A8601 Datasheet

A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Features and Benefits
Description
• Automotive-grade AEC-Q100 qualified
•Five individual output supplies
•Independent control of each output voltage
•350 kHz to 2.25 MHz switching frequency with external
synchronization capability
•<10 µA shutdown current
•Preprogrammed power-up and shutdown sequences
•Overcurrent, overvoltage, short circuit, and thermal
overload protection
The A8601 is a fixed frequency, multiple-output supply for
LCD bias. Its switching frequency can be either programmed
or synchronized with an external clock signal between 350 kHz
and 2.25 MHz, to minimize interference with AM and FM
radio bands.
A total of five output voltages are provided, from three linear
regulators and two charge-pump regulators. Each output
voltage can be adjusted independently. During power-up and
shutdown, the outputs are turned on and off in preprogrammed
sequences, to meet the sequencing requirements for specific
LCD panels.
Applications:
•GPS
•Infotainment
•Medium LCDs
Short-circuit protection is provided for all outputs. The boost
switch is protected against overcurrent and overvoltage. Input
disconnect protection is achieved by driving an external
P-MOSFET.
Package: 28-pin TSSOP with exposed
thermal pad (suffix LP)
28-pin exposed thermal pad TSSOP package allows operation
at high ambient temperatures. It is lead (Pb) free with 100%
matte-tin leadframe plating.
Not to scale
System Block Diagram
RSC
VIN
VIN
Optional
Q1
L1
INS GATE
D1
SW OUT
DVDD
EN1
EN2
A8601
AVDD
VDVDD 3.3 V
VAVDD 5 to 14 V
LCD Panel
External Sync
FSET_SYNC
VVIN
VGH
VGL
VVGH 10 to 25 V
+
VVGL – 5 to –12 V
+
FAULT
1.5 to 3.2 V
VINAMP
VCOM
VVCOM 3 to 6 V
+
Output voltages shown are
for typical LCD Panel
A8601-DS, Rev. 4
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Selection Guide
Part Number
A8601KLPTR-T
Packing*
Programming
4000 pieces per 13-in. reel
Contact Allegro Sales for
VCOM regulator factory trim option
*Contact Allegro™ for additional packing options.
Absolute Maximum Ratings1,2
Characteristic
VIN and INS Pin Voltage
Symbol
VVIN, VINS
SW Pin Voltage3,4
VSW
OUT Pin Voltage
AVDD and FB2 Pin Voltage
Rating
Unit
All voltages measured with respect to GND
Notes
–0.3 to 6.5
V
Continuous
–0.6 to 22
V
Voltage spikes (pulse width < 100 ns)
–1 to 40
V
VOUT
–0.3 to 22
V
VAVDD , VFB2
–0.3 to
VOUT + 0.3
V
CP11 Pin Voltage
VCP11
Positive charge pump
–0.3 to
VCP12 + 0.3
V
CP12 Pin Voltage
VCP12
Positive charge pump
–0.3 to 27
V
VGH Pin Voltage
VVGH
Positive charge pump
–0.3 to 27
V
FB4 Pin Voltage
VFB4
Positive charge pump
–0.3 to
VVGH + 0.3
V
CP21 Pin Voltage
VCP21
Negative charge pump
–0.3 to 14
V
CP22, VGL and FB3 Pin Voltage
VCP22, VVGL,
VFB3
Negative charge pump
–14 to 0.3
V
¯Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ Pin Voltage
EN1, EN2, and F̄¯ Ā VEN1, VEN2,
VFAULT
–0.3 to 5.5
V
BIAS Pin Voltage
VBIAS
–0.3 to lower of:
5.5 or VVIN + 0.3
V
VCOM Pin Voltage
VVCOM
–0.3 to lower of:
7 or VAVDD + 0.3
V
VPGND,
VGNDVCOM
–0.3 to 0.3
V
–
–0.3 to 7
V
PGND and GNDVCOM Pin Voltage
All other pins5
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
–40 to 125
ºC
Maximum Junction Temperature
TJ(max)
150
ºC
Tstg
–55 to 150
ºC
Storage Temperature
K temperature range
1 Stresses
beyond those listed in this table may cause permanent damage to the device. The Absolute Maximum ratings are stress ratings
only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the Electrical Characteristics table is
not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
2 All voltages referenced to AGND.
3 The SW pin has internal clamp diodes to GND. Applications that forward bias this diode should take care not to exceed the IC package
power dissipation limits. Note: Exact energy specification to be determined.
4 The switch DMOS is self-protected. If voltage spikes exceeding 40 V are applied, the device would conduct and absorb the energy
safely.
5 When V
VIN = 0 (no power), all inputs are limited by –0.3 to 5.5 V.
Thermal Characteristics: May require derating at maximum conditions; see application information
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance
Symbol
RθJA
Test Conditions*
On 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard
Value
Unit
28
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on the Allegro website.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Table of Contents
Characteristic Performance
10
Functional Description
15
15
15
16
18
19
20
21
22
23
23
Application Information
24
24
25
Linear Regulators
VCOM Regulator
Charge Pumps
Boost Controller
Switching Frequency
Continuous Conduction Mode Operation
Input Disconnect Switch
FAULT Conditions
Pre-Output Fault Detection
General Fault Detection
Output Voltage Selection
Output Capacitance
Operating with Separate VIN and
Boost Supplies
Thermal Analysis
Component Selection Recommendations
I/O pin Equivalent Circuit Diagrams
26
26
28
29
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Functional Block Diagram
RSC
Q1
L1
D1
5 V DC to DC
Converter
( 4 V min.)
COUT
INS
GATE
OUT
SW
Drive
OCP
6
VIN
VDVDD
3.3 V
DVDD
Boost
Regulator
REG
with
Soft
Start
LDO
1
FB1
ON
OFF
LDO
2
X1.94
OP AMP
5
ON
EN1
External
.
Sync
AVDD
+
VCOM
EN2
+
GNDVCOM
COMP
Enable/
Disable
ON
2x
Charge
Pump
OFF
OFF
VVIN
4
CP11
6
VVCOM
3 to6 V
CVCOM
CFLY1
CP12
VGH
FB4
ON
CAVDD
1.5 to 3.2 V
from
Microprocessor
VINAMP
–
FSET_SYNC
CCOMP
+
FB2
6
VAVDD
10V
+
6
VVGH
18 V
FAULT
+
Fault
ON
OFF
VIN
BIAS
BIAS
Regulator
3.6 V
ON
90%
CP21
+
-
–
10%
Inverted
Charge
Pump
3
CFLY2
6
VVGL
-8 V
CP22
VGL
FB3
+
OFF
OFF
+
–
90%
PGND
AGND
1 to 5 See Terminal List Table
6 Output voltages shown are for a typical LCD panel
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Pin-Out Diagram
28 SW
GATE 1
INS 2
27 PGND
VIN 3
26 OUT
25 AVDD
DVDD 4
24 FB2
FB1 5
COMP 6
VINAMP 7
23 CP11
PAD
22 CP12
21 VGH
VCOM 8
20 FB4
GNDVCOM 9
FSET_SYNC 10
19 CP21
BIAS 11
18 CP22
FAULT 12
17 VGL
EN1 13
16 FB3
EN2 14
15 AGND
Terminal List Table
Name
Function
15
AGND
Analog GND reference for signals; connect to
ground plane
16
FB3
(VGL)
Connect to resistor divider network to set VVGL
17
VGL
Inverted charge pump output
(item 3 in Functional Block Diagram)
18
CP22
Capacitor terminal for inverted charge pump
(item 3 in Functional Block Diagram); refer to
Negative Charge Pump section for usage
19
CP21
Capacitor terminal for inverted charge pump
(item 3 in Functional Block Diagram)
20
FB4
(VGH)
Connect to resistor divider network to set VVGH
21
VGH
Ground reference for VCOM
22
CP12
23
CP11
FSET_SYNC
Input for synchronizing boost and charge
pump signals switching frequency to external
clock signal; alternatively, it can be connected
to an external resistor to set the switching
frequency
24
FB2
(AVDD)
25
AVDD
11
BIAS
Output from internal 3.6 V bias regulator;
connect to GND via 0.1 µF ceramic capacitor
Output from internal LDO (item 2 in Functional
Block Diagram) powered by VOUT
12
¯ Ā ¯Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ F̄
Open-drain output, pulls low in error condition
26
OUT
Connect to boost output for internal LDO and
charge pump regulators
EN1
Enable pin for DVDD output; system can only
be enabled after VVIN is above UVLO level
(refer to Startup Timing Diagram)
27
PGND
28
SW
Boost converter switch node
EN2
Enable pin for the voltage outputs other than
DVDD; it can be activated only after VVIN is
above UVLO and EN1 = high.
