A8670 Datasheet

A8670
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
Discontinued Product
This device is no longer in production. The device should not be
purchased for new design applications. Samples are no longer available.
Date of status change: December 3, 2013
Recommended Substitutions:
For existing customer transition, and for new customers or new applications, contact Allegro Sales.
NOTE: For detailed information on purchasing options, contact your
local Allegro field applications engineer or sales representative.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, revisions to the anticipated product life cycle plan
for a product to accommodate changes in production capabilities, alternative product availabilities, or market demand. The
information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
A8670
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
Features and Benefits
Description
• High efficiency integrated FETs optimized for lower duty
cycle voltage conversion: 180 mΩ high side, 40 mΩ low side
• Adjustable output voltage, down to 0.6 V
• Extremely short minimum controllable on-time;
example: allows 12 V conversion to 0.6 V at >1 MHz
• Reference accuracy of ±1% throughout temperature range
¯T̄
¯ and Power OK pins for operating and protection
• F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
modes:
▫ Normal operation
▫ VFB low or high
▫ Overcurrent
▫ UVLO
▫ Thermal warning prior to TSD
▫ Thermal shutdown (TSD)
▫ LX–GND short protection
▫ Timing resistor open circuit protection
The A8670 is a synchronous buck converter capable of
delivering up to 2 A. The A8670 utilizes valley current mode
control, allowing very short on-times to be achieved. This makes
it ideal for applications that require very low output voltages
relative to the input voltage, combined with high switching
frequencies. Valley current mode control inherently provides
improved transient response over traditional switcher schemes,
through the use of a voltage feedforward loop and frequency
modulation during large signal load changes.
The A8670 includes a comprehensive set of diagnostic flags,
allowing the host platform to react to a myriad of different
conditions. A fault output indicates when either the temperature is becoming unusually high, or a single point failure
has occurred; for example, the switching node (LX) shorted to
ground, or the timing resistor going open-circuit. A Power OK
(POK) output is also provided after a fixed delay, to indicate
when the output voltage is within regulation. The A8670 is a
rugged solution, offering protection against input undervoltages,
Continued on the next page…
Package: 20-contact QFN with exposed
thermal pad (suffix ES)
Continued on the next page…
Applications
• Servers
• Point of load supplies
• Network and telecom
• Storage
Approximate size
Typical Application Diagram
C2
10 nF
VIN
12 V
BOOT
VIN
C1
10 μF
R1
63.4 k Ω
LX
L1
3.6 μH
A8670
C3
10 μF
TON
ILIM
Vpull-up
R3
20 kΩ
POK
FAULT
R5
10 kΩ
FB
POK
COMP
C6
100 nF
BIAS
R6
10 kΩ
R4
12 k Ω
FAULT
SS
AGND PGND
C7
1 nF
C8
39 pF
VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 1.2 V, and fSW = 700 kHz
For additional examples, see the Typical Applications section
A8670-DS, Rev. 2
C4
10 μF
EN
R2
20 kΩ
C5
10 nF
VOUT
1.2 V
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Features and Benefits (continued)
Description (continued)
•Adjustable switching frequency and current limit to optimize
efficiency and external component sizing
•Externally adjustable soft-start time
•Shutdown supply current only 1 μA
•Pre-bias start-up capability
•Input voltage range: from 7 to 16 V
output overvoltages, overtemperature, output overloads, shortcircuits, current source overloads and any single point failures.
The A8670 is extremely flexible, with external loop compensation,
on-time select (switching frequency), programmable soft-start, and
current limit. The selectable pulse-by-pulse current limit avoids
the requirement to oversize the inductor to cope with large fault
currents. The switching frequency can be chosen, between 200 kHz
and 1 MHz.
The device package (ES) is a 20-contact, 4 mm × 4 mm, 0.75 mm
nominal overall height QFN with exposed thermal pad. The package
is lead (Pb) free, with 100% matte tin leadframe plating.
Selection Guide
Part Number
Packing*
A8670EESTR-T
7-in. reel, 1500 pieces/reel, 12-mm carrier tape
*Contact Allegro™ for additional packing options
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Characteristic
VIN, TON, and EN Pin Voltage
LX Pin Voltage
Symbol
VI
VLX
BOOT Pin Voltage
VBOOT
BIAS Pin Voltage
Rating
Unit
With respect to GND
Notes
–0.3 to 18
V
With respect to GND
–0.6 to VIN + 0.3
V
–1.0
V
VLX – 0.3 to
VLX + 8.0
V
t < 50 ns, with respect to GND
With respect to GND
VBIAS
–0.3 to 8.0
V
All Other Pins
–
–0.3 to 7.0
V
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
–40 to 85
ºC
Maximum Junction Temperature
TJ(max)
150
ºC
Tstg
–55 to 150
ºC
Storage Temperature
E temperature range
Table of Contents
Functional Block Diagram
3
Pin-out Diagram and Terminal List
4
Functional Description
7
Basic Operation
Output Voltage Selection
Switch On-Time and Switching Frequency
Inductor Selection
Output Capacitor Selection
Input Capacitor Selection
7
7
7
8
9
9
Soft-Start and Output Overloads
Fault Handling and Reporting
Control Loop
Control Loop Design Approach
Thermal Considerations
Regulator Efficiency
10
11
13
14
17
18
Layout
19
Typical Applications
20
Package Outline Drawing
26
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Functional Block Diagram
VIN
BOOT
BIAS
Linear
Regulator
LX
Sleep
Circuit
EN
Driver
On
Timer
TON
Control
Logic
Driver BIAS
Off
Timer
ILIM
+
Current
Amplifier
+
VIN UVLO
FB OV
FB UV
TOT
FB OV
-
Regulator
Comparator
Fault
Reporting
and
Shutdown
Offset
+
Overvoltage
Comparator
TSD
POK
FAULT
+
FB UV
Undervoltage
Comparator
-
PGND
0.69 V
Ref
gm Amplifier
0.54 V
Ref
-
FB
+
Soft Start
and Delay
0.6 V
Ref
SS
AGND
FB
COMP
Thermal Characteristics may require derating at maximum conditions, see application information
Characteristic
Symbol
Package Thermal Resistance (Junction to Ambient)
RθJA
Package Thermal Resistance (Junction to Pad)
RθJP
Test Conditions*
On 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard
Value
Unit
37
ºC/W
2
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on the Allegro website
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
16 LX
17 EN
18 ILIM
19 AGND
20 PGND
Pin-out Diagram
PGND
1
15
LX
PGND
2
14
LX
VIN
3
13
LX
BIAS
4
12
BOOT
TON
5
11
FAULT
9
SS
POK 10
8
FB
6
AGND
COMP 7
PAD
Terminal List Table
Number
Name
Function
1,2,20
PGND
3
VIN
4
BIAS
Internal bias decoupling capacitor. Refer to the see Typical Applications section circuit diagrams, for
recommended capacitors.
5
TON
On-Time pin. The resistor connected between this pin and VIN defines the on-time of the regulator. This in
turn defines the switching frequency for a given output voltage.
6,19
AGND
Analog ground. Connect to common ground. This pin should be used as the FB resistor divider ground
reference for optimal accuracy (see Typical Applications section circuit diagrams).
7
COMP
Output of the error amplifier and compensation node. Connect a series R-C network from this pin to GND for
control loop regulation.
