose from a wide range of memories, peripheral sets, frequencies, temperatures and packaging options. All of these features are fully compatible across generations. The new core is platform-compatible and can be used with software developed on existing controllers. Safety software is also available to help manufacturers meet SIL/ASIL safety standards. All members of the AUDO family are binary-compatible and share the same development tools. An AUTOSAR library that enables existing code ready for integration is also available. 4 Family Highlights Compatibility and scalability Lowest system cost Industry benchmark system performance Easy to use Broad portfolio Certiﬁed to automotive standards Applications Powertrain Gasoline Direct Injection Multi-Port Injection Diesel Direct Injection Automatic Transmission – Hydraulic Control Dry Double Clutch Transmission – Hydraulic Control Dry Double Clutch Transmission – Electrical Control Integrated (H)EV Control (H)EV Battery Management System Gasoline Safety Chassis Domain Control Power Steering (EPS) Active Suspension Control System Advanced Airbag System Braking ECU Multi-purpose Camera Configuration Short Range RADAR (24GHz) System Long Range RADAR (76/77GHz) System Electric Body Industrial & Multimarket Body Domain Controller Gateway Advanced Body Applications Mobile Controller Inverter Wind Turbine Inverter Solar Panel 5 TriCore™ Based Product Roadmap Segment Production 2013 2014 AUDO Family 130 AURIX™ Family 90 65 TC29x TC1798 300MHz, 8M 300MHz, 4MB TC1797 180MHz, 4MB High End TC1197 180MHz, 2/4MB EBU 2015 TC290 300MHz, 8M Bare Die TC1793 270MHz, 4MB TC1791 240MHz, 4MB TC27x TC1387 200MHz, 4M 150MHz, 3M TC270 200MHz, 4M Bare Die TC1746 TC1768 133MHz, 3M Bare Die Mid Range 180MHz, 2.5M Transmission TC1784 TC26x 200MHz, 2.5M 180MHz, 2.5MB TC1367 150MHz, 2MB TC1782 180MHz, 2.5MB TC1767 80/133MHz, 2MB TC1167 TC260 200MHz, 2.5M Bare Die TC23x 133MHz, 1MB 200MHz, 2M TC1728 133MHz, 1.5MB TC1724 TC24x 133MHz, 1.5M 133MHz, 1.5MB Low End TC22x 133MHz, 1M TC1736 TC21x 80MHz, 1MB Companion ICs xx 6 100MHz, 0.5M CIC61508 Safety IC Engine, Safety & Chassis Body Production Transmission Development Industrial & Multimarket Concept Technology PRO-SIL™ Infineon’s PRO-SIL™ Program, Designed to Protect The functional complexity and levels of integration of real-time safety-critical applications continue to increase exponentially. In addition, the product life cycle of these applications has to meet stringent safety standards. Norms such as IEC 61508 and ISO 26262 mandate more robust and comprehensive product development processes and functional safety concepts in automotive and industrial applications. Infineon’s PRO-SIL™ safety program is designed to ease and speed up your automotive and industrial design to comply with such standards. Across the full certification spectrum from Safety Integrity Levels (SIL) 1 to 4 and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASIL) A to D, our end-to-end PRO-SIL™ approach will help you select the right hardware, software and functional safety concepts to meet your design and compliance needs. PRO-SIL™ Highlights Broad hardware portfolio from sensors to microcontrollers, along with analog and power management ICs providing SIL-supporting features. For ISO 26262 PRO-SIL™ products, safety concepts are in place to enable the required safety measures, testing, monitoring and diagnostics capabilities for your safety architecture. Comprehensive safety software packages for seamless integration are in place, such as the SafeTlib software for Infineon’s AURIX™ microcontroller family Full range of support services – from consulting and design advice, including training, documentation and technical support – can be provided. Safety-focused organization and project management based on Infineon’s Zero Defect Program, Safety Culture and Quality Management System are in place. Infineon’s PRO-SIL™ logo guides you to our products (HW, SW, Safety Documentation) with SIL-supporting features. These products will simplify the implementation of customers’ system design and improve time-to-market in achieving the desired functional safety level compliance. PRO-SIL™ Benefits Scalability Enables system design in line with diﬀerent IEC 61508 and ISO 26262 ASIL Compliant to IEC 61508, ISO 26262 CMM level 3 High diagnostic coverage Satisfy requirement for startup and runtime testing Application independence From chassis through body to powertrain AUTOSAR supported Standard AUTOSAR can be used Free evaluation version From sales contact 7 TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Energy Efficiency for Combustion Engine Vehicles Electronic automotive components are key to raising fuel efficiency levels and cutting emissions. The latest environment protection agency standards – Euro 5 and Euro 6 for passenger cars and Euro 3 and Euro 4 for motorcycles – are driving developments in advanced engine management. TriCore™-based products can be found in improved combustion technologies such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) as well as in direct injection, smart turbocharger and valve actuation applications. They are also ideal for a range of innovative transmission technologies such as Double Clutch Transmission (DCT) and modern Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT). Driving Hybrid and Electrification While excelling in fuel economy, being fun-to-drive and reducing CO2 emissions, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and Electric Vehicles (EV) have the drawbacks of higher cost, limited drive-range and safety concerns (e.g. risk of battery over-charging). TriCore™ products, with their high performance, functional integration and application-based SW support, are the ideal solution for (H)EV motor drives. TriCore™ offers less than 6% CPU load at 180MHz frequency, for the complete Field Oriented Control (FOC) algorithm. TriCore™ AURIX™ family offers multicore architecture, allowing inverter control, hybrid torque management and DC/DC conversion to be done within one single microcontroller. Nevertheless, the TriCore™ AURIX™ family has built-in resolver functionality, saving customers the cost of implementing an external resolver IC. Often seen as master micro in battery balancing topology, the TriCore™ AURIX™ family proposes a 32-bit standby domain combined with an integrated 8-bit standby controller, essential for battery balancing under low power mode (e.g. holiday parking). Its unique Secure Hardware Extension (SHE, details in next paragraph) feature prevents the main CPU from illegal manipulation, making the billing for battery charging more trustworthy. 8 TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications In-Vehicle Security and Tamper-Proofing Electronic Control By introducing SHE (Secure Hardware Extension), Infineon has met the demand for improved tamper-proofing and anti-theft protection of automotive control units as expressed by the “HIS” (Manufacturers’ Software Initiative) Working Group on Security. This working group consists of Audi, BMW, Daimler, Porsche and Volkswagen. Security solutions have so far been confined to the software level or were coupled with additional external hardware, meaning they were easily circumvented. Infineon offers more than this basic software protection because AUDO MAX SHE monolithically integrates a secure keystore which cannot be read without access authorization. In addition, SHE has a cryptographic module, which encrypts access codes with up to 128 bits. SHE is complemented by an array of hardware functions which, for example, prevent the application code from being illegitimately read and altered. Same risk can also apply to the identification of ECUs in the system network. These are important functions for tamper-proofing control units and protecting them against theft. Even if such an ECU were to be fitted in another identical vehicle, its engine performance characteristics could not be changed: the cryptographic individual key of an ECU has to match all the cryptographic keys within the ECU network of a vehicle. And that key is safely stored in the SHE. The AUDO MAX microcontroller family incorporating SHE currently comprises three products, each with 4MB flash memory but differing in terms of clock frequency and package: TC1798 (300MHz, BGA-516), TC1793 (270MHz, BGA-416) and TC1791 (240MHz, BGA‑292). Infineon’s future 65nm eFlash microcontrollers will offer and significantly extend the SHE functionality with a Hardware Security Module (HSM). 9 TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example Engine Management Battery (KL30) Key (KL15) Typical Partitioning for GDI Discrete & Solenoid 1) TLF35584 System Power Supply 4x 15A pk. Pedal Position TLE4997/98 48/60 x SAR Swirl/Tumble Flap TLE4997/98 Throttle Position TLE4998S 32-bit Multicore/Lockstep MCU AURIX™ 3/6 x DS e.g. TC26x/TC27x 200MHz Manifold Air Pressure KP21x, KP22x SENT Knock Sensor(s) PSI5 Flash 2.5/4MB RAM 240/472KB ASCLIN, QSPI, HSSL, MSB, SAR, DS, GTM, SENT, PSI5 FlexRay, CAN, ETHERNET Temperature Sensor(s) Barometric Pressure KP23x, KP25x In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors GTM Lambda Sensor E-Ray HSSL Ethernet 2x MSB 4x CAN H-Bridge for Throttle TLE8209-2SA H-Bridge for EGR TLE8209-2SA CAN TLE7250G ... FlexRay TLE9221SX LS-Switch Flex8 On-Oﬀ Outputs TLE8108EM LIN TLE7259-2GE 2Ch. LS-Switch Flex PWM Outputs Flex18 TLE8718SA Powertrain CAN Solenoid Injectors 8A Ch. (eGas) Throttle 8A Ch. EGR Throttle O2 8x 0.5A Relays 4x 2.6A ASCLIN ... 4x 3/10A LS-Switch Flex 2x 5/9A PWM, Current-Sense Flex02 TLE8102SG Crankshaft TLE502x/492x Camshaft TLE492x/TLE498x OptiMOS™ IPD35N10S3L-26 IPD20N06S4L-14 Fuel Level TLE4997/98 Ignition Plugs 4x QSPI Quad LS GDI Driver P&H TLE6270R EGR-Throttle Position TLE4997/98 Low-Side Ignition HSM 2x 2.6A 4x 1.7A 2x 1A Solenoid VVT Solenoid Relais MIL Lamp 1) In development Gasoline Direct Injection Application Features Direct injection Scalable software-based knock detection Variable valve control Throttle and EGR control Turbo charging Catalyst after treatment Start/stop system Suggested Products TC27x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC26x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 10 System Benefits Microcontroller with best-in-class real-time performance Scalable platform – performance, memory size and I/Os Committed to reduce CO2 by 20% Anti-theft protection and tuning protection Increased knock detection accuracy via DS-ADC Enhanced communication (Ethernet) Dedicated peripherals for powertrain TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example Battery (KL30)/Key (KL15) Sensor Supply TLE4250-2 Engine Management Supply ICs TLE4271-2 (including Watchdog) TLE4267 2x 5V/0.05A 5V/0.5A Typical Partitioning for MPI discrete “Flex” Safety Watchdog CIC61508 Reset 4x 15A pk. Pedal Position TLE4997/98 EGR-Throttle Position TLE4997/98 Fuel Level TLE4997/98 Ignition Driver SPI Swirl/Tumble Flap TLE4997/98 Throttle Position TLE4998S Temperature Sensor(s) Bipolar Stepper Motor Driver TLE8444 2x ADC FAST ADC Barometric Pressure KP23x, KP25x 8A Ch. Idle Air Throttle 8A Ch. AUDO MAX 32-bit MCU H-Bridge for Throttle TLE8209-2SA e.g. TC1724 80MHz LS-Switch Flex 2x 5/9A PWM, Current-Sense Flex2 TLE8102SG LS-Switch Flex8 On-Oﬀ Outputs TLE8108EM1) Flash 1.0/1.5MB RAM 76/112kB SCI, SPI, MSB, ADC, FADC, GPTA, CAN Manifold Air Pressure KP21x, KP22x Ignition Plugs (eGas) Throttle 4x 0.5A Relays 4x 2.6A 2x 2.6A LS-Switch Flex PWM Outputs Flex18 TLE8718SA GPTA MSB Lambda Sensor 2x CAN 2x 1A CAN