–
PAD
Exposed pad (substrate of IC); solder to GND
plane for better thermal conduction
Number
Name
Function
1
GATE
Gate driver for input disconnect P-MOSFET
2
INS
High-side sense for input overcurrent
detection
3
VIN
Input supply voltage (4.0 to 5.5 V) for the IC
Output from internal LDO (item 1 in Functional
Block Diagram) powered by VIN
4
DVDD
5
FB1
(DVDD)
Connect to resistor divider network to set
DVDD
6
COMP
Compensation pin, connect to external COMP
capacitor
7
VINAMP
Control voltage from external microprocessor
8
VCOM
9
GNDVCOM
10
13
14
Output from operational amplifier (item 5 in
Functional Block Diagram), controlled by
VINAMP
Number
2× charge pump (item 4 in Functional Block
Diagram) output
Capacitor terminals for charge pump
(item 4 in Functional Block Diagram)
Connect to external resistor network to set
VAVDD
Power ground for internal boost switch;
connect this pin to ground terminal of
output ceramic capacitor(s)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1: Valid at VVIN = 5 V, EN1 = EN2 = high, fSW = 2 MHz, VDVDD = 3.3 V, VAVDD = 10 V, VVGH = 20 V,
VVGL = –8 V, TJ = TA = 25°C, except
Characteristics
indicates specifications guaranteed for TJ = TA = −40°C to 125°C, unless otherwise specified
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
4.0
–
5.5
V
3.6
–
4.0
V
Input Voltage and Current
Input Voltage
VVIN
VIN Pin Undervoltage Lockout
(UVLO) Threshold
VUVLO
VVIN rising
VIN Pin UVLO Hysteresis
VUVLO(HYS)
–
0.15
0.25
V
Shutdown Bias Current
IVINBIAS(SD) Current into VIN pin, EN1 = low
–
5
50
µA
Standby Bias Current
IVINBIAS(STB) EN1 = high, EN2 = low, no load at DVDD pin
–
2
–
mA
Operating Bias Current
IVINBIAS(OP) EN1 = high, EN2 = high
–
6.5
–
mA
1.3
–
2.0
A
–
0.5
–
Ω
Boost Switch
Switch Peak Current Limit
ISW(MAX)
Cycle-by-cycle current limit
Switch On-Resistance
RDS(on)
ISW = 0.5 A
Switch Minimum On-Time
tON(MIN)
50
72
95
ns
Switch Minimum Off-Time
tOFF(MIN)
33
50
75
ns
SW Pin Leakage Current
ISW(LKG)
VSW = 5 V, EN1 = low
–
0.1
–
µA
OUT Pin Leakage Current
IOUT(LKG)
VOUT = 5 V, EN1 = low
–
0.1
–
µA
SW Pin Secondary Overvoltage
Protection (OVP)
VSW(OVP)
17.4
19.2
21.2
V
SW Pin Secondary OVP Minimum
Pulse Width4
tSW(OVP)
–
40
–
ns
VSW ≥ OVP level
Switching Frequency / Synchronization
FSET_SYNC Pin Voltage
VFSETSYNC
FSET_SYNC Pin Current
IFSETSYNC
Switching Frequency
Synchronization Frequency
fSW
fSYNC
–
1.0
–
V
34
–
220
µA
RFSET_SYNC = 5.1 kΩ
1.81
2.0
2.17
MHz
External logic signal connected to
FSET_SYNC pin
0.35
–
2.25
MHz
Without using external synchronization signal
Synchronization Minimum On-Time
tSYNC(ON)
150
–
–
ns
Synchronization Minimum Off-Time
tSYNC(OFF)
150
–
–
ns
100
–
µA
Input Disconnect
GATE Pin Sink Current
IGATE(SNK)
VGATE = VVIN , no fault
–
GATE Pin Source Current
IGATE(SRC)
VGATE = 0 V, fault tripped
–
130
–
mA
GATE Voltage at Off Condition
VGATE(OFF) EN1 = EN2 = low, or fault tripped
–
VVIN
–
V
INS Trip Point
VINS(TRIP)
Between VIN and INS pins
85
100
115
mV
INS Trip Blanking Time
tINS(BLANK) Sensed voltage = 2 × input current limit
1.5
–
3
µs
Continued on the next page…
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 (continued): Valid at VVIN = 5 V, EN1 = EN2 = high, fSW = 2 MHz, VDVDD = 3.3 V, VAVDD = 10 V,
VVGH = 20 V, VVGL = –8 V, TJ = TA = 25°C, except
otherwise specified
Characteristics
indicates specifications guaranteed for TJ = TA = −40°C to 125°C, unless
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
FB1, FB2, and FB4 pins
–
2.40
–
V
FB3 pin
–
–1.8
–
V
Feedback Pins
Feedback Sense Voltage
VFBx
Output Overvoltage Fault Threshold
VFBx(OV)
Output Undervoltage Fault Threshold
VFBx(UV)
Feedback Input Currents
IFBx
Feedback Load Resistance2
RFBx
FB1, FB2, and FB4 pins; VFBx rising
–
2.88
–
V
VFB3 falling
–
–2.16
–
V
FB1, FB2, and FB4 pins; VFBx falling
–
1.92
–
V
VFB3 rising
–
–1.44
–
V
FB1, FB2, and FB4 pins; VFBx = 2.4 V
–
–0.5
–
µA
VFB3 = –1.8 V
–
0.5
–
µA
FB1 pin
9
10
11
kΩ
FB2 pin
24
25
26
kΩ
FB3 and FB4 pins
47.5
50
52.5
kΩ
VDVDD
VVIN = 4.0 to 5.5 V
2.4
–
VVIN – 0.6
V
AVDD Output Voltage
VAVDD
VVIN = 4.0 to 5.5 V
4.4
–
14.8
V
VCOM Output Voltage
VVCOM
VVIN = 4.0 to 5.5 V, VAVDD > VVCOM + 1.5 V
2.9
–
6.8
V
Output Regulators
DVDD Output Voltage
VGH Output Voltage
VVGH
VVIN = 4.0 to 5.5 V
2.4
–
26
V
VGL Output Voltage
VVGL
VVIN = 4.0 to 5.5 V
–12.9
–
–5
V
Dropout for DVDD Regulator
VDVDD(DO)
Between VIN and DVDD pins;
VFB1 = 2.33 V, IOUT = 50 mA
–
–
0.6
V
Boost Minimum Headroom for AVDD
Regulator
VAVDD(DO)
Defined as VOUT – VAVDD; VFB2 = 2.33 V,
IOUT = 100 mA
–
2
–
V
Boost Minimum Headroom for VGH
Regulator
VVGH(DO)
Defined as VOUT – VVGH / 2;
VFB4 = 2.33 V, IOUT = 8 mA
–
2.4
–
V
Boost Minimum Headroom for VGL
Regulator
VVGL(DO)
Defined as VOUT – (–VVGL);
VFB3 = –1.75 V, IOUT = –8 mA
–
3.6
–
V
Output Pull-Down Resistor During
Shutdown (AVDD, VCOM, VGH, VGL)
ROUTPD
EN1 = high, EN2 = low
–
250
–
Ω
–
–
V
Logic Inputs
Input Logic High
Input Logic Low
Internal Pull-Down Resistance to AGND
VIH
EN1, EN2, FSET_SYNC pins
1.8
VIL
EN1, EN2, FSET_SYNC pins
–
–
0.8
V
EN1, EN2 pins
–
100
–
kΩ
RENx(PD)
Continued on the next page…
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 (continued): Valid at VVIN = 5 V, EN1 = EN2 = high, fSW = 2 MHz, VDVDD = 3.3 V, VAVDD = 10 V,
VVGH = 20 V, VVGL = –8 V, TJ = TA = 25°C, except
otherwise specified
Characteristics
indicates specifications guaranteed for TJ = TA = −40°C to 125°C, unless
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Output Current Capacity
DVDD Overcurrent Protection (OCP)
Trip Level
IDVDD(OCP)
50
–
90
mA
AVDD OCP Trip Level
IAVDD(OCP) Includes iVCOM
200
–
350
mA
60
–
110
mA
14
–
32
mA
14
–
32
mA
VCOM OCP Trip Level
iVCOM
VGH OCP Trip Level
iVGH
VGL OCP Trip Level
iVGL
Current into VGL pin
Output Voltage Accuracy
DVDD Load Regulation
AVDD, VGL and VGH Load
Regulation
VDVDDreg
VDVDD = 3.3 V, ILOAD = 10 to 50 mA
–0.1
–
0.1
V
Vxreg
ILOAD = 10% to 100% of Ix(OCP)(min)
–0.1
–
0.1
V
DVDD Accuracy3
errDVDD
VDVDD = 3.30 V
–2.5
–
2.5
%
AVDD Accuracy3
errAVDD
VAVDD = 10.0 V
–2.1
–
2.1
%
VGH Accuracy3
errVGH
VVGH = 20.0 V
–2.5
–
2.5
%
VGL Accuracy3
errVGL
VVGL = –8.0 V
–2.5
–
2.5
%
AVCOM
Defined as VVCOM / VVINAMP ;
1.5 V < VVINAMP < 3.21 V, –30°C < TA <
85°C, ILOAD = 25 mA
1.92
1.94
1.96
V / V
VCOM Operational Amplifier
VCOM Gain4
VCOM Load Regulation4
VVCOMreg
ILOAD = 5 to 50 mA
–5
–
5
mV
VCOM Temperature Coefficient4
TCVCOM
–30°C < TA < 85°C, ILOAD = 25 mA
–50
–
50
µV/°C
Input Resistance to AGND
RVINAMP(PD) VINAMP pin
–
100
–
kΩ
Dropout for VCOM from AVDD
