! " #$%&% Prepared by: Juan Carlos Pastrana ON Semiconductor http://onsemi.com APPLICATION NOTE • Proprietary Active Leading Edge Blanking (LEB) INTRODUCTION Power converters using secondary side controllers provide better transient response, higher efficiency and usually require less components than their primary side referenced counterparts. However, secondary side controllers require a primary side referenced bias supply to start operation. After start-up, the controller power can be provided from the secondary side. The NCP1030 incorporates in a single IC all the active power, control logic and protection circuitry required for implementing, with a minimum of external components, a highly integrated isolated bias supply. The features included in the NCP1030 can result in a footprint area reduction by up to 91% compared to a solution implemented using discrete components. The NCP1030 Power Switch Circuit is rated at 200 V, making it ideal for 48 V Telecom and 42 V automotive applications. In addition, this IC can operate from an existing 12 V supply. The NCP1030 includes an extensive set of features including: • On Board Power Switch: Eliminates the need for an external switch. As the Power Switch characteristics are well known the gate drive is tailored to control switching transitions and help reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). • An Internal Start-up Regulator: Provides power to the NCP1030 during start-up. After start-up, the regulator is disabled, thus reducing power consumption. The regulator can be powered directly from the input line. • Internal Error Amplifier: Allows the implementation of an isolated supply using primary side regulation without the need for an optocoupler. • Internal Cycle by Cycle Current Limit: Eliminates the need for external sensing components. The programmed current limit is 500 mA. Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2003 July, 2003 - Rev. 0 • • • • Circuit: Provides better current limit control compared to a fixed blanking period. The active LEB circuit masks the current signal during the Power Switch turn ON transition. Individual Line Undervoltage and Overvoltage (UV/OV) Detectors with Hysteresis: Eliminate the need for external supervisory function. The UV/OV detectors can be disabled if not needed. Single Capacitor Oscillator: Eliminates traditional timing resistor. Oscillator is optimized for operation up to 1.0 MHz. Internal $2% Voltage Reference: Eliminates the need for an external bypass capacitor. Thermal Shutdown Circuit: Protects the device in the event the maximum junction temperature is exceeded. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS An isolated bias supply for a telecom system is designed and implemented using the NCP1030. The supply delivers 2.0 W at 12 V. The converter specifications are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Bias Supply Specifications Parameter Symbol Min Max Input Voltage Vin 35 V 76 V Frequency İ 250 kHz 300 kHz Peak Efficiency h 80% - Output Voltage Vout 10.8 V 13.2 V Output Current Iout 0.017 A 0.17 A Output Power Pout 2.0 W - A Flyback topology operating in discontinuous mode is selected because of its simplicity and low part count. 1 Publication Order Number: AND8119/D AND8119/D FLYBACK CONVERTER where, VƒD1 is the forward voltage drop across D1 and RDS(on) is the Power Switch on resistance. Equation 2 relates the on-time volt-second product to the reset volt-second product and adds a 20% dead time to insure the converter operates in discontinuous mode. Solving Equation 2 assuming a 0.5 V drop across D1, A dual output Flyback converter is shown in Figure 1. OUTPUT 1 is regulated by means of OUTPUT 2, providing an isolated OUTPUT 1 without the need for an optocoupler. TX D1 + Cout Np Vout (OUTPUT1) Ns + Snubber - CCC VCC (OUTPUT2) - R1 - PWM Controller Vstress + Vin(max) ) EA + M1 + VREF R2 Current flows in the primary side when the Power Switch, M1, is ON. The transformer primary side dot end becomes positive with respect to the non-dot end. While the Power Switch is ON, energy is stored in the transformer and D1 and D2 are reverse biased. When M1 turns OFF, the transformer winding polarities are reversed, forward biasing D1 and D2. Energy is transferred to the secondary outputs