TLE7250GVIO Camshaft TLE492x/TLE498x LIN TLE7259-2GE Canister Purge Valve EGR-Throttle 4x 1.7A SCI Crankshaft Optional VR Crankshaft TLE502x/492x MPI Injectors VVT Knock Sensor(s) In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors O2 2Ch. Swirl/Tumble Flap Relays MIL Lamp Powertrain CAN 1) In development, samples available Gasoline Multi-Port Injection Application Features Gasoline port injection Scalable software-based knock detection Throttle and EGR control Catalyst after treatment Start/stop systems Cost-optimized for entry segment System Benefits Scalable platform – performance, memory size and I/Os Single voltage supply (EVR) Focus on reducing CO2 Easy migration from ultra low-end to mid-range applications Best tool/partner support for all development phases within V-Cycle Suggested Products TC1724 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1728 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1736 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 11 TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example Engine Management Battery (KL30) Key (KL15) Typical Partitioning for DDI Discrete 1) TLF35584 System Power Supply Pedal Position TLE4997/98 EGR-Throttle Position TLE4997/98 Fuel Level TLE4997/98 HSM 60/84 x SAR Swirl/Tumble Flap TLE4997/98 Throttle Position TLE4998S Temperature Sensor(s) 6/10 x DS Barometric Pressure KP23x, KP25x Manifold Air Pressure KP21x, KP22x SENT Knock Sensor(s) PSI5 In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors GTM Lambda Sensor 4-6 QSPI 32-bit Multicore/Lockstep MCU AURIX™ HSSL 2-3 MSB 4-6 CAN CAN TLE7250G ... FlexRay TLE9221SX LS-Switch Flex8 On-Oﬀ Outputs TLE8108EM LS-Switch Flex PWM Outputs Flex18 TLE8718SA LIN TLE7259-2GE 2Ch. Glow Plugs Piezo Injectors 8A Ch. (eGas) Throttle 8A Ch. EGR Throttle O2 4x 0.5A Relays 4x 2.6A ASCLIN ... 6x 8A LS-Switch Flex 2x 5/9A PWM, Current-Sense Flex02 TLE8102SG Crankshaft TLE502x/492x Camshaft TLE492x/TLE498x FAST IGBT e.g. IHD04N60RA/ IDH06N60RA H-Bridge for EGR TLE8209-2SA Flash 4/8MB RAM 472/728KB ASCLIN, QSPI, HSSL, MSB,SAR, DS, GTM, SENT, PSI5 FlexRay, CAN, ETHERNET E-Ray 6x 8A H-Bridge for Throttle TLE8209-2SA e.g. TC27x/TC29x 200–300MHz Ethernet PROFET™ BTS500x0-1EGA BTS500x0-1TMA/B BTS500x0-1TEA/B 2x 2.6A 4x 1.7A 2x 1A Solenoids VVT Solenoid Relays MIL Lamp Powertrain CAN 1) In development Diesel Direct Injection Application Features Direct injection (Piezo/Magnetic) In-cylinder pressure measurement Hardware-supported security enhancements Throttle and EGR control Turbo charging Diesel particulate filter ‘Blue’ after-treatment support (e.g. urea-based SCR) Suggested Products TC29x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC27x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 12 System Benefits Microcontroller with best-in-class real-time performance Scalable platform – performance, memory size and I/Os Committed to reduce NOx and particulate matter in line with Euro 6 standard Hardware-supported IP/anti-theft protection and tuning protection Increased accuracy with in-cylinder pressure sensing via DS-ADC Enhanced communication (Ethernet) Dedicated peripherals for powertrain TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example 6-Speed Automatic Transmission DC/DC Buck LDO3 Tracker 2 Input Shaft Speed TLE4951/541) 2x ADC FAST ADC Tap up/Tap down Switches AUDO MAX 32-bit MCU High-Side Driver PROFET ™ Family BTS5014 e.g. TC1784 180MHz LS-Switch Flex Multi-Channel TLE8104 Flash 2.5MB RAM 176kB SCI, SPI, MLI, MSB, ADC, FADC, GPTA, FlexRay, CAN Temperature Sensor MLI 2x eRay GPTA MSB 3x CAN Powertrain FlexRay FlexRay TLE9221SX Typical Partitioning for Constant Current Control Low-Side Driver 2x SPI Output Shaft Speed TLE4951/541) PRNDL Switches TLE4964 INH& HDLD TLE7368-3 “Super-Sonic” 3.3V/0.7A 5V/0.8A Window Watchdog Voltage Monitoring Stand-By Supply 5V/0.05A LDO2 Tracker 1 5V/0.1A LDO1 1.3V/xxxA Battery (KL30) Key (KL15) CAN TLE7250GVIO Diagnostic/Instrumentation CAN 1x 1x Vehicle Speed Out Solenoid Supply 4x 2A ON/OFF Solenoids Constant Current Control TLE82453SA1) 3x 1.2A Variable Force Solenoid/ Proportional Valve Constant Current Control TLE82453SA1) 3x 1.2A Variable Force Solenoid/ Proportional Valve or TLE8242-2L & 3x IPG20N06S4L-26 SCI LIN TLE7259-2GE Diagnostic/ Instrumentation 1) In development, samples available Automatic Transmission–Hydraulic Control Application Features Smooth gear shifting Closely coupled with engine control via high-speed CAN/FlexRay link Support for four 3-phase DC-brushless E-drives High microcontroller junction bare die temperature System Benefits Improved and fast clutch control Hot bare die supports modular temperature-optimized TCU design Hot bare die capabilities enable microcontrollers to be placed wherever they are needed in the system Digital Temperature Sensor (DTS) for increased accuracy Scalable product offering ensures perfect fit for individual application needs Suggested Products TC1746 – Bare Die TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1748 – Bare Die TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1784 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 13 TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example 6-Speed Double Clutch Transmission DC/DC Buck LDO3 Tracker 2 Input Shaft1 Speed TLE4951/541) 2x ADC System Pressure Powertrain FlexRay e.g. TC1782 180MHz Constant Current Control TLE82453SA1) 3x 1.2A Variable Force Solenoid/ Proportional Valve Flash 2.5MB RAM 176kB SCI, SPI, MSB, ADC, FADC, GPTA, FlexRay, CAN Constant Current Control TLE82453SA1) 3x 1.2A Variable Force Solenoid/ Proportional Valve 2x eRay 4x 2A ON/OFF Solenoids or TLE8242-2L & 3x IPG20N06S4L-26 MSB 3x CAN FlexRay TLE9221SX Solenoid Supply LS-Switch Flex Multi-Channel TLE8104 GPTA Temperature Sensor 1x AUDO MAX 32-bit MCU FAST ADC Shift Position Sensor TLE4997/98/6x Clutch Pressure Typical Partitioning for Constant Current Control High-Side Driver PROFET ™ Family 2x SPI Input Shaft2 Speed TLE4951/541) PRNDL Switches TLE4964 INH& HDLD TLE7368-3 “Super-Sonic” 3.3V/0.7A 5V/0.8A Window Watchdog Voltage Monitoring Stand-By Supply 5V/0.05A LDO2 Tracker 1 5V/0.1A LDO1 1.3V/xxxA Battery (KL30) Key (KL15) CAN TLE7250GVIO Diagnostic/Instrumentation CAN High-Current Half-Bridge BTN79xxB SCI M Hydraulic Pump LIN TLE7259-2GE Diagnostic/ Instrumentation 1) In development, samples available Dry Double Clutch Transmission– Hydraulic Control Application Features gear switching Closely coupled with engine control via high-speed CAN/FlexRay link Support for four 3-phase DC-brushless E-drives (Dry-DCT) Microcontroller offered as bare die with junction temperature up to 170°C Ultra-fast Suggested Products TC1746 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1782 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 14 System Benefits Improved fast clutch control set optimized for wet and dry DCT designs Continuous torque on wheels ensures a more fun driving experience Hot bare die capabilities enable microcontrollers to be placed directly where they are needed in the system Hot bare die supports modular temperature-optimized TCU design Digital Temperature Sensor (DTS) for increased accuracy Feature TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example 6-Speed Double Clutch Transmission DC/DC Buck LDO3 Tracker 2 3.3V/0.7A PRNDL Switches TLE4964 Shift Position Sensor TLE4997/98/6x 3-Phase Driver IC TLE7185-1E TLE7189F TLE7189QK AUDO MAX 32-bit MCU 3-Phase Driver IC TLE7185-1E TLE7189F TLE7189QK e.g. TC1782 180MHz FAST ADC Flash 2.5MB RAM 176KB SCI, SPI, MSB, ADC, FADC, GPTA, FlexRay, CAN GPTA FlexRay TLE9221SX 3-Phase Driver IC TLE7185-1E TLE7189F TLE7189QK MLI 2x E-Ray M Rotor Position iGMR Sensor TLE5012B 1st Clutch M Rotor Position iGMR Sensor TLE5012B 2nd Clutch M Rotor Position iGMR Sensor TLE5012B Even Gears MSB 3x CAN Powertrain FlexRay Battery (KL30) Key (KL15) 2x SPI 2x ADC Temperature Sensor Rotor Position iGMR Sensor TLE5012B Typical Partitioning for Constant Current Control INH& HDLD TLE7368-3 “Super-Sonic” Window Watchdog 5V/0.8A Voltage Monitoring Stand-By Supply 5V/0.05A LDO2 Tracker 1 5V/0.1A LDO1 1.3V/xxxA Battery (KL30) Key (KL15) CAN TLE7250GVIO Diagnostic/Instrumentation CAN SCI LIN TLE7259-2GE 3-Phase Driver IC TLE7185-1E TLE7189F TLE7189QK M Rotor Position iGMR Sensor TLE5012B Odd Gears OptiMOS™-T2 40V 24x IPD90N04S4-04 Diagnostic/ Instrumentation Dry Double Clutch Transmission– Electrical Control Application Features gear switching Closely coupled with engine control via high-speed CAN/FlexRay link Ultra-fast Support for four 3-phase DC-brushless E-drives (Dry-DCT) Microcontroller oﬀered as bare die with junction temperature of up to 170°C Suggested Products TC1746 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1782 – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller System Benefits Improved fast clutch control set optimized for wet and dry DCT designs Continuous torque on wheels ensures a more enjoyable driving experience Hot bare die capabilities enable microcontrollers to be placed directly where they are needed in the system Hot bare die supports a modular temperature-optimized TCU design Digital Temperature Sensor (DTS) for increased accuracy Infineon e-Motor Driver Feature 15 TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example Hybrid Electric Control 32-bit Multicore/Lockstep MCU AURIX™ Transmission e.g. TC27x 4MB Flash 472KB RAM 4x CAN Diverse Lockstep Core PWM 1x FlexRay PMSM A N PWM GTM PWM EiceSIL™ Driver IC IGBT Hybrid Pack 1 or 2 B S C 1x Ethernet DC/DC Converter Trigger PWM ADC Diverse Lockstep Core 200MHz CPU1 8x SAR-ADC Resolver 200MHz CPU0 Motor Control Hybrid Domain Control DC/DC converter Resolver speed & position PWM generation Space vector modulation Synchronized 3-phase current measurement Resolver interface 200MHz CPU2 Speed & Position 6x DS-ADC Integrated (H)EV Control Application Features Multicore & Lockstep architecture Direct resolver-to-microcontroller Superior performance Customized PWM pattern generation Suggested Products TC27x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC26x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 16 System Benefits ISO 26262 ASIL-C/D compliant No resolver IC needed, lower system cost Enables sub-system integration (driving HCU + Inverter + DC/DC) Fine motor tuning TriCore™ for Powertrain Applications Application Example TLE8000 #6 32-bit Multicore/Lockstep MCU AURIX™ RS485 Transceiver Secondary IBCB (Optional) e.g. TC26x TLE8000 #5 2.5MB Flash 240KB RAM 4x CAN TLE8000 #4 XC2000 16-bit MCU Diverse Lockstep Core 1x FlexRay PWM PWM GTM PWM 4x QSPI TLE8000 #3 1x I2C 200MHz CPU0 TLE8000 #2 200MHz CPU1 SAR-ADC Primary IBCB TLE8000 #1 8-bit Standby Controller RS485 Transceiver DS-ADC -200V +200V (H)EV Battery Management System Application Features Multicore & Diverse Lockstep Core architecture Fast communication interface Integrated low-power 8-bit standby controller HW Security Module (HSM) System Benefits ISO 26262 ASIL-C/D compliant IBCB network architecture Ring topolgy in event of failure Balancing & monitoring over long parking period Charge-billing verification Active & passive balancing Suggested Products TC27x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC26x – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TLE8000 – battery balancing IC 17 TriCore™ for Safety Applications TriCore™ for Safety Applications AURIX™ Made for Safety The AURIX™ architecture has been developed according to an audited ISO 26262 compliant process and designed to efficiently meet ASIL-D on an application level. The platform uses up to 2 cores in TriCore™ Diverse Lockstep Core technology, a diverse lockstep architecture combined with cutting-edge safety technology, such as safe internal communication buses or distributed memory protection system. Innovative encapsulation techniques allow the integration of software with various safety levels (QM to ASIL-D) from different sources, thereby significantly reducing system complexity. Thanks to this optimized approach, multiple applications and operating systems (such as steering, braking, airbag and advanced driver assistance systems) are seamlessly hosted on a unified platform. This leads to productivity gains of up to 30%, resulting in a smaller development outlay and reduced time-to-market for our customers. Furthermore, Infineon extends the microcontroller safety roadmap with devices dedicated to the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) segment, such as radar or camera applications. Innovation has been focused on system partitioning in order to further integrate system functionality and consequently reduce the complexity and area, providing our customers with highly optimized solutions. The new devices include high‑speed interfaces, integrated hardware acceleration and enhanced ECU validation and instrumentation tools. All ADAS devices have been designed in accordance with the ISO 26262 safety methodology, meaning that they can be involved in automatic decisions to assist drivers, such as emergency braking. 