VVCOM(DO) VAVDD = 7 V, IVCOM = 60 mA
–
–
1.5
V
¯ Ā ¯Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ Pin
F̄
¯Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ Pull-Down Voltage
F̄¯ Ā VFAULT(PD)
Fault condition asserted,
pull-up current = 1 mA
–
–
0.4
V
¯Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ Pin Leakage Current
F̄¯ Ā IFAULT(LKG) Fault condition cleared, pull-up to 5 V
–
–
1
µA
Continued on the next page…
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 (continued): Valid at VVIN = 5 V, EN1 = EN2 = high, fSW = 2 MHz, VDVDD = 3.3 V, VAVDD = 10 V,
VVGH = 20 V, VVGL = –8 V, TJ = TA = 25°C, except
otherwise specified
Characteristics
Symbol
indicates specifications guaranteed for TJ = TA = −40°C to 125°C, unless
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Fault Timers
Soft-Start Time-Out
tSS(TO)
Maximum time allowed for any output to
reach 90% of its target
40
50
60
ms
Shutdown Time-Out
tSDN(TO)
Maximum time allowed for VGH to fall to
10% and VGL to 30% of their respective
targets; EN1 = high, EN2 = low
40
50
60
ms
Overcurrent Protection (OCP)
Time-Out
tOCP(TO)
Maximum time allowed for any output to
stay in an overcurrent fault condition before
shutdown
40
50
60
ms
Restart Delay
tRESTART
Delay time after fault shutdown until the next
retry (repeats until Fault counter = 8)
80
100
120
ms
tfault
Time required after setting EN1 = low until
Fault counter clears
1
–
–
µs
TTSD
Temperature rising
–
165
–
°C
–
20
–
°C
Fault Counter Reset Time
Thermal Shutdown (TSD) Protection
TSD Threshold
TSD
Hysteresis4
TTSD(HYS)
1 For
input and output current specifications, negative current is defined as coming out of the node or pin (sourcing), positive current is defined as
going into the node or pin (sinking).
2 Net parallel resistance required at FBx pin in order to meet accuracy.
3 Output voltage is set to required nominal value using external sense resistor network. Output current at 50% of minimum OCP trip level. Accuracy
does not include mismatch error caused by external sense resistor network.
4 Ensured by design and characterization, not production tested.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
9
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Characteristic Performance
Startup and Shutdown Sequences (Normal Operation)
VIN
EN1
EN2
DVDD
AVDD
VGL
VGH
90%
t<100 ms
90%
30%
90%
90%
10%
VINAMP
VCOM
Notes:
• Normal system startup should follow the above sequence (VIN → EN1 → EN2).
• EN1 can only be asserted after VIN is above UVLO level, VUVLO. If asserted before that, it is
ignored until VIN rises above VUVLO.
• EN2 can only be asserted when DVDD is >90% target voltage. If asserted before that, it is ignored
until the condition is met.
• VGH is enabled only after the magnitude of VGL has reached >90% of its target voltage.
• VCOM output is enabled only after VGH has reached >90% of its target voltage. (A valid VINAMP
must be asserted prior to this.)
• System shutdown should start with EN2 = low, followed by EN1 = low.
• VGL shutdown can only start after VGH has dropped to 10% its original target voltage, or the VGH
shutdown time-out interval has expired.
• EN1 = low can only be asserted when VGL has fallen below 30% of its target voltage. If asserted
before that, it is ignored until the condition is met or the VGL shutdown time-out interval has
expired.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
10
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Startup and Shutdown Sequences (Irregular)
VUVLO
VIN
VIN
EN1
EN1
EN1
EN2
EN2
EN2
DVDD
AVDD
VGL
VGH
90%
DVDD
90%
90%
90%
AVDD
VGL
VGH
VIN
90%
DVDD
90%
90%
90%
AVDD
VGH
VINAMP
VINAMP
VINAMP
VCOM
VCOM
VCOM
Case 1 (startup)
30%
VGL
Case 2 (startup)
10%
Case 3 (shutdown)
Notes:
• Case 1 (startup). During a startup sequence, if EN2 goes high before EN1 goes high, EN2 is
ignored until EN1 also goes high and DVDD has risen to 90% of its target voltage.
• Case 2 (startup). During a startup sequence, while VIN is below the UVLO level, VUVLO , the IC is
in sleep mode. If either EN1 or EN2 goes high while the IC is still in sleep mode, they are ignored
until VIN exceeds VUVLO .
• Case 3 (shutdown). During a shutdown sequence, if EN1 goes low before EN2 goes low, EN1
is ignored until EN2 also goes low and VGL has fallen to 30% of its target voltage, or the VGL
shutdown time-out interval has expired.
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11
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Startup Timing Diagram
>100 µs (determined by GATE pin capacitance)
IC waits until GATE pin < (VVIN – 3.5 V)
EN1
DVDD
EN1 ignored
≈ 4 ms for 48 µF
capacitor loading
90%
≈ 12 ms for typical
capacitor loading
EN2
AVDD
VGL
VGH
VCOM
EN2 ignored
≈ 3 ms for 48 µF
capacitor loading
90%
≈ 4 ms for 24 µF
capacitor loading
90%
≈ 4 ms for 10 µF
capacitor loading
≈ 2 ms for 10 µF
capacitor loading
90%
90%
Notes:
• Startup ramps are based on internal timing and are assumed to have ± 20% variation.
• An internal pull-down resistor of 250 Ω is applied to each of the regulator outputs AVDD, VGL,
VGH, and VCOM as soon as EN1 = high. That means if any output capacitor was previously
charged, it would be discharged by this pull-down resistor. The pull-down is removed just
before each regulator is enabled.
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12
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Shutdown Timing Diagram
EN2
≈22 ms for 40 µF
capacitor discharge
AVDD
VCOM
VGH
10%
≈6 ms for 10 µF
capacitor discharge
10%
≈6 ms for 10 µF
capacitor discharge
10%
30%
VGL
≈ 7 ms for 24 µF
capacitor discharge
Cumulative ≈ 13 ms capacitor discharge
for 10 µF on VGH and 24 µF on VGL
EN1
EN1 ignored
EN1 active after AVDD, VGH, and VCOM
decay to <10%, and VGL decays to <30%,
of their target values
DVDD
Device enters
sleep mode
Notes:
• All exponential decays are based on external capacitance and internal pull-down resistance
(250 Ω each for AVDD, VCOM, VGH, and VGL). The external DC load is assumed to be off or
negligible.
• If any of the outputs AVDD, VCOM, or VGH does not decay to below 10% of target voltage
after 50 ms, starting from EN2 is low, it is by-passed and the rest of the shutdown sequence
continues without it.
• For VGL, the shutdown detection threshold is set at 30%. Only if the magnitude of VGL has
dropped below 30%, when EN1 goes low the IC will shut down completely. After shutdown, all
internal pull-down resistors are released, and output capacitor voltages will decay according to
external load resistances.
