00001606A

AN1606
Using the Configurable Logic Cell (CLC) to Interface a
PIC16F1509 and WS2811 LED Driver
Author:
Driving an I/O pin in software could create this serial
protocol, but this creates two problems:
Joseph Julicher
Microchip Technology Inc.
1.
100% of the CPU is used for the entire duration
of the LED string update. (15.3 ms for 256 LEDs
at the low rate).
Very little time is allowed to decide the color for
the next LED.
INTRODUCTION
2.
The Configurable Logic Cell (CLC) peripheral in the
PIC16F1509 device is a powerful way to create custom
interfaces that would otherwise be very difficult. One
example is the single-wire PWM signal, used by the
WS2811 LEDs, well known in LED video display
systems. This application note will provide a simple
demonstration of a WS2811 LED Strip driver.
The ideal condition is to create a custom serial
communications peripheral to transmit entire bytes in
the correct format. For more information see the CLC
chapter in the PIC16F1509 data sheet, “20-Pin Flash,
8-Bit Microcontrollers with nanoWatt XLP Technology”
(DS41609).
The serial protocol used by the WS2811 has three
states. State 1 is a logical ‘0’, state 2 is a logical ‘1’ and
state 3 is a latch. The data is accepted and used to
drive the LED intensity. State 1 is a high output for 500
ns ± 150 ns, followed by 2000 ns ± 150 ns. State 2 is a
high output for 120 ns ± 150 ns, followed by a low
output for 130 ns ± 150 ns. State 3 is a low output for
more than 50 us. There is a fast mode that reduces all
of these times (except for state 3) by a factor of two, so
that more LEDs can be driven in the same period of
time.
FIGURE 1:
CUSTOM PERIPHERAL
The CLC connects to a variety of peripherals in the
PIC16F1509, including the MSSP. Because the MSSP
can shift out eight bits at a time, this is the perfect starting point for this new peripheral. Looking at the MSSP
output waveforms, Figure 1 illustrates the following:
STATE 2, LOGIC ‘1’ GENERATION
SCK
SDO
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
SCK & SDO
 2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS00001606A-page 1
AN1606
If SCK and SDO are simply combined with AND, then
the logic ‘1’ (state 2) is covered. In order to create the
shorter logic ‘0’ (state 1) pulse, another signal is
needed. If PWM is included as a short pulse generator,
the following signals are obtained (see Figure 2).
FIGURE 2:
STATE 1, LOGIC ‘0’ GENERATION
SCK
1
0
0
1
SDO
1
0
0
0
PWM
SCK & nSDO & PWM
When both logic ‘0’ and logic ‘1’ are obtained, they
need to be ‘ORed’ together to produce the desired
waveform (see Figure 3).
FIGURE 3:
LOGIC ‘0’ AND ‘1’ GENERATION
SCK
SDO
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
PWM
SCK & SDO
SCK & nSDO & PWM
(SCK & nSDO & PWM) (SCK & SDO)
Figure 3 appears to be the correct waveform, but there
is still one issue to be resolved. How can the PWM and
the MSSP be synchronized so that the rising edge of
the PWM pulse matches the start of a data bit? It turns
out the MSSP can be set to a baud rate of ½ the TMR2
period, and the PWM period can be one TMR2 period.
DS00001606A-page 2
 2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1606
Taking into consideration this new information, Figure 2
and Figure 3 above are incorrect. The new combined
waveform can be seen in Figure 4:
FIGURE 4:
FINAL WAVEFORMS
SCK
SDO
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
PWM
SCK & SDO
SCK & nSDO &
PWM
(SCK & nSDO & PWM) (SCK & SDO)
Note that the only difference is double the number of
PWM pulses, but none of them has any effect because
they occur while the SCK signal is low.
 2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS00001606A-page 3
AN1606
IMPLEMENTATION
To create the final configuration, the layout of the CLC
peripherals in PIC16F1509 has to be studied.