8
FB
Feedback input pin of the error amplifier. Connect a resistor divider from the converter output voltage node,
VOUT, to this pin to set the converter output voltage.
9
SS
Soft-start ramp pin. The capacitor connected to this pin defines the rate of rise of the output voltage and the
effective inrush current.
10
POK
Open drain Power Okay (power good) output. This pin will be a logic low if any fault (as defined in table 3)
occurs, other than an overtemperature condition (TJ > 140°C).
11
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯
F̄
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ output. This pin will be logic low if the on-time exceeds a certain value, if the LX node is
Open drain F̄
shorted to ground, or if the thermal shutdown threshold has been reached (TJ > 160°C). See table 3.
12
BOOT
High-side gate drive supply input. This pin supplies the drive for the high-side switching MOSFET switch.
Connect a 10 nF ceramic bootstrap capacitor between BOOT and LX.
13,14,
15,16
LX
The source of the internal high-side switching MOSFET. The output inductor and BOOT capacitor should be
connected to this pin (see Typical Applications section circuit diagrams).
17
EN
Enable pin. This pin is a logic input that turns the converter on or off. When EN > VENHI , the part turns on.
18
ILIM
Pulse-by-pulse current limit setting. Leave this pin unconnected for maximum current from the regulator, or
set this pin to GND for 50% current reduction.
–
PAD
Exposed pad of the package provides both electrical contact to the ground and good thermal contact to the
PCB. This pad must be soldered to the PCB for proper operation and should be connected to the ground
plane by through-hole vias. See Layout section for further details.
Power ground. Connect to common ground.
Power input for the control circuits and the drain of the internal high-side MOSFET. This pin must be locally
bypassed (see Typical Applications section circuit diagrams).
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 Valid at TJ = –20°C to 125°C and VIN = 12 V; unless otherwise specified
Characteristics
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
7
–
16
V
–
–
4
mA
General
Input Voltage Range
VIN
Input Quiescent Current
IIN
Feedback Voltage
VFB
VEN = 5 V, VFB = 1.2 V, no switching
VIN = 16 V, VEN = 0 V
7.0 V ≤ VIN ≤ 16 V, VFB = VCOMP
–
1
10
μA
0.594
0.600
0.606
V
Maximum Switching Frequency
fsw(max)
–
1000
–
kHz
Minimum Switching Frequency
fsw(min)
–
200
–
kHz
–10
–
10
%
On-Time Tolerance
Δton
RTON = 60 kΩ
Maximum On-Time Period
ton(max)
2.5
3.5
4.5
μs
Minimum On-Time Period
ton(min)
–
50
90
ns
Minimum Off-Time Period
High-Side MOSFET On-Resistance
High-side MOSFET Leakage Current2
Low-side MOSFET On-Resistance
Low-side MOSFET Leakage Current2
Soft Start Source Current2
Soft Start Threshold
Soft Start Ramp Time
toff(min)
RDS(on)HS
IlkgHS
RDS(on)LS
IlkgLS
ISS
–
–
350
ns
IDS = 0.2 A
–
180
–
mΩ
VDS = 12 V, EN = low
–
–
2
μA
IDS = 0.2 A
–
40
–
mΩ
VDS = 12 V, EN = low
–
–
3
μA
VSS > VSSPWM
–
–10
–
μA
VSS rising
–
600
–
mV
tSS
CSS = 10 nF
–
600
–
μs
IFB
VFB = 0.6 V
–
±50
±250
nA
–
61
–
dB
600
800
1000
μA/V
VSSPWM
Amplifier and Power Stage Gain
Feedback Input Bias Current2
Error Amplifier Open Loop Voltage
Gain
AVEA
Error Amplifier Transconductance
gmCOMP
ICOMP = ±20 μA
Error Amplifier Maximum Source/Sink
Current2
ICOMP(max) VFB = VFB0 ±0.4 V
–
±52
–
μA
COMP Voltage to Current Gain
gmPOWER
–
1.3
–
A/V
VENHI
1.8
–
–
V
Enable
Enable High Threshold
Enable Low Threshold
VENLO
–
–
0.8
V
Enable Hysteresis
VENHYS
150
250
–
mV
–
50
–
μA
Enable Current2
IEN
VEN = 3.3 V
Continued on the next page…
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1 (continued) Valid at TJ = –20°C to 125°C and VIN = 12 V; unless otherwise specified
Characteristics
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Feedback voltage relative to reference voltage,
POK = high
85
90
95
%
POKHYS
POK= low
–
5
–
%
POKLO
Feedback voltage relative to reference voltage,
POK = low
110
115
120
%
Fault Reporting and Power OK
Undervoltage Threshold (Rising)
Undervoltage Hysteresis
Overvoltage Threshold (Rising)
POK Rising Delay
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ Overtemperature
F̄
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ Overtemperature Hysteresis
F̄
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ Output Voltage
POK and F̄
Minimum VIN for correct operation of
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯
POK and F̄
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ Leakage2
POK and F̄
POKHI
POKdelay
–
90
–
μs
Temperature rising
–
140
–
°C
TOTHYS
Fault release = TOT – TOTHYS
–
20
–
°C
VPOK
IPOK = 10 mA, fault asserted
–
–
500
mV
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ pull-up of 2 kΩ to 5 V
POK and F̄
–
3.5
–
V
VPOK = 5.5 V, fault not asserted
–
–
1
μA
ILIM = open
2.1
2.7
3.3
A
ILIM = GND
1.0
1.30
1.6
A
–
50
–
μs
–
300
–
μs
TOT
VINPOK
IPOK
Protection
Pulse-by-Pulse Valley Current Limit
ILIM
Hiccup Overload Duration
tHICOC
Valley current limit reached
Hiccup Shutdown Duration
tHICSD
Pulse-by-Pulse Negative Valley
Current Limit
INLIM
Load acting as a current source
–700
–
–500
mA
High-Side Switch Protection Current
IHIPRO
LX node short-circuited to GND
–
9
–
A
High-Side Switch Protection Voltage
VHIPRO
LX node short-circuited to GND
1.8
2.0
2.2
V
VIN Undervoltage Lockout
VUVLO
VIN rising
6.0
6.4
6.8
V
VIN Undervoltage Lockout Hysteresis
VUVLOHYS
Thermal Shutdown Threshold
TSD
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
TSDHYS
–
400
–
mV
Temperature rising
–
160
–
°C
Recovery = TSD – TSDHYS
–
15
–
°C
1Specifications
2Positive
throughout the junction temperature, TJ , range of –20ºC to 125ºC are assured by design and characterization unless otherwise noted.
current is into the node or pin, negative current is out of the node or pin.
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115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
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6
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Functional Description
Basic Operation
At the beginning of a switching cycle, the high-side switch is
turned on for a duration determined by the current flowing into
TON. The magnitude of current is determined by the value of the
input voltage and the value of the on-time resistor (RTON, R1 in
the Typical Applications section circuit diagrams).
During the on-time period, the current builds up through the
inductor at a rate determined by the voltage developed across it
and the inductance value. When the on-time period elapses, the
output of an RS latch resets, turning off the high-side switch.
After a small dead-time delay, the low-side switch is turned on.