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13
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Typical Load Current during Normal Operation
AVDD
VGL
IAVDD(av) = 140.25 mA
IVGL(av) = 8.9 mA
500 mA
30 mA
100 mA
4 mA
3.2 µs
3.2 µs
6 µs
31.8 µs
31.8 µs
VGH
VCOM
IVGH(av) = 7.9 mA
IVCOM(av) = 18.3 mA
30 mA
50 mA
4 mA
15 mA
4.8 µs
31.8 µs
6 µs
4.8 µs
6 µs
6 µs
63.6 µs
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14
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Functional Description
The A8601 is a flexible multi-voltage regulator designed for
LCD panel bias applications. It utilizes a high-efficiency boost
converter, together with space-saving low-dropout regulator and
charge pump circuits to provide five independently adjustable
voltage outputs:
•DVDD: Typically 3.3 V. Nominal output current 20 mA,
maximum 100 mA. This output is from a low-dropout regulator
(item 1 in the Functional Block Diagram) powered by VIN. It is
available while EN1 is high.
•AVDD: Typically between 5 and 13.3 V. Nominal current
100 mA. This output is from a low-dropout regulator (item 2 in
the Functional Block Diagram) powered by VOUT. It is only
available when both EN1 and EN2 are high.
•VCOM: Typically between 3 and 6 V at 50 mA. This voltage
is programmable by applying a control voltage at the VINAMP
pin (1.5 to 3.2 V from the application microprocessor). The
power supply of this regulator is internally connected to AVDD.
•VGL: Typically between –11 and –5.4 V at 4 mA. This voltage
is generated by an inverted charge pump, which is powered by
VOUT.
•VGH: Typically between 14.5 and 24.6 V at 4 mA. This voltage
is generated by a 2× charge pump, which is powered by VOUT.
Linear Regulators
The A8601 uses low-dropout linear regulators (LDO) to provide DVDD from VIN, and AVDD from boost output voltage. A
representative block diagram is shown in figure 1. Each LDO is
protected against output short or overloading by its own internal
OCP limits. Refer to the Fault Conditions section for details.
The AVDD circuit monitors the voltage drop across its LDO
(item 2 in the Functional Block Diagram). If this voltage drop is
less than 2 V, the AVDD circuit sends a control signal to cause
the boost voltage to increase. This ensures there is always enough
headroom for regulation.
VCOM Regulator
The VCOM output voltage is determined by the input voltage of
VINAMP (see figure 2), according to the following relation:
VVCOM = VVINAMP × 1.94
A8601
(1)
A8601
From boost output
AVDD Regulator
From AVDD
VCOM Regulator
OCP
OCP
Enable
Enable
+
–
VVIN
Fold
back
FB2
5 kΩ
Rsc
30 kΩ
+
–
+
–
VOUT
To boost
controller
Rsc
Fold
back
Trimmed
resistor
divider
PMOS
+
–
To boost
controller
PMOS
AVDD
+ 2.4 V
–
250 Ω
Discharge
AGND
Figure 1. Representative linear regulator (AVDD shown)
VCOM
250 Ω
VINAMP
100 kΩ
Discharge
GNDVCOM
Figure 2. VCOM regulator
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15
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
The valid range for VINAMP is between 1.5 and 3.2 V, which
gives a VVCOM range of 2.9 to 6.2 V (provided that AVDD is at
least 1.5 V higher than VVCOM). Beyond this range, the linearity
of VCOM cannot be guaranteed.
DVDD
3.3 V
The supply voltage of VCOM is taken from AVDD. In order to
ensure there is enough headroom, AVDD must be at least 1.5 V
higher than VCOM .
VINAMP
During the startup sequence, VCOM is allowed to ramp up
only after VGH has reached 90% of its target voltage. A valid
VINAMP must be asserted prior to VCOM ramp up. If VINAMP
starts low (< 1.2 V), the A8601 waits as long as 50 ms for a valid
VINAMP to be asserted. If VINAMP is not asserted by that time
limit, a fault is generated.
AVDD
>7 V
CVCOM
0.1 µF
100 kΩ
GNDVCOM
If VCOM is not required, the VCOM pin can be left open, but a
small output capacitor (approximately 0.1 µF) must be present to
prevent oscillation. Make sure to connect VINAMP to a suitable
voltage such as DVDD at 3.3 V. The connection to DVDD can
be divided as shown in figure 3, according to the AVDD level
required.
Charge Pumps
The A8601 uses a 2× charge pump to generate VGH from boost
voltage, and an inverting charge pump to generate VGL . Representative block diagrams are shown in figure 4.
A8601
DVDD
3.3 V
A8601
AVDD
5V
10 kΩ
40.2 kΩ
VINAMP
100 kΩ
2.45 V
CVCOM
0.1 µF
GNDVCOM
The frequency of the charge pumps is the same as the boost
switching frequency (or external SYNC frequency)
When an external SYNC signal is used, it is internally converted
into a clock signal with the same frequency, but at 50% duty
cycle.
Recommended values of the external flying capacitor, CFLYx , on
Figure 3. Configuration for unused VCOM: (upper panel) VAVDD > 7 V, and
(lower panel) VAVDD = 5 V.
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16
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
A8601
VGH Regulator
From boost output
VVIN
OCP
Enable
FB4
5 kΩ
+
–
55 kΩ
2X Charge
Pump
D1
CFLY1
CP12
D2
S2
Linear
Regulator
To boost
controller
+
CP11
S1
2.4 V
Switching Sequence:
• S1 closed and D1 charges CFLY1
• S2 closed and D2 dumps CFLY1 to VGH
250 Ω
VGH
Discharge
AGND
Figure 4A. 2× charge pump for VGH regulator
A8601
VGL Regulator
From boost output
OCP
Enable
FB3
+
–
1X Charge
Pump
S1
To boost
controller
Switching Sequence:
• S1 closed and D1 charges CFLY2
• S2 closed and D2 dumps CFLY2 to VGL
CFLY2
CP21
Linear
Regulator
S2
+
D1
D2
(Si)
CP22
1.8 V
250 Ω
VGL
Discharge
AGND
Figure 4B. Inverting (negative) charge pump for VGL regulator
A8601
VGL Regulator
From boost output
OCP
Enable
FB3
+
–
Linear
Regulator
1X Charge
Pump
S1
To boost
controller
Switching Sequence:
• S1 closed and D3 charges CFLY2
• S2 closed and D2 dumps CFLY2 to VGL
CFLY2
CP21
S2
D1
CP22
1.8 V
250 Ω
+
D3
(Si)
D2
(Si)
VGL
Discharge
AGND
Figure 4C. Inverting (negative) charge pump for VGL regulator, full output current (14 mA)
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17
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
the CPxx pins depends on the switching frequency as shown in
the following table; a voltage rating of 25 V is sufficient:
Switching Frequency
(MHz)
Boost Controller
The A8601 contains an integrated DMOS switch and PWM
controller to drive a boost converter. The input voltage, VVIN ,
(5 V nominal) is boosted to an intermediate voltage, VOUT , which
is the lowest voltage required to keep all outputs within regulation. That is, the effective boost voltage is the highest of the boost
requirement of the individual regulators, as illustrated in figure 5.
CFLYx
(µF)
≈ 0.1
2
1
0.22
0.350
0.47
For the inverted (negative) charge pump, an external silicon diode
is used between the VGL and CP22 pins. However, at high temperatures and switching frequencies (such as 125°C and 2 MHz),
the maximum VGL output current is limited to about 8 mA. To
achieve the full output current, 14 mA, it is necessary to use two
external diodes, as shown in figure 4C.
The value of the flying capacitor can be calculates as follows:
1.The equivalent series resistance of the flying capacitor is:
ESRFLY2 = 1 / ( fSW × CFLY2 )(2)
2.Assuming a flying capacitor ripple voltage of 100 mV, and a
maximum output current of 20 mA, the series resistance is:
• AVDD (LDO 2): VOUT ≥ VAVDD + 2 (V) = 12 V
• VGH (2× Charge Pump): VOUT ≥ 0.5 × VVGH + 2.4 (V) =
11.65 V
• VGL (Inverted Charge Pump): VOUT ≥ –VVGL + 3.6 (V) =
10.6 V
In this example, AVDD has the highest requirement, so the
intermediate voltage will be regulated at a VOUT of 12 V approximately. However, if VVGH were increased to 23 V, it would be the
highest, and then the boost converter would increase the intermediate voltage to 13.9 V to satisfy the charge pump circuit.
RFLY2 = 0.1 (V) / 0.02 (A) ≤ 5 Ω
3.Therefore at an fSW of 2 MHz, the required capacitance,
CFLY2 , is 0.1 µF.