during this period. If the secondary current decays to zero before the switch turns ON again, the converter operates in discontinuous mode. Otherwise, it operates in continuous mode. The converter regulates the output by sampling the output voltage and comparing it to a reference voltage. A signal proportional to their difference is generated and used to adjust the ON time of M1 such that the voltage difference is reduced. The Snubber limits the voltage across the Power Switch and helps reduce noise. Parameter Ns (Vout ) VfD1) (0.8 * DC) Magnetizing Inductance @ 0.4 A 1,2-3,4 102 mH - Leakage Inductance 1,2-3,4 - 0.955 mH 1-4 2-3 5-6 7-8 - 0.655 W 0.82 W 0.248 W 0.248 W - Cout + 3.8 MHz (typ.) Iout f (1 * DC) Vdroop (eq. 5) Solving Equation 5, a maximum voltage droop of 50 mV requires a 7.4 mF capacitor. However, Cout may be increased to facilitate frequency compensation. The secondary peak current, ISPK, and the diode blocking voltage, Vblock, determine the selection of rectification diodes, D1 and D2. The primary peak current and transformer turns ratio determine the secondary peak current as given by Equation 6. (eq. 1) DC Max Two main factors, voltage ripple and frequency compensation, are considered for the selection of the output capacitor, Cout. This section will focus on voltage ripple, while frequency compensation is covered in a latter section. The output capacitor provides the load current during the switch ON time. If the target voltage droop is known, Cout is calculated using Equation 5. ǒNp Ǔ is calculated Ns RDS(on))) (Vout ) VfD1) (eq. 4) MAIN OUTPUT using Equation 2 (Vin * (IPPK Ns Min Resonant Frequency Solving Equation 1, a primary inductance of 127 mH is w Np Terminals DC Resistance The converter is designed to operate at a maximum duty cycle (DC) of 40 % and a primary peak current (IPPK) of 400 mA. The required primary inductance, LP, is calculated using Equation 1. Np (eq. 3) Table 2. Transformer Specifications DESIGN PROCEDURE V DC Lp + in(min) f IPPK 7 W)) 0.4 (0.8 * 0.4) The voltage is significantly below the 200 V maximum rating of the NCP1030 internal Power Switch. The transformer winding arrangement includes a split primary with bifilar secondaries. The transformer can be ordered from Coilcraft under part number B0226-E. Table 2 summarizes the specifications of the transformer. - Figure 1. Isolated Flyback Converter required. The transformer turns ratio (35 V * (0.4 A (12 V ) 0.5 V) a turns ratio greater than 2.58 is required. A turns ratio of 2.78 is selected. A maximum stress voltage of 110 V across the primary switch during the turn OFF period is calculated using Equation 4. D2 + Vin w (eq. 2) ISPK + IPPK http://onsemi.com 2 Np Ns (eq. 6) AND8119/D The voltage across the rectification diode is given by Equation 7. Cout Rout Vout - (eq. 7) + ǒNNpsǓ + Vblock + Vout ) Vin(max) D1 TX B D2 Vin Solving Equations 6 and 7, the rectification diode needs to handle 1.11 A and 39.34 V. In addition to the voltage calculated using equation 7, voltage spikes during switching transitions need to be considered when selecting the blocking voltage rating. A Schottky diode is selected to reduce the forward voltage drop, thus reducing power dissipation. On Semiconductor’s MBRA160 is selected as it meets all the requirements. - RESR Rout(eq) Cout(eq) Z1 A Zf - PWM Controller EA + + VREF AUXILIARY SUPPLY REGULATOR NCP1030 The auxiliary supply (OUTPUT 2) provides a means to regulate the main output (OUTPUT 1). In addition, the auxiliary winding disables the internal start-up circuit and provides power to the NCP1030 after initial power up. The same turns ratio and rectification diode used for the main output are used for the auxiliary winding to improve voltage tracking between the outputs. The auxiliary winding capacitor, CCC, is selected such that a voltage greater than 7.5 V is maintained on the VCC pin while the output reaches regulation. The time the output reaches regulation is measured at 0.8 ms. Once the start-up time is known, CCC is calculated using Equation 8. I t CCC + CC 2.5 V Rbias - Figure 2. Flyback Converters The open loop frequency response of the system (from A to B) is approximated by the modulator gain and the output network frequency response. Additional high frequency components are present