A1232 Datasheet

A1232
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed and Direction Sensor with TPOS
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
• AEC Q100 automotive qualified
• Senses speed and direction of ring magnets
□□ Two matched bipolar Hall-effect switches on a single
substrate
□□ True Power-On State (TPOS): Recognizes hysteresis
region at power-on
• Superior temperature stability
• Internal regulator for 3.3 to 24 V operation
• Symmetrical, high-sensitivity switchpoints
• Automotive grade
□□ Solid-state reliability
□□ Integrated ESD diodes
□□ Robust structures for EMC protection
□□ Short-circuit protected outputs
□□ Reverse battery protection
□□ –40°C to +150°C operating range
Package: 8-pin TSSOP (suffix LE)
DESCRIPTION
The A1232 is a highly sensitive, temperature-stable magnetic
sensing device ideal for use in ring-magnet-based speed
and direction systems in harsh automotive and industrial
environments. It contains two bipolar, Hall-effect switches
precisely arranged 1.63 mm apart. The switch outputs are thus
in quadrature when interfaced with the proper ring magnet
design. Internal logic processes the resulting digital signals to
derive speed and direction information that is presented at the
device’s outputs, OUTPUT A and OUTPUT B.
The A1232 is designed for demanding, high-performance
motor commutation applications. The Hall elements are
photolithographically aligned to better than 1 μm. Accurately
locating the two Hall elements eliminates a major manufacturing
hurdle encountered in fine-pitch applications. The A1232 also
has true power-on state (TPOS), the ability to detect when
it is in the hysteresis band, beyond BOP , or below BRP at
power-on. This provides reduced angle accuracy error due to
missed start-up edges.
Post-assembly factory programming at Allegro provides
sensitive, symmetrical switchpoints for both switches.
Extremely low-drift amplifiers maintain this symmetry. The
Allegro® patented, high-frequency chopper stabilization
technique cancels offsets in each channel and allows for
increased signal-to-noise ratio at the input of the internal
comparators. This leads to stable operation across the
Not to scale
Continued on next page...
VCC
Programmable
Trim
LDO Regulator
GND
4 Bit
2 Bit
Channel A
Hall
Element
E1
Dynamic Offset
Cancellation
Hall
Amp.
LowPass
Filter
Low Noise Signal
Recovery
Dynamic Offset
Cancellation
Hall
Amp.
LowPass
Filter
Low Noise Signal
Recovery
Functional Block Diagram
A1232-DS, Rev. 1
OUTPUT A
(Speed)
Output Drive and
Direction Logic
OUTPUT B
(Direction)
2 Bit
Channel B
Hall
Element
E2
Output Drive and
High Resolution
Speed Logic
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Description (continued)
operating temperature and voltage ranges and industry leading jitter
performance.
An on-chip regulator provides a wide operating voltage range. The
A1232 is packaged in a plastic 8-pin surface mount TSSOP (LE). This
gull-wing style package is optimized for the extended temperature
range of –40°C to 150°C. It is lead (Pb) free and RoHS-compliant,
with a 100% matte-tin-plated leadframe.
Selection Guide
Part Number
Packing*
Mounting
Ambient (TA)
A1232LLETR-T
4000 units per reel
8-Pin TSSOP Surface Mount
–40ºC to 150ºC
RoHS
COMPLIANT
*Contact Allegro™ for additional packing options.