16
14
Boost Voltage, VBOOST (V)
For example: assume the output requirements for a certain LCD
panel are: VAVDD = 10 V, VVGH = 18.5 V and VVGL = –7 V, then:
VBOOST(AVDD)
(VAVDD + 2 V)
12
VBOOST(VGH)
(VVGH / 2 + 2.4 V)
10
8
6
VBOOST(VGL)
( –VVGL + 3.6 V)
4
2
0
-12 -10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
Regulated Output (V)
Figure 5. Boost voltage requirement with respect to VGL, AVDD, and VGH
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18
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
A block diagram of the A8601 boost controller circuit is shown
in figure 6. The external COMP capacitor, CCOMP , is typically a
0.1 to 1 µF MLCC.
The controller is protected against overvoltage and overcurrent
fault conditions.
•The OVP threshold, VSW(OVP) , is internally set at approximately
19 V typical. Under normal operating conditions, the boost voltage should always be lower than 16 V (as shown in figure 5), so
only in the event of a fault will OVP be tripped (for example:
output diode open, or wrong sense resistor values).
•The switching current limit, ISW(MAX) , is protected by a pulseby-pulse OCP threshold (1.5 A typical). In the event of a heavy
load or during a transient, the SW peak current may reach OCP
level momentarily. In this case, the present on-time period
is terminated immediately, but no signal is generated on the
¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄¯T̄¯ pin.
F̄
clock signal, and the boost switching frequency is synchronized
to it. If no periodic signal is detected, the bias current flowing
through FSET_SYNC pin is used to determine the switching frequency. The bias current is set by an external resistor, RFSET , on
the FSET_SYNC pin. The relation between RFSET and switching
frequency is given as:
(3)
where RFSET is in kΩ and fSW is in MHz.
This relationship is charted in figure 7. For example, to get a
switching frequency of 2 MHz requires an RFSET of 5.11 kΩ.
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
fsw (MHz)
•In the event of a catastrophic failure (such as shorted inductor),
the SW current may exceed 150% of the OCP threshold. In this
case, the IC is shut down immediately.
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
Switching Frequency
The boost stage switching frequency, fSW , of the A8601 can
be programmed by using an external resistor between the
FSET_SYNC pin to GND, or it can be synchronized to an external clock frequency between 350 kHz and 2.25 MHz.
During startup, the A8601 senses the FSET_SYNC pin for any
external SYNC signal. If periodic logic transitions are detected
(Low < 0.8 V or High > 1.8 V), this is evaluated as an external
RFSET = 10.21 / (fSW – 0.0025)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
5
10
15
RFSET (kΩ)
20
25
30
Figure 7. Switching frequency versus FSET resistance
SW
A8601
Slope
Compensation
OVP
Oscillator
Enable
PWM
Control
DMOS
OCP
+
–
AVDD
VGH
VGL
Multi-Input
Transconductance
Amplifier
RSC
Gm
COMP
CCOMP
PGND
Figure 6. Boost controller circuit
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Suppose the A8601 is started up with a valid external SYNC signal, but the SYNC signal is lost during normal operation. In that
case, one of the following happens:
• If the external SYNC signal is high impedance (open), the
A8601 continues normal operation, at the switching frequency
¯L̄
¯T̄¯ flag is generated.
set by RFSET . No F̄¯Ā¯Ū
• If the external SYNC signal is low (shorted to ground), the
A8601 begins a shutdown sequence, at the switching frequency
¯Ū¯L̄
¯T̄¯ pin is pulled
set by the internal 1 MHz oscillator. The F̄¯Ā
low and the internal error counter is increased by 1.
Note: If the outcome of the second scenario is not acceptable,
the circuit shown in figure 8 can be used to prevent generating a
fault when the external SYNC signal goes low. When the circuit
is used, after the external SYNC signal goes low, the A8601 will
continue to operate normally at the switching frequency set by
RFSET . No F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄¯T̄¯ flag is generated.
Continuous Conduction Mode Operation
It is often preferable for a boost converter to operate in continuous conduction mode (CCM) in order to reduce switching noise
and input ripple. However, whether the converter can operate in
CCM or discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) is determined by
many parameters, including input/output voltages, output current,
switching frequency, and inductor value. This is explained as follows, using simplified basic equations for a boost converter (refer
to figure 9):
During SW off-time, tOFF :
iripple = (VOUT + VD1 – VVIN ) / L × tOFF(5)
= (VOUT + VD1 – VVIN ) / L × T × (1 – D)(7)
therefore:
VOUT + VD1 = VVIN × 1 / (1 – D)(8)
In order to operate in CCM, the minimum inductor current must
be greater than zero amperes. This means:
iSW(min) = iSW(av) – iripple / 2 ≥ 0, or
iripple ≤ 2 × iSW(av)
Average input current is directly related to the input power and
voltage, as given by:
iSW(av) = PVIN / VVIN = (POUT / η ) / VVIN(10)
where η is the efficiency of the boost converter (typically around
80%). Ripple current is determined by inductance, period, and
duty cycle, as given by:
iripple = VVIN / L × T × D(11)
where D is 1 – VVIN /(VOUT + VD1) from equation 8.
L
CVIN
VIN
D1
VOUT
SW
OUT
COUT
A8601
During SW on-time, tON :
(9)
DMOS
iripple = VVIN / L × tON (4)
= VVIN / L × T × D(5)
where T is the switching period of the boost converter and D is
the duty cycle, tON / T.
PGND
VSW
VOUT+VD
0
External
synchronization
signal
FSET_SYNC
A8601
220 pF
Schottky
barrier
diode
RFSET
10.2 kΩ
iSW
t
Switching Period, T
tON
tOFF
iSW(max)
iSW(av)
iripple
iSW(min)
t
Figure 8. Low FSET_SYNC signal fault counteraction circuit
Figure 9. Continuous and discontinuous conduction mode factors
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
For a given VVIN and VOUT , the duty cycle is fixed. Furthermore,
for a given output power, the average input current also is fixed.
Therefore the only way to reduce ripple current is either to switch
at a higher frequency (a shorter period) or to use a larger inductance.
For example, assume fSW is 2 MHz (T = 500 ns), tON(MIN) is
95 ns, and tOFF(MIN) is 75 ns. Then:
Figure 10 shows that the minimum inductance required to ensure
CCM operation increases with higher output voltage (hence also
with higher duty cycle), for a boost regulator with fixed input
voltage and output power. Note that the chart is calculated at an
fSW of 1 MHz. If the frequency is reduced by half, to 500 kHz,
the inductance requirement is doubled.
Further, assume VVIN is 4.0 to 5.5 V and VD1 is 0.4 V. Then the
possible VOUT is between 6.4 and 20.7 V. This is wider than the
range required by individual regulators under all possible output
combinations. Therefore the minimum on-time and off-time are
not limiting factors in output regulation.
D(min) = tON(MIN) / T = 95 (ns)/ 500 (ns) = 19%
D(max) = 1 – tOFF(MIN) / T = 1 – 75 (ns)/ 500 (ns) = 85%
VOUT(min) = VVIN(max) × 1/(1 – D(min)) –VD1 = 6.4 V
When selecting the boost inductor, pay attention to the following
parameters:
•Inductance. This usually determines whether the boost converter
operates in DCM or CCM. Refer to figure 10, or calculate minimum required inductance using the equations provided.
•DCR. Lower resistance is preferred to reduce conduction loss.
•Saturation current. ISAT should be greater than 1.5 A, and preferably 2 A.
•Heating current. IHEATING should be greater than 1.5 ARMS
•Physical size. Smaller size typically means lower ISAT and
higher DCR.
The minimum SW on-time and off-time determine the range of
duty cycle, and hence the range of boost output voltage. They do
not affect whether the converter operates in CCM or DCM.
VOUT(max) = VVIN(min) × 1/(1 – D(max)) –VD1 = 26.7 V
Input Disconnect Switch
The A8601 has a gate driver for an external PMOS, in order to
provide input disconnect protection function (figure11). During
normal startup, the PMOS is turned on gradually to avoid a large
inrush current. In the event there is a direct short at the boost
stage (either SW or OUT shorted to GND), a high input current
would cause the PMOS to turn off. See the Fault Conditions section for details.
The input disconnect current threshold is calculated by:
IVIN(MAX) = VINS(TH) / RINS(12)
where VINS(TH) = 100 mV typical.
9
8
POUT = 1 W
POUT = 1.33 W
6
L
VOUT
(optional)
VIN
5
INS
GATE
A8601
POUT = 2 W
4
D
CGS
VIN
3.5 V +
–
100 mV +
–
3
+
–
Inductance (µH)
RINS
VS
7
2
Overcurrent
1
Fault
SW
+
–
OUT
COUT
Gate_OK
100 µA
0
10
11
12
13
14
Output Voltage (V)
15
16
Figure 10. Minimum inductance for CCM as a function of output voltage
(at VVIN = 5.5 V and fSW = 1 MHz)
Figure 11. Input disconnect switch circuit
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21
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Under normal operation, the input current is protected by the
cycle-by-cycle boost switch current limit, ISW(MAX) ,1.5 A (typ).