The current through the inductor decays at a rate determined
by the output voltage and the inductance value. The current is
sensed through the low-side switch and is compared to the current demand signal. The current demand signal is generated by
comparing the output voltage (stepped down to the FB pin) with
an accurate reference voltage.
When the current through the low-side switch drops to the current
demand level, the low-side switch is turned off. After a further
dead-time delay, the high-side switch is turned on again, and the
process is repeated.
Output Voltage Selection
The output voltage (VOUT) of the converter is set by selecting the
appropriate feedback resistors using the following formula:
VOUT = VFB
where:
R5
+ 1 + IFB
R6
R5 R6
R5 + R6
(1)
VFB is the reference voltage,
R5 and R6 are as shown in the Typical Applications section
circuit diagrams, and
IFB is the reference bias current.
It is important to consider the tolerance of the feedback resistors,
because they directly affect the overall setpoint accuracy of the
output voltage.
It is also important to consider the actual resistor values selected
and consider the trade-offs. High value resistors will minimize
the shunt current flowing through the feedback network, enhancing efficiency. However, the offset error produced by the refer-
ence bias current will increase, affecting the regulation. In addition, high value resistors are more prone to noise pick-up effects
which may affect performance. As some kind of compromise, it
is recommended that R6 be in the region of 10 kΩ.
Switch On-Time and Switching Frequency
The switching frequency of the converter is selected by choosing
the appropriate on-time. The on-time can be estimated to a first
order by using the following formula:
ton =
VOUT
VIN
1
fSW
(2)
where:
VOUT is the output voltage,
fSW is the switching frequency, and
VIN is the nominal input voltage.
To factor-in the effects of resistive voltage drops in the converter
circuit, the following formula can be used to produce a more
accurate estimate of what the on-time has to be for a required
switching frequency:
ton =
VOUT + (RDS(on)LS + DCRL ) IOUT
VIN + (RDS(on)LS – RDS(on)HS ) IOUT
1
fSW
(3)
where:
RDS(on)LS
is the low-side MOSFET on-resistance,
RDS(on)HS
is the high-side MOSFET resistance, and
DCRL is the inductive resistance.
The switching frequency will vary slightly as the resistive voltage
drops in the circuit change, either due to temperature effects or to
input voltage variations.
Note that when selecting the switching frequency, care should
be taken to ensure the converter does not operate near either the
minimum on-time (50 ns) or the minimum off-time (350 ns).
Minimum on-times will typically occur in combinations of
maximum input voltage, minimum output voltage with minimum
load, and maximum switching frequency. Minimum off-times
will typically occur in combinations of minimum input voltage,
maximum output voltage with maximum load, and maximum
switching frequency.
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115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
The ton from either of the above formulae can be used to determine the TON resistor value, RTON (R1 in Typical Applications
section circuit drawings):
RTON = (VIN – 0.67)
ton – 8 ×10–9
– 500
25 ×10–12
(4)
Table 1 provides preferred resistor values for a given output
voltage at target switching frequencies of 500 kHz, 700 kHz, and
1 MHz:
Table 1. Recommended RTON Resistor Values
(6)
Note that the inductor manufacturer tolerances on the inductance
value should be taken into account. This can be as high as ±30%.
It is recommended that gapped ferrite solutions be used as
opposed to powdered iron solutions. This is because powdered
iron cores exhibit relatively high core losses, especially at higher
switching frequencies. Higher core losses do have a detrimental
impact on the long term reliability of the component.
Inductors are typically specified at two current levels:
Switching Frequency, fSW
500 kHz
The required (minimum) inductance can be found:
V –V
1
L(min) = IN OUT D(min)
Iripp
fSW
700 kHz
1 MHz
• Saturation Current (Isat) The worst case maximum peak cur-
5.0
374
5.0
267
5.0
182
3.3
243
3.3
174
3.3
121
2.5
187
2.5
133
2.5
90.9
1.8
137
1.8
95.9
1.8
64.9
rent should not exceed the saturation current and indeed some
margin should be allowed. The maximum peak current in an
inductor occurs during an overload condition where the circuit
operates in current limit. The typical valley current limit (ILIM)
is 2.7 A. The peak current through the inductor is effectively the
valley current limit plus the ripple current:
1.5
113
1.5
80.6
1.5
VOUT
(V)
RTON
(kΩ)
VOUT
(V)
RTON
(kΩ)
VOUT
(V)
RTON
(kΩ)
54.9
Isat > ILIM + Iripp
1.2
90.9
1.2
63.4
1.2
43.2
1.0
76.8
1.0
52.3
1.0
35.7
0.8
60.4
0.8
42.2
0.8
28.7
0.6
44.2
0.6
30.9
0.6
23.2
• Rms Current (Irms) It is important to understand how the rms
current level is specified in terms of ambient temperature. Some
manufacturers quote an ambient whilst others quote a temperature that includes a self-temperature rise. For example, if an
inductor is rated for 85°C and includes a self-temperature rise of
25°C at maximum load, then the inductor cannot be safely operated beyond an ambient temperature of 60°C at full load.
Inductor Selection
The main factor in selecting the inductance value is the ripple
current. The ripple current affects the output voltage ripple and
current limit. A reasonable figure of merit for the ripple current
(Iripp) is 25% of the maximum load. So for a maximum load of
2 A, the peak-to-peak ripple current should be 500 mA.
The maximum peak-to-peak ripple current occurs at the maximum input voltage. To a reasonable approximation, the minimum
duty cycle can be found:
D(min) =
VOUT
VIN (max)
(5)
(7)
The rms current through the inductor should not exceed the rating for the inductor, taking into account the maximum ambient
temperature. The maximum rms current is effectively the valley
current limit (ILIM) plus half of the ripple current:
Irms(max) > ILIM + Iripp / 2
(8)
A final consideration in the selection of the inductor is the series
resistance (DCR). A lower DCR will reduce the power loss and
enhance power efficiency. The trade-off in using an inductor with
a relatively low DCR is the physical size is typically larger.
Recommended inductors include the NR8040 or NR6045 series
manufactured by Taiyo Yuden.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Table 2 provides preferred inductor values for a given output
voltage, 2 A output at target switching frequencies of 500 kHz,
700 kHz, and 1 MHz.
When using ceramic capacitors, it is important to consider the
effects of capacitance reduction due to the E-field. To avoid this
voltage bias effect, it is recommended that the capacitor rated
voltage be at least twice that of the actual output voltage. So for
example, with a 5 V output, the capacitor should be rated to 10 V.
Table 2. Recommended Inductor Values
Switching Frequency, fSW
500 kHz
VOUT
(V)
700 kHz
L
(μH)
VOUT
(V)
For the majority of applications, a 20 μF output capacitor is
recommended.
1 MHz
L
(μH)
10
VOUT
(V)
L
(μH)
5.0
6.8
5.0
10
5.0
3.3
10
3.3
6.8
3.3
4.7
2.5
10
2.5
4.7
2.5
3.6
1.8
6.8
1.8
4.7
1.8
3.6
1.5
4.7
1.5
3.6
1.5
3.6
1.2
4.7
1.2
3.6
1.2
2
1.0
3.6
1.0
2
1.0
2
0.8
3.6
0.8
2
0.8
1.4
0.6
2
0.6
1.4
0.6
0.9
Input Capacitor Selection
The function of the input capacitor is to provide a low impedance
shunt path for the current drawn by the A8670 when the highside switch is on. This minimizes the amount of ripple current
reflected back into the source supply. This reduces the potential
for higher conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI).