Table of Contents
Specifications3
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Pin-Out Diagram and Terminal List Table
Thermal Characteristics
Common Electrical Characteristics
Electrical Operating Characteristics
Magnetic Operating Characteristics
Magnetic Truth Table
Functional Desription
3
3
4
5
7
8
11
12
Typical Applications Operation
Power-On Sequence Timing
True Power-On State (TPOS)
Target Design and Selection
Operation with Fine-Pitch Ring Magnets
Chopper-Stabilized Technique
Regulated Supply
Unregulated Supply
Power Derating
Package Outline Drawing
12
14
14
15
16
17
18
18
20
21
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
SPECIFICATIONS
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Characteristic
Symbol
Notes
Rating
Unit
Forward Supply Voltage
VCC
26.5
V
Reverse Supply Voltage
VRCC
–18
V
VOUT(OFF)
VCC
V
IOUT
Internally Limited
–
Output Off Voltage
Output Sink Current
Magnetic Flux Density
B
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
Maximum Junction Temperature
TJ(max)
165
ºC
Tstg
–65 to 170
ºC
Storage Temperature
Range L
Unlimited
–
–40 to 150
ºC
Pin-Out Diagram and Terminal List Table
1
8
2
7
3
6
4
5
Package LE, 8-Pin TSSOP Pin-out Diagram
Terminal List Table
Name
Number
3
VCC
Function
4
OUTPUT B
Start-up Mode: Output from E2 via first Schmitt circuit
Running Mode: Direction
5
OUTPUT A
Start-up Mode: Output from E1 via second Schmitt circuit
Running Mode: High-Resolution Speed
6
GND
1, 2, 7, 8
NC
Connects power supply to chip
Terminal for ground connection
No connections
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS: may require derating at maximum conditions; see Power Derating section.
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance
Symbol
Test Conditions1
RθJA
On 4-layer PCB based on JEDEC standard JESD51-7
Value
Units
145
ºC/W
Power Dissipation versus Ambient Temperature
1000
Power Dissipation, PD(mW)
900
800
Package LE, 4-Layer PCB
(RJA = 145ºC/W)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Temperature (ºC)
Maximum Allowable VCC (V)
Power Derating Curve
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
VCC(max)
Package LE, 4-Layer PCB
(RJA = 145ºC/W)
VCC(min)
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Temperature (ºC)
1
Additional thermal information is available on the Allegro® web site, www.AllegroMicro.com
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS: valid over full operating temperature range unless otherwise noted; typical
data applies to VCC = 12 V and TA = 25°C; see typical application circuits
Characteristic
Electrical Characteristics2
Symbol
Test Conditions
Supply Voltage3
VCC
Operating: TA ≤ 150ºC
Output Leakage Current
IOFF
Either output
Supply Current
ICC
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
3.3
–
24
V
–
<1
10
µA
2.5
3.7
6.0
mA
185
500
mV
Low Output Voltage
VOUT(ON)
IOUT = 20 mA
B > BOP(A), B > BOP(B)
–
Middle Output Voltage4
VOUT(MID)
BRP < B < BOP, VPULL-UP = 12 V, RLOAD = 12 kΩ
–
6
–
V
Output Sink Current, Middle
IOUT(MID)
BRP < B < BOP, VPULL-UP = 12 V, RLOAD = 12 kΩ
–
0.5
–
mA
VCC = 12 V
30
–
70
mA
–
750
–
kHz
Output Sink Current Limit
IOM
Chopping Frequency
fC
Output Rise Time5
tr
CS = 20 pF, RLOAD = 820 Ω
–
1.8
–
µs
Output Fall Time5
tr
CS = 20 pF, RLOAD = 820 Ω
–
1.2
–
µs
50
65
µs
Power-On
Time6
tON
–
t < tON
Power-On State7
POS
t ≥ tON
B=0G
VOUT(OFF)
–
BRP < B < BOP
VOUT(MID)
–
B > BOP
VOUT(ON)
–
B < BRP
VOUT(OFF)
–
Transient Protection Characteristics
Supply Zener Clamp Voltages
Supply Zener
Current8
Reverse Supply Current
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
VZ
ICC = 9 mA, TA = 25ºC
IZ
VS = 28 V
VRCC = –18 V, TJ < TJ(max)
IRCC
28
46
–
V
–
–
9.0
mA
–
2
15
mA
Output related specifications listed in the characteristic column are applicable to each output transistor unless otherwise noted.
Maximum voltage operation must not exceed maximum junction temperature. Refer to power de-rating curves.
