DN1007 - 60V Step-Down DC/DC Converter Has Only 100µA Quiescent Current

advertisement
60V Step-Down DC/DC Converter Has Only
100µA Quiescent Current – Design Note 1007
Keith Szolusha
Introduction
High voltage bipolar monolithic step-down converters are
usually optimized for high efficiency at high output currents. But the consumption of over 1mA quiescent current
at zero load can be undesirable in battery-powered applications which operate with long periods of light load current. Although a shutdown function may reduce the
quiescent current in order to save battery life, it also drops
the output voltage to zero. In systems where a regulated
output voltage is always needed for light load applications
such as system diagnostics (and ready-to-use load transients), a solution with high efficiency at light load is needed.
The LT®1976 is designed to optimize efficiency over all
current levels, both high and low, with an extremely wide
input voltage range. Micropower bias current and Burst
Mode® operation enable it to consume a mere 100µA at
zero load and 12V input. The high efficiency bipolar NPN
power switch (0.2Ω) provides up to 90% efficiency at load
current up to 1.25A.
The LT1976 is a 1.5A monolithic buck switching regulator. Its 3.3V to 60V input voltage range makes the LT1976
VIN
4V TO 60V
4.7µF
100V
CER
VIN
ideal for 14V and 42V (future) automotive applications
which must meet both sub-4V cold crank and high input
voltage transients (up to 60V). Additionally, high input
voltage and low quiescent current make this an ideal
solution for many 48V nonisolated telecom applications,
40V FireWire® peripherals and multiple source handheld
battery-powered applications with autoplug adaptors. The
LT1976 can survive load-dump input transients up to 60V
that are common in these systems designed to run at a
fixed frequency of 200kHz, the LT1976 can also be synchronized at frequencies up to 700kHz. The shutdown pin
provides a 2.4V undervoltage lockout threshold as well as
a 1.3V threshold for micropower shutdown (<1µA). A
single capacitor provides soft-start capability and limits
inrush current and output voltage overshoot. A power
good flag and power good comparator provides the system with an indication that either the output voltage, the
input voltage or some other line is good or bad. The LT1976
is provided in a small 16-pin TSSOP thermally enhanced
package to provide optimal thermal performance.
, LTC, LT and Burst Mode are registered trademarks of Linear Technology
Corporation. FireWire is a registered trademark of Apple Corporation.
BOOST
SHDN
0.33µF 33µH 1N4148
SW
VOUT
3.3V
1A
0.1µF
LT1976
10MQ100N
VC
100pF
0.047µF
12.4k
1µF
CSS
VBIAS
CT
SYNC
GND
FB
PGFB
PG
27pF
165k
1%
+
100k
1%
100µF
6.3V
TANT
DN1007 F01
Figure 1. Typical LT1976 Automotive DC/DC Converter Delivers 1A at 3.3V
06/04/1007
Burst Mode Operation
A typical automotive step-down application, 14V or 42V
(with 60V transients) to 3.3V DC/DC converter (with
ability to run at 4V input for cold crank), is shown in
Figure 1. Burst Mode operation reduces light load quiescent current by disabling switching for a number of switch
cycles and placing the part briefly in micropower shutdown until switching begins again. Bursts of switch
pulses are enough to maintain output voltage regulation
at light load as shown in Figure 2, the efficiency peaks
under normal ‘loaded’ operation between 100mA and 1A.
However, light load efficiency demonstrates how little
quiescent current is drawn from the battery during long
periods of system inactivity. Figure 3 demonstrates how,
over most typical input voltages, zero load quiescent
current is below 100µA.
Soft-Start
A single capacitor, CSS, shown in Figure 1, is all that is
required for soft-start. It is common for switchers without
soft-start to operate at peak switch-rated current during
start-up. This surge of current can pull down a battery
source voltage and cause overshoot in the output voltage.
The soft-start capacitor with the LT1976 controls the
output voltage ramp-up rate, allowing it to slowly rise
upon start-up. This reduces the inrush current surge and
limits output voltage overshoot.
150
125
0.1
50
0.01
40
30
POWER LOSS (W)
VOUT = 3.3V
60
0.001
20
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
1
70
VOUT = 3.3V
TA = 25°C
VOUT = 5V
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
LT1976 Features
• Wide Input Voltage Range: 3.3V to 60V
• <100µA Quiescent Current at 12V
• 1.5A Peak Switch Current
• Small 16-Pin Thermally Enhanced TSSOP Package
• Constant 200kHz Switching Frequency
• 0.2Ω Saturating Switch
• Peak Switch Current Maintained over Full Duty Cycle
Range
• <1µA Shutdown Current
• 1.25V Feedback Reference
• Synchronizable up to 700kHz
• Single Capacitor Programmable Soft-Start
• Power Good Comparator and Flag with Programmable
Time Delay
10
100
TA = 25°C
90 VIN = 12V
Power Good
For systems that rely upon having a well-regulated power
source or follow a particular power-up sequence, the
LT1976 provides a power good flag with timed delay
programmed by CT when the power good feedback pin
exceeds 90% of VREF (1.25V). By connecting the power
good feedback pin (PGFB) directly to the feedback pin
(FB), the power good comparator will return a “good”
signal only when the output voltage has reached 90% and
the delay time determined by the capacitor on the CT pin
has been exceeded. The power good feedback pin can also
be used to monitor the input voltage, an external source
or a resistor divider taken from any of these.
100
75
50
25
10
0
0.0001
0.001
0.1
0.01
LOAD CURRENT (A)
1
0.0001
10
DN1007 F02
Figure 2. Efficiency vs Load Current for Circuit in Figure 1
0
0
10
30
40
20
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
50
60
DN1007 F03
Figure 3. Supply Current vs Input Voltage for the LT1976
Data Sheet Download
http://www.linear.com
Linear Technology Corporation
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 2759
dn1007f LT 0604 • PRINTED IN THE USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
© LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2004
Similar pages