In a correctly designed system, with a quality capacitor positioned adjacent to the VIN pin and the PGND pin, this capacitor
should supply the high-side switch current minus the average
input current. During the high-side switch off-cycle, the capacitor
is charged by the average input current.
Output Capacitor Selection
The output capacitor has two main functions: influence the control loop response (see the Control Loop section), and determine
the magnitude of the output voltage ripple.
The output voltage ripple can be approximated to:
Vripp =
where:
Iripp
8
(9)
fSW COUT
Iripp is the peak-to-peak current in the inductor (see the Inductor
Selection section), and
COUT is the output capacitance.
It is recommended that ceramic capacitors be used, taking into
account: size, cost, reliability, and performance. It is imperative
that ceramic type X5R or X7R are used. On no account should
Y5V, Y5U, Z5U, or similar be used, because the capacitance
tolerance and the temperature stability is very poor.
There is generally no need to consider the effects of heating
caused by the ripple current flowing into the output capacitor.
This is because the equivalent series resistance (ESR) of ceramic
capacitors is extremely low.
The effective rms current that flows in the input filter capacitor is:
1/
2
VOUT IOUT
VIN
(10)
Irms =
–1
VOUT
VIN
The amount of ripple voltage (Vripp ) that appears across the
input terminals (VIN with respect to GND) is determined by the
amount of charge removed from the input capacitor during the
high-side switch conduction time. If a capacitor technology such
as an electrolytic is used, then the effects of the ESR should also
be taken into account.
The amount of input capacitance (CIN) required for a given ripple
voltage can be found:
CIN =
Irms ton
Vripp
(11)
where:
ton is the on-time of the high-side switch (see the Switch OnTime and Switching Frequency section; note that maximum ton
occurs at minimum input voltage), and
CIN is the input filter capacitance.
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
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A8670
As mentioned in the Output Capacitor Selection section, the
effects of voltage biasing should be taken into account when
choosing the capacitor voltage rating. If ceramic capacitors are
being used, then there is generally no need to consider the effects
of ESR heating.
Soft-Start and Output Overloads
The soft-start routine controls the rate of rise of the reference
voltage, which in turn controls the FB pin, and thereby the output voltage (VOUT )(see figure 1). This function minimizes the
amount of inrush current drawn from the input voltage (VIN ) and
potential voltage overshoot on the output rail (VOUT ).
drops below 85% (typical) of the target voltage, the POK flag
goes low. If the overload occurs for shorter than the Hiccup
Overload Duration (<50 μs; B in figure 1), the output will automatically recover to the target level. If the overload occurs for
longer than the Hiccup Overload Duration (>50 μs; C in figure
1), the regulator will shut down, the soft-start capacitor will be
discharged, and (assuming no other fault conditions exist and the
enable pin is still high) the regulator will be delayed by the Hiccup Shutdown Duration (D in figure 1).
The Hiccup Shutdown Duration ensures that prolonged overload
conditions do not cause excessive junction temperatures to occur.
After the Hiccup Shutdown Duration has elapsed, the output
voltage is again brought up, controlled by the soft-start function.
However, if the overload condition still exists and still remains
after the Soft-Start Ramp Time has elapsed, the regulator will
shut down and the process will repeat until the fault is removed.
A soft-start routine is initiated when the enable pin (EN) is high,
no overvoltage exists on the output, the thermal protection circuitry is not activated, and VIN is above the undervoltage threshold. Immediately after EN goes high, the soft-start capacitor is
charged via an internal 10 μA source and PWM switching action
occurs. During the Soft-Start Ramp Time (see A in figure 1), the
reference is ramped from 0 up to 0.6 V, and the output voltage
( VOUT ) tracks the reference voltage. The POK flag is held low
until the output voltage reaches 90% (typical) of the target voltage and a delay of 90 μs (typical) occurs.
The Soft-Start Ramp Time, tss , can be found from the following
formula:
C
0.6
(12)
tSS = SS
10 ×10 –6
where CSS is C5 in the Typical Applications section circuit diagrams.
When an output overcurrent event occurs, the regulator immediately limits the valley current at a constant level on a pulse-by
pulse basis. The output voltage will tend to fold back, depending
on how low the output impedance is. When the output voltage
Although the A8670 is optimized for ceramic output capacitors,
large value electrolytic capacitors can be used where either special hold-up, or power sequencing is required. Note the guidelines
for selecting large value capacitors in the Control Loop section.
Enable (EN)
0V
Soft-Start (SS)
0V
A
A
Soft-Start Ramp Time
Soft-Start Ramp Time
Target output voltage
90% of
Target
Output Voltage
Target output voltage
90% of
Target
85% of
Target
0V
Valley Current Limit
Maximum load
Load Current
0A
90 μs
POK Delay
power OK (POK)
B
Maximum load
C
<50 μs
Hiccup Overload
Duration
>50 μs
Hiccup Overload
Duration
90 μs
POK Delay
D
> 200 μs
Hiccup Shutdown
Duration
90 μs
POK Delay
0V
Figure 1. Operation of the soft-start function
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
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A8670
When selecting larger-value output capacitors, it is important that
the soft-start period is appropriately scaled to take into account
the charging of these capacitors. For example, if the soft-start is
optimized for a 22 μF ceramic output capacitor and a 2000 μF
capacitor is added to the output, there is every possibility that the
converter will remain in an overload condition after the soft-start
and the Hiccup Overload Duration have elapsed. This mode of
operation could prevent the output ever reaching the target output
voltage.
To demonstrate the above, consider the following example: a
regulator programmed for a 5 V output, 20 μF output capacitor,
and a soft-start time-off of 1 ms.
Assume there is no load current draw until 5 V is reached. At
start-up, the regulator has to charge the output capacitor. From
C×V = I×t , the charging current into the capacitor is:
I = 20 μF × 5 / 1 ms = 100 mA
Now if a 2000 μF capacitor is added to the output, the capacitor
would require a charge current of:
I = 2000 μF × 5 / 1 ms = 10 A
In this condition, the A8670 would run into the pulse-by-pulse
current limit, limiting the average charge current to 2.9 A (typ).
An average current of 2.9 A, assumes a valley current limit of
2.7 A and a half ripple current of 0.2 A. This means that after the
soft-start delay of 1 ms, the output voltage would only be charged
to:
V = 2.9 A × 1 ms / 2000 μF = 1.45 V
After the soft-start period is completed, the output capacitor
would be charged for a short duration, defined by the Hiccup
Overload Duration. Then the converter would shut down and,
after the Hiccup Shutdown Duration had elapsed, would enter
the start-up process again. This mode is highly undesirable and a
more appropriate soft-start capacitor should be selected.
The effects of adding an output capacitor with too-large value
would be a condition similar to starting-up into a short-circuit
across the output; where the regulator enters a hiccup mode of
operation.
If the output of the A8670 is pre-biased at start-up, the switcher
will remain in a high impedance state until the soft-start has
reached the feedback voltage ( VFB ) amplitude. This avoids the
output voltage being discharged. After the soft-start threshold
exceeds the FB pin voltage, PWM switching action occurs and
the output voltage is brought up under the control of the soft-start
circuit (see figure 2).