VOUT(MID) and IOUT(MID) specified typical values are found when connected as shown in Figure 10 and Figure 11. This information is only guaranteed available before the
first magnetic field transition has occurred and after the power-on time has occurred. The output state transition from the t < tON POS and the t > tON POS is not considered
the first magnetic field transition. See Figure 1 and the Magnetic Truth Table for power-on behavior.
CS = oscilloscope probe capacitance
Power-On Time is the duration from when VCC rises above VCC(MIN) until both outputs have attained valid states.
POS for both outputs is undefined for VCC < VCC(MIN). Use of a VCC slew rate greater than 25 mV/µs is recommended.
Maximum specification limit is equivalent to ICC(MAX) + 3 mA.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS: valid over full operating temperature range unless otherwise noted; typical data
applies to VCC = 12 V and TA = 25°C; see typical application circuits
Characteristic
Magnetic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Operate Point: B > BOP
BOP(A),
BOP(B)
–
10
30
G
Release Point: B < BRP
BRP(A),
BRP(B)
–30
–10
–
G
Hysteresis:
BOP(A) - BRP(A), BOP(B) - BRP(B)
BHYS(A),
BHYS(B)
5
20
35
G
Symmetry: Ch A, Ch B
BOP(A) + BRP(A), BOP(B) + BRP(B)
SYMA,
SYMB
–35
–
35
G
Operate Symmetry:
BOP(A) – BOP(B)
SYMAB(OP)
–25
–
25
G
Release Symmetry:
BRP(A) – BRP(B)
SYMAB(RP)
–25
–
25
G
9
10
9
Characteristics10
1G (gauss) = 0.1 mT (millitesla)
Magnetic flux density, B, is indicated as a negative value for north-polarity magnetic fields, and as a positive value for south-polarity magnetic fields. The algebraic convention used here supports arithmetic comparison of north and south polarity values, where the relative strength of the field is indicated by the absolute value of B, and the sign
indicates the polarity of the field (for example, a –100 G field and a 100 G field have equivalent strength, but opposite polarity).
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
ELECTRICAL OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
Average Supply Current versus Supply Voltage
Average Supply Current versus Ambient Temperature
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.0
5.5
-40
4.5
25
ICC (mA)
TA (ºC)
150
4.0
VCC (V)
5.0
3.3
4.5
12
24
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5
2
6
10
14
18
22
26
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
VCC (V)
Average Low Output Voltage versus Ambient Temperature for IOUT = 20 mA
500
450
400
VCC (V)
350
VOUT(ON) (mV)
ICC (mA)
5.5
5.0
3.3
300
250
12
200
24
150
100
50
0
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS
Channel A: Average Operate & Release Points versus Ambient Temperature
Channel A: Average Operate & Release Points versus Supply Voltage
30
30
VCC (V)
TA (ºC)
20
BOP
-40
10
25
0
150
BRP
-40
-10
BOP & BRP (G)
BOP & BRP (G)
20
3.5
12
0
24
BRP
3.5
-10
25
-20
BOP
10
12
-20
150
24
-30
-30
2
6
10
14
18
22
-60
26
-40
-20
0
20
VCC (V)
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Channel B: Average Operate & Release Points versus Ambient Temperature
Channel B: Average Operate & Release Points versus Supply Voltage
30
30
VCC (V)
TA (ºC)
20
BOP
-40
10
25
0
150
BRP
-40
-10
BOP & BRP (G)
BOP & BRP (G)
20
3.5
12
0
24
BRP
3.5
-10
25
-20
BOP
10
12
-20
150
24
-30
-30
2
6
10
14
18
22
-60
26
-40
-20
0
20
VCC (V)
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Channel A & B: Average Switchpoint Hysteresis versus Supply Voltage
Channel A & B: Average Switchpoint Hysteresis versus Ambient Temperature
35
35
TA (ºC)
30
VCC (V)
30
25
Ch. A
-40
25
20
150
15
Ch. B
-40
10
BHYS(A) & BHYS(B) (G)
BHYS(A) & BHYS(B) (G)
Ch. A
25
3.5
12
20
24
15
Ch. B
3.5
10
25
12
5
5
150
24
0
0
2
6
10
14
18
VCC (V)
22
26
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Additional Magnetic Characteristics on next page.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Continued from previous page.