18 TriCore™ for Safety Applications AURIX™ Made for Scalability Thanks to its arket-leading expertise, Infineon has translated customer demands for individual scalability into a universal product roadmap. Designed to optimize its customers’ investment, the AURIX™ family comes with a comprehensive range of fully modular components, thereby ensuring long-term design flexibility. The devices range in the ultra high-end from a 300MHz triple-core device with 8MB of embedded Flash to a 200MHz triple core with 4MB of embedded Flash to a 200MHz dual-core device with 2.5MB of embedded Flash right down to 130MHz and 80MHz single-core and singlecore lockstep devices with 1.5MB, 1MB and 0.5MB of embedded Flash. The package portfolio includes a BGA-516 package with a ball-compatible BGA-292 package (I/O subset), and compatible QFP-176, QFP-144, QFP‑100 to QFP-64 packages. 19 TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example +12V from Battery 4x Steering Angle Sensor 2x iGMR Sensor TLE5012B Wheel Speed Sensor TLF355841) Diﬀerential Hall IC TLE4941/42 Steering Angle Chassis Domain Controller System Power Supply 4x Speed Vehicle Stability Control ECU Electric Power Steering ECU Steering Toque Torque Sensor TLE4997/98 TLE4906 Chassis CAN-Bus CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ 2–4x X Y Z Pos. Sensor Linear Hall TLE4997 TLE4998 Inertia Sensors Position Sensor Interface ωx ωy Vehicle Level FlexRay Transceiver TLE9221SX 1) In development ωz FlexRay Chassis Domain Control The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ with state-of-the-art safety features enables systems to achieve the highest safety level ASIL-D, which is already required in contemporary domain control systems. The latest diverse lockstep technology with clock delay (Diverse Lockstep Core) reduces the software overhead significantly and enables fast time-to-market. Thanks to a scalable multicore system and innovative encapsulation techniques, this supports the integration of software with mixed-criticality levels from different sources, thereby allowing multiple applications and operating systems to be seamlessly hosted on a unified platform. Application Features AURIX™ DSP functionality Best-in-class performance: triple TriCore™ with up to 300MHz per core Supporting floating point and fix point with all cores Up to 2.7MB of internal RAM Communication peripherals: CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet Innovative single supply 5V or 3.3V External memory interface ISO 26262 conformance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x TriCore™ 20 System Benefits communication with FlexRay and Ethernet Highest available performance with integrated FPU Flexible DMA unit Scalability over Flash, RAM and peripherals Proven safety concept to support ISO 26262 Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption Advanced TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example +12V from Battery TLF355841) System Power Supply Torque Sensor TLE4997/98 TLE4906 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ Steering Torque 3-Phase Driver IC TLE7183 TLE7185 TLE7189 TLE9180 M Rotor Position iGMR Sensor TLE5009/12 Current Sense (Shunt Substitute) TLE4997/98 Electric Power Steering ECU CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D OptiMOS™-T2 40V 8x IPB180N04S4-01 Rotor Position/Current Sense HS-CAN 1) In development Electric Power Steering (EPS) The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ with state-of-the-art safety features enables systems to achieve the highest safety level ASIL-D, which is already required in contemporary steering systems. The latest diverse lockstep technology with clock delay (Diverse Lockstep Core) reduces the software overhead significantly and enables fast time-to-market. Its rich scalability meets a variety of different electric power steering system demands. Key Features AURIX™ 256KB–8MB Performance from 40MHz–3x 300MHz Ta = -40°C ... 145°C Dedicated peripheral set: CAN, SPI, FlexRay Advanced timer unit for totally flexible PWM generation and hardware input capture Redundant flexible 12-bit ADC Hardware SENT interface for low CPU load Hardware-focused safety concept for reduced SW overhead Safety software: Infineon SafeTcore library ISO 26262 conformance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x Flash System Benefits over Flash, RAM and peripherals offering the best cost-performance ratio Serves all kinds of EPS systems, such as column or belt drive Proven safety concept to support ISO 26262 Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption Scalability 21 TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example +12V from Battery Suspension Control ECU TLF355841) System Power Supply +12V 4x 4-Channel LS-Switch IC TLE8104E Valve Solenoid +12V 2–4x Pos. Sensor Linear Hall TLE4997/98 Vehicle Level 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ Vehicle Level 6-Channel LS-Switch IC TLE6232GP 6x +12V Quad Constant Current Control IC TLE7242G 1) In development HS-CAN-Bus Steering Angle Speed y, z Acceleration Vertical Acceleration FlexRay Transceiver TLE9221SX Proportional Valve Solenoid 4x N 4x IPD25N06S4L-30 or 2x IPG20N06S4L-26 +12V CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D Valve Solenoid Octal Constant Current Control IC TLE8242-2L Proportional Valve Solenoid 8x N 8x IPD25N06S4L-30 or 4x IPG20N06S4L-26 FlexRay Active Suspension Control System The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ with state-of-the-art safety features enables systems to achieve the highest safety level ASIL-D, which is already required in contemporary suspension systems. The latest diverse lockstep technology with clock delay (Diverse Lockstep Core) reduces the software overhead significantly and enables fast time-to-market . The scalability supports an optimized fit in order to meet different OEM specifications. Application Features AURIX™ DSP functionality Best‑in‑class performance: triple TriCore™ with up to 300MHz per core Supporting floating point and fix point with all cores Communication peripherals: CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet TriCore™ Innovative single supply 5V or 3.3V range of packages from 64-Pin – 516-Pin ISO 26262 conformance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x Wide 22 System Benefits over Flash, RAM and peripherals offering the best cost-performance ratio Proven safety concept to support ISO 26262 Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption and saves external component costs Scalability TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example LIN LIN Transceiver ADXL180 Door Pressure Sensor KP200/KP108 Pressure Sensor KP200/KP108 Sensor SPI Bus Pedestrian Protection Sensoric ADXL180 PSI5 Satellite Sensor Interface CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ Pressure Sensor KP200/KP108 Door Pressure Sensor KP200/KP108 CAN Squib Driver 8 Channels TLE8758 Yaw, Roll, Pitch + Low-g x-, y-, zSensors 4/8 Channels Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib 8/12 Channels Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Squib Saving Engine Vfire Squib Squib Driver ADXL278 Vsat Airbag System IC TLE8771/72 Airbag ECU Firing SPI Bus Reversible Belt Pretensioners CAN Vlogic Power Supply 2 Buck, Boost, Linear, Watchdog, Reset, Buckle Switch IF Buckle Switch TLE4976 Buckle Switch TLE4976 Warning Lamp Airbag Oﬀ +12V from Battery Advanced Airbag System The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ with state-of-the-art safety features enables systems to achieve the highest safety level up to ASIL-D. The scalability allows the selection of a single-core solution for basic airbag systems and multicore solutions for airbag systems with an integrated sensor cluster. The best cost-performance fit is offered by the wide range of Flash, performance and peripheral options available within the AURIX™ family. Application Features AURIX™ MCU family from single to multicore Flash 256KB–8MB Embedded EEPROM Performance from 40MHz–3x 300MHz Dedicated peripheral set: CAN, SPI, FlexRay Hardware-focused safety concept for reduced SW overhead Safety software: Infineon SafeTcore library ISO 26262 conformance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x Scalable System Benefits over Flash, RAM and peripherals offering the best cost-performance ratio Proven safety concept to support ISO 26262 Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption Scalability 23 TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example ABS/VSC ECU 3x MOSFET IPD15-N06S2L-64 Pump Braking System IC Multiple Supply Control w. Reset Generation Window/Signature Watchdog Supervision Safety Logic Pump MOSFET Driver MOSFET IPB80Nxxx Safety MOSFET Driver MOSFET IPD60Nxxx M Solenoid 4x Wheel Speed Sensor TLE4941/42 TLE5041 Wheel Speed Sensor Supply & Signal Conditioning SPI 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ Solenoid Solenoid Driver 2x TLE6217 K-Line Transceiver Sensor Cluster (ESC only) Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid High Voltage Outputs High Voltage Enable Outputs Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D Solenoid Driver TLE6217 ESC only Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid HS-CAN Braking ECU The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ with state-of-the-art safety features enables systems to achieve the highest safety level ASIL-D, which is already required in contemporary braking systems. The latest diverse lockstep technology with clock delay (Diverse Lockstep Core) reduces the software overhead significantly and enables fast time-to-market. The scalability supports an optimized cost-performance fit for basic ABS systems up to highly-integrated ESC systems. Key Features AURIX™ MCU family with diverse lockstep Flash 256KB–8MB Performance from 40MHz–3x 300MHz Hardware-focused safety concept for reduced SW overhead SENT interface for low CPU load Safety software: Infineon SafeTcore library ISO 26262 conformance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x Scalable 24 System