Note that when the regulator is turned off, it enters a high
impedance mode (all switches off) and if the output voltage is
discharged it is done so by the load (at A in figure 2). If the load
does not discharge the output, the output voltage remains in a
pre-biased condition.
Fault Handling and Reporting
Table 3 describes the action taken for particular faults including
¯T̄
¯ and POK flags.
the status of the F̄¯Ā¯Ū¯L̄
Enable (EN)
0V
Soft-Start/ Hiccup (SS)
0V
Soft-Start Ramp Time
Target output voltage
90% of
Target
Pre-biased output voltage
Output Voltage
0V
Soft-start voltage
less than feedback
voltage (VFB)
No PWM switching
Feedback voltage (VFB)
brought-up under
soft-start control
90 μs
PWM switching
POK Delay
A
Load pulls
the output
voltage low
Power OK (POK)
0V
Figure 2. Operation of the soft-start function with pre-biasing
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Table 3. Fault Handling and Reporting
POK
Flag
¯¯Ā¯¯Ū¯L̄
¯T̄
¯
F̄
Flag
Normal operation
High
High
–
During start-up, the feedback voltage (VFB) is
brought-up under control of the soft-start circuit
Low
High
–
After start-up, if an overload occurs for less
than the Hiccup Overload Duration (50 μs), the
regulator will maintain switching operation
Low
High
Auto-recovery
After start-up, if an overload occurs for greater
than the Hiccup Overload Duration (50 μs), the
regulator will turn off and initiate a soft-start cycle
Low
High
Auto-restart under control of soft-start
VFB > 115%
No current sourced from
load into regulator output
Regulator immediately turns off; when VFB is
reduced to within regulation range, normal
operation will resume
Low
High
Auto-recovery
VFB > 115%
Current sourced from load
into regulator output
Regulator continues to operate, controlling
to the Negative Valley Current Limit (INLIM),
–600 mA (typ); if the source current from the load
increases beyond the current limit level, although
the current limit level still holds, current will flow
from the load to the input, perhaps resulting in an
increase in input voltage
Low
High
Auto-recovery
VIN < 6 V (typ)
Regulator immediately turns off
Low
High
Auto-restart under control of soft-start, when
VIN > 6.4 V (typ)
TJ > 140°C (typ)
Regulator keeps operating; if TJ < 120°C (typ),
¯ĀŪ¯L̄¯T̄
¯ goes high
F̄
High
Low
–
TJ > 160°C (typ)
Regulator immediately turns off
Low
Low
Auto-restart under control of soft-start, when
TJ < 145°C
LX pin shorted to GND
The voltage across the series switch is
monitored; if the voltage exceeds 2 V (typ), the
regulator is latched off
Low
Low
Either the Enable pin (EN) or input voltage
(VIN) must go low then high to restart under
control of soft-start
ton > 4 μs (typ)
Regulator immediately turns off
Low
Low
Either the Enable pin (EN) or input voltage
(VIN) must go low then high to restart under
control of soft-start
Internal bias or bootstrap
supply below the
undervoltage threshold
Regulator immediately turns off
Low
High
Auto-restart under control of soft-start when
above BIAS and BOOT UVLO thresholds
A8670 Condition
90% < VFB < 115%
VFB < 85%
Comments
Action After Fault
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
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A8670
Control Loop
To a first order, the small-signal loop can be modeled as shown in
figure 3. The control loop can be broken into two sections: power
stage and error amplifier.
Power Stage
The power stage includes the output filter capacitor (COUT),
the equivalent load (RLOAD), and: the inner current loop, PWM
modulator, and power inductor, which together are modeled as
a transconductance amplifier with a gain of 1.3 A / V. The signal
Vc , supplied to the power stage, is effectively the load current
demand signal. This signal effectively controls the valley current
through the inductor; the higher the load the larger the Vc signal.
To simplify matters, we will assume this signal controls the average current through the inductor as opposed to the valley current.
The effective DC gain of the power stage, without the output
capacitor and load resistor, is 1.3 A / V, where the signal Vc is
limited to the range 0.36 to 2.75 V. The DC current is converted
into VOUT as the current flows into the load resistor. The overall
DC gain of the power stage is given as VOUT / Vc (see figure 4).
At full load, the Vc signal would be 2 /1.3 = 1.54 V.
Power Stage
Amplifier
gm =
1.3 A / V
Vc
Il
From a small-signal point of view, the power inductor behaves
like a current source; the inductor can be ignored as far as the
bandwidth of the loop is concerned. The output capacitor integrates the ripple current through the inductor, effectively forming
a single pole with the output load.
The power stage pole can be found:
1
fp(PS) =
2 × × COUT × RLOAD
(13)
It can be seen that as the load changes, the position of the power
pole changes in the frequency domain. This may seem like an
issue in terms of where to optimize the loop, however, the change
in load also changes the gain in the power stage, thus compensating for this effect. Figure 4 illustrates how the loop response of the
power stage changes with a varying load. The position of fp1 and
G1 is one solution, fp2 and G2 is another solution, and so forth.
As the value of RLOAD increases (reducing load), the power
pole moves down in frequency and the DC gain increases.
Generally speaking this is not a problem, because even if the
pole approaches the low frequency pole produced by the error
amplifier, there is still plenty of gain in the system. In this case,
while the phase margin may be greatly reduced, even to a value
approaching 0°, because there is sufficient DC gain in the loop it
can be shown from Nyquist theory that the system is conditionally stable. The phase margin must be considered only at the 0 dB
crossover frequency.
VOUT
RLOAD
COUT
G1
FB Pin
COMP
Pin
C8
gm =
800 μA / V
R4
Ro
R5
R6
VOUT
Vc
G2
Gain
(dB)
G3
RLOAD
increasing
Ref
C7
Error Amplifier
Figure 3. 1st order model of the small-signal control loop (see Typical
Applications section circuit diagrams for component references)
f p2
f p1
Frequency
f p3
Figure 4. Power stage DC gain characteristic
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
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A8670
It is recommended that X5R/ X7R ceramic capacitors be used,
however, large-value capacitors such as electrolytic types can
be used. Care should be taken when selecting the value of an
electrolytic capacitor. As this capacitance is increased, the power
pole is pushed to such a low frequency that the gain can fall off
sufficiently to cause a loop instability.
If using an electrolytic capacitor, consideration should also be
given to the equivalent series resistance (ESR) value, because
this introduces a zero with the capacitance itself. It is important
to use a low-ESR type capacitor. It should be noted that capacitor
manufacturers usually quote an ESR which is a maximum at a
particular frequency (such as 100 kHz) and temperature (20°C).
The ESR does vary with frequency and temperature, plus there
are tolerance effects as well. If the zero produced by the ESR
of the output capacitor features in the control loop, it is strongly
recommended that a large tolerance be allowed. If necessary, the
high frequency pole in the error amplifier can be used to negate
the effects of this pole (see the Error Amplifier section).