Average Operate Point Symmetry versus Supply Voltage
Average Operate Point Symmetry versus Ambient Temperature
25
25
20
20
15
TA (ºC)
10
-40
5
0
25
-5
150
SYMAB(OP) (G)
SYMAB(OP) (G)
15
3.3
5
0
12
-5
24
-10
-10
-15
-15
-20
-20
-25
VCC (V)
10
-25
2
6
10
14
18
22
26
-60
-40
-20
0
20
VCC (V)
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Average Release Point Symmetry versus Supply Voltage
Average Release Point Symmetry versus Ambient Temperature
25
25
20
20
15
15
TA (ºC)
10
-40
5
0
25
-5
150
SYMAB(RP) (G)
SYMAB(RP) (G)
40
3.3
5
0
12
-5
24
-10
-10
-15
-15
-20
-20
-25
VCC (V)
10
-25
2
6
10
14
18
VCC (V)
22
26
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Additional Magnetic Characteristics on next page.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
9
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Continued from previous page.
Channel A Symmetry versus Supply Voltage
Channel A Symmetry versus Ambient Temperature
35
35
28
28
21
21
TA (ºC)
7
VCC (V)
14
-40
0
25
-7
150
SYMA (G)
SYMA (G)
14
0
12
-7
24
-14
-14
-21
-21
-28
-28
-35
3.3
7
-35
2
6
10
14
18
22
26
-60
-40
-20
0
20
VCC (V)
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Channel B Symmetry versus Supply Voltage
Channel B Symmetry versus Ambient Temperature
35
35
28
28
21
21
TA (ºC)
7
0
25
-7
150
3.3
7
0
12
-7
24
-14
-14
-21
-21
-28
-28
-35
VCC (V)
14
-40
SYMB (G)
14
SYMB (G)
40
-35
2
6
10
14
VCC (V)
18
22
26
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
TA (ºC)
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
10
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Magnetic Truth Table
Conditions
Magnetic Field BE1 at Hall Element E1
Magnetic Field BE2 at hall Element E2
OUTA
OUTB
t < tON
–
–
X
X
t > tON
Power-On Time
has occurred and fields BE1
and BE2 have not yet each
transitioned
t > tON
&
BE1 and BE2 have already
each transitioned at least
one time
BE1 < BRP(A)
BE2 < BRP(B)
H
H
BE1 < BRP(A)
BRP(B) < BE2 < BOP(B)
H
M
BE1 < BRP(A)
BE2 > BOP(B)
H
L
BRP(A) < BE1 < BOP(A)
BE2 < BRP(B)
M
H
BRP(A) < BE1 < BOP(A)
BRP(B) < BE2 < BOP(B)
M
M
BRP(A) < BE1 < BOP(A)
BE2 > BOP(B)
M
L
BE1 > BOP(A)
BE2 < BRP(B)
L
H
BE1 > BOP(A)
BRP(B) < BE2 < BOP(B)
L
M
BE1 > BOP(A)
BE2 > BOP(B)
L
L
Any
Any
SPD
DIR
Key
L
=
VOUT(ON), Low
M
=
VOUT(MID), Middle
H
=
VOUT(OFF), High
SPD
=
High-Resolution Speed
DIR
=
Direction
X
=
Output Not Defined
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
11
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Typical Applications Operation
Z
o
ti
n
N
2 (D
E B
to t
1 pu
E ut
O
ir
1 (D
E B
to t
2 pu
E ut
O
S
ec
)
=
ir
O
As shown in Figure 1, the bipolar Hall-effect switches in the
A1232 turn on when a south-polarity magnetic field perpendicular to the Hall element exceeds the operate point threshold (BOP);
the switches turn off when a north-polarity magnetic field of sufficient strength exceeds the release point (BRP) The difference in
the magnetic operate and release points is the hysteresis (BHYS)
of the device.