but are not considered for our analysis as they are far beyond the crossover frequency. The modulator gain, GMOD, is approximated by Equation 9. GMOD + 3 Vin 2 Ǹ Rout(eq) h 2 f Lp (eq. 9) The output network block is comprised of Cout, RESR and Rout. The frequency response of the output network is given by Equation 10. (eq. 8) where, ICC includes the NCP1030 bias current (ICC3) and any additional current supplied by CCC. Assuming an ICC3 of 3.0 mA and a 2.0 mA bias current for the feedback sensing resistors, CCC is calculated at 1.6 mF. The VCC capacitor is set at 2.2 mF. Please note that if CCC is increased to match Cout, the transient response of the converter will suffer. This is because the capacitance to current ratio of the auxiliary winding is significantly greater then the output winding, taking it longer for CCC to follow Cout during a transient condition. H(f) + sRESRCout(eq) ) 1 sCout(eq) (RESR ) Rout(eq)) ) 1 (eq. 10) The total open loop frequency response is the product of Equations 9 and 10. Please note that Cout(eq) includes CCC and Cout reflected to the auxiliary winding by the transformer turns ratio. As the same turns ratio is used for both the auxiliary and output windings, Cout adds directly to CCC. The output network has one zero and one pole and they are given by Equations 11 and 12, respectively. FEEDBACK LOOP fz1 + If the feedback loop is not stable, the converter will oscillate. To insure the loop is stable, the open loop frequency response needs to cross 0 dB at a slope of -20 dB/dec, with a phase margin above 45° under all line and load conditions. This is accomplished by shaping the loop response using the internal error amplifier (EA). The block diagram shown in Figure 2 is used to evaluate the converter open loop response. 1 2p Cout RESR (eq. 11) 1 2p Rout Cout (eq. 12) fp1 [ The modulator gain response depends on Vin. Two extreme conditions, both minimum Rout and input voltage (GMOD1) as well as both maximum Rout and input voltage (GMOD2) are considered for frequency compensation. In order to facilitate frequency compensation, Cout is increased to 22 mF. The simulated open loop frequency responses for GMOD1 and GMOD2 are shown in Figures 3 and 4, respectively. http://onsemi.com 3 AND8119/D 0 50 Magnitude Phase 30 -20 20 -30 10 -40 0 -50 -10 -60 -20 -70 -30 -80 -40 -90 102 103 104 105 fp3 + Figure 3. Open Loop Frequency Response for GMOD1 0 Magnitude Phase -10 30 -20 20 -30 10 -40 0 -50 -10 -60 -20 -70 -30 -80 -40 -90 -50 101 10 2 10 3 10 4 R4 + (eq. 15) Frequency (Hz) Figure 4. Open Loop Frequency Response for GMOD2 VCC * R5 Ibias1 The frequency compensation can be achieved using a type II error amplifier (EA) as the one shown in Figure 5. Z1 C2 EA Output + (R5) Table 3. System Gain, Poles and Zeros R7 + Rbias Zf R6 R4 VREF Parameter Frequency (kHz) Magnitude (dB) fP1 (@ GMOD1) 0.091 - fP1 (@ GMOD2) 0.009 - fP2 0 - fP3 23.9 - fZ1 77.4 - fZ2 0.482 - GEA - 6.03 - Figure 5. Type II Error Amplifier A type II error amplifier has 2 poles and 1 zero. The transfer function is given by Equation 13. H(f) + (eq. 18) 4 The error amplifier zero, fz2, is placed before the system response crosses 0 dB. Pole, fp3, is placed after fCO to attenuate high frequency components. Table 3 summarizes the system gain, poles and zeros. Figure 6 shows the EA frequency response. Input C6 (eq. 17) ǒRR7Ǔ GEA + 20 log Ibias1 (eq. 16) Using a bias current of 2.0 mA, R4 and R5 are calculated at 4.99 kW and 1.30 kW, respectively. Resistor R6 provides a test point to measure the open loop frequency response. It is set at 10 W to avoid disrupting the DC bias point. The error amplifier DC gain, GEA, is calculated using Equation 18. It is set at 6.03 dB to achieve a gain of 0 dB at 10 kHz for GMOD1. -100 10 6 10 5 (C2 ) C6) 2pR7C2C6 V R5 + REF Ibias1 Angle (degrees) Magnitude (dB) 40 (eq. 14) The EA poles and zero locations are selected to achieve the desired crossover frequency, fCO. A system crossover frequency of 10 kHz is selected for GMOD1. As the modulator gain depends on the input voltage, a higher fCO is obtained for the maximum input voltage condition with equivalent output load. The selection of the compensation components begins by noting that the voltage on the VFB pin should be equal to 2.5 V (VREF) when the output is