A8698 Datasheet

A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Features and Benefits
Description
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
The A8698 is a constant off-time current mode step-down
regulator with a wide input voltage range. Regulation voltage is
set by external resistors, to output voltages as low as 0.8 V.
8 to 25 V input range
Integrated DMOS switch
Adjustable fixed off-time
Highly efficient
Adjustable 0.8 to 20 V output
The A8698 includes an integrated power DMOS switch to
reduce the total solution footprint. It also features internal
compensation, allowing users to design stable regulators with
minimal design efforts.
The off-time can be set with an external resistor, allowing
flexibility in inductor selection. Additionally, the A8698 has
a logic level enable pin which can shut the device down and
put it into a low quiescent current mode for power sensitive
applications.
The A8698 is supplied in a low-profile 8-lead SOIC with
exposed pad (package LJ). Applications include:
Package: 8-Lead SOIC with exposed
thermal pad (suffix LJ)
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Applications with 8 to 25 V input
Consumer electronics, networking equipment
12 V lighter-powered applications (portable DVD, etc.)
Point of Sale (POS) applications
Approximate Scale 1:1
Typical Application
+8 to 24 V
Efficiency
VIN = 12.0 V
CBOOT
0.01 μF
CIN3
82 μF
35 V
BOOT
CIN2
82 μF
35 V
92
CIN1
0.22 μF
VOUT = 5.0 V
90
88
VIN
VOUT = 3.3 V
ENB
LX
L1
33 μH
A8698
TSET
VBIAS
RTSET
30.1 k7
R1
6.34 k7
GND
VOUT
3.3 V / 3 A
FB
D1
R2
2 k7
Efficiency (%)
86
84
82
VOUT = 2.5 V
80
78
76
COUT
330 μF
6.3 V
ESR
74
72
70
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Load Current (A)
Circuit for 12 V step down to 3.3 V at 3 A.
A8698-DS, Rev. 4
Efficiency curves for circuit at left.
2.5
3.0
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
VIN Supply Voltage
Characteristic
Symbol
VIN
Conditions
–
–
25
V
VBIAS Input Voltage
VBIAS
–0.3
–
7
V
Switching Voltage
VS
–1
–
–
V
ENB Input Voltage
VENB
Operating Ambient Temperature Range
TA
Range E
–0.3
–
7
V
–40
–
85
°C
Junction Temperature
TJ(max)
–
–
150
°C
Storage Temperature
TS
–55
–
150
°C
*Output current rating may be limited by duty cycle, ambient temperature, and heat sinking. Under any set of conditions, do not exceed
the specified current ratings, or a junction temperature, TJ, of 150°C.
Package Thermal Characteristics*
Package
RθJA
(°C/W)
PCB
LJ
35
4-layer
* Additional information is available on the Allegro website.
Ordering Information
Use the following complete part numbers when ordering:
Part Numbera
Packingb
Description
A8698ELJTR-T
13 in. reel, 3000 pieces/reel
LJ package, SOIC surface mount with
exposed thermal pad
aLeadframe
plating 100% matte tin.
for additional packing options.