Benefits over Flash, RAM, performance and peripherals leads to an optimized cost-performance fit Proven safety concept to support ISO 26262 validated by 3rd party Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption and saves external component costs Scalability TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example +12V from Battery TLF355841) System Power Supply e.g. Aptina OmniVision External RAM 2.4MB Optional CIF HSSL Ext. Memory IF CIF IIC Automotive High Dynamic Range Camera 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D Optional “Number Cruncher” e.g. for Pedestrian Detection FlexRay Transceiver TLE9221SX Ethernet Transceiver Multi-purpose Camera ECU Optional 1) In development Multi-purpose Camera Configuration The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ will enhance classic safety features with dedicated features to cater for multi-purpose camera systems. The combination of new features, such as a picture pre-processing unit, camera interface, DSP functionality and increased SRAM, in conjunction with outstanding safety features enables a high level of scalability in order to achieve the best cost-performance ratio. Key Features AURIX™ DSP functionality Best-in-class performance: triple TriCore™ with up to 300MHz per core Supporting floating point and fix point with all cores Up to 2.7MB of internal RAM for picture information storage Picture System Benefits scalability option allows a dedicated performance feature fit for multiple camera applications from single automatic high beam systems up to multi-function systems (lane departure warning, forward collision warning, traffic sign recognition, pedestrian recognition etc.) Camera High TriCore™ pre-processing unit interface up to 100MHz Innovative single supply 5V or 3.3V External memory interface ISO 26262 conformance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x High integration leads to reduced complexity Support for ISO 26262 decisions such as emergency braking Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption 25 TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example +12V from Battery 24GHz Short Range Radar TLF355841) System Power Supply Targets Low-noise Supply Coarse DAC Fine DAC Tx1 Y Y Y Y Y Y 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ 200MHz Input Timer BGT24ATR12 Y 100MHz PWMs Rx1 SPI Acquisition RAM 4x ADCs FFT Engine Rx2 Rx3 Rx4 BGT24AR2 MUXes Rx5 Rx6 1) In development CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D BGT24AR2 HS-CAN FlexRay Transceiver TLE9221SX FlexRay-Bus Short Range RADAR (24GHz) System The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ will enhance classic safety features with dedicated features to serve the needs of 24GHz RADAR systems. The combination of new features and increased SRAM, in conjunction with outstanding safety features, enables a high level of integration and reduction of complexity. Key Features AURIX™ Up to 752KB RAM for RADAR image storage RADAR signal processing with windowing functionality Flexibility in RADAR signal acquisition with 4x internal ADCs Possibility to connect external ADCs (Interface to connect up to 16-bit ADCs) High-precision input timers High-precision output timers for DAC Innovative single supply 5V or 3.3V ISO 26262 compliance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x 26 System Benefits High integration leads to significant cost savings High integration leads to reduced complexity ISO 26262 compliance supports safe input for functions such as emergency braking Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption TriCore™ for Safety Applications Application Example +12V from Battery Targets Low-noise Power Supply TLF355841) System Power Supply Radar ICs Tx1 Y Tx2 Y Y RCC1010 Wave Form Generator SPI RRN7740 Quad Channel 76/77GHz Receiver LNA ADC 32-bit Multicore Lockstep MCU AURIX™ Rx1 Y Y RTN7730 76/77GHz Transmitter & local Oscillator Rx4 Acquisition RAM Y CAN Transceiver TLE7250G TLE6251D 76-77GHz Proximity RADAR ECU FlexRay Transceiver TLE9221SX HS-CAN FlexRay-Bus 1) In development Long Range RADAR (76/77GHz) System The new TriCore™ family AURIX™ will enhance classic safety features with dedicated features to serve the needs of 77GHz RADAR systems. The combination of new features and increased SRAM, in conjunction with outstanding safety features, enables a high level of integration and reduction of complexity. Application Features AURIX™ TriCore™ DSP functionality Best-in-class performance: triple TriCore™ with up to 300MHz per core Up to 2.7MB RAM for RADAR image storage RADAR signal processing with windowing functionality Flexibility in RADAR signal acquisition with 4x internal ADCs Possibility to connect external ADCs (Interface to connect up to 16-bit ADCs) High-precision input timers High-precision output timers for DAC Innovative single supply 5V or 3.3V External memory interface ISO 26262 compliance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x System Benefits High integration leads to significant cost savings High integration leads to reduced complexity ISO 26262 compliance supports safe input for functions such as emergency braking Innovative supply concept leads to best‑in‑class power consumption 27 TriCore™ for Body Applications TriCore™ for Body Applications Body electronics systems embrace a broad variety of applications inside the car, covering comfort, safety and security as well as high-performance computing and in-vehicle networking. This leads to the key strengths of the AURIX™ family: AUTOSAR – With AUTOSAR 4, multicore architectures can be easily designed into vehicles. Infineon is one of the first implementers of a multicore architecture with AURIX™ ready for AUTOSAR 4.x. Furthermore, Infineon also provides the MCAL drivers developed according to CMM 3 level. Power Consumption – Innovative supply concept automatically adapts the power consumption to the actual performance needs. Furthermore, the new trend of pretended networking and ECU degradation is actively supported. Enhanced communication – As cars incorporate an increasing amount of electronics, the body electronics module’s responsibilities increase to handle the additional components and message traffic. Because of the gateway functionality of the BCM, the AURIX™ has enhanced communication capabilities to support communication between CAN, LIN, FlexRay™ and Ethernet buses. Safety – The trend is toward the integration of safety targets in the requirements of advanced body systems such as lighting, BCM etc. To achieve the required ASIL level according to ISO2626, AURIX™ has the capability to cover targets up to the highest safety integrity level ASIL-D. Security – In the future, the need for a high level of security will also expand into body applications. Cars are expected to hold even more information as they become smart cards on wheels to simplify financial transactions at gas pumps, charging stations, parking lots, toll booths, drive-through shops and more. The vehicle will act as a smart card and pay your fee/fare – sometimes automatically. Hardware-based security is more robust than software-only security. AURIX™ provides a dedicated module, HSM (Hardware Secure Module), to cover the highest level of security. 28 TriCore™ for Body Applications Application Example Left Front-Light Control Right Front-Light Control PROFET™ – Single, Dual, Quad Channel High-Side Driver SPOC – SPI based Multichannel High-Side Driver Family I/O FlexRay Ethernet PHY Relays CAN Bus +12V from Battery 32-bit Multicore/Lockstep MCU AURIX™ TLE7250G TLE6251-3G TLE6251D TLF355841) TC1.6E I/O TLE7259-2GE TLE7258LE TLE7269G LIN Bus Communication TLE7250G TLE6251-3G TLE6251D HITFET™ Low-Side Driver Interior Light Logic Signals on VBAT Level e.g. Switched VBAT Rails Ambient LEDs Basic LED Current Sources for LED Applications Supply CAN Bus SPIDER SPI based Multichannel High-/Low-Side Driver TC1.6P + Diverse Lockstep Core TLE9221SX SPI Ethernet LEDs SPI Interior LEDs I/O SPI PROFET™ – Single, Dual, Quad Channel High-Side Driver SPOC – SPI-based Multichannel High-Side Driver Family Left Rear-Light Control Right Rear-Light Control 1) In development High-Feature Body Control Module with Integrated Gateway Functionality Body Control Module (BCM) application comprising internal and external lighting systems, as well as control of relays and voltage rails and further comfort functions such as door and wiper control. The central gateway manages all internal interfaces (i.e. motor management, in-car entertainment, dashboard or convenience control) and communication with external interfaces for after-sales software updates. The AURIX™ multicore concept enables the integration of two applications in one device, e.g. BCM and Gateway Key Features Scalable MCU family from single to multicore Encapsulation feature allows software development without interference for multiple applications Embedded EEPROM Advanced communication peripherals: CAN, LIN, SPI, FlexeRay, Ethernet ISO26262 conformance to support safety requirements up to ASIL-D Availability of AUTOSAR 4.x System Benefits Enables pretended networking and ECU degradation High integration leads to significant cost savings High integration leads to reduced complexity ISO26262 compliance supports ASIL requirements Innovative supply concept leads to best-in-class power consumption 29 TriCore™ for Industrial Applications TriCore™ for Industrial Applications High Performance for Demanding Applications While the primary focus of the TriCore™-based microcontrollers is on the automotive market, they also provide significant advantages for industrial applications. Featuring a combination of high calculation performance, large memory sizes, a comprehensive set of peripherals and integrated safety & security measures, the MCUs can meet even the most demanding application requirements. The devices of the AUDO MAX family reach more than 400 DMIPS at clock rates of up to 300MHz and combine MCU & DSP instructions with an integrated FPU. Memory sizes reach up to 4MB Flash and 192KB of SRAM and all memory is protected by hardware Error Correction Code (ECC). The integrated peripheral set is primarily targeted toward motor control and power conversion providing up to 4 ADCs, an additional fast ADC and a full set of high-performance timers – namely the General Purpose Timer Array (GPTA). This is is one of the very few in the industry that is able to drive the upcoming three-level inverter topologies. 