in regulation (12 V). If the feedback sensing resistor network bias current (Ibias1) is known, R4 and R5 are calculated using Equations 16 and 17, respectively. Frequency (Hz) 50 1 2pR7C2 fz2 + -100 106 -50 101 One of the poles, fp2, is at the origin. The frequency of the remaining pole and zero are given by Equations 14 and 15, respectively. -10 Angle (degrees) Magnitude (dB) 40 sR7C2 ) 1 sR4(C2 ) C6)ǒ1 ) sR7 C C7 C6 7)C6 Ǔ (eq. 13) http://onsemi.com 4 AND8119/D 60 0 Magnitude (dB) 50 40 -20 30 -30 20 -40 10 -50 0 -60 -10 -70 -20 -80 -30 -90 -40 102 103 104 105 The NCP1030 eliminates the need for additional supervisory circuitry by incorporating individual under and overvoltage detectors with hysteresis. The controller is enabled if the voltage on the UV pin is above 2.5 V and the voltage on the OV pin is below 2.5 V. The UV/OV detectors can be biased using an external resistor divider as shown in Figure 8. Vin R1 -100 106 R2 Frequency (Hz) VOV - The phase contributions of a zero and a pole at the crossover frequency are given by Equations 19 and 20, respectively. ǒfCO Ǔ fz fCO Ǔ qp + tan - 1ǒ fp qz + tan - 1 R1 [ The phase margin, qM, is evaluated taking into account the phase contribution of all the poles and zeros as shown below in Equation 21. R3 [ (eq. 21) qM + 180° * 89.5° * 90 ° * 22.7 ° ) 7.33° ) 87.24° + 72.4° -100 -110 40 -120 Phase (Vin = 76V, Rout = 720W) Magnitude (Vin = 36V, Rout = 72W) 30 20 10 0 Magnitude (Vin = 76V, Rout = 720W) -10 -20 101 10 2 103 -130 -140 -150 105 (eq. 24) An oscillator frequency of 275 kHz is obtained with a timing capacitor (CT) of 680 pF. The tolerance of CT is set at 5%. SNUBBER -160 An RCD snubber as shown in Figure 9 is added to help reduce noise. The snubber is returned to the positive supply rail to reduce the voltage stress on C9 to Vin. If returned to the negative supply rail, the voltage stress is 2Vin. -170 104 R3 DVin Vin(min) OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY Angle (degrees) Magnitude (dB) -90 50 (eq. 22) Using a bias current of 78 mA, a turn ON voltage of 35 V, a turn OFF voltage of 80 V and a VOV threshold of 2.55 V, R1, R2 and R3 are calculated at approximately 1.0 MW, 45.3 kW and 34 kW, respectively. Capacitors C7 and C8 help reduce noise and provide a stable voltage during turn ON and turn OFF transitions. They are set at 10 nF. -80 60 Vin(max) Ibias2 (eq. 23) VOV R1 Vin(min) Vin(min)Vin(max) * VOV(DVin ) Vin(min) ) R2 [ The calculated phase margin is 72.4°. The 180° term arises because the EA is in an inverting configuration. The simulated system frequency responses for GMOD1 and GMOD2 are shown in Figure 7. Phase (Vin = 36V, Rout = 72W) - If the resistor network bias current, Ibias2, is known, and the VOV and VUV thresholds are equal, R1, R3 and R2 are calculated using Equations 22, 23 and 24, respectively. (eq. 20) 80 VUV C8 R3 Figure 8. UV/OV Resistor Bias Network (eq. 19) qM°+ 180 * qp1 * qp2 * qp3 ) qz1 ) qz2 C7 + Figure 6. Error Amplifier Frequency Response 70 Ibias2 + 101 UNDER/OVERVOLTAGE DETECTORS -10 Angle (degrees) Magnitude Phase -180 10 6 Frequency (Hz) Figure 7. System Frequency Response http://onsemi.com 5 AND8119/D 40 TX Converter Input Impedance 30 R9 C9 20 10 0 -10 -20 LC Filter Output Impedance -30 Figure 9. RCD Snubber -40 102 (eq. 25) Switching regulators can be noisy! However, with careful layout, noise is reduced. A few things to remember are: 1. Keep switching elements and high current traces away from the controller and sensitive nodes. 2. Keep trace lengths to a minimum, especially important for high current paths and timing components. 3. Use wide traces for high current paths. 4. Place bypass capacitors close to the components. 