bContact Allegro
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
2
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Functional Block Diagram
BOOT
+
VIN
VIN
VIN
Boot Charge
–
VOUT
LX
L1
D1
ESR
COUT
ENB
Switch PWM Control
Switch
Disable
μC
Clamp
+
TSET
–
I_Demand
FB
–
Error
+
I_Peak
COMP
GND
VBB UVLO
TSD
Soft Start
Ramp Generation
Bias Supply
VBIAS
VBIAS is connected to VOUT
when VOUT target is between
3.3 and 5 V
0.8 V
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
3
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1,2 at TA = 25°C, VIN = 8 to 25 V (unless noted otherwise)
Characteristics
VIN Quiescent Current
VBIAS Input Current
Buck Switch On Resistance
Symbol
IVIN(Q)
IBIAS
RDS(on)
Fixed Off-Time Proportion
Feedback Voltage
Output Voltage Regulation
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
VENB = LOW, VIN = 12 V, VBIAS = 3.2 V,
VFB = 1.5 V (not switching)
–
1.0
–
mA
VENB = LOW, VIN = 12 V, VBIAS < 3 V,
VFB = 1.5 V
–
4.1
–
mA
VENB = HIGH
–
–
100
μA
VBIAS = VOUT
–
3.8
5
mA
TA = 25°C, IOUT = 3 A
–
180
–
mΩ
–15
–
15
%
0.784
0.8
0.816
V
–3
–
3
%
Based on calculated value
VFB
VOUT
IOUT = 0 mA to 3 A
Feedback Input Bias Current
IFB
–400
–100
100
nA
Soft Start Time
tss
5
10
15
ms
Buck Switch Current Limit
ICL
VFB > 0.4 V
3.5
–
5
A
VFB < 0.4 V
–
1.15
–
A
ENB Open Circuit Voltage
VOC
2.0
–
7
V
–
–
1.0
V
Output disabled
ENB Input Voltage Threshold
VENB(0)
LOW level input (Logic 0), output enabled
ENB Input Current
IENB(0)
VENB = 0 V
–10
–
–1
μA
VIN Undervoltage Threshold
VUVLO
VIN rising
6.6
6.9
7.2
V
VIN Undervoltage Hysteresis
VUVLO(hys)
VIN falling
0.7
–
1.1
V
Temperature increasing
–
165
–
°C
Recovery = TJTSD – TJTSD(hys)
–
15
–
°C
Thermal Shutdown Temperature
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
1Negative
TJTSD
TJTSD(hys)
current is defined as coming out of (sourcing) the specified device pin.
over the junction temperature range of 0ºC to 125ºC are assured by design and characterization.
2Specifications
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
4
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Performance Characteristics
Start-up
Operation
VOUT; 2.00 V/div.
VSW; 10.0 V/div.
IOUT; 1.00 A/div.
VOUTAC; 500 mV/div.
VINAC; 1.00 V/div.
IOUT; 2.00 A/div.
t
t
t = 10.0 ms/div.
t = 5.00 μs/div.
Transient Response
Power Off
VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 3.3 V
VOUTAC; 200 mV/div.
VOUT; 2.00 V/div.
IOUT; 500 mA/div.
1.45 A
1.0 A
IOUT; 1.00 A/div.
t
1.0 A
t
t = 1.00 ms/div.
Detail: Step Up Transient Response
VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 3.3 V
t = 1.00 ms/div.
Detail: Step Down Transient Response
VIN = 12 V, VOUT = 3.3 V
VOUTAC; 500 mV/div.
1.45 A
IOUT; 500 mA/div.
VOUTAC; 500 mV/div.
IOUT; 500 mA/div.
1.45 A
1.0 A
1.0 A
t
t = 100 μs/div.
t
t = 100 μs/div.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
5
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Load Regulation
Line Regulation
IOUT = 3.0 A
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
VOUT Error (%)
VOUT Error (%)
0
0
–0.1
–0.2
–0.1
–0.2
–0.3
–0.4
–0.3
–0.5
–0.4
–0.6
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Load Current (A)
2.0
2.5
3.0
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
VIN (V)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
6
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Functional Description
The A8698 is a fixed off-time, current-mode–controlled buck
switching regulator. The regulator requires an external clamping
diode, inductor, and filter capacitor, and operates in both continuous and discontinuous modes. An internal blanking circuit is used
to filter out transients resulting from the reverse recovery of the
external clamp diode. Typical blanking time is 200 ns.
ON/OFF Control. The ENB pin is externally pulled to ground
to enable the device and begin the soft start sequence. When the
ENB is open circuited, the switcher is disabled and the output
decays to 0 V.
The value of a resistor between the TSET pin and ground determines the fixed off-time (see graph in the tOFF section).
• VIN < 6 V
• ENB pin = open circuit
• TSD fault
When the device comes out of a TSD fault, it will go into a soft
start to limit inrush current.
VOUT = VFB × (1 + R1/R2)
(1)
Light Load Regulation. To maintain voltage regulation during
light load conditions, the switching regulator enters a cycle-skipping mode. As the output current decreases, there remains some
energy that is stored during the power switch minimum on-time.
In order to prevent the output voltage from rising, the regulator
skips cycles once it reaches the minimum on-time, effectively
making the off-time larger.
Soft Start. An internal ramp generator and counter allow the output to slowly ramp up. This limits the maximum demand on the
external power supply by controlling the inrush current required
to charge the external capacitor and any dc load at startup.
Internally, the ramp is set to 10 ms nominal rise time. During soft
start, current limit is 3.5 A minimum.