n
ec
(L
o
n
o
ti
)
w
)
=
O
ff
(H
)
N
h
ig
BHYS = BOP - BRP
S
2
Switch to High
VOUTPUT
BRP
BOP
0
B
C
Figure 2: A1232 Sensor and Relationship to Target
VOUT(ON)
B-
P
1
Switch to Low
VOUT(OFF)
1
E
V+
E
8
This built-in hysteresis allows clean switching of the output even
in the presence of external mechanical vibration and electrical
noise.
B+
BHYS
Figure 1: Output Voltage in Relation to Magnetic Flux
Density Received
The Hall-effect sensing elements are precisely located 1.63
mm apart across the width of the package (see Figure 2: A1232
Sensors and Relationship to Target). When used with a properly
designed ring magnet, the outputs of the two switches will be in
quadrature, or 90 degrees out of phase. The relationship of the
various signals and the typical system timing is shown in Figure
3: Typical System Timing.
During operation (Run Mode), the output of the internal switches
is encoded into a pair of signals representing the speed and
direction of the target (see Functional Block Diagram on page 1).
These signals appear at the OUTPUT A (speed) and OUTPUT B
(direction) pins.
OUTPUT B (direction) is a logic signal indicating the direction
of rotation (assuming a ring magnet target). It is defined as off
(high) for targets moving in the direction from E1 to E2 and on
(low) for the direction E2 to E1. For instances when the rotation
direction of the target changes, OUTPUT B changes state and
then the speed output (OUTPUT A) resumes after a short delay
(td, approximately 3 to 5 µs). OUTPUT B (direction) is always
updated before OUTPUT A (speed) and is updated at each Hall
element’s switching transition. This sequencing and built-in delay
allow the tracking of target speed or position with an external
counter without the loss of pulses.
OUTPUT A (speed) is a logic output representing the combined
(XOR’ed) outputs of the two Hall-effect switches. This produces
a digital output edge at each switch’s transition beyond BOP and
BRP. It will change state as the magnetic poles pass across the
device at a rate given by Equation A and with a period given by
Equation B:
fOUTPUTA (Hz) =
V×
×2
60 seconds
TOUTPUTA (s) =
1
fOUTPUTA
(A)
(B)
Example for ω = 2 and V = 60 rpm (based on target depicted in
Figure 3):
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
12
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
fOUTPUTA (Hz) =
60 × 2
× 2 = 4 Hz
60 seconds
TOUTPUTA (s) =
1
4 Hz
• f = Cycles per Second (Hz)
• T = Time Duration of One Mechanical Period (s)
Immediately after turn-on, the device will be in a special True
Power-On State (TPOS) mode. This mode allows the device to
detect and indicate that one or both of the switches is in the hysteresis region, i.e., that the applied field is between BOP and BRP.
=250 ms
Key:
• V = Axle Shaft Speed (rpm)
• ω = Number of North and South Pole-Pairs per Axle
Mechanical Revolution
Ring magnet starts rotating
Magnetic Field at
Hall Element E1
(pin 1 side)
Pin 1 to 8
Magnetic Field at
Hall Element E2
(pin 8 side)
D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
BOP(E1)
BRP(E1)
Pin 8 to 1
BOP(E2)
C
h
a
n
g
e
Internal
Channel A
BRP(E2)
Internal
Stage
Internal
Channel B
td
V = VOUT(ON)
DIRECTION
OUTPUT B
V = VOUT(OFF)
Output
Stage
XOR SPEED
OUTPUT A
V = VOUT(MID)
tON
POS
time +
Second Hall Transition
First Hall Transition
tON expires (typ. 50 µs)
Power ON
Figure 3: Typical System Timing
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
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13
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
Power-On Sequence and Timing
The states of OUTPUT A and OUTPUT B are only valid when
the supply voltage is within the specified operating range
(VCC(min) ≤ VCC ≤ VCC(max)) and the power-on time has elapsed
( t > tON). Refer to Figure 4: Power-On Sequence and Timing for
an illustration of the power-on sequence.