5. Use a ground plane if possible or a single point ground system. The bias supply is built using a single layer FR4, board. The board size is 2.0 in x 3.5 in. The complete circuit schematic is shown in Figure 12 and an actual size picture of the board is shown in Figure 13. The Bill of Material is listed in Table 4. An L-C filter at the converter input is used to reduce EMI. The input L-C filter reduces noise and provides a solid input voltage to the converter. The filter is shown in Figure 10. Capacitor C10 is used for common mode noise reduction. L1 2.2 mH 2.2 C10 0.022 Figure 10. Input L-C Filter Schematic + 35-76V - Oscillation may occur if the converter input impedance, Zin, is lower than the LC filter output impedance[1]. The converter input impedance can be approximated as a negative resistor using Equation 26. Zin(dB * Ohm) [ - 20 log outǓ ǒVIout 1:2.78 MBRA160T3 2.2 2.2 0.022 (eq. 26) The converter closed loop input impedance is ultimately determined by the converter feedback loop as well as the open loop input impedance. However, a resistor is a good approximation and will be used for our analysis. Figure 11 shows the theoretical input filter output impedance and the approximated converter input impedance. 680p 499 22 NCP1030 GND VDRAIN VCC CT UV VFB OV COMP 2.2 0.01 45k3 34k 0.033 10k Figure 12. Complete Circuit Schematic http://onsemi.com 6 10 4k99 0.01 680p + 12V - MBRA160T3 1M 100 p C5 106 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS INPUT FILTER Vin 105 Figure 11. LC Filter Output Impedance and Approximated Converter Input Impedance The snubber components are not assembled in the converter. However, electrical connections are provided if the user wants to add the snubber components. + 104 FREQUENCY (Hz) The power dissipation of R9 is determined by C9 and is given by equation 25. P + 1 C9 Vin2 f 2 103 MURA110T3 D3 MAGNITUDE (dB) + Vin - 1k30 AND8119/D Figure 13. Demonstration Board (Actual Size) DESIGN VERIFICATION Table 4. Bill of Materials Ref Value Vendor Part Number C1 680 pF Vishay VJ0805A681JXA C2 0.033 mF Vishay VJ0805Y333KXXA C3 22 mF TDK C4532X5R1E226M C4 2.2 mF TDK C4532X7R1H225M C5 2.2 mF TDK C4532X7R2A225M C6 680 pF Vishay VJ0805A681JXA C7, C8 0.01 mF Vishay VJ0805Y103KXXAT C9 100 pF TDK C1608C0G2E101J C10 0.022 mF TDK C2012X7RE223K D1, D2 - ON Semiconductor MBRA160T3 D3 - ON Semiconductor MURA110T3 J1-J4 - Mill-Max Terminal L1 2.2 mH Vishay IMC-1210 R1 1 MW Vishay CRCW08051004F R2 45.3 kW Vishay CRCW08054532F R3 34 kW Vishay CRCW08053402F R4 4.99 kW Vishay CRCW08054991F R5 1.30 kW Vishay CRCW08051301F R6 10 W Vishay CRCW080510R0F R7 10 kW Vishay CRCW08051002F R8 0W Vishay CRCW0805000ZJ R9 499 W Vishay CRCW12104990F TX1 - Coilcraft B0226-E U1 - ON Semiconductor NCP1030DR2 The final step in our design includes validation and test of the bias supply. Before powering the supply, it should be inspected for potential problems. A few suggestions include: 1. Verify all connections. Check for shorts and opens, especially on the input and output terminals. 2. Verify component values. 3. Slowly increase the input voltage while monitoring the input current. If the input current exceeds 10 mA, repeat steps 1 to 3. 4. Once the input voltage reaches 25 V, measure the voltage on critical nodes. The NCP1030 start-up regulator should be ON. If the voltages are not correct, remove power and repeat steps 1 to 3. 5. Increase the input voltage to 36 V. Measure the output voltage. If it is not approximately 12 V, repeat steps 1 to 3. 6. Increase the input voltage above 80 V. The output should turn OFF. Please be careful when probing and testing the converter. High voltage may be present. Exercise CAUTION! Once the converter functionality is verified, the board performance is evaluated and compared to our original goals. The evaluation criteria includes: 1. Open loop frequency response. 2. Efficiency. 3. Line and load regulation. 4. Step load response. 5. Start-up response. The open loop response is measured injecting an AC signal across R6 using a network analyzer as shown in Figure 14. http://onsemi.com 7 AND8119/D Line and load regulation are Equations 27 and 28, respectively. D2 + To Converter CCC VCC DVout RegLINE + DVin - R6 To Error Amplifier RegLOAD + 1:1 Z1 calculated A (eq. 27) Vout(No Load) * Vout(Full Load) Vout(No Load) (eq. 28) Line regulation is measured below 0.5% and load regulation is measured below 8%. Figure 17 shows the output voltage variation to output current under several input voltage conditions. REF Rbias using Network Analyzer B 12.0 11.9 Figure 14. Open Loop Frequency Response Measurement Set-up Vout, Output Voltage (V) 11.8 11.7 The measured frequency response is shown in Figure 15. The crossover frequency is measured at 9 kHz. 11.6 11.5 50 Magnitude (dB) 30 11.3 Vin = 48V Vin = 76V 11.2 20 11.1 10 11.0 0 0 -10 75 100 125 150 175 102 103 104 105 106 Frequency (Hz) Iout, Output Current (20 mA/DIV) Figure 15. Open Loop Frequency Response Peak efficiency is measured at 83%. Figure 16 shows the efficiency vs. output current under several input voltage conditions. 