30 TriCore™ for Industrial Applications Providing Security and Functional Safety In a global economy, IP protection plays an increasingly important role. This demand is accounted for by the integration of special security modules providing the required means of safe key storage, along with secure boot and encryption on the hardware level. As one of the leaders in functional safety, Infineon has designed the TriCore™ MCUs to meet the growing demand for functional safety in the industrial market as specified in IEC 61508. Via our cooperation partner Hitex, Infineon offers a complete package comprising a microcontroller, external signature watchdog (CIC61508), software and documentation, achieving safety integrity levels up to SIL3. The next generation of TriCore™-based microcontrollers – AURIX™ – will provide another significant performance milestone by integrating up to three cores in one device. The multicore concept is targeted at running concurrent applications in parallel. Some of the integrated cores integrate lockstep functionality and the peripherals can be allocated to individual cores. This allows running a combination of safety-critical tasks, such as controlling an inverter, with non-critical tasks, such as network communication, on a single MCU. 31 TriCore™ for Industrial Applications Application Example Power Supply TLE7368 CAN Transceiver TLE62xx > 50x PWM 4x FREQ CAN Intelligent Safety Watchdog CIC61508 GPTA CCU6 ADC SDRAM EBU Low-Side Switch TLE6244 MSC 32-bit MCU TC1793N IO FADC 48x ADC > 100x GPIO Condition Monitoring Sensor Mobile Controller Application Features Closed-loop control of solenoid currents Multitasking to drive hydraulic and electric actuators IEC 61131-3 support GNU toolchain Ready for harsh environments Compliance with IEC 61508 for Safety Integrity Level (SIL) 1 to 3 Suggested Products TC1793N – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1798N – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 32 System Benefits High-speed 270MHz asymmetric dual core Up to 50 Pulse-Width-Modulated (PWM) outputs Three Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) 12-bit, up to 44 channels Four fast ADC inputs 10-bit (262.5ns @ fFADC = 80MHz) Four frequency inputs Fast, 10-bit ADC Industrial and automotive temperature range SAE J1939 supported by four CAN nodes 32KB EEPROM for parameter Hitex PRO-SIL™ support TriCore™ for Industrial Applications Application Example IGBT EconoPIM™ Power Supply TLE7368 M ~ EiceDRIVER™ R PWM CAN Transceiver TLE62xx Fieldbus/FPGA EBU 32-bit MCU TC1784N ADC EBU IO FADC Inverter Application Features Multi-axis controller for two 3-phase complementary PWMs Multiple modulation strategies (SVPWM, DPWM, Soft-PWM, direct torque control) to support requirements for reduced noise emissions and increased efficiency Ready for four Q-inverters, matrix-inverters Field-oriented control with less than 10% CPU load Multiprocessor support for reliability and safety Support for 3-Level inverter topologies System Benefits Generic flexibility timer (GPTA) Two Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) 12-bit, up to 32 channels Fast, 10-bit ADC (262.5ns @ fFADC = 80MHz) Resolver I/F Encoder I/F with digital noise filter Optimized motion control library Very fast control loop Suggested Products TC1784N – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 33 TriCore™ for Industrial Applications Application Example AC AC Generator Inverter Rectifier ~230V PWM PWM Blade Pitch Control ADC Wind Sensor ADC 32-bit MCU TC1784N Grid Phase Monitoring Wind Turbine Inverter Application Features Reliable blade pitch control Increased wind turbine efficiency Multiple modulation strategies (SVPWM, DPWM, Soft-PWM, direct torque control) to support requirements for reduced noise emissions and increased efficiency Multiprocessor support for reliability and safety Support for 3-level inverter topologies Suggested Products TC1782N – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1784N – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller 34 System Benefits Generic flexibility timer (GPTA) Two Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) 12-bit, up to 36 channels Fast, 10-bit ADC (262.5ns @ fFADC = 80MHz) Resolver I/F Encoder I/F with digital noise filter Optimized motion control library TriCore™ for Industrial Applications Application Example DC AC IGBT EconoPIM™ ~230V EiceDRIVER™ Grid Phase Monitoring & Synchronization MPPT PWM ADC Intelligent Safety Watchdog CIC61508 ADC 32-bit MCU TC1784N Solar Panel multiple modulation strategies (SVPWM, DPWM, Soft-PWM, direct torque control) to support requirements for reduced noise emissions and increased efficiency Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) to extract maximum power from solar panels Grid phase monitoring and synchronization to ensure power factor unity Current control to avoid disharmonics and to determine the feed in refund Support for 3-level inverter topologies Suggested Products TC1784N – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller TC1793N – TriCore™ 32-bit Microcontroller Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) (Cell Temperature: 25°C) 0 0 Power [W] Runs System Benefits Generic flexibility timer (GPTA) Two Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) 12-bit, up to 36 channels Fast, 10-bit ADC (262.5ns @ fFADC = 80MHz) Optimized DSP library Current [A] Application Features Multi-phase PWM controller for single or multiple strings Voltage [V] 0 Current vs. Voltage Power vs. Voltage 35 Program Memory i/f Floating Point Unit TriCore™ 32KB D SPR 16KB ICACHE TC1.6 300MHz Data Memory i/f LMU 124KB D SPR 16KB DCACHE 128KB SRAM XBAR 1.3V/3.3V Ext. Supply EBU PMU 0 PMU 1 2MB Flash 16KB DFlash 8KB BROM key Flash 2MB Flash 16KB Parameter RAM FPI-Bus Interface Interrupts MemCheck STM PCP2 Core 200MHz Interrupts FlexRay (2 Channels) MLI0 MLI1 ASC0 ASC1 Bridge OCDS L1 Debug Interface/JTAG DMA 2x 8 Channels 32KB Code Memory MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) SCU Ports External Request Unit GPT120 SDMA (8x safe DMA Channels) SHE FCE BMU 5V (3.3V supported as well) GPT121 SENT (8 Channels) SBCU PLL E-RAY fE-Ray FM-PLL fCPU SSC0 Ext. ADC Supply ADC0 SSC1 ADC1 GPTA1 SSC2 ADC2 LTCA2 SSC3 ADC3 SSCG SSC Guardian FADC GPTA0 CCU60 CCU61 CCU62 CCU63 MSC0 LVDS MSC1 LVDS (5V max) (3.3V max) 3.3V Ext. FADC Supply AUDO MAX TriCore™ TC1798 Architecture 36 AUDO Family System Architecture TriCore™ is the first unified, single-core 32-bit-microcontroller DSP architecture that has been optimized for real-time embedded systems. The TriCore™ Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) combines the real-time capability of a microcontroller, the computational power of a DSP plus the high performance and price features of an RISC load/store architecture in a compact reprogrammable core. The ISA supports a uniform, 32-bit address space with optional virtual addressing and a memory-mapped I/O. It enables a wide range of implementations, from scalar to superscalar, and is capable of interacting with different system architectures, including multiprocessing environments. This flexibility at implementation and system level enables manufacturers to balance performance and cost requirements to meet individual needs. The architecture supports both 16-bit and 32-bit instruction formats. 16-bit instructions are a subset of 32-bit instructions and were chosen due to their widespread popularity. They also significantly reduce code space and memory requirements, as well as system and power consumption. Real-time responsiveness is largely determined by interrupt latency and context switch time. The high-performance architecture minimizes interrupt latency by avoiding long multi-cycle instructions and providing a flexible hardware-supported interrupt scheme. The architecture also supports fast context switching. The Peripheral Control Processor (PCP2) is a programmable, single-cycle, 32-bit processing unit with its own code and data memory unit (Harvard architecture). It is used as an interrupt service provider, delivering hardware interrupt priority arbitration with 255 priority levels. Instead of static implementation, the PCP provides programmable improved peripheral intelligence. The General Purpose Timer Array (GPTA) delivers extremely flexible filtering and high-resolution signal acquisition, as well as a digital PLL to generate higher resolution input signals. It enables all types of enhanced counting, capture/compare and PWM functionality thanks to its universal cell structure. 37 TriCore™ TC1.6 y i/f Data Memory i/f Floating Point Unit TriCore™ TC1.6 300MHz PMU 1 2MB Flash Bridge TriCore™ Interrupts FPI-Bus Interface 16KB Parameter RAM Floating Point Unit TC1.6 PCP2 300MHzCore 200MHz 32KB Code Memory PMU 1 MB Flash Bridge LMU Features 124KB D SPR 128KB 1.3V/3.3V Up to SRAM 300MHz 16KB DCACHE XBAR Ext. Supply Six-stage pipeline Dedicated integer division unit in hardware Optimized Floating Point Unit (FPU) OCDS L1 Debug Enhanced branch prediction DMA Interface/JTAG 2x 8 Channels (branch history and target buffers) MLI0 Optimized crossbar interconnect with 64-bit data width (shared MLI1resource interconnect) Interrupts Data Memory i/f LMU MemCheck 16-bit and 32-bit instruction formats STM 32-bit load-store Harvard architecture 124KB D SPR 128KB SDMA 1.3V/3.3V 16KB DCACHE Superscalar SRAM XBAR (8x safe DMA Channels) execution SCU Ext. Supply Sustained throughput by dual SHE Ports 16x32 MACs FCE ExternalSIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) Request Unit OCDS L1 Debug packed arithmetic BMU DMA Interface/JTAG GPT120Zero overhead loops 2x 8 Channels 5V (3.3V supported as well) (loop recognition buffer) MLI0 GPT121 CCU60 CCU61 60 61 PCP2 Core 200MHz Interrupts FPI-Bus Interface PLL fE-Ray E-RAY SBCU 16KB Parameter RAM f FM-PLL CPU CCU62 MSC0 MSC1 CCU63 LVDS LVDS 32KB Code Memory SBCU PLL E-RAY fE-Ray FM-PLL fCPU SSC0 Interrupts SSC1 STM SSC2 SCU SSC3 MSC0 LVDS MSC1 LVDS ADC0 SSC1 Features SDMA ADC2 (8x safe DMA Channels) data and adds it to previously read ADC0 data Reads two data values and performs ADC1 (5V max) arithmetic or logical operations and ADC2 stores results SSC3 ADC3 SSCG SSC Guardian FADC (3.3V max) 3.3V Ext. FADC Supply 38 Benefits Highest performance for complex engine management systems Integrated MCU-DSP instructions in one core Very fast context switching for interrupt driven system Fast and efficient processing of multiple tasks on one engine Low code size and inherent high level language support One development toolset for both MCU and DSP tasks Higher flexibility and lower cost Support and supply of complete system chipset MemCheck ADC1 Peripheral Control Processor (PCP2) (5V max) Reads/moves SSC0 addressing modes and saturated math MLI1 ADC3 any two memory Moves data SHE between Ports (3.3V max) SSCG or I/O locations FADC FCE SSC Guardian External Up to 200MHz Request Unit 3.3V Read-modify-write capabilities BMU Ext. FADC Supply GPT120 Full computation capabilities including 5V (3.3V supported as well) basic MUL/DIV GPT121 Ext. ADC Supply SSC2 CCU62 CCU63 Ext. ADC Supply DSP Bit handling capabilities (testing, setting, clearing) Flow control instructions (conditional/ unconditional jumps, breakpoint) Benefits Data preconditioning First level of defense for frequently occurring peripheral interrupts Programmable implementation of state machines Intelligent DMA assistance SRAM SRAM Features Up to 288KB Overlay RAM Error Code Correction (ECC) with Single Error Correction (SEC) and Double Error Detection (DED) Benefits Fast memory access Safety 288KB RAM 32KB CACHE Data Flash Data Memory Features 60k cycles EEPROM emulation and data retention for a minimum of five years Read-while-write feature supported for EEPROM emulation Benefits EEPROM emulations eliminate need for external EEPROM Alternative to stand-by RAM EEPROM emulation 192KB DFlash @ 60K w/e cycles Program Memory i/f Program Flash Features Two banks offering concurrent read/write/erase Dynamic error correction of single-bit errors and detection of double-bit errors (SEC-DED-ECC) Margin check control Flash read/write protection for each sector with three levels Flash read/write protection based on two-tier password 32KB D SPR Program Memory 16KB ICACHE One-Time Programmable (OTP) Tuning protection End-to-end protection of Flash data with ECC Detection of addressing errors Benefits Fast end-of-line programming Faster access speeds Safety and security EBU PMU 0 2MB Flash 16KB DFlash 8KB BROM key Flash 2 ASC0 ASC1 FlexRay (2 Channels) MultiCAN Features & Benefits Full CAN with CAN 2.0B active Up to four independent CAN nodes Up to 