The following conditions are required to trigger a soft start:
• VIN > 6 V
• ENB pin input falling edge
• Reset of a TSD (thermal shut down) event
VBIAS. To improve overall system efficiency, the regulator output,
VOUT, is connected to the VBIAS input to supply the operating
bias current during normal operating conditions. During startup
the circuitry is run off of the VIN supply. VBIAS should be connected to VOUT when the VOUT target level is between 3.3 and
5 V. If the output voltage is less than 3.3 V, then the A8698 can
operate with an internal supply and pay a penalty in efficiency,
as the bias current will come from the high voltage supply, VIN.
VBIAS can also be supplied with an external voltage source. No
power-up sequencing is required for normal opperation.
tOFF. The value of a resistor between the TSET pin and ground
determines the fixed off-time. The formula to calculate tOFF (μs)
is:
⎛ 1–0.03 VBIAS ⎞
(2)
⎟
tOFF = RSET ⎜
10.2 × 109
⎝
⎠
where RTSET (kΩ) is the value of the resistor. Results with the
VBIAS pin connected are shown in the following graph (when
VBIAS is not connected, use VBIAS = 0 in equation 2):
Off-Time Setting versus Resistor Value
200
180
160
140
RTSET (kΩ)
VOUT. The output voltage is adjustable from 0.8 to 20 V, based on
the combination of the value of the external resistor divider and
the internal 0.8 V ±2% reference. The voltage can be calculated
with the following formula:
Protection. The buck switch will be disabled under one or more
of the following fault conditions:
VBIAS = 5 V
120
100
VBIAS = 3.3 V
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13 14 15
16
tOFF (µs)
tON. From the volt-second balance of the inductor, the turn-on
time, ton , can be calculated approximately by the equation:
tON =
(VOUT + Vf + IOUT RL) tOFF
VIN – IOUT RDS(on) – IOUT RL – VOUT
(3)
where
Vf is the voltage drop across the external Schottky diode,
RL is the winding resistance of the inductor, and
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
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A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
to the minimum on-time of the switcher.
RDS(on) is the on-resistance of the switching MOSFET.
The switching frequency is calculated as follows:
fSW =
1
tON + tOFF
The extension of the off-time is based on the value of the TSET
(4)
multiplier and the FB voltage, as shown in the following table:
Shorted Load. If the voltage on the FB pin falls below 0.4 V, the
regulator will invoke a 1.5 A typical overcurrent limit to handle
the shorted load condition at the regulator output. For low output
voltages at power up and in the case of a shorted output, the offtime is extended to prevent loss of control of the current limit due
VFB (V)
TSET Multiplier
< 0.16
8 × tOFF
< 0.32
4 × tOFF
< 0.5
2 × tOFF
> 0.5
tOFF
Component Selection
L1. The inductor must be rated to handle the total load current.
The value should be chosen to keep the ripple current to a reasonable value. The ripple current, IRIPPLE, can be calculated by:
IRIPPLE = VL(OFF) × tOFF / L
(5)
VL(OFF) = VOUT + Vf + IL(AV) × RL
(6)
Example:
Given VOUT = 3.3 V, Vf = 0.55 V, VIN = 12 V, ILOAD = 3.0 A,
power inductor with L = 33 μH and RL = 0.05 Ω Rdc at 55°C,
tOFF = 2.67 μs, and RDS(on) = 0.2 Ω.
Substituting into equation 6:
Substituting into equation 8:
tON = 323 mA × 33 μH / 7.95 V = 1.34 μs
Substituting into equation 7:
fSW = 1 / (2.67 μs + 1.34 μs) = 250 kHz
Higher inductor values can be chosen to lower the ripple current. This may be an option if it is required to increase the total
maximum current available above that drawn from the switching
regulator. The maximum total current available, ILOAD(MAX) , is:
ILOAD(MAX) = ICL(min) – IRIPPLE / 2
(10)
where ICL(min) is 3.5 A, from the Electrical Chracteristics table.
D1. The Schottky catch diode should be rated to handle 1.2 times
the maximum load current. The voltage rating should be higher
than the maximum input voltage expected during all operating
conditions. The duty cycle for high input voltages can be very
close to 100%.