Only in the event of a direct short at the boost output (SW pin)
will the input disconnect switch be activated. Therefore the input
disconnect current threshold should be set slightly higher than the
switch current limit; for example, choose an RINS of 0.047 Ω to
set an IVIN(MAX) of 2 A approximately.
During a normal power-up sequence, as soon as EN1 reaches
high, the A8601 begins pulling the GATE pin low by a 100 µA
current. How quickly the external PMOS turns on depends on
the gate capacitance CGS . If the gate capacitance is very low, the
inrush current may momentarily exceed 2 A and trip the input disconnect protection. In this case, an external CGS capacitor may be
added to slow down the PMOS turn-on. A typical value of 4.7 nF
should be sufficient in most cases.
When selecting the external PMOS, check the following parameters:
•Drain-source breakdown voltage, V(BR)VDSS , should exceed
–20 V
•Gate threshold voltage should be fully conducting at VGS =
–4 V, and cut-off at –1 V
•RDS(on) is rated at VGS = –4.5 V or similar, not at –10 V; derate
for higher temperatures
FAULT Conditions
The A8601 has extensive fault detection mechanisms, to protect
against all perceivable faults at the IC level (pin open, pin short
to GND, pin short to neighboring pins, and so forth) and at the
system level (external component open/short, component value
changes from –50% to +100%, and so forth).
All feedback pins (FB1, FB2, FB3, and FB4) are monitored for
overvoltage and undervoltage faults during normal operation.
VDVDD,
VAVDD
VVCOM
Target
Target
In case of an output short, or an open/short in the sense resistor
network, the magnitude of the sensed voltage may make a sudden
change that is either +20% over, or –20% under the target voltage. This will trigger the OVP/UVP fault and force the A8601 to
shut down.
OVP/UVP detections are disabled during the startup sequence. If
any output fails to reach 90% of its target voltage within a timeout period, tSS(TO) (50 ms typical), a fault is generated and then the
A8601 shuts down.
Each regulator output (DVDD, AVDD, VGH, VGL and VCOM)
is protected by its own independent overcurrent limit. When an
output current exceeds its limit, the corresponding regulator goes
into overcurrent protection mode to protect itself from damage.
See figure 11 for illustrations of the protection characteristics.
If the overcurrent condition persists for 50 ms, all regulators are
turned off following the normal shutdown sequence. The same
applies when there is an overvoltage fault detected at any of the
feedback pins, except that the offending regulator is turned off
immediately. The other outputs then shut down following normal
sequence.
In general, if a fault is detected, the A8601 halts operation and
¯L̄¯T̄¯ pin low. It then attempts to restart operation
pulls the F̄¯Ā¯Ū
after a delay, tRESTART , of 100 ms typical. Internally there is a
Fault counter that keeps track of how many times any fault has
occurred. If the Fault counter reaches eight, the A8601 is completely shut down. The Fault counter is cleared by a completed
shutdown sequence with EN1 = EN2 = low, or by a power reset
(VVIN drops below UVLO). During startup, all regulators go
through a soft-start process, to prevent excessive inrush current
from tripping OCP. The same applies to the turn-on of the external input disconnect PMOS.
VVGH,
VVGL
Target
3V
0
0
33
100
Output Current, IDVDD, IAVDD (%)
0
0
33
100
Output Current, IVCOM (%)
0
0
100
Output Current, IVGH, IVGL (%)
Figure 11. Overcurrent protection characteristics for DVDD, AVDD, VCOM, VGH, and VGL
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22
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Pre-Output Fault Detection
When EN1 turns on the A8601, a startup sequence is followed
before the regulators are powered up. The sequence checks for
extreme conditions and proceeds as described in table 1.
General Fault Detection
The faults described in table 2 are continuously monitored,
whether during startup, normal operation, or shutdown.
Table 1. Pre-Output Fault Detection Sequence
Step
Number
Step
Description
Fault
Tripped?
Fault Description
1
Check VIN UVLO
A8601 remains powered-down until VVIN is above VUVLO.
No
2
Power-up internal rail
A8601 initializes.
No
3
Check internal rail UVLO
BIAS charges internal rail indefinitely, until VBIAS is above UVLO.
No
4
Check all FBx pins for
short to GND
Any FBx pin is detected as shorted after tSS(TO).
Yes
Turn on DVDD
FB1 pin does not reach >90% of target (2.4 V) after tSS(TO).
Yes
Turn on input disconnect
Pull-down on GATE pin does not reach < VVIN – 3.5 V after tSS(TO).
Yes
6
Turn on SW and AVDD if
EN2 = H
FB2 pin does not reach >90% of target (2.4 V) after tSS(TO).
Yes
7
Turn on VGL
FB3 pin does not reach >90% of target (–1.8 V) after tSS(TO).
Yes
5
8
Turn on VGH
FB4 pin does not reach >90% of target (2.4 V) after tSS(TO).
Yes
9
Turn on VCOM
VCOM pin does not reach >90% of target (VVINAMP × AVCOM ) after tSS(TO).
Yes
Table 2. General Fault Detection
Fault Description
A8601 Response to Fault
Fault Tripped?
TTSD exceeded
Shutdown immediately, without using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter increased by one, retry after tRESTART , and temperature has dropped
by TTSD(HYS) .
Yes; F̄¯ Ā Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ set during tRESTART
VFB1, VFB2, VFB3, or VFB4
20% under target
Shutdown using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter increased by one, retry after tRESTART .
Yes; F̄¯ Ā Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ set during tRESTART
VFB1, VFB2, VFB3, or VFB4
20% over target
Over-target regulator rail shut down without shutdown sequence.
Other regulator rails shut down using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter increased by one, retry after tRESTART .
Yes; F̄¯ Ā Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ set during tRESTART
VUVLO reached
Shutdown without using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter reset to 0, retry after tRESTART .
No
BIAS UVLO
Shutdown without using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter reset to 0, retry after tRESTART .
No
Overcurrent limit for iDVDD,
iAVDD, iVCOM, iVGH, or iVGL
exceeded
Over-limit regulator rail goes into current fold-back or current limit.
Shutdown using shutdown sequence after tOCP(TO) .
Fault counter increased by one, retry after tRESTART .
Yes; F̄¯ Ā Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ set during tRESTART
VINS(TRIP) exceeded
Shutdown without using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter increased by one, retry after tRESTART .
Yes; F̄¯ Ā Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ set during tRESTART
VSW(OVP) exceeded
Shutdown without using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter increased by one, retry after tRESTART .
Yes; F̄¯ Ā Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ set during tRESTART
ISW(MAX) × 150% of OCP limit
exceeded
Shutdown without using shutdown sequence.
Fault counter increased by one, retry after tRESTART .
Yes; F̄¯ Ā Ū¯L̄¯ T̄¯ set during tRESTART
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23
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Application Information
Output Voltage Selection
Each output voltage of DVDD, AVDD, VGH, or VGL is selected
using a simple voltage-sensing (resistor divider) network, as
shown in figure 12.
external equivalent resistance, that is, the parallel resistance of
R1 and R2, as follows:
Pin
Parallel Resistance
(kΩ)
FB1 (DVDD)
10 ± 1
FB2 (AVDD)
25 ± 1
FB3 (VGL)
50 ± 2.5
FB4 (VGH)
50 ± 2.5
In actual implementation there is a small bias current that is
flowing out from each positive FBx pin, and the direction is
reversed for any negative FBx pin. This is necessary to detect any
pin‑open fault at an FBx pin. As shown in figure 13, a common
bias current is injected into both the (+) and the (–) terminals of
the operational-amplifier. Due to the principal of superposition,
the same set of equations as in figure 1 can be used to determine
values for R1 and R2 in figure 13.
• To reduce the mismatch error of the sensing network, consider
using 0.5% or 0.2% resistors for the resistor divider.
VFB is the regulation voltage for the feedback pins, and it is specified as 2.40 V for FB1 (DVDD), FB2 (AVDD), and FB4 (VGH).
For FB3 it is specified as –1.80 V. The following considerations
affect voltage selection:
•To reduce effects of switching noises coupled into the FBx
pins, add an external filter capacitor (typically a 47 pF MLCC)
between the FBx pin and GND. The capacitor should be placed
as close as possible to the respective FBx pin.
•To cancel the offset error introduced by input bias currents, and
to assure regulation loop stability, it is necessary to keep the
Table 3 provides some examples of voltage sensing network
component values, using E96 1% resistors.