128 message objects Programmable acceptance filtering Data transfer rate of up to 1Mbit/s individually programmable for each node 4MB PFlash 16KB Boot ROM Powerful analysis capability data handling support Automatic gateway support Flexible interrupt handling FIFO MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) SENT (8 Channels) GPTA0 GPTA1 LTCA2 CCU CCU 39 124KB D SPR 16KB DCACHE 128KB SRAM XBAR Program Memory i/f TriCore™ Direct Memory Access (DMA) 124KB D SPR f fE-Ray fCPU DMA 2x 8 Channels 16KB DCACHE LMU 128KB SRAM Features MLI0 Up to 16 independent DMA channels EBU Programmable priority of DMA MLI1 PMU 0 PMU 1 sub-blocks on bus interfaces DMA Interrupts Buffer capability for move actions on 2MB Flash 2MB Flash MemCheck 2x 8 Channels Bridge 16KB DFlash buses (at least one move per bus is STM 8KB BROM SDMA buffered) key Flash (8x safe DMA Channels) SCU Individually programmable operation Interrupts 16KB Parameter RAM SHE Ports modes for each DMA channel ASC0 Full 32-bit addressing capability of STM FCE External ASC1 PCP2DMA channel Request Unit each SCU LMU Core BMU Programmable data width of DMA trans200MHz GPT120 FlexRay Portsor 32-bit 8-bit, 16-bit 128KB (2 Channels) 5V (3.3V supportedfer/transaction: as well) 1.3V/3.3V SRAM GPT121 XBAR Ext. ADC Supply Micro link bus interface External support Ext. Supply 32KB Code Memory Request MultiCAN One register set for each DMAUnit channel SSC0 ADC0 (4 Nodes, Flexible interrupt generation GPT120 128 MO) SSC1 ADC1 OCDS L1 Debug SSC2 SENT Interface/JTAG (8 Channels) SSC3 MLI0 els MSC1 LVDS Interrupts mory TC1.6 OCDS L1 Debug 300MHz Interface/JTAG FPI-Bus Interface Interrupts RAM Data Memory i/f Floating Point Unit 32KB D SPR 16KB ICACHE ge 1.3V/3.3V Ext. Supply GPTA0 SSCG SSC Guardian MLI1 GPTA1 MemCheck LTCA2 ADC2 ADC3SBCU FCE it PLL check unit built in controller operates as bus bridge OCDS L1 Debug peripheral bus and between system Interface/JTAG remote peripheral bus (AUDO NG) or to LMB busMLI0 (AUDO Future) DMA MLI1 Benefits Flexible use for single event or MemCheck continuous transfer operation SDMA Flexible interrupt generation (8x safe DMA Channels) Maximum flexibility to adapt to SHE customer needs Maximum adaptation to application FCE requirements BMU 5V (3.3V supported as well) fE-Ray Ext. ADC Supply SSC0 E-RAY Purpose Timer General Array (GPTA) FM-PLL (3.3V max) Ext. Supply Memory GPT121 FADC CCU60 SDMA (8x safe DMA Channels)CCU61 SHE (5V max) 1.3V/3.3V XBAR fCPU SSC1 Features & Benefits SSC2 Very flexible digital input filtering 3.3V Ext. FADC Supply of all kinds of rotating Tracking SSC3 shafts CCU62Scalable MSC0 high MSC1resolution SSCG CCU63Independent LVDS LVDS access to time and SSC Guardian angle domain All types of PWM generation supported* thanks to Local Timer Cell (LTC) array ADC0 ADC1 (5V max) ADC2 Digital PLL for fine grain angle resolution is the ideal coprocessor to handle critical short and real-time GPTA (3.3V max) FADC interrupt tasks from the GPTA Ideal for field 3.3V test and repair work PCP2 ADC3 Ext. FADC Supply BMU 5V (3.3V supported as well) Ext. ADC Supply ADC0 ADC1 (5V max) ADC2 ADC3 (3.3V max) FADC an 3.3V Ext. FADC Supply 40 Enhanced Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) Features & Benefits synchronizable A/D converters with up to 64 channels 8/10/12-bit resolution, ±2LSB @ 10-bit Conversion time down to 1.0μs 1–4 Data reduction pre-processing Result accumulation and limit check External or internal trigger events and automatic conversion sequencing SSC0 E-RAY FM-PLL GPTA0 GPTA1 LTCA2 Fast Analog to Digital Converter (FADC) Features & Benefits Unique solution for knock detection without external ASICs or dedicated DSP Reduced software load for FIR filter thanks to integrated decimation comb filter (e.g. data reduction by a factor of six from 1200 to 200k samples) Quick adaptation of overall filter quality to meet application requirements CCU60 CCU61 CCU62 CCU63 MSC0 LVDS EBU ADC0 fCPU SSC1 Program Memory i/f SSC2 32KB D SPR 16KB ICACHE SSC3 MSC1 LVDS Ext. FADC Supplyi/f Program Memory D 32KB D SPR2x 8 C Bridge 16KB ICACHE 2MB Flash FPI-Bus Interface EBU 16KB Parameter RAM PCP2 Core 200MHz PMU 0 S 2MB Flash 16KB DFlash 8KB BROM key Flash 2 S GP GP SENT (8 Channels) SBCU GPTA0 PLLFlexRayf E-Ray (2 Channels) E-RAY S fCPU FM-PLL S MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) GPTA1 S S LTCA2 The MSC module sets a new open standard for serial high-speed communication Programwhen Memory i/f powering ASIC modules such as multi32KB D SPR switches (for ignition or injection drivers). 16KB ICACHE It transfers command frames, data frames and asynchronous diagnosis feedback from the device. The MSC module helps designers reduce EMC for high bandrates (up to i/f Data Memory Floating Point Unit 45Mbit/s) by supporting low-voltage TriCore™ 124KB D SPR differentialTC1.6 swing (LVDS) for high-speed 16KB DCACHE 300MHz downstream data and clock rates. CCU60 CCU61 CCU62 CCU63 MSC0SENTMSC1 (8 Channels) LVDS LVDS S SSC G LMU GPTA0 128KB SRAM XBAR 1.3V/3.3V GPTA1 Ext. Supply LTCA2 CCU CCU EBU PMU 1 2MB Flash Bridge 16KB DFlash 8KB BROM key Flash FlexRay (2 Channels) MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) 200MHz 32KB Code Memory OCDS L1 Debug Interface/JTAG DMA 2x 8 Channels MLI0 thus enabling scalable processing Interrupts Parameter RAM power16KB within an application Fast interconnection to Infineon STM companion chips e.g. CIC310 FlexRay PCP2 Core CIC751 16-channel SCU controller and ADC FPI-Bus Interface Features & Benefits high-speed interface up to MLI/2 (e.g. 45Mbit/s for TC1797)ASC0 used for inter-processor key Flash communication ASC1 between the AUDO family members, Serial Interrupts PMU 0 Multiprocessor Link Interface (MLI) 2MB Flash Ports External Request Unit GPT120 MLI1 MemCheck SDMA (8x safe DMA Channels) SHE FCE BMU 5V (3.3V supported as well) GPT121 SENT (8 Channels) SBCU PLL E-RAY fE-Ray FM-PLL fCPU SSC0 Ext. ADC Supply ADC0 SSC1 ADC1 GPTA1 SSC2 ADC2 LTCA2 SSC3 ADC3 GPTA0 P Ext Requ ASC1 synchronous communication up to 11.25Mbit/s Micro Second Channel (MSC) Inte 32KB Code Memory ASC0 MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) Half-duplex (3.3V max) FADC PMU 1 FlexRay (2 Channels) Features & Benefits off-board communication via LIN or K-line Full-duplex asynchronous communication up to 5.625Mbit/s 124KB D 16KB DC TC1.6 ADC3 300MHz 3.3V ASC1 Convenient (5V max) Data Mem TriCore™ SSCG SSC Guardian by programming data rate used for the PMU 0 COMB filter 2MBto Flash Increased ADC accuracy thanks 16KB DFlash data reduction filter and by moving 8KB BROM key Flash averaging filter (e.g. from 10-bit to 11-bit by selected oversampling by ASC0 a factor of four) Asynchronous Serial Channel (ASC) ADC1 Floating Point Unit ADC2 Interrupts SBCU (5V max) 41 I FPI- FlexRay (2 Channels) 32KB Code Memory MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) f SRAM XBAR GPTA0 SHE FCE BMU 5V (3.3V supported as well) SENT – New Digital Sensor Interface GPT121 PLL fE-Ray Features SSC0 E-RAY & Benefits SENT stands fCPUfor Single (falling) Edge FM-PLL SSC1 Nibble Transmission Eight SENT channels workSSC2 independently in parallel SSC3 Point-to-point digital protocol CCU62 MSC0 MSC1 SSCG complex CCU63Less LVDS LVDSand lower cost alternative SSC Guardian to CAN and LIN digital busses Good fit for environments with high noise level (e.g. powertrain) complies 1.3V/3.3V SBCU Ext. Supply GPTA1 LTCA2 OCDS L1 Debug Interface/JTAG CCU60 CCU61 MLI0 els External Request Unit GPT120 LMU SENT 128KB (8 Channels) Ports Data Memory i/f MLI1 LMU 124KB D SPR MemCheck 128KB 16KB DCACHE SRAM XBAR SDMA (8x safe DMA Channels) Ext. ADC Supply ADC0 with SENT standard (unidirectional) as ADC1 (5V max) well as Short PWM Code (SPC) protocol extensions ADC2 SPC enables use of enhanced protocol functionalities such as synchronous, (3.3V max) range FADC selection and ID selection Data rates of up to 65.8Kbit/s at 3μs 3.3V tick length and six data nibbles on Ext. FADC Supply each channel ADC3 1.3V/3.3V Ext. Supply Secure Hardware Extension (SHE) SHE Features & Benefits OCDS L1 Debug Interface/JTAG Fulfills HIS consortium specifications FCE DMA 2x 8 Channels BMU it ge (BMW, Audi, Daimler, Porsche, VW) MLI0 Supports 5V (3.3V supported as well) Ext. ADC Supply Interrupts RAM Interrupts ADC0 STM ADC1 SCU (5V max) ADC2 Ports ADC3 External (3.3V max) Request Unit FADC mory an GPT120 MLI1 ––Encoding/decoding of data ––Secure hash ––Secure keys stored in secure Flash SDMA –– Prevention of access by hardware or (8x safe DMA Channels) software MemCheck SHE FCE BMU General Purpose Timer 12 (GPT12) 3.3V 5V (3.3V supported as well) & Benefits Features Ext. FADC Supply GPT121 Ext. ADC Supply Multifunctional timer structure fE-Ray SSC0 fCPU MSC1 LVDS ADC0 SSC1 ADC1 SSC2 ADC2 SSC3 ADC3 SSCG SSC Guardian FADC ––Timing ––Event counting (5V max) width measurement ––Pulse ––Pulse generation ––Frequency multiplication (3.3V max) 3.3V Ext. FADC Supply 42 ––Key programming by OEM ––True random number generator ––Key exchange protocols Enables ––Manipulation protection ––Authentication ––Secure boot Modes ––Gated timer ––Counter mode ––Concatenation of different timers Program Memory i/ PLL E-RAY SBCU 32KB D SPR FM-PLL 16KB ICACHE (8 Channels) GPTA0 GPTA1 Capture/Compare Unit 6 (CCU 6) Program Memory i/f Also supports BLDC control, block commutation and multi-phase machines EBU Center-aligned and edge-aligned PWM can be generated 1) PMU 1 2MB Flash ASC0 DMA 2x 8 Channels ASC1 Bridge FlexRay (2 Channels) Interrupts 16KB Parameter RAM ASC0 Supports demand for higher bandwidth (whereASC1 CAN is bottleneck) PCP2 Enables new vehicle partitioning Core 200MHz FlexRay concepts such as domain control (2 Channels) Deterministic bus system (supports safety applications) 32KB Code Memory STM MultiCAN (4 Nodes, SCUMO) 128 Interrupts Features & Benefits Conformance with FlexRay protocol Specification V2.1 Data rates of up to 10Mbit/s on each channel Up to 128 configurable message buffers 8KB of message RAM ERAY IP PMU 0 2MB Flash 16KB DFlash 8KB BROM key Flash LMU CCU60D SPR CCU62 MSC0 124KB 128KB PMU 0 CCU61 CCU63 LVDS 16KB DCACHE SRAM 2MB Flash 16KB DFlash 8KB BROM key Flash TC1.6 300MHz FPI-Bus Interface FlexRay™ TriCore™ 32KB D SPR 16KB ICACHE Features & Benefits High resolution 16-bit capture and compare unit Mainly for AC drive control EBU Data Memory i/f Floating Point Unit LTCA2 (8 Ports SENT (8External Channels) Request Unit MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) GPT120 GPTA0 5V ( Synchronous Serial Channel (SSC) GPTA1 GPT121 SENT (8 Channels) SBCU PLL E-RAY Features & Benefits FM-PLL GPTA0 rates up to 45Mbit/s Full-duplex and half-duplex serial Communication link for powerProgram devices, communication Data Memory i/f Memory i/f synchronous GPTA1Point Unit Floating memories and sensors Hardware support for up to six slave TriCore™ 32KB D SPR 124KB D SPR LTCA2 select lines TC1.6 16KB ICACHE 16KB DCACHE Supports CCU60 CCU61 300MHz CCU62 CCU63 fE-Ray LTCA2 SSC0 fCPU CCU CCU SSC1 SSC2 LMU 128KB MSC0 SRAM MSC1 LVDS LVDS XBAR SSC3 1.3V/3.3V Ext. Supply SSCG SSC Guardian EBU Enhanced On-Chip Debug Support (OCDS) FlexRay (2 Channels) OCDS L1 Debug Interface/JTAG DMA 16KB Parameter RAM MLI0 MLI1 Interrupts MemCheck STM PCP2 Core 200MHz Interrupts ASC1 PMU 1 only 2MBtwo Flashpins. Flexible cross triggering 2x 8 Channels Bridge with internal and external sources and targets helps analyze and debug hard real-time systems. FPI-Bus Interface PMU 0 TriCore™ V1.6 features enhanced2MB On-Chip Flash 16KB Debug Support (OCDS) with