DN149 - LTC1392 Monitors System Temperature and Multiple Supply Voltages and Currents

Monitor System Temperature and Multiple Supply Voltages
and Currents – Design Note 149
Kevin R. Hoskins and Alan Rich
Fault-tolerant systems ensure their users uninterrupted
service and prevent data loss through acquisition of
accurate supply voltage, load current and temperature
information. By comparing this information to predetermined operating profiles, the system decides if the
measured data is within nominal ranges or if a fault
condition is looming. If a fault condition is imminent,
the system takes corrective action before data is lost.
The measured data can also be used to establish preventative maintenance schedules. The system develops
stress profiles based on operating time and the measured
values of the different parameters. These profiles suggest
a need for increased preventative maintenance when the
measured values indicate high sustained peak operation
over a given time period or a relaxed schedule during
times of reduced activity.
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respective owners.
5V
5V LOAD
0.05Ω
3
11.3k
2
+
0.01μF
8
U1
1/2 LT1366
–
6
4
102k
3.3V
3.3V LOAD
0.05Ω
5
11.3k
6
+
U1
1/2 LT1366
7
5V
0.1μF
U3
LTC1391
–
102k
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
34k
11.5k
12V
16.5k
5V
22.1k
2
1.65k
3
5V
AIR FLOW
SENSOR
1k*
–
0.01μF
8
+
0.1μF
U3
LTC1391
4
17.8k
5
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
5V
237k
6
V+
OUT
V–
DOUT
DIN
CS
CLK
GND
U2
1/2 LT1413
– 12V
68.1Ω
IN0
IN1
IN2
IN3
IN4
IN5
IN6
IN7
–
U2
1/2 LT1413
7
+
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
IN0
IN1
IN2
IN3
IN4
IN5
IN6
IN7
V+
OUT
V–
DOUT
DIN
CS
CLK
GND
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
5V
1μF
U3
LTC1392
8
VCC
6
+VIN
7
–VIN
5
GND
1
DIN
2
DOUT
3
CLK
4
CS
DATA IN
CHIP SELECT
CLOCK
DATA OUT
107k
–5V
*KEYSTONE: RL1007-624K-73-D1
DIGIKEY: KC003N-ND
DN149 F01
Figure 1. The LTC1392, with the Help of a Few Friends, Helps Prevent Data Loss and Down Time
by Providing Feedback as it Monitors a Fault-Tolerant Computer System
03/97/149_conv
The circuit shown in Figure 1 monitors the multiple
supply voltages, supply currents and temperatures of
a fault-tolerant system. The heart of the circuit is the
LTC®1392. This 8-pin system monitor looks at supply
voltage, load current and temperature. It operates on
a single 5V (typ) supply and draws a nominal 350μA
while converting or just 0.2μA when idle. It includes
an onboard temperature sensor, differential sampleand-hold, bandgap reference and a 10-bit ADC. The
LTC1392 communicates with a host system through
a serial interface.
Multitude of Measurements
As configured, the circuit in Figure 1 monitors a system’s
3.3V, ±5V and ±12V supply voltages. It also captures
the 3.3V and 5V supplies’ output current magnitude.
Lastly, it acquires two temperatures: ambient from
the LTC1392’s built-in sensor and a remote from an
external sensor.
The monitoring circuit selects the current, voltage
and temperature signals using two LTC1391 serially
programmed multiplexers. Multiple LTC1391s are programmed either by daisy-chaining a device’s serial data
output pin (DOUT) to the data input pin (DIN) of the next
device or by connecting together the data input pins of
each part. Daisy-chaining multiple LTC1391s works best
for applications that require unique channel selection on
each MUX or need simultaneous selection of different
channel combinations across multiple MUXs. This latter connection allows an ADC with differential inputs to
convert the difference between different combinations
of signals.
Figure 1’s circuit shows the connection that selects
the same channel on each LTC1391. This connection
simplifies the software because only one channel selection data byte is created and applied to each MUX
simultaneously. By pairing the same channel on each
LTC1391, the circuit converts signals that are either
across the current sense resistors or ground referred.
The signals across the current sense resistors are applied to the LTC1392’s differential input by selecting the
same channel of each LTC1391. Ground-referred signals
are applied to one LTC1391 while the corresponding
channel on the other LTC1391 is grounded.
The current sensing resistors in the 5V and 3.3V supply
outputs are kept small, minimizing their voltage drop
and dissipation. A dual LT®1366 op amp amplifies the
small drop across the sense resistors by a gain of 10.
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The amplifiers’ outputs are selected with the LTC1391
multiplexer and applied to the LTC1392’s input. The
LTC1392’s inputs have a common mode input range
that includes ground and the voltage applied to the VCC
pin. For the 0.05Ω series resistor value shown, the fullscale current range is 2A, with a resolution of 19.5mA.
The LTC1392 measures the 5V supply voltage through
the on-chip VCC supply line with an accuracy of ±39mV
over a –40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C range. This accuracy is guaranteed over a supply voltage monitor range of 4.5V to 6V.
The 3.3V, –5V and ±12V are scaled and measured using
the LTC1392’s 1V input range. The chosen scaling factor
allows for as much as 20% supply output fluctuation
without exceeding the ADC’s full-scale input range.
The application circuit measures ambient temperature
and cooling air flow using two different temperature
sensors. One of the temperature sensors is built into
the LTC1392 system monitor and measures ambient
temperature. The monitor’s small, SO-8 size makes it
unobtrusive and easily placed in tight quarters. It communicates with a host system using a serial interface
that requires just three connections. Together, the small
size and minimum interface allow remote placement. The
LTC1392 is specified over a –40°C to 85°C temperature
range with 0.25°C/count. The output code varies from
zero at –130°C to full scale at 125°C.
The second temperature sensor, a NTC 1kΩ thermistor, and a 68.1Ω series resistor were chosen to induce
self-heating in the thermistor. The thermistor is placed
in a cooling fan’s air stream and helps the host system, using the “wind-chill” effect, determine the fan’s
performance. As air moves across the thermistor, it is
cooled, increasing both its resistance and voltage drop.
At the same time, the voltage drop across the 68.1Ω
resistor decreases and is measured by the LTC1392.
Low data values indicate that the thermistor is cooled
by a properly working fan. Degradation in the fan’s
performance (caused by a clogged air filter, blocked
air flow, a coffee cup or an LTC databook sitting on the
air inlet) reduces cooling, which, in turn, decreases the
thermistor’s resistance. As this occurs, the voltage drop
across the 68.1Ω resistor increases, with a corresponding increase in LTC1392 output code. The 68.1Ω resistor
also sets the LTC1392’s maximum input voltage of 1V
to correspond to approximately 50°C. Because of many
possible variations in the mechanical and physical layout
of different systems, the thermistor and series resistor
values may require custom selection.
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900
dn149f_conv LT/GP 0397 185K • PRINTED IN THE USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
© LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 1997
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