DN1033 - Easily Boost 12V to 140V with a Single Converter IC

Easily Boost 12V to 140V with a Single Converter IC
Design Note 1033
Victor Khasiev
INTRODUCTION
Generating a high voltage from a much lower
voltage presents a number of challenges for the
classical single stage boost topology. For instance,
the maximum duty cycle limitation of a boost controller may not allow the required step-up ratio.
Even if it does, there is often a sharp decrease in
efficiency at high duty cycles. The duty cycle can
be shortened by choosing discontinuous mode of
operation, but this leads to high peak input current,
higher losses and EMI challenges.
An alternative to a single boost converter is a 2-stage
boost converter, where the first stage produces
an intermediate voltage and the second stage boosts
to the final high voltage. A 2-stage converter can be
produced with a single controller IC, such as the
LTC ®3788, a high performance 2-phase dual output synchronous boost controller, which drives all
N‑channel power MOSFETs.
power losses and eases thermal requirements. The
maximum output voltage of this controller is 60V, when
using synchronous rectification. If greater than 60V
is required, the second stage can be designed to run
non-synchronously, as described below.
2-STAGE BOOST PRODUCES 140V FROM 12V
The block diagram in Figure 1 shows the LTC3788
in a 2-stage boost configuration. This block diagram
also reveals a few caveats that must be observed in
this design:
nn
The output of the first stage (Q1, CINT) is connected to the input of second stage (RS2, L2). The
output of the first stage should not exceed 40V,
because maximum absolute rating of the SENSE
pins is 40V.
nn
The gate drive voltage of 5V is suitable for logic
level MOSFETs, but not for high voltage standard
MOSFETs, with typical gate voltages of 7V to 12V.
The external gate driver DR, controlled by the
BG2 signal can be used as shown here to drive
high voltage standard MOSFETs.
nn
To generate an output voltage above maximum limit of 60V, the synchronous rectification
MOSFET is replaced by a single diode D1.
The LTC3788 can be configured such that the first
boost stage takes advantage of its synchronous rectification feature, which maximizes efficiency, reduces
CINT
40V ABS MAX
TG1
SW1
PGOOD1
SS1
ILIM
FB1
ITH1
SENSE1+
Q1
RS1
Q2
SENSE1–
VIN
GND
BOOST1
FREQ
BG1
PHASMD
VBIAS
CLKOUT
EXTVCC
SGND
INTVCC 5V
TG2
SW2
PGOOD2
SS2
ITH2
BOOST2
FB2
BG2
RUN2
SENSE2+
RUN1
SENSE2–
VOUT
COUT
PGND
LTC3788
PLLIN/MODE
GND
L1
U1
D1
L2
DR
Q3
GND
7V TO 10V
MOSFET
DRIVER
DN1033 F01
Figure 1. Block Diagram of LTC3788-Based 2-Stage
Boost Converter
09/15/dn1033f
GND
RS2
Figure 2 shows the complete solution. Transistors Q1,
Q2, and inductor L1 compose the first stage, which
generates an intermediate bus voltage of 38V. The
first stage employs synchronous rectification for
maximum efficiency. The output of the first stage is
connected as input to the second stage, comprised
of Q3, D1, L2. The output of second stage produces
140V at 1A.
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered
trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
12.1k
V_INT
SENSE1–
V_INT
EXTVCC
SGND
INTVCC
RUN1
BG2
12.1k
SW2
PGOOD2
SS2
ITH2
FB2
SENSE2+
SENSE2–
GND
309k
4.7μF
SNS2+
SNS2–
100pF
2.7k
6.98k
+
VOUT
22μF/200V
EEVEB2D220SQ
GND
D1
SBR10U200P5130
0.1μF
15nF
GND
2x0.47μF/450V
C4532X7T2W474M
8.2V
VIN
82μF/50V
50HVH82M
VOUT 140V AT 1.0A
DRIVER BIAS
CIRCUIT
Q4
MMBTA42LT1G
1μF
+
Q2
BSC028N06LS3G
V_INT
5.1k
BOOST2
RUN2
VIN 3V TO 36V
4x4.7μF
TG2
2.21k
SENSE1– SENSE1+
L1, 6.8μF
SER2915H682 RS1, 0.002Ω
0.1μF
PGND
LTC3788EUH
PLLIN/MODE
82μF/50V
50HVH82M
Q1
BSC067N06LS3G
VBIAS
VBIAS
CLKOUT
VBIAS
BAS140W
BG1
PHASMD
+
4x4.7μF
0.1μF
BOOST1
FREQ
42.2k
TG1
SW1
PGOOD1
SS1
FB1
ITH1
SENSE1+
SNS1–
U1
INTERMEDIATE BUS
15nF
0.1μF
ILIM
8.66k
SNS1+
100pF
374k
U2
L2, 100μH
PCV210405L
VBIAS
LTC4440
BST
VCC
GND
TG
IN
TS
SENSE2–
SENSE2+
RS2, 0.01Ω
Q3
BSC320N20NS3
806k
DN1033 F02
Figure 2. Full Schematic of 2-Stage 140V Output, 1A Boost Converter
This solution features an input voltage range from
3V to 36V, nominal 12V. To decrease components’
thermal stress, the output current should be reduced
when the input voltages falls below 10V. Figure 3
shows measured efficiency, and Figure 4 shows the
start-up waveforms. A 93% efficiency is shown with
VIN = 24V and with the 140V output loaded from 0.4A
to 1A. This converter can operate at full load with
no airflow.
94
92
EFFICIENCY (%)
Transistor Q3 is standard level MOSFET, driven by
the LTC4440. Here, an LDO, based on transistor Q4,
biases the gate driver, but a switching regulator can
be employed instead (such as one built around the
LTC3536) to further increase overall efficiency.
90
88
86
84
24V
12V
8V
0
0.2
0.6
0.4
LOAD CURRENT (A)
1
0.8
DN1033 F03
Figure 3. Efficiency of the 2-Stage Converter in Figure 2
[VIN 8V to 24V, VOUT 140V]
CONCLUSION
LTC3788 is a high performance 2-phase dual output
synchronous boost controller, suitable for high power,
high voltage applications. Its dual outputs can be
used in tandem to achieve extremely high step-up
ratios to high voltages.
DN1033 F04
Figure 4. Start-Up Waveforms [from VIN 12V to VOUT
140V at 1A]
Data Sheet Download
www.linear.com/LTC3788
Linear Technology Corporation
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 3161
dn1033f LT 0915 • PRINTED IN THE USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
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 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2015
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