programDFlash flow 8KB BROM and data access breakpoint capabilities. key Flash Debuggers can connect using JTAG or a high-speed Device Access Port (DAP) with ASC0 32KB Code Memory MultiCAN (4 Nodes, 128 MO) SCU Ports External Request Unit GPT120 SDMA (8x safe DMA Channels) SHE FCE BMU 5V (3.3V supported as well) GPT121 SENT (8 Channels) SBCU PLL E-RAY fE-Ray FM-PLL fCPU SSC0 Ext. ADC Supply ADC0 SSC1 ADC1 GPTA1 SSC2 ADC2 LTCA2 SSC3 ADC3 SSCG SSC Guardian FADC GPTA0 1) FlexRay™ is a trademark of the FlexRay Consortium and used under license. CCU60 CCU61 CCU62 CCU63 MSC0 LVDS MSC1 LVDS (5V max) 43 (3.3V max) FPU PMI PMU LMU DMI Overlay TriCore™ 1.6P RAM Data Flash BROM Key Flash Progr. Flash Progr. Flash SRI Cross Bar Diverse Lockstep Core FPU PMI Diverse Lockstep Core DMI Overlay TriCore™ 1.6P PMI FPU TriCore™ 1.6E Bridge DMI Standby Overlay SDMA OCDS System Peripheral Bus PLL & PLL ERAY HSSL BCU SCU STM SHE2 DS-ADCx ADCx IOM FCE I2C PSI5 SENT EVR QSPIx GPT12x ASCLINx MultiCAN+ FlexRay Ethernet GTM MSCx CCU6x Ports 5V or 3.3V Single Supply AURIX™ Family System Architecture AURIX™ is Infineon’s brand new family of microcontrollers serving exactly the needs of the automotive industry in terms of performance and safety. Its innovative multicore architecture, based on up to three independent 32-bit TriCore™ CPUs, has been designed to meet the highest safety standards while significantly increasing performance at the same time. Using the AURIX™ platform, automotive developers will be able to control powertrain and safety applications with one single MCU platform. Developments using AURIX™ will require less effort to achieve the ASIL-D standard than with a classical Lockstep archi tecture. Customers wanting to reduce their time-to-market can now cut down their MCU safety development by 30%. By the same token, a performance surplus of 50% up to 100% allows for more functionality and offers a sufficient resource buffer for future requirements, keeping the power consumption on the single-core microcontroller level. While protecting IP, and preventing theft and fraud, AURIX™ provides an already built-in Hardware Security Module. With its special feature set, AURIX™ is the perfect match for powertrain applications (including hybrid and electrical vehicles) as well as safety applications (such as steering, braking, airbag and advanced driver assistance systems). 44 AURIX™ Family Package Scalability LQFP-64 LQFP-100 LQFP-144 LQFP-176 9x Series TC297 up to 8MB up to 300 MHz 7x Series TC275 up to 4MB up to 200MHz 6x Series TC264 up to 1.5MB up to 133MHz 2) 4x Series TC243 3x Series TC233 TC234 2x Series TC223 TC224 up to 1.5MB up to 2MB up to 1MB 1x Series up to 512KB LFBGA-292 TC211 LBGA-416 LFBGA-516 TC298 TC299 1) 1) TC277 TC265 TC244 TC213 Upgrade/Downgrade with pin-compatible packages Advanced package technologies deliver the best price/performance ratio Customers can choose between different devices in the same pin-compatible package TriCore™ Upgrade Paths LBGA-516 LFBGA-292 BGA Scalability 25 x 25 mm 17 x 17 mm LFBGA-292 and LFBGA-516 are ball compatible so that customers can build one PCB for both packages 1) The LFBGA-516 package is a superset of the LFBGA-292. Combination PCBs can be designed for I/O and feature upgrades. 2) The TC24x device is also planned in LQFP-80. 45 AURIX™ (HW and SW) Development According to ISO 26262 Process Independent Functional Safety Management established at Infineon Compliance certificate available ––SDHB to ISO 26262 Gap Analysis performed by Exida ––Close-the-gap activities performed by Infineon ––Exida has issued a compliance certificate (Jan 2012) for Infineon HW and SW development processes for building systems up to ASIL-D Final ISO 26262 Functional Safety Audit Report Project Functional Safety Audit Customer Infineon Technologie AG Infineon® Diverse Lockstep Concept Lockstep architecture designed to control and mitigate common cause factors ––Physical isolation ––Instruction-level execution diversity: 2-cycle delay ––Circuit-level design&timing diversity Layout-level diversity Diversity controlled and verified by state‑of‑the‑art design methods Special design of clock&reset networks Careful design of lockstep comparator Main core and diverse lockstep core run the same software in parallel to detect computational errors Like normal locksteps, both cores are physically separated and have a time delay between their execution Diverse Lockstep core has been additionally transformed to provide architectural hardware diversity and further reduce common cause failures BUS Main Core Delay Delay Delay Delay Lockstep Core Compare BUS Lockstep 46 Lockstep CPU Error Multi-AUTOSAR OS Support on One Microcontroller AURIX™ provides a memory protection system for each core plus an additional distributed hardware-based resource management system Each peripheral and shared SRAM has a resource management unit that works as a local access protection mechanism to allow or deny access When combined with the memory protection system, this hardware can be used to prevent selected direct access from certain tasks or cores to peripherals or regions of SRAMs and instead redirect the attempted access to a hypervisor function Safety Agent The hypervisor can arbitrate/grant/ deny access and therefore provide paravirtualization of mixed-criticality tasks in a unified sub-system architecture with a minimal CPU overhead AURIX™ therefore provides the ability to run mixed-criticality software requiring real-time access while still enforcing encapsulation and freedom of interference between cores, even when the cores are not running timeand memory-protected operating systems APP ... APP Safety Monitor ... ... AUTOSAR Hypervisor Supervisor/User AURIX™ AURIX™ Protection System Overview Hardware Support for Freedom of Interference ––Between SW components APP APP AUTOSAR Core 0 ––Between HW parts ––Between HW parts & SW components Timing protection APP APP AUTOSAR Core 1 APP APP AUTOSAR Core 2 Hypervisor Hardware 47 Embedded Software TriCore™ Performance Real-life application benchmark (software controlling a four-cylinder diesel engine) 228% 100% 100% TC1797 TC1782 128% 113% 170% 152% 140% 46% TC1767 TC1.3.1 @ 80MHz Assuming TC1791/ TC1791 TC1793 TC1798 TC1793 TC1.3.1 TC1.3.1 TC1.6 TC1.6 TC1.6 TC1.6 @ 180MHz @ 180MHz @ 200MHz @ 240MHz @ 270MHz @ 300MHz TC27x TC29x 1x TC16E& 1x TC16P 2x TC16P @ 200MHz @ 300MHz multicore performance gain of 1.5 times Infineon Software Product Overview Modeling Tools Tools abstraction drivers ––AUTOSAR MCAL ––DAVE™ Safety driver ––PRO-SIL™ SafeTcore (AUDO MAX) ––PRO-SIL™ SafeTlib (AURIX) Application drivers ––DAVE™ Drive (IMM) ––3-phase eMotor driver 48 Libraries Hardware Focus Areas Microcontroller Configuration Tools Microcontroller Abstraction Drivers Applications Driver Safety Driver System Software (Services, OS, Communication, Memory Manager etc.) Security Driver Application Software HW Operation Software Appl. Software Software System software Configuration tool ––DAVE™ Libraries ––TriLib ––XC2000 DSP library Tools ––MemTool etc. Via 3rd Parties Infineon AUTOSAR MCAL Drivers MC-ISAR Product Overview Application Layer AUTOSAR Runtime Environment (RTE) System Services On-board Device Abstraction Memory Services Communication Services Memory Abstraction Communication Abstraction FLS RAM Test Complex Device Driver CanTrcv FEE MCU WDG GPT I/O Hardware Abstraction SPI LIN CAN FlexRay PORT DIO ICU PWM ADC MCAL UART MEM FADC Check ... MCAL Complex Driver Microcontroller Infineon MC-ISAR Drivers (MicroController Infineon Software ARchitecture) MC-ISAR MC-ISAR: MC-ISAR COM Basic: MC-ISAR COM Enhanced: MC-ISAR MEM: MC-ISAR MCAL CD: Enabled via Partners MicroController – Infineon Software ARchitecture MCU, WDG, GPT, SPI, PORT, DIO, ICU, PWM, ADC CAN, CanTrcv, LIN FlexRay, Ethernet FLASH, FEE UART, MEMCheck, FADC, ect. for TriCore™ Supported AUTOSAR releases and devices ––V2.0: AUDO NG (TC1796, TC1766 ) ––V2.1, V3.0: XC2287, AUDO Future (TC1797, TC1767), AUDO S ––V3.1, V3.2: XC2000, AUDO MAX ––V4.03: AUDO MAX ––V3.2, V4.03: AURIX™ ––ISO 26262 support Complex driver for non-standardized modules (for TriCore™) CMM L3 process AUTOSAR BSW suite via partners: Electrobit, Vector, KPIT Delivery packages include: source code, user manual, Tresos configuration tool MC-ISAR Product Overview Documented product release Easy to use Standardized driver Compatibility and reduced time-to-market Qualified release Compliant with CMM L3, lower development cost Free evaluation version From sales contact MC-ISAR Eﬃcient implementation Lowest resource consumption Application independence From chassis through body to powertrain 49 Embedded Software Infineon’s MC-ISAR eMotor Driver 3–Phase Motor Control for Mass Production Electrical 3-phase motors, such as PMSM (Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motors) and BLDC (Brushless DC) motors, are used across the automotive application domains (e.g. chassis control, (H)EV inverter, dry double clutch transmission etc.). 3–phase sinusoidal distributed and mechanically displaced windings are the characteristic of PMSM. The rotating magnetic field, activated by sinusoidal and time-displaced current, drives the motor. Three-phase current is switched into the motor windings via MOSFETs. The Field Oriented Control (FOC) algorithm generates the PWM pattern needed for the current control. The rotor position and current are continuously sensed. The highperformance microcontroller plays the key role in the FOC algorithm, allowing higher accuracy, safer execution and improved efficiency for motor control. The MC-ISAR eMotor driver collects the common feature of current and torque control, acting as a perfect solution for motor drive applications. Position and speed control can be achieved on an application-specific basis, supporting multiple position acquisition modes and satisfying different customer needs. Feature Highlights Control PMSM motors via Field Oriented Control (FOC), including Space Vector Modulation SVM Control BLDC motors via Block Communication (BC) Mixed control of FOC / BC motors Integrated with AUTOSAR drivers Supports safety applications Sensors in FOC Mode Hall sensors/Incremental encoder Direct resolver mode (without resolver IC) Resolver mode (with resolver IC) Sensorless FOC Current Measurement: 3 phases, 2-phase parallel and sequential, DC link sequential 50 Sensors in BC Mode Hall sensors Sensorless via back EMF Current Measurement: DC link single MC-ISAR eMotor Benefits: for mass production, off-the-shelf implementation Limited software outlay Direct resolver mode (no external resolver IC), reduced system cost Compliant to ISO 26262 process and CMM level 3 Seamless configuration under the same configuration tool for AUTOSAR MCAL driver Easy to use Developed FOC Mode Motor Debugging Position Control Velocity Control AUTOSAR Run Time Environment (RTE) EmoControl PIC INV IF PARK LIB FOC CLARKE LIB PA RES IF SVM LIB FOC LIBs ADC Driver SPI Handler Driver EmoICU DIO EmoPWM eMotor MCAL CDs µC AUTOSAR Module Customer-Specific Module MC-ISAR eMotor Module BC Mode Position Control Motor Debugging Velocity Control AUTOSAR Run Time Environment (RTE) EmoControl PIC PA ADC Driver EmoICU EmoPWM eMotor MCAL CDs µC AUTOSAR Module Customer-Specific Module MC-ISAR eMotor Module 51 Development Support Emulation Device Emulation Devices (ED) are a very powerful solution for calibration, measurement, rapid prototyping and debugging Emulation logic and RAM is added next to the unchanged Production Device (PD) part on the same chip