Error Amplifier
The error amplifier is a transconductance amplifier. The DC
gain of the amplifier is 61dB (1122) and, with a gm value of
800 μA / V, the effective output impedance of the amplifier can be
modeled as:
RO =
1122
= 1.4 MΩ
800 ×10–6
(14)
The transconductance amplifier has a high DC gain to ensure
good regulation. The gain is rolled off with a single pole positioned at a low frequency. A zero is positioned at higher frequencies to cancel the effects of the main power stage pole. A second
pole can be introduced which should have minimal effect on the
loop response, but is useful for reducing the effects of switching
noise.
The low frequency pole occurs at:
fp1(EA) =
1
2 × × RO × C7
(15)
The zero occurs at:
1
2 × × R4 × C7
fz(EA) =
(16)
The high frequency pole occurs at:
fp2(EA) =
1
2 × × R4 × C8
(17)
The potential divider formed by R5 and R6 in figure 3 effectively introduces a DC offset to the loop. This can be found from:
VFB / VOUT .
Control Loop Design Approach
There are many different approaches to designing the feedback
loop. The optimum solution is to select a target phase margin
and bandwidth for optimum transient response. This typically
requires either simulation software or detailed Bode plot analysis
to generate a solution.
The particular approach described here derives a solution through
a series of basic calculations. This approach aims for a simple
–20 dB/decade roll off, from the low frequency error amplifier
pole (fp1(EA) ) to the 0 dB crossover point (fcross ). The 0 dB crossover point is aimed at a thirteenth of the switching frequency
(fSW). This factor is chosen as a compromise between good bandwidth and minimizing the phase lag introduced by the second
power pole, which occurs between 1/3 and 1/6 of the switching
frequency. In theory, this should introduce a phase margin of 90°,
however, in practice it will be slightly less than this, perhaps by
about 5°, due to the effects of the second power pole.
It is recommended that the error amplifier high frequency pole
should be positioned one octave below the switching frequency.
This provides some attenuation of the switching ripple whilst
having minimum impact on the closed loop response.
To achieve a –20 dB/decade roll off, the error amplifier zero is
positioned to coincide with the power pole at maximum load.
Figure 5 illustrates the power stage gain, the error amplifier gain,
and then the combined overall loop response (power stage and
error amplifier).
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
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A8670
Design Example
Assuming: output voltage (VOUT) = 1.5 V, maximum load (IOUT)
= 2 A, switching frequency (fSW ) = 700 kHz, and output capacitance (COUT) = 20 μF. Analyze the response at full load.
1. Crossover frequency:
700 ×103
fcross =
= 53.8 kHz
13
2. Overall DC gain (refer to figure 5):
VOUT
DC gain (PS) = 20 Log10
Vc
DC gain (EA) = 61 dB+ 20 Log10
(18)
= 20 Log10
VFB
VOUT
+ 61 dB+ 20 Log10
Vc
VOUT
= 20 Log10
1.5
+ 61 dB + 20 Log10
1.54
0.6
1.5
= 52.8 dB
(19)
VFB
(21)
DC gain (All) = DC gain (PS) + DC gain (EA)
(20)
VOUT
Note: With a power stage gain of 1.3 A / V and a load of 2 A, the
corresponding Vc = 2 / 1.3 = 1.54 V.
3. With a 53.8 kHz crossover and a 20 dB /decade increase
in gain, at what frequency does the gain reach 52.8 dB? The
–20 dB / decade roll off can be described as a single pole with this
transfer function for magnitude (G):
1
(22)
G=
2 × × f × RC
Gain
(dB)
DC gain (PS)
Power Stage
Frequency
fp(PS)
Gain
(dB)
DC gain (EA)
Error Amplifier
fp1(EA)
fp2(EA) Frequency
fz(EA)
Gain
(dB)
–2
Overall Loop
0d
B
DC gain (All)
/d
ec
ad
e
f cross
Frequency
Figure 5. Power stage, error amplifier, and combined overall control loop response
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
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A8670
3a. We know that at 53.8 kHz the gain is 0 dB (1). Therefore the
constant RC can be worked out:
1
(23)
RC =
2 × × 53.8 ×103 × 1
= 2.96 ×10 – 6
3b. A magnitude of 52.8 dB = 436.5. The frequency at which a
gain of 436.5 is reached is:
1
f =
(24)
2 × × 2.96 ×10 – 6 × 436.5
= 123 Hz
So the overall loop response objective is shown in figure 6.
(26)
2 × × RLOAD × COUT
1
=
2 × × 0.75 × 20 ×10 –6
= 10 610 Hz
4c. The error amplifier zero (fz(EA) ) also occurs at 10.610 kHz to
cancel the effects of the power pole. Therefore, as C7 is known,
R4 can be found:
1
2 × × C7 × fp(PS)
1
=
2 × × 1 ×10 –9 × 10610
= 15 kΩ
R4 =
4. Select the RC components.
4a. The error amplifier pole (fp1(EA) ) occurs at 123 Hz. Therefore,
C7 can be found:
1
C7 =
(25)
2 × × RO × fp1(EA)
1
=
2 × × 1.4 ×10 6 × 123
= 1 nF
4b. The power pole (fp(PS) ) can be found, because the output
capacitor (COUT) and maximum load (RLOAD) are known:
1
fp(PS) =
(27)
4d. The error amplifier high frequency pole (fp2(EA) ) is set an
octave below the switching frequency. Therefore, C8 can be
found:
1
2 × × R4 × ( fSW /2)
1
=
3
2 × × 15 ×10 × (700 ×10 3 / 2)
= 30 pF
C8 =
(28)
4e. Using the above compensation component selection technique, table 4 provides preferred component values for a given
Overall Loop Response, Gain (dB)
output voltage, 2 A output, at target switching frequencies of
52.8
500 kHz, 700 kHz, and 1 MHz.
fp1(EA)
Table 4. Recommended R4 and C7 Values
Switching Frequency, fSW
fp(PS), fz(EA)
500 kHz
–2
0d
B/
de
VOUT
(V)
ca
de
fcross
0.123
Frequency (kHz)
53.8
Figure 6. Design example objective: overall control loop response (power
stage and error amplifier)
700 kHz
R4
(kΩ)
C7
(nF)
VOUT
(V)
5.0
33
1.5
3.3
22
1.5
2.5
18
1.8
12
1.5
10
1 MHz
R4
(kΩ)
C7
(nF)
VOUT
(V)
R4
(kΩ)
C7
(nF)
5.0
51
1.0
5.0
68
0.68
3.3
33
1.0
3.3
51
0.68
1.5
2.5
24
1.0
2.5
39
0.68
1.5
1.8
18
1.0
1.8
27
0.68
1.5
1.5
15
1.0
1.5
22
0.68
1.2
8.2
1.5
1.2
12
1.0
1.2
18
0.68
1.0
6.8
1.5
1.0
10
1.0
1.0
15
0.68
0.8
4.7
1.5
0.8
8.2
1.0
0.8
12
0.68
0.6
3.9
1.5
0.6
5.6
1.0
0.6
8.2
0.68
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Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
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A8670
Thermal Considerations
For a given set of conditions, the junction temperature of the
A8670 can be estimated by carrying out a few calculations. This
is important to ensure an adequate safety margin with respect to
the maximum junction temperature (150°C) to enhance reliability. This exercise also helps to understand the overall efficiency
of the regulator.
The general approach is to work out what thermal impedance
(RθJ-A) is required to maintain the junction temperature at a given
level, for a particular power dissipation. It should be noted that
this process is usually iterative to achieve the optimum solution.