90 Vout, Output Voltage (50 mV/DIV) 85 Vin = 36V Vin = 48V 75 Vin = 76V 70 Vin = 48 V Iout = 87 mA Vout = 11.6 V 50 ms/DIV 65 Figure 18. Output Voltage Response to a Step Load from 87 mA to 127 mA 60 0 200 The dynamic response of the converter is evaluated stepping the load current from 50% to 75% and from 75% to 50% of Iout(max). The step load transient responses are shown in Figures 18 and 19. -40 80 50 Figure 17. Output Voltage vs. Output Current -30 -50 25 Iout, OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) -20 h, Efficiency (%) Vin = 36V 11.4 Vin = 36 V Rout = 72 W 40 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Iout, OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) Figure 16. Efficiency vs Output Current http://onsemi.com 8 Finally, the converter turn ON response at full load is evaluated. Figure 21 shows the output turn ON transient response at full load. Vin = 48 V Iout = 127 mA Vout, Output Voltage (2.0 V/DIV) Vout, Output Voltage (50 mV/DIV) Iout, Output Current (20 mA/DIV) AND8119/D Vout = 11.45 V Iout = 170 mA DSS Operation OUTPUT2 OUTPUT1 (Isolated) 50 ms/DIV 0V Figure 19. Output Voltage Response to a Step Load from 127 mA to 87 mA 1.0 ms/DIV Output voltage ripple is measured at 25 mV for an output current of 170 mA. It is significantly below the 50 mV target. The output voltage ripple waveform is shown in Figure 20. Figure 21. Output Voltage During Turn ON at Full Load Output 2 operates in DSS while the converter is disabled. Once the converter is enabled, Output 1 tracks Output 2. Vout, Output Voltage (20 mV/DIV) Vin = 48 V SUMMARY Iout = 170 mA An isolated 12 V bias supply for a 48 V telecom system is implemented using the NCP1030. The converter achieves a peak efficiency of 83% while providing good transient response. REFERENCES 1. Ridley, Ray. “The Evolution of Power Electronics’’, Switching Power Magazine, Fall 2001:16-30. 2. Pressman, Abraham I. Switching Power Supply Design. 2nd ed. New York, NY: MacGraw Hill. Vout = 11.33 V 2.0 ms/DIV Figure 20. Output Voltage Ripple http://onsemi.com 9 AND8119/D ON Semiconductor and are registered trademarks of Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC (SCILLC). SCILLC reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. SCILLC makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does SCILLC assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation special, consequential or incidental damages. “Typical” parameters which may be provided in SCILLC data sheets and/or specifications can and do vary in different applications and actual performance may vary over time. All operating parameters, including “Typicals” must be validated for each customer application by customer’s technical experts. SCILLC does not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others. SCILLC products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the SCILLC product could create a situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use SCILLC products for any such unintended or unauthorized application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold SCILLC and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all claims, costs, damages, and expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that SCILLC was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. SCILLC is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. PUBLICATION ORDERING INFORMATION Literature Fulfillment: Literature Distribution Center for ON Semiconductor P.O. Box 5163, Denver, Colorado 80217 USA Phone: 303-675-2175 or 800-344-3860 Toll Free USA/Canada Fax: 303-675-2176 or 800-344-3867 Toll Free USA/Canada Email: [email protected] JAPAN: ON Semiconductor, Japan Customer Focus Center 2-9-1 Kamimeguro, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan 153-0051 Phone: 81-3-5773-3850 ON Semiconductor Website: http://onsemi.com For additional information, please contact your local Sales Representative. N. American Technical Support: 800-282-9855 Toll Free USA/Canada http://onsemi.com 10 AND8119/D

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