VL(OFF) = 3.3 V + 0.55 V+ 3.0 A × 0.05 Ω = 4.0 V
Substituting into equation 5:
IRIPPLE = 4.0 V × 2.67 μs / 33 μH = 323 mA
The switching frequency, fSW, can then be estimated by:
fSW = 1 / ( tON + tOFF )
(7)
tON = IRIPPLE × L / VL(ON)
(8)
VL(ON) = VIN – IL(AV) × RDS(on) – IL(AV) × RL– VOUT
(9)
Substituting into equation 9:
VL(ON) = 12 V – 3 A × 0.2 Ω – 3 A × 0.05 Ω – 3.3 V = 7.95 V
COUT. The main consideration in selecting an output capacitor
is voltage ripple on the output. For electrolytic output capacitors,
a low-ESR type is recommended.
The peak-to-peak output voltage ripple is simply IRIPPLE × ESR.
Note that increasing the inductor value can decrease the ripple
current. The ESR should be in the range from 50 to 500 mΩ.
If a low ESR capacitor is used, such as a POSCAP or SP, an extra
Rr , Cr circuit is needed to inject ripple into the feedback pin and
ensure stability. Please refer to the Application Circuit section for
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
8
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
the connection. The Rr should be much larger than the feedback
resistor to prevent any potential offset in output voltage. For
example, if Rf < 10 kΩ, Rr should be 1 MΩ. Cr should be selected
based on the following equation:
Cr(max) =
(VIN(min) – VFB ) × tON(min)
Note. The curve represents the minimum RTSET value. When
calculating RTSET , be sure to use VIN(max) / VOUT(min). Resistor
tolerance should also be considered, so that under no operating
conditions the resistance on the TSET pin is allowed to go below
(5)
0.05 × Rr
the minimum value.
where Cr is in pF, tON(min) is in μs, and Rr is in MΩ.
FB Resistor Selection. The impedance of the FB network
RTSET Selection. Correct selection of RTSET values will
ensure that minimum on-time of the switcher is not violated and
prevent the switcher from cycle skipping. For a given VIN to
VOUT ratio, the RTSET value must be greater than or equal to the
value defined by the curve in the plot below.
should be kept low to improve noise immunity. Large value resistors can pick up noise generated by the inductor, which can affect
voltage regulation of the switcher.
13.0
12.5
12.0
Violation of
Minimum On-Time
11.5
11.0
10.5
10.0
9.5
9.0
VIN / VOUT
8.5
8.0
7.5
um
im
n
i
M
7.0
6.5
6.0
e
lu
Va
R
of
TS
ET
Safe Operating Area
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
70.0
67.5
65.0
62.5
57.5
60.0
52.5
55.0
47.5
50.0
42.5
45.0
37.5
40.0
32.5
35.0
27.5
30.0
22.5
25.0
20.0
15.0
17.5
10.0
12.5
RTSET (k7)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
9
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Application Circuit
Circuit with Low ESR Capacitor
Efficiency versus Load Current
fSW = 500 kHz nominal at 12 V
Stabilized with low ESR capacitor
100
80
Efficiency (%)
VIN
12 to 16.4 V
CBOOT
0 .01 μF
90
BOOT
VIN
ENB
LX
CIN
22 μF
70
60
A8698
50
RTSET
16.4 kΩ
40
TSET
VBIAS
GND
FB
VOUT
5 V /2 . 5 A
L
10 μH
COUT
120 μF
18 mΩ
D1
R3
1 MΩ
30
R1
6 .34 kΩ
20
10
Ratings:
L: CDRH104R-100NC
COUT: EEFUD0J121R
CIN: ECJ-4YB1E226M
0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
R2
1.2 kΩ
100 pF
Load Current (A)
Evaluation Board
Silkscreen Layer
Bottom Layer
J1
8 to 24 Vdc
C1.2
C1.3
C1.1
J2
GND
C3
C2
ENB
A8698
TSET
R3
EN
C4.1
VIN
BOOT
R4
J4
GND
L1
LX
D1
VBIAS
C4.2
J3
3.3 V / 3.0 A
C4.3
VOUT
FB
GND
PAD
R2
R1
Top and Silkscreen Layers
R5
P1
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
10
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
Evaluation Board Bill of Materials
Description
Manufacturer
Footprint
Part Number
C1.1
1
Ceramic chip, 22 μF, 25 V, ±20%, X5R.