The following steps can be used as a guideline for determining a
suitable thermal solution. First, estimate the maximum ambient
temperature (TA ) of the application. Second, define the maximum
junction temperature (TJ ). Note that the absolute maximum is
150°C. Third, determine the worst case power dissipation. This
will typically occur at maximum load and minimum VIN.
Design Example
Assuming: input voltage (VIN ) = 12 V, output voltage (VOUT) =
1.2 V, maximum load (IOUT) = 2 A, switching frequency (fSW )
= 500 kHz, target junction temperature (TJ) ≤ 125ºC, maximum
ambient temperature (TA ) = 105°C, and inductive resistance
(DCRL) = 20 mΩ.
1. The main power loss contributors are calculated separately:
• Switch static losses
= 45 × 10 –3
1+
TJ – 25
200
(30)
125 – 25
200
= 0.0675 Ω
where RDS(on)LS(25C) is the RDS(on)LS value that can be found from
the Electrical Characteristics table in this datasheet.
c. Estimate the duty cycle (D) by applying equation 3 (ton ):
D = ton × fSW
VOUT + (RDS(on)LS + DCRL ) IOUT
=
VIN + (RDS(on)LS – RDS(on)HS ) IOUT
=
1.2 + (0.068 + 0.02 )
12 + (0.068 – 0.3 )
=
0.12
2
2
(31)
1
fSW
1
500 103
fSW
500 103
d. The high side static loss can be determined:
PstaticHI = I 2OUT × D × RDS(on)HS(TJ)
(32)
= 22
× 0.12 × 0.3
= 0.144 W
e. The low side static loss can be determined:
a. Estimate the RDS(on) of the high-side switch at the maximum
target junction temperature:
RDS(on)HS(TJ) = RDS(on)HS(25C) 1 +
= 200 × 10 –3
RDS(on)LS(TJ) = RDS(on)LS(25C) 1 +
1+
TJ – 25
200
PstaticLO = I 2OUT × 1 – D × RDS(on)LS(TJ)
(29)
125 – 25
200
= 0.3 Ω
where RDS(on)HS(25C) is the RDS(on)HS value that can be found
from the Electrical Characteristics table in this datasheet.
b. Estimate the RDS(on) of the low side switch at the given junction temperature:
(33)
= 22 × (1 – 0.12) × 0.068
= 0.239 W
• Switching losses The combined turn on and turn off losses for
both switches are calculated as:
VIN
× I OUT × 6 ×10 –9 × fSW × 2
2
12
=
× 2 × 6 ×10 –9 × 500 ×103 × 2
2
= 0.072 W
Pswitch =
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(34)
17
A8670
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
• Recirculation diode losses The recirculation diode losses
(low-side switch) are calculated as:
Precirc = 0.8 × I OUT × 6 ×10 –9 × fSW
(35)
= 0.8 × 2 × 6 ×10 –9 × 500 ×103
= 0.005 W
• Diode transit losses The recirculation diode losses (low-side
switch) are calculated as:
Ptransit = VIN × I OUT × 3 ×10 –9 × fSW
(36)
= 12 × 2 × 3 ×10 –9 × 500 ×103
= 0.036 W
• BIAS losses The supply bias losses are calculated as:
(37)
Pbias = VIN × 7.2 × 10 –3
= 0.086 W
2. The total losses in the A8670 can be estimated:
Ptotal = PstaticHI + PstaticLO + Pswitch + Precirc + Ptransit + Pbias (38)
= 0.144 + 0.239 + 0.072 + 0.005 + 0.036 + 0.086
= 0.582 W
3. The thermal impedance required for the solution can be found:
T – TA
RθJA = J
(39)
Ptotal
125 – 105
= 0.582
= 34 °C/W
For this particular solution, a high thermal efficiency board is
required to ensure the junction temperature is kept below 125°C.
It is recommended to use a PCB with four layers. The A8670
should be mounted onto a thermal pad. A number of vias should
connect the thermal pad to at least one of the internal layers and
the bottom side of the PCB. Both of these layers should be a
ground plane. See the Layout section for more information.
Regulator Efficiency
The overall regulator efficiency can be determined by including
the inductor loss. In the above thermal characteristics example,
the inductor resistance, DCRL = 20 mΩ. Therefore the inductor
power loss can be found::
PL = DCRL × I 2OUT
(40)
= 0.02 × 22
= 0.08 W
The overall regulator efficiency can be found:
η =
VOUT × IOUT
(VOUT × IOUT ) + Ptotal+ PL
1.2 × 2
= (1.2 × 2) + 0.582 + 0.08
(41)
= 78. 4 %
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18
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Layout
Although the power dissipation in the A8670 is very low, it is
recommended that the thermal pad of the device is soldered to
an appropriate pad on the printed circuit board to help minimize
the junction temperature and enhance the efficiency. The PCB
pad should in turn be connected to the ground plane via a number
of thermal vias. As a suggestion, the following could be used:
sixteen vias, arranged in 4 rows of 4, with diameter 0.25 mm
and spaced (pitch) 0.6 mm apart. The PCB pad as well as acting
as a thermal connection, also forms the star connection for the
grounding system.
The ground return connection for the feedback resistor should be
Kelvin-connected directly back to the star ground. Note: To avoid
voltage offset errors in the output voltage, the feedback resistor
should not be connected to the filter capacitor or load grounds
returns.
Figure 7 illustrates the key objectives in the grounding system.
The filtering capacitors: C1, C3, C4, and C6 should be connected
as close as possible to their respective pins. The ground connections for each of the capacitors should be returned directly to the
star connection (PCB pad). Again, these connections should be as
short as possible. Both the PGND and AGND connections should
connect directly to the PCB pad to form the star connection.
Due to the high impedance nature of the COMP node, it is
important to ensure the compensation components are connected
as close as possible. The feedback trace from R5 and R6 to the
FB pin is also a high impedance input and should be as short as
possible and be placed well away from noisy connections such
as LX. It is recommended to keep any ground planes well away
from the LX node to avoid any potential noise coupling effects.
The support components (C5, C7, and C8) that are ground referenced should be connected together locally and then a common
trace used to return directly to the star connection. Again, this
ground should not pick-up any of the filter capacitors or load
ground returns.
A8670 Support
Components
SS
C5
R4
C7
COMP
C8
A8670
L1
VIN
Local ‘quiet’
Ground Trace
C6
Ground Plane
LX
BIAS
R5
C3/C4
C1
PGND
AGND
Thermal Pad
Thermal Vias
R6
Ground Plane (internal or bottom side of PCB)
Figure 7. Layout considerations for mounting the A8760
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19
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Typical Applications
Application circuit 1
C2
10 nF
L1
4.7 μH
VIN
12 V
BOOT
VIN
C1
10 μF
R1
91 kΩ
VOUT
1.2 V
LX
A8670
C3
10 μF
TON
ILIM
Vpull-up
C4
10 μF
R5
10 kΩ
EN
R2
20 kΩ
R3
20 kΩ
FB
POK
FAULT
POK
SS
BIAS
AGND PGND
C6
100 nF
C5
10 nF
R6
10 kΩ
COMP
FAULT
R4
12 k Ω
C7
1 nF
C8
39 pF
Operating Characteristics: VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 1.2 V, fSW = 500 kHz
Inductor used: Taiyo Yuden NR8040 4.7 μH
Further improvements can be made to the efficiency of this circuit by:
• Adding a 1 A Schottky diode between the LX node and ground.
