DN405 - Versatile Current Source Safely and Quickly Charges Everything from Large Capacitors to Batteries

Versatile Current Source Safely and Quickly Charges Everything
from Large Capacitors to Batteries – Design Note 405
David Ng
Introduction
The LT®3750 is a current mode flyback controller optimized
to easily and efficiently provide a controlled current to
charge just about any capacitive energy storage device.
The LT3750’s simple but flexible feature set allows it to
handle a wide variety of charging needs. These include
large high voltage capacitors for professional photoflash
equipment and emergency beacons, small capacitors that
are charged and discharged thousands of times a second,
and batteries for long term energy needs.
Safe, Small and Flexible
All of the control and feedback functions of the LT3750
are referred to the charger’s input. The target voltage is
set by just two resistors in a simple, low voltage network
that monitors the flyback voltage of the transformer.
When charging a capacitor to a high voltage, there is no
need to connect any components to the hazardously high
output potential. The charging current is a triangle wave
whose amplitude is set by an external sense resistor and
the flyback transformer turns ratio.
The LT3750 operates in boundary mode, at the edge of
continuous and discontinuous conduction, which significantly reduces switching losses. This in turn allows
for high frequency operation, and a correspondingly
small flyback transformer size. The LT3750 is itself tiny,
available in a 10-lead MSOP package.
The LT3750 is also compatible with a wide range of control
circuitry. It is equipped with a simple interface consisting
of a CHARGE command input bit and an open-drain DONE
status flag. Both of these signals are compatible with most
digital systems, yet tolerate voltages as high as 24V. The
LT3750 operates from 3V to 24V DC.
Simple Strobe Capacitor Charger
Figure 1 shows a LT3750 circuit that charges a 400μF
strobe capacitor to 300V. This capacitor and voltage
combination is typical of professional photoflash systems, security devices and automotive light strobes.
The target voltage is set by the two resistors R2 and
12/06/405_conv
T1
1:10
VTRANS
C2
150μF
VCC
12V
VCC
C1
10μF
VTRANS
RVOUT
100k
VOUT
300V
1
C3
68μF
R2
60.4k
D1
•
•
+
C4
400μF
12
43k
DONE
RDCM
LT3750
OFF ON
CHARGE
GATE
M1
SOURCE
GND
RBG
R3
2.49k
12mΩ
100pF
DN405 F01
M1: PHILIPS PH20100S
T1: TDK DCT20EFD-UXXS003
Figure 1. LT3750 Circuit Charges 400μF Capacitor to 300V.
DANGER HIGH VOLTAGE—OPERATION BY HIGH VOLTAGE
TRAINED PERSONNEL ONLY
R3, which together monitor the MOSFET drain voltage.
This voltage, when referenced to the input rail, is directly
proportional to the output potential while power is being
transferred to the output capacitor. The LT3750 compares this to an internal reference and terminates the
charge cycle when the output has reached the desired
target voltage, after which the LT3750 sets the DONE
bit to signal the system microcontroller that the charge
cycle is complete.
As shown in Figure 2, the LT3750 charges the 400μF to
300V in about 0.92 seconds when the circuit is powered
from a 12V source. Note that the output current amplitude
is constant throughout the charge cycle.
Charge Small Capacitors Fast
Many devices need to provide energy to a transducer
multiple times per second, such as diagnostic equipment
and device testers. Figure 3 shows that, for the same circuit
, LTC, LT and LTM are registered trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
far as the output device is concerned, the LT3750 circuit
is a current source.
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
50V/DIV
Charge Batteries Too
Another type of system that needs a controlled current
source is a fast charger for a lead-acid battery. A fast
charger for a lead-acid battery differs from the capacitor
charging applications in that it needs to charge at high
current, but at a much lower voltage. Figure 4 shows
a circuit that charges at 6A until the lead-acid battery
potential reaches the 14V float voltage. Again, the circuit
is remarkably similar to the previous two designs—the
transformer turns ratio is now 1:1 and the R2 set resistor
has been changed to set the target float voltage to 14V.
Other float voltages may be accommodated by simply
changing R2 to the appropriate value.
CHARGING
CURRENT
500mA/DIV
DN405 F02
200ms/DIV
Figure 2. LT3750 Charges 400μF to 300V in 0.92 Seconds
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
50V/DIV
When the battery voltage reaches 14V, the LT3750 sets
the DONE bit. This can then be used to signal the system
microcontroller, which can then enter a “trickle-charge”
mode by setting the CHARGE bit at a fixed, low frequency
interval.
CHARGING
CURRENT
200mA/DIV
DN405 F03
50μs/DIV
Figure 3. LT3750 Charges 0.1μF to 300V in 180μs
Conclusion
The LT3750 is an easy-to-use controller that is ideal for
applications where there is a need to charge an energy
storage device to a predetermined target voltage. Its
unique architecture allows it to be used in just about any
application where a controlled current source is needed,
with almost no limitation on the output voltage.
as in Figure 1, the LT3750 is capable of charging a 0.1μF
capacitor to 300V in just 180μs. The only change in the
circuit is the replacement of the 400μF output cap with
one that is much smaller. The performance of the circuit
is essentially the same, other than the charge time. As
T1
1:1
VTRANS
VCC
12V
C2
150μF
VCC
C1
10μF
C3
68μF
VTRANS
RVOUT
100k
D1
•
R2
29.4k
VOUT
14V
+
LEAD-ACID
BATTERY
•
43k
DONE
RDCM
LT3750
OFF ON
CHARGE
GATE
M1
SOURCE
GND
RBG
R3
2.49k
12mΩ
100pF
M1: PHILIPS PH20100S
T1: COOPER VPH5-0067
DN405 F04
Figure 4. LT3750 Battery Charger with Microcontroller Interface for Variable Current Charging
Data Sheet Download
http://www.linear.com
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 2134
Linear Technology Corporation
dn405f_conv LT/TP 1206 409K • PRINTED IN THE USA
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
© LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2006
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
Similar pages