VOUT
VOUT
A8601
R1
5 kΩ
FBx
R2
30 kΩ
VREF
+
–
Output voltage sensing network
VOUT = VFB × (R1 + R2) / R2
where: VFB = VREF
A8601
R1
FBx
R2
AGND
RZ
25 kΩ
A8601
5 kΩ
30 kΩ
VREF
AGND
Output voltage sensing network
VOUT = VFB × (R1 + R2) / R2
where: iBIAS = 0 A
AGND
A8601
VREF
FBx
VBIAS
iBIAS
iBIAS
5 kΩ
+
–
30 kΩ
VREF
+
–
Equivalent Circuit
RZ = R1 × R2 / (R1 + R2)
VREF
FBx
RZ
25 kΩ
Combining the two equations:
R1 = RZ × VOUT / VREF
VBIAS
iBIAS
iBIAS
5 kΩ
+
–
30 kΩ
VREF
AGND
Equivalent Circuit
RZ = R1 × R2 / (R1 + R2)
Based on the principle of
superposition, the same equations
can be used where iBIAS > 0 A:
R1 = RZ × VOUT / VREF
R2 = R1 × VREF / (VOUT – VREF )
R2 = R1 × VREF / (VOUT – VREF )
where: RZ is 25 kΩ and
VREF is 2.4 V for AVDD
where: RZ is 25 kΩ and
VREF is 2.4 V for AVDD
Figure 12. The output voltage sensing network and the equivalent circuit
Figure 13. The figure 12 circuits with the same bias current injected into
both inputs of the operational amplifier
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Output Capacitance
The boost stage requires an output capacitor, COUT . Use an
MLCC with a capacitance of approximately 4.7 to 10 µF and a
voltage rating of 25 V. The temperature rating should be either
X5R or X7R. Do not use Y5V, which has a very large variation
with temperature. Another point to note is the capacitance of
MLCC is specified at a 0 V bias. To account for the degradation
when the rated DC voltage is applied to an MLCC, the capacitance should be derated by as much as 50%. The derating factor
is typically less if the capacitor is physically larger (for example,
choose a 1206 package instead of an 0805) and has a higher voltage rating (for example, 50 V instead of 25 V).
AVDD
Current,
IAVDD (mA)
500
di = 400 mA
100
0
To ensure system stability, each output (DVDD, AVDD, VGL,
VGH, and VCOM) is required to have an external MLCC with
a minimum output capacitance of 2 ±0.1 µF. However, greater
capacitance may be required to satisfy transient current requirements. This is illustrated in figure 14. The AVDD load current
makes a step from 100 mA (steady state current) to 500 mA, for
a duration of 3.2 µs only. Because the linear regulator for AVDD
takes a finite time to respond to this load change, the voltage dip
is determined primarily by the output capacitance, CAVDD .
t
dt = 3.2 µs
Period = 31.8 µs
AVDD
Voltage
Target
dV1
dV2
dV1 = di ×ESR
dV2 = di ×dt / CAVDD
The corresponding voltage step, dV1, is determined by the
ESR of the output capacitor. When using an MLCC with very
low ESR (several mΩ), this drop is only several mV and can
be omitted.
t
Figure 14. AVDD output voltage transient caused by a step change
in load current
Table 3. Examples of Sensing Network Component Values
Goal Output Values
Output
[Pin]
VFBx
(V)
DVDD
[FB1]
Calculated Resistor
Divider Values
RZ
(kΩ)
VOUT
(V)
R1
(kΩ)
R2
(kΩ)
2.4
10
3.3
13.75
36.67
AVDD
[FB2]
2.4
25
VGH
[FB4]
2.4
50
VGL
[FB3]
–1.8
50
Actual Resistor
Divider Values
R1
(kΩ)
R2
(kΩ)
Calculated Output Values
RZ
(kΩ)
VOUT
(V)
VOUT
Resistor
Divider
Error
(%)
13.7
36.5
9.96
3.3
0.02
73.2
38.3
25.14
6.99
–0.19
30.9
25.07
12.73
–0.55
7
72.92
38.04
12.8
133.33
30.77
133
14.5
302.08
59.92
300
59
49.3
14.6
0.71
24.6
512.5
55.41
511
54.9
49.57
24.74
0.56
–5.4
–11
150
75
150
75
50
305.56
59.78
309
60.4
50.52
–5.4
0.00
–11.01
0.08
Note: Use of series E96 1% resistors assumed.
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
The second voltage step, dV2, is determined by the output
capacitance. For example, assume CAVDD = 20 µF, then:
A8601 output regulators in figure 15. Higher VOUT levels result
in excessive power loss and may trigger OVP at the SW pin.
dV2 = 0.4 (A) × 3.2 (µs) / 20 (µF) = 64 mV
Operating with Separate VIN and Boost Supplies
If necessary, the A8601 can be powered by a 5 V LDO for VIN,
while the boost stage can be powered by a different supply such
as 3.3 V. This is illustrated in figure 15.
The LDO for VIN should have an output voltage of 5 V ±10%.
The LDO supply current is the sum of the A8601 bias current
(approximately 6 mA at 2 MHz) and the DVDD output current.
The boost supply voltage is independent from the VIN voltage.
A reasonable range for the boost supply is between 3.3 and 10 V.
The boost supply current is determined by the output power of
boost stage, as outlined in the Thermal Analysis section.
The boost output voltage, VOUT , is always higher than its input,
VBOOSTS. Therefore it is necessary to keep the boost supply
voltage below a certain level. This can be determined for a boost
converter as follows:
Thermal Analysis
The thermal resistance, RθJA , of the TSSOP-28 thermally
enhanced package is 28°C/W. For long term reliability, the
package junction temperature should be kept at 150°C or below.
Assuming a maximum ambient temperature of 85°C, the power
dissipation budget, PD(max), is:
PD(max) = (TJ(max) – TA(max)) / RθJA(14) = (150 (°C) – 85 (°C)) / 28 (°C/W) = 2.3 W
The power losses of the IC come from two main contributors, the
boost stage and the linear regulators. These losses are calculated
separately, then summed, as follows.
To estimate the dissipation of the boost stage, calculate and sum
the losses due to switching losses, PSW , and conduction losses in
the switch, PCOND:
POUT(max) = VOUT(max) × IOUT (max)(16)
IOUT = IAVDD + IVCOM + IVGL + 2 × IVGH(17)
Assume a boost PWM frequency of 2 MHz (period = 500 ns).
The A8601 minimum on-time, tON(MIN) , is 95 ns worst-case. That
results in a minimum PWM duty cycle of 19%.
Based on the average load current waveforms during normal
operation (see Characteristic Performance section), the average output current for the boost stage is estimated to be:
IOUT = 140 (mA) +18.3 (mA) + 8.9 (mA) + (2 × 7.9 (mA))
For a VBOOSTS of 12 V, and a D of 0.19, the calculated VOUT
would be 14.8 V. This is higher than the 14 V required by the
VINS
8 to 16 V
LDO
VBOOSTS
3.3 to 10 V
5V
VIN
Enable
EN1
INS
A8601
≈ 183 mA
L
VOUT
≈ 14 V
D1
SW
OUT
COUT
AVDD
12 V
EN2
VGH
23 V
DVDD
VGL
–7 V
FB1
(15)
1.Estimate the maximum output power for boost stage:
VOUT = VBOOSTS / (1 – D)(13)
where D is the duty cycle.
PD(BOOST) = PCOND + PSW VCOM
≈4.2 V
Figure 15. Typical dual supply application
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
is the regulator for VGL, LDO4 is the regulator for VGH, and
LDO5 is the regulator for VCOM.
So at a maximum VOUT of 16 V, the maximum POUT is:
POUT(max) = 16(V) × 0.183 (A) = 3 W
2.Estimate the maximum input current:
IVIN = PVIN / VVIN(18)
PVIN = POUT / η
(19)
where η is efficiency (%). Substituting into equation 10:
Estimate the maximum output power for each regulator as follows, using the same worst-case values as for the boost stage
calculations:
1.For DVDD:
IVIN = (3 (W) / 0.85) / 4 (V) = 0.88 A.
Substituting into equation 17:
3.Estimate conduction loss for the internal switch:
PCOND =
I2VIN
× RDS(on) × D(20)
where VD1 is the forward voltage drop of the external boost
diode. Subsituting into equation 20:
PLDO1 = (4 (V) – 3.3 (V)) × 20 (mA) = 0.03 W
2.For AVDD (which is usually the largest contributor of power
loss):
D = 1 – VVIN / (VOUT + VD1)(21)
PLDO1 = (VVIN – VDVDD) × IDVDD(25)
PLDO2 = (VOUT – VAVDD) × ILDO2(26)
ILDO2 = IAVDD + IVCOM(27)
PCOND = (0.88 (A))2 × 0.7 (Ω) × [1 – 4 (V) / (16(V) + 0.4 (V))]
= 0.78 × 0.7 × 0.756 = 0.41 W
Substituting into equation 18:
where RDS(on) is 0.5 Ω typical, plus 40% of typical for temperature compensation at 125°C.