• Using an inductor with a lower DCR.
Measured efficiency for this circuit
87.0
Efficiency, η (%)
85.0
TA = 25°C
83.0
81.0
TA = 75°C
79.0
77.0
75.0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Output Current, IOUT (A)
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20
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Application circuit 2
C2
10 nF
L1
4.7 μH
VIN
12 V
BOOT
VIN
C1
10 μF
R1
113 k Ω
VOUT
1.5 V
LX
A8670
C3
10 μF
TON
ILIM
Vpull-up
C4
10 μF
R5
15 kΩ
EN
R2
20 kΩ
R3
20 kΩ
FB
POK
FAULT
POK
SS
BIAS
AGND PGND
C6
100 nF
C5
10 nF
R6
10 kΩ
COMP
FAULT
R4
15 k Ω
C7
1 nF
C8
33 pF
Operating Characteristics: VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 1.5 V, fSW = 500 kHz
Inductor used: Taiyo Yuden NR8040 4.7 μH
Further improvements can be made to the efficiency of this circuit by:
• Adding a 1 A Schottky diode between the LX node and ground.
• Using an inductor with a lower DCR.
Measured efficiency for this circuit
89.0
TA = 25°C
Efficiency, η (%)
87.0
85.0
83.0
TA = 75°C
81.0
79.0
77.0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Output Current, IOUT (A)
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21
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Application circuit 3
C2
10 nF
L1
6.8 μH
VIN
12 V
BOOT
VIN
C1
10 μF
R1
137 kΩ
VOUT
1.8 V
LX
A8670
C3
10 μF
TON
ILIM
Vpull-up
C4
10 μF
R5
20 kΩ
EN
R2
20 kΩ
R3
20 kΩ
FB
POK
FAULT
POK
FAULT
SS
BIAS
AGND PGND
C6
100 nF
C5
10 nF
R6
10 kΩ
COMP
R4
18 k Ω
C7
1 nF
C8
27 pF
Operating Characteristics: VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 1.8 V, fSW = 500 kHz
Inductor used: Taiyo Yuden NR8040 6.8 μH
Further improvements can be made to the efficiency of this circuit by:
• Adding a 1 A Schottky diode between the LX node and ground.
• Using an inductor with a lower DCR.
Measured efficiency for this circuit
90.0
TA = 25°C
Efficiency, η (%)
88.0
86.0
84.0
TA = 75°C
82.0
80.0
78.0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Output Current, IOUT (A)
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22
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Application circuit 4
C2
10 nF
L1
10 μH
VIN
12 V
BOOT
VIN
C1
10 μF
R1
187 kΩ
VOUT
2.5 V
LX
A8670
C3
10 μF
TON
ILIM
Vpull-up
C4
10 μF
R5
31.6 k Ω
EN
R2
20 kΩ
R3
20 kΩ
FB
POK
FAULT
POK
SS
BIAS
AGND PGND
C6
100 nF
C5
10 nF
R6
10 kΩ
COMP
FAULT
R4
24 k Ω
C7
1 nF
C8
18 pF
Operating Characteristics: VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 2.5 V, fSW = 500 kHz
Inductor used: Taiyo Yuden NR8040 10 μH
Further improvements can be made to the efficiency of this circuit by:
• Adding a 1 A Schottky diode between the LX node and ground.
• Using an inductor with a lower DCR.
Measured efficiency for this circuit
92.0
TA = 25°C
Efficiency, η (%)
90.0
88.0
TA = 75°C
86.0
84.0
82.0
80.0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Output Current, IOUT (A)
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23
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Application circuit 5
C2
10 nF
L1
10 μH
VIN
12 V
BOOT
VIN
C1
10 μF
R1
243 k Ω
VOUT
3.3 V
LX
A8670
C3
10 μF
TON
ILIM
Vpull-up
C4
10 μF
R5
45 kΩ
EN
R2
20 kΩ
R3
20 kΩ
FB
POK
FAULT
POK
SS
BIAS
AGND PGND
C6
100 nF
C5
10 nF
R6
10 kΩ
COMP
FAULT
R4
33 k Ω
C7
1 nF
C8
15 pF
Operating Characteristics: VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 3.3 V, fSW = 500 kHz
Inductor used: Taiyo Yuden NR8040 10 μH
Further improvements can be made to the efficiency of this circuit by:
• Adding a 1 A Schottky diode between the LX node and ground.
• Using an inductor with a lower DCR.
Measured efficiency for this circuit
96.0
Efficiency, η (%)
94.0
TA = 25°C
92.0
90.0
TA = 75°C
88.0
86.0
84.0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Output Current, IOUT (A)
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24
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Application circuit 6
C2
10 nF
L1
10 μH
VIN
12 V
BOOT
VIN
C1
10 μF
R1
374 k Ω
VOUT
5.0 V
LX
A8670
C3
10 μF
TON
ILIM
Vpull-up
C4
10 μF
R5
73.2 k Ω
EN
R2
20 kΩ
R3
20 kΩ
FB
POK
FAULT
POK
SS
BIAS
AGND PGND
C6
100 nF
C5
10 nF
R6
10 kΩ
COMP
FAULT
R4
51 k Ω
C7
1 nF
C8
10 pF
Operating Characteristics: VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 5.0 V, fSW = 500 kHz
Inductor used: Taiyo Yuden NR8040 10 μH
Further improvements can be made to the efficiency of this circuit by:
• Adding a 1 A Schottky diode between the LX node and ground.
• Using an inductor with a lower DCR.
Measured efficiency for this circuit
96.0
TA = 25°C
Efficiency, η (%)
94.0
92.0
TA = 75°C
90.0
88.0
86.0
84.0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Output Current, IOUT (A)
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25
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Package ES, 20-Contact QFN
0.30
4.00 ±0.10
1
2
0.50
20
20
0.95
A
1
2
4.00 ±0.10
2.6
4.10
2.6
4.10
21X
D
SEATING
PLANE
0.08 C
+0.05
0.25 –0.07
0.75 ±0.05
0.50 BSC
C
C
PCB Layout Reference View
For Reference Only, not for tooling use (reference DWG-2864, excluding pad)
Dimensions in millimeters
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
A Terminal #1 mark area
B Exposed thermal pad (reference only, terminal #1
identifier appearance at supplier discretion)
0.40 ±0.10
B
2.6
2
1
C Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351
QFN50P400X400X80-21BM)
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as necessary
to meet application process requirements and PCB layout tolerances; when
mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal vias at the exposed thermal pad land
can improve thermal dissipation (reference EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
D Coplanarity includes exposed thermal pad and terminals
20
2.6
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26
Fixed Frequency, 2 A Synchronous Buck Regulator
With Fault Warnings and Power OK
A8670
Revision History
Revision
Revision Date
Rev. 2
March 29, 2012
Description of Revision
Update ton(max) and various minor changes
Copyright ©2011-2013, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in any devices or systems, including but not limited to life support devices or systems, in which a failure of
Allegro’s product can reasonably be expected to cause bodily harm.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its
use; nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
www.allegromicro.com
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27
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