Cost-optimized PD, feature rich ED Same package for ED and PD and minimum or no additional external circuitry allows highly cost-optimized ECU design Proven solution with broad tool support by leading automotive and debug tool vendors PD and ED in same package AURIX™ Highlights Up to 2Mbyte RAM for calibration with same access speed as on-chip flash Cold start access via the regular two pin DAP interface when the ECU is unpowered Automotive measurement bandwidth (XCP) 15/30Mbyte/s via regular 2/3 pin DAP interface Trace and Measurement Today’s vehicles are designed to meet rising market demands for engine performance, engine responsiveness, torque, drivability, fuel economy and emissions. Infineon’s proven Multicore Debug Solution (MCDS) enables manufacturers to design and optimize features to support these automotive trends. Multicore Debug Solution (MCDS) Key Features Tracing of CPUs, busses, performance events and peripheral internal states Real-time, cycle-accurate and in parallel Up to 1Mbyte on-chip trace RAM (40Gbit/s bandwidth) Very powerful trigger capabilities No additional pins needed beside the DAP interface New Compact Function Trace (CFT) mode for continuous program trace via DAP New fine grained data trace qualification for automotive measurement 52 DAVE™ – Digital Application Virtual Engineer DAVE™ is a tool that helps engineers program Infineon microcontrollers. It provides intelligent wizards that configure chips to specific requirements and automatically generate C-code with appropriate driver functions for all on-chip peripherals and interrupt controls. DAVE™ interacts directly with the IDEs from leading tool suppliers and with Infineon’s free toolchain DAVE™ Bench. The DAVE™ mother system and DIP file for the microcontroller in question are needed to use DAVE™. Key Features generates initialization code for Infineon microcontrollers DAVE™ displays all available peripherals in a block diagram at the start Click on a peripheral to define its functionality DAVE™ Starter Kits Infineon AUDO family starter kits are powerful evaluation systems that enable evaluation and development well before the target hardware is available. They offer a solid platform for both hardware and software engineers to evaluate and prototype designs that are closely aligned with their final applications. Our Starter Kits include Evaluation Board USB cable Easy connectivity to all peripheral modules Extension Board Development tools for evaluation such as compilers, debuggers and DAVE™ Technical documentation – user manuals, architecture manuals, application notes, data sheets, board documentation Full-Featured Further information for TriCore™ Starter Kits: http://ehitex.com/starter-kits/for-tricore 53 TriCore™ Tool Partners Embedded Software Simulation/Virtual Prototyping Integrated Compiler Environments Auto Code Generation Tools Timing/Scheduling Analysis Operating Systems Emulators/Debugger Development Systems Data Measurement/Calibration/Rapid Prototyping Programmer/Flash Tools Software Verification Training/Services Free Tooling DAVE 54 TM Free TriCore™ Entry Tool Chain [Compiler/Debugger/Eclipse IDE] Important Links/Contact Local Field application Engineers via Infineon, distributors and sales representatives www.infineon.com/sales Regional Application engineering teams Detroit, Munich, Shanghai, Singapore and Tokyo Global Microcontroller R&D teams Service center: www.infineon.com/service Technical training: www.infineon.com/mc-training 55 Ask Infineon. Get connected with the answers. Where you need it. When you need it. Infineon offers its toll-free 0800/4001 service hotline as one central number, available 24/7 in English, Mandarin and German. Our global connection service goes way beyond standard switchboard services by offering qualified support on the phone. Call us! nGermany ...................... 0800 951 951 951 (German/English) n China, mainland .......... 4001 200 951 (Mandarin/English) nIndia ........................... 000 800 4402 951 (English) nUSA ............................. 1-866 951 9519 (English/German) n Other countries ............ 00* 800 951 951 951 (English/German) n Direct access ............... +49 89 234-0 (interconnection fee, German/English) * Please note: Some countries may require you to dial a code other than “00” to access this international number, please visit www.infineon.com/service for your country! Where to Buy Infineon Distribution Partners and Sales Offices Please use our location finder to get in contact with your nearest Infineon distributor or sales office. www.infineon.com/WhereToBuy Infineon Technologies – innovative semiconductor solutions for energy efficiency, mobility and security. Published by Infineon Technologies AG 85579 Neubiberg, Germany © 2012 Infineon Technologies AG. All Rights Reserved. Visit us: www.infineon.com Order Number: B158-H9282-G3-X-7600 Date: 08 / 2012 Attention please! The information given in this document shall in no event be regarded as a guarantee of conditions or characteristics (“Beschaffenheitsgarantie”). With respect to any examples or hints given herein, any typical values stated herein and/ or any information regarding the application of the device, Infineon Technologies hereby disclaims any and all warranties and liabilities of any kind, including without limitation warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights of any third party. Information For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office (www.infineon.com). Warnings Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in question please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office. Infineon Technologies Components may only be used in life-support devices or systems with the express written approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure of that life-support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body, or to support and/or maintain and sustain and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reason-able to assume that the health of the user or other persons may be endangered. Feature Overview TriCore™ Family Number of ADC Channels Timed IO Channels (PWM, CAPCOM, GPTA) External Bus Interface CAN Nodes Communication Interfaces 2) Temperature Ranges 3) Packages 81 32 48 no 2 2xASC, 2xSSC, MSC, 2xMLI K PG-LQFP-176 FPU, PCP 123 44 126 yes 4 2xASC, 2xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI K PG-BGA-416 Additional Features/ Remarks 4) Digital I/O Lines FPU, PCP 2000 192 SRAM (incl. Cache) [KByte] 1500 88 150 Program Memory [KByte] 80 TC1796 Max Clock Frequency [MHz] TC1766 Product Type Co-Processor 1) TriCore™ Microcontroller for Automotive Applications AUDO – Next Generation Family AUDO – Future Family TC1736 80 1000 48 FPU 70 24 53 no 2 2xASC, 2xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LQFP-144 TC1767 133 2000 104 FPU, PCP 88 36 80 no 2 2xASC, 2xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LQFP-176 TC1797 180 4000 176 FPU, PCP 221 48 118 yes 4 2xASC, 2xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI, 2xFlexRay K PG-BGA-416 AUDO MAX – Family TC1724 133 1500 152 FPU, PCP 89 28 77 no 3 2xASC, 4xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LQFP-144 EVR TC1728 133 1500 152 FPU, PCP 113 36 94 no 3 2xASC, 4xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LQFP-176 EVR TC1782 180 2500 176 FPU/PCP 88 36 80 no 3 2xASC, 3xSSC, MSC, MLI, FlexRay K PG-LQFP-176 TC1784 180 2500 176 FPU/PCP 141 36 122 yes 3 2xASC, 3xSSC, MSC, MLI, FlexRay K PG-LFBGA-292 TC1791 240 4000 288 FPU/PCP 130 48 100 no 4 2xASC, 4xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI, 8xSENT, FlexRay K PG-LFBGA-292 TC1793 270 4000 288 FPU/PCP 221 44 112 yes 4 2xASC, 4xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI, 8xSENT, FlexRay K PG-LBGA-416 TC1798 300 4000 288 FPU/PCP 238 72 138 yes 4 2xASC, 4xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI, 8xSENT, FlexRay K PG-BGA-516 TC275T 200 4000 472 FPU 112 60 / 6 DS 110 no 4 4xASCLIN, 4xQSPI, 2xMSC, HSSL, I²C, 10xSENT, 3xPSI5, FlexRay,Ethernet K PG-LQFP-176 EVR TC277T 200 4000 472 FPU 151 60 / 6 DS 134 no 4 4xASCLIN, 4xQSPI, 2xMSC, HSSL, I²C, 10xSENT, 3xPSI5, FlexRay,Ethernet K PG-LFBGA-292 EVR AURIX™ – Family www.infineon.com/TriCore Feature Overview TriCore™ Family 80 no TC1197 180 4000 176 FPU, PCP 221 48 118 2 2xASC, 2xSSC, MSC, MLI F PG-LQFP-176 yes 4 2xASC, 2xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI K PG-BGA-416 Additional Features/ Remarks 4) External Bus Interface 36 Packages Timed IO Channels (PWM, CAPCOM, GPTA) 88 Temperature Ranges 3) Number of ADC Channels FPU, PCP Communication Interfaces 2) Digital I/O Lines 1000 104 CAN Nodes Co-Processor 1) 133 SRAM (incl. Cache) [KByte] Program Memory [KByte] TC1167 Product Type Max Clock Frequency [MHz] TriCore™ Microcontroller for Industrial Applications TC1x Family AUDO MAX – Family TC1724 133 1500 152 FPU, PCP 89 28 77 no 3 2xASC, 4xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LQFP-144 EVR TC1728 133 1500 152 FPU, PCP 113 36 94 no 3 2xASC, 4xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LQFP-176 EVR TC1782 180 2500 176 FPU, PCP 88 36 80 no 3 2xASC, 4xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LQFP-176 TC1784 180 2500 176 FPU, PCP 141 36 122 yes 3 2xASC, 4xSSC, MSC, MLI K PG-LFBGA-292 TC1791 240 3000 288 FPU, PCP 130 48 100 no 4 2xASC, 4xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI, 8xSENT K PG-LFBGA-292 TC1793 270 4000 288 FPU, PCP 221 44 112 yes 4 2xASC, 4xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI, 8xSENT K PG-BGA-416 TC1798 300 4000 288 FPU, PCP 238 72 138 yes 4 2xASC, 4xSSC, 2xMSC, 2xMLI, 8xSENT K PG-BGA-516 1) MAC = Multiply-Accumulate-Unit (DSP), FPU = Floating Point Unit, PCP = Peripheral Control Processor 2) I²C = Inter-Integrated Circuit, USART = Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter, UART = Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter, SSC = Synchronous Serial Channel, ASC = Asynchronous Serial Channel, MLI = Micro Link Interface, MSC = Micro Second Channel, LIN = Local Interconnect Network 3) Ambient Temperature Range: B = 0 … 70°C, F = -40 … 85°C, X = -40 … 105°C, K = -40 … 125°C, A = -40 … 140°C, L = -40 … 150°C, H = -40 … 110°C 4) ROM = Read Only Memory, EVR = Embedded Voltage Regulator Published by Infineon Technologies AG 85579 Neubiberg, Germany © 2012 Infineon Technologies AG. All Rights Reserved. Visit us: www.infineon.com Date: 08 / 2012 Attention please! The information given in this document shall in no event be regarded as a guarantee of conditions or characteristics (“Beschaffenheitsgarantie”). With respect to any examples or hints given herein, any typical values stated herein and/ or any information regarding the application of the device, Infineon Technologies hereby disclaims any and all warranties and liabilities of any kind, including without limitation warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights of any third party. Information For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office (www.infineon.com). Warnings Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in question please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office. Infineon Technologies Components may only be used in life-support devices or systems with the express written approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure of that life-support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body, or to support and/or maintain and sustain and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user or other persons may be endangered.