= 0.95 W
4.Estimate switching loss for the internal switch:
PSW = ISW × VSW × ( tr + tf ) × fSW / 2
(22)
where tr is the rise time, and tf the fall time, of VSW . Subtituting into equation 14:
3.For VGL (magnitude of VGL):
Substituting into equation 20:
PLDO4 = (2 × VOUT – VVGH) × IVGH(29)
Substituting into equation 29:
(23)
Substituting into equation 7:
PD(BOOST) = PCOND + PSW = 0.41 (W) + 0.29 (W) = 0.70 W
Therefore a total of 0.70W is dissipated on the boost stage.
Note that this analysis is done under the worst-case combination
(maximum VOUT , minimum VVIN , maximum fSW , and so forth).
Under typical operating conditions, the power loss is lower.
The linear regulator power dissipations are the sum of the individual linear regulators:
PD(LINREG) = PLDO1 + PLDO2 + PLDO3 + PLDO4 + PLDO5 (24)
Referring to the Functional Block Diagram notes, LDO1 is the
regulator for DVDD, LDO2 is the regulator for AVDD, LDO3
PLDO3 = (16 (V) – 12 (V)) × 8.9 (mA) = 0.036 W
4.For VGH:
Assuming ISW equals IVIN and
VSW = VOUT + VD1 PLDO3 = (VOUT – |VVGL|) × |IVGL|(28)
PSW = 0.88 (A) × 16.4 (V) × (10 (ns) + 10 (ns)) × 2 (MHz) / 2
= 0.29 W
PLDO2 = (16 (V) – 10 (V)) × (140 (mA) + 18.3 (mA))
PLDO4 = (2 × 16 (V) – (18.5 (V)) × 7.9 (mA) = 0.107 W
5.For VCOM:
PLDO5 = (VAVDD – VVCOM) × IVCOM(30)
Substituting into equation 30:
PLDO5 = (10 (V) – (4.5 (V)) × 18.3 (mA) = 0.101 W
6.Finally, the IC consumes a bias current of approximately
6 mA from VIN when EN1 and EN2 are both high. This adds
power consumption of approximately 0.024 W at minimum VVIN.
Substituting into equation 16, including the bias currrent factor:
PD(LINREG) = 0.03 (W) + 0.95 (W) + 0.036 (W) +
0.107 (W)+ 0.101 (W)+ 0.024 (W)
= 1.25 W
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Therefore the sum of the power dissipations for all of the linear
regulators is 1.25 W.
The total power dissipation if the IC is then the sum of the boost
stage and the linear regulators: 1.95 W (0.70 W plus 1.25 W).
This corresponds to a temperature rise of 60°C. At an ambient
temperature of 85°C, the junction temperature could reach 140°C
under the above worst-case conditions.
Component Selection Recommendations
Final component selection is dependent on many system parameters, such as switching frequency, output power, and PCB area.
The following recommendations should be used as a starting
point only.
Table 4. External Component Recommendations
Component
Manufacturer
Description
Fairchild FDS6675
V(BR)VDSS = –30 V (min), VGS(off) = –2.0 V (typ), RDS(on) = 28 mΩ (max) at Vgs = –4 V, SOP-8
V(BR)VDSS = –30 V (min), Vth = –2.0 V (max), RDS(on) = 17 mΩ (max) at Vgs = –4.5 V, SOP-8
V(BR)VDSS = –30 V (min), VGS(th) = –3 V (max), RDS(on) = 20 mV (max) at VGS = –4.5 V, SOP-8
Vishay IHLP2020BZER3R3M01
L = 3.3 µH, DCR = 79 mΩ (typ), IHEATING = 3.3 A, 5.2 × 5.5 × 2 mm
TOKO D63CB #A916CY-6R2M
L = 6.2 µH, DCR = 29 mΩ (typ), ISAT = 1.84 A, 6.2 × 6.3 × 3.5 mm
TDK SLF6045T-100M1R6-3PF
L = 10 µH, DCR = 39 mΩ (typ), ISAT = 1.6 A, 6 × 6 × 4.5 mm
Sumida CDR7D28MNNP-15Ø N
L = 15 µH, DCR = 65 mΩ (typ), ISAT = 2.1 A at 20°C, 7.3 × 7.3 × 3 mm
Output Diode
ON-Semi MBR130
30 V, 1 A, Vf = 0.47 V (typ) at If = 1 A, SOD-123
Boost Output
Capacitor
Murata GRM31CR61E106KA12L
10 µF, 25 V, X5R, 1206
1N4148W
Switching diode, 100 V, 0.15 A, CT = 2 pF, SOD-123
Rohm DAN217
Dual Switching diode, 80 V, 0.1 A, CT = 3.5 pF, SOT-346
Renesas uPA1830
External PMOS
Boost Inductor
Negative
Charge Pump
External Diode
Toshiba TPC8125
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
I/O pin Equivalent Circuit Diagrams
1
2
GATE
3
INS
VVIN
100 kΩ
≈9.5 V
≈9.5 V
AGND
4
5
DVDD
VVIN
≈9.5 V
2 kΩ
≈12 V
AGND
7
VBIAS
VINAMP
9
10 kΩ
VAVDD
≈9.5 V
AGND
10
GNDVCOM
2 kΩ
AGND
VBIAS
AGND
11
12
VVIN
BIAS
12 kΩ
FAULT
40 kΩ
≈9.5 V
≈9.5 V
AGND
AGND
13
AGND
14
10 kΩ
≈6.5 V
AGND
1.5 kΩ
AGND
8
VCOM
≈9.5 V
VBIAS
COMP
AGND
EN1
6
FB1
≈9.5 V
≈9.5 V
AGND
VBIAS
2Ω
≈9.5 V
VVIN
≈9.5 V
AGND
FSET
_SYNC
VIN
VVIN
300 kΩ
15
10 kΩ
EN2
90 kΩ
≈9.5 V
≈6.5 V
AGND
Main ESD ring
substrate tie
90 kΩ
AGND
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A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
16
17
VBIAS
18
19
VGL
FB3
50 kΩ
20 kΩ
≈20 V
80 kΩ
≈20 V
CP22
CP21
≈20 V
AGND
VVGL
AGND
AGND
VOUT
≈20 V
AGND
200 kΩ
VOUT
20
VVGH
VBIAS
21
22
CP12
23 CP11
VOUT
VGH
FB4
≈30 V
2 kΩ
240 kΩ
AGND
25
AGND
26
VOUT
VBIAS
VOUT
AGND
VOUT
AGND
24
≈30 V
OUT
FB2
AVDD
≈26 V
2 kΩ
AGND
AGND
AGND
27
VBIAS
28
SW
1 pF
PGND
≈50 V
125 kΩ
AGND
PGND
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30
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Package LP, 28-Pin TSSOP
with Exposed Thermal Pad
0.45
9.70±0.10
28
0.65
28
8º
0º
0.20
0.09
1.65
B
3 NOM
4.40±0.10
3.00
6.40±0.20
6.10
0.60 ±0.15
A
1
2
1.00 REF
5.08 NOM
0.25 BSC
Branded Face
28X
SEATING
PLANE
0.10 C
0.30
0.19
0.65 BSC
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
C
1 2
5.00
C
PCB Layout Reference View
For Reference Only; not for tooling use (reference MO-153 AET)
Dimensions in millimeters
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
1.20 MAX
0.15
0.00
A Terminal #1 mark area
B
Exposed thermal pad (bottom surface); dimensions may vary with device
C
Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351
SOP65P640X120-29CM);
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as
necessary to meet application process requirements and PCB layout
tolerances; when mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal vias at the
exposed thermal pad land can improve thermal dissipation (reference
EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
31
A8601
Multiple-Output Regulator for Automotive LCD Displays
Revision History
Revision
Revision Date
3
December 2, 2013
4
October 8, 2015
Description of Revision
Update RFBx , TTSD fault
Updated table 1, figure 12, and figure 13
Copyright ©2015, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in any devices or systems, including but not limited to life support devices or systems, in which a failure of
Allegro’s product can reasonably be expected to cause bodily harm.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its
use; nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
www.allegromicro.com
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
32
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