TABLE 1:
Data Input
CLCx DATA INPUT SELECTION
Icxd1
D1S
Icxd2 Icxd3 Icxd4
D1S D1S
D1S
CLC 1
CLC 2
CLC 3
CLC 4
CLC4IN0
CLCxIN0
000
—
—
100
CLC1IN0
CLC2IN0
CLC3IN0
CLCxIN1
001
—
—
101
CLC1IN1
CLC2IN1
CLC3IN1
CLC4IN1
—
110
SYNCC1OUT
SYNCC1OUT
SYNCC1OUT
SYNCC1OUT
SYNCC2OUT
SYNCC2OUT
SYNCC2OUT
SYNCC2OUT
CLCxIN2
010
—
CLCxIN3
011
—
—
111
CLCxIN4
100
000
—
—
FOSC
FOSC
FOSC
FOSC
CLCxIN5
101
001
—
—
TMR0IF
TMR0IF
TMR0IF
TMR0IF
CLCxIN6
110
010
—
—
TMR1IF
TMR1IF
TMR1IF
TMR1IF
CLCxIN7
111
011
—
—
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = PR2
CLCxIN8
—
100
000
—
Ic1_out
Ic1_out
Ic1_out
Ic1_out
CLCxIN9
—
101
001
—
Ic2_out
Ic2_out
Ic2_out
Ic2_out
CLCxIN10
—
110
010
—
Ic3_out
Ic3_out
Ic3_out
Ic3_out
CLCxIN11
—
111
011
—
Ic4_out
Ic4_out
Ic4_out
Ic4_out
CLCxIN12
—
—
100
000
NCO1OUT
LFINTOSC
TX (EUSART)
SCK (MSSP)
CLCxIN13
—
—
101
001
HFINTOSC
ADFRC
LFINTOSC
SDO (MSSP)
CLCxIN14
—
—
110
010
PWM3OUT
PWM1OUT
PWM2OUT
PWM1OUT
CLCxIN15
—
—
111
011
PWM4OUT
PWM2OUT
PWM3OUT
PWM4OUT
The MSSP outputs are both available in CLC4. Note
that PWM1 and PWM 4 are also on CLC4. However,
they are all in the same logic group and only two of the
four signals can be used in each group. The CLCs can
be combined using LCx_OUT signals in a different
logic group. The selection will be to combine
PWM1OUT in CLC2 and send it to CLC4 via LC2_OUT.
Therefore, the logic will be built in CLC4 as:
LC4_OUT = (SDO & SCK) || (!SDO & SCK &
LC2_OUT)
and the logic in CLC2 will be:
LC2_OUT = PWM1OUT
The final configuration requires that the TMR2 be
activated with the correct bit time:
Configuring SSP1CON1 to use the TMR2 Period/2 as
the clock results in:
SSP1CON1 = 0x23.
To allow the pin to output the signal, TRISC4 must be
cleared to 0.
CONCLUSION
The CLC easily allows multiple peripherals in the
PIC16F1509 to work together to produce a new
composite peripheral that is suitable for the user’s
application. With a dozen lines of code, the MSSP is
now a custom WS2811 driver. Please refer to the
Example A for more information.
T2CON = 0x04
PR2
= (bit time/2) * (FOSC/4)
If the slow bit time of 2.5 us and the 16 MHz internal
oscillator are run, then:
PR2 = 5.
The PWM duty cycle must be configured for the ‘0’
pulse width.
PWM1DCH = pr2/3.
The slow bit rate requires that the value be 2 for 16
MHz.
PWM1DCH = 2.
DS00001606A-page 4
 2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1606
APPENDIX A:
EXAMPLE 1:
SOURCE CODE
void WS2811_Init(void)
{
// Initialize PIC16(L)F1509 CLC2, CLC4, Timer2, and MSSP
// for WS2811 signal transmission protocol
// Loading SSP1BUF register sends that data byte out the RC4/CLC4 pin
// PWM1 routed straight through CLC2
CLC2GLS0
CLC2GLS1
CLC2GLS2
CLC2GLS3
CLC2SEL0
CLC2SEL1
CLC2POL
CLC2CON
//
//
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x20;
0x00;
0x00;
0x00;
0x00;
0x06;
0x0E;
0x82;
(SPI SDO & SPI CLK) || (nSPI SDO & SPI CLK & PWM1)
PWM1 comes through CLC2
CLC4GLS0
CLC4GLS1
CLC4GLS2
CLC4GLS3
CLC4SEL0
CLC4SEL1
CLC4POL
CLC4CON
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x44;
0x10;
0x80;
0x20;
0x50;
0x05;
0x01;
0xC0;
// Adjust Timer2 period for desired baud rate
// One bit period is two Timer2 periods
T2CON
PR2
= 0x04;
= 5;
// Adjust PWM1 duty cycle for desired "0" data-bit duty cycle
// ‘1’ data-bit duty cycle is automatically 50%
PWM1CON
PWM1DCH
PWM1DCL
= 0xE0;
= 2;
= 0;
// MSSP configured for SPI master with Timer2_Period/2 clock
SSP1CON1
= 0x23;
// Output on RC4/CLC4
TRISC
&= 0xEF;
}
 2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS00001606A-page 5
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
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•
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•
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•
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•
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ISBN: 9781620777671
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DS00001606A-page 6
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