Panasonic
1210
ECJ4YB1E226M
C1.2, C1.3
2
Aluminum electrolytic capacitor, 35 V / 82 μF, 930
mA ripple current
Rubycon
C2
1
Ceramic capacitor, X7R, ±10%, 0.1 μF / 50 V
Murata
0603
GRM188R71H104KA93D
C3
1
Ceramic capacitor, X7R, ±10%, 0.01 μF / 50 V
Kemet
0603
C0603C103K5RACTU
C4.2
0
Special polymer cap, 120 μF / 6.3 V, 15 mΩ
Panasonic
7.3 mm × 4.3 mm
× 3.1 mm
EEFUD0J121R
C4.1
0
Ceramic capacitor, X5R, ±20%, 47 μF / 6.3 V
Panasonic
1210
ECJ4YB0J476M
C4.3
1
Aluminum electrolytic capacitor, 6.3 V / 330 μF, 450
mA ripple current, 300 mΩ
Panasonic
L1
1
Inductor, 33 μH, 53 mΩ, 3.9 A, ±20%
Sumida
10.3 mm ×
10.5 mm × 4 mm
CDRH127/LDNP-330MC
D1
1
Schottky diode, 40 V / 3.0 A
Diodes, Inc.
SMA
B340
R1
1
Chip resistor, 6.34 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%
Std
0603
Std.
R2
3
Chip resistor, 2.0 kΩ,1/16 W, 1%
Std
0603
Std.
R3
1
Chip resistor, 30.1 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%
Std
0603
Std.
R4
1
Chip resistor, 10 kΩ, 1/16 W, 1%
Std
0603
Std.
Designator Quantity
8 mm × 12 mm
8 mm × 10.2 mm
35V-ZAV-820-8 X 12
EEVFC0J331P
R5
1
Chip resistor, 0 Ω, 1/16 W, 1%
Std
0603
Std.
J1, J2, J3,
J4
4
Header, 2-pin, 100 mil spacing
Sullins
0.100 in. × 2
PTC36SAAN
P1
1
Test point, Red, 1mm
Farnell
0.038 in.
240-345
EN
1
Test point, Black, 1mm
Farnell
0.038 in.
240-333
U1
1
Wide Input Voltage Step Down Regulator
Allegro
ESOIC8
A8698
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
11
A8698
Wide Input Voltage 3.0 A Step Down Regulator
6.20 .244
5.80 .228
Package LJ 8-Pin SOIC
0.25 [.010] M B M
8
5.00 .197
4.80 .189
8º
0º
A
B
B
0.25 .010
0.17 .007
4.00 .157
3.80 .150
2.41 .095
NOM
1.27 .050
0.40 .016
A
1
3.30 .130
NOM
2
0.25 .010
8X
SEATING
PLANE
0.10 [.004] C
8X
0.51 .020
0.31 .012
0.25 .010
0.10 .004
1.27 .050
0.65 .026
MAX
1.27 .050
NOM
1.75 .069
NOM
2.41 .095
NOM
1
8
VIN
ENB
2
7
LX
TSET
3
6
VBIAS
GND
4
5
FB
Pad
(Top View)
All dimensions reference, not for tooling use
(reference JEDEC MS-012 AA)
Dimensions in millimeters
U.S. Customary dimensions (in.) in brackets, for reference only
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
A Terminal #1 mark area
B Exposed thermal pad (bottom surface)
C Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351
SOIC127P600X175-9AM); adjust as necessary to meet
application process requirements and PCB layout
tolerances; when mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal
vias at the exposed thermal pad land can improve thermal
dissipation (reference EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
2
6X 0.20 .008
MIN
3.30 .130
NOM
BOOT
5.60 .220
NOM
C
1
Pin-out Diagram
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
1.75 .069
1.35 .053
0.25 [.010] M C A B
2X 0.20 .008
MIN
C
Terminal List Table
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
–
Name
BOOT
ENB
TSET
GND
FB
VBIAS
LX
VIN
Pad
Description
Gate drive boost node
On/off control; logic input
Off-time setting
Ground
Feedback for adjustable regulator
Bias supply input
Buck switching node
Supply input
Exposed pad for enhanced thermal dissipation
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro products are not authorized for use as critical components in life-support appliances, devices, or systems without express written approval.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or
other rights of third parties that may result from its use.
Copyright © 2006-2013 Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
www.allegromicro.com
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