True Power-On State (TPOS)
V
B < BRP
VOUT(MID)
Output Undefined for
VCC < VCC(MIN)
VOUT(ON)
VOUT(MID)
VCC
VOUT(ON)
B-
BOP
time
V
VOUT(OFF)
BRP < B < BOP
B > BOP
0
V+
BRP
VOUT(OFF)
vs. Applied Field. Dynamic current limiting circuitry holds the
output sink current at IOUT(MID), creating an output state known
as VOUT(MID).
VOUTPUT
A1232
B+
BHYS
VCC(MIN)
Figure 5: Power-On State vs. Applied Field
The output voltage corresponding to VOUT(MID) is given by:
0
time
tON
Figure 4: Power-on Sequence and Timing
Immediately after power-on (Figure 4, after tON has elapsed),
OUTPUT A and OUTPUT B will follow the state of the corresponding switches rather than the outputs of the speed and direction logic. This mode allows the device to detect and indicate that
one or both of the switches is in the hysteresis region (i.e., that
the applied field is between BOP and BRP). Additionally while in
TPOS mode, the outputs will report if the corresponding switch
is beyond BOP or below BRP. These output states, VOUT(ON) for B
> BOP and VOUT(OFF) for B < BRP, reflect the output polarity and
level corresponding to the target feature (magnet pole) nearest the
switch.
In Run Mode, the outputs will be driven only either high or low,
that is, to VOUT(OFF) or VOUT(ON), as the A1232 indicates the
movement of the target. (The precise voltage levels are dictated
by the load circuit and pull-up voltage on each output.) While the
A1232 is in TPOS mode and either or both of the sensors are in
their hysteresis range (BOP < B < BRP), a third state is present on
the corresponding output as shown in Figure 5: Power-On State
VOUT(MID) = VOUT(OFF) - [IOUT(MID) × RLOAD]
By choosing the correct load resistor, RLOAD, this middle output
state can be made equal to half of the pull-up voltage. This is the
case when using the typical application circuits shown in Figures
10 and 11. See the Circuit Analysis Example table following the
typical application circuits for more details. The host must be
able to detect this middle state in order to make use of the TPOS
information.
After exiting TPOS mode, only the standard low (VOUT(ON)) and
high (VOUT(OFF)) output states are produced to indicate target
speed and direction. Both outputs exit TPOS mode together, and
only after each switch has detected a magnetic field transition
from their power-on state (that is, beyond BOP or BRP). Internal
comparators prevent the outputs from entering the IOUT(MID) state
if it was not activated at the moment of power-on. Once having
exited TPOS mode, the outputs will not re-enter TPOS mode as
long as power is maintained.
NOTE:
The states of OUTPUT A and OUTPUT B are only valid
when the supply voltage is within the specified operating range and the power-on time has elapsed. See
Power-on Sequence and Timing for details.
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14
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Target Design/Selection
40
For optimal performance, the device should be actuated by a
ring magnet that presents to the front of the device fields with a
pole pitch two times the Hall element-to-element spacing of 1.63
mm. The period (T) is then equal to twice the pole pitch (P), as
depicted by Figure 6 and Equation C. This will produce a sinusoidal magnetic field whose period corresponds to four times the
element-to-element spacing:
For P = 2 × 1.63 mm = 3.26 mm
(C)
T = 2 × 3.26 mm = 6.52 mm
Direction of Rotation
S
N
S
Branded Face
of Package
N
S
Ring
Magnet
Air Gap
E2
A1232
E1
Pin 1
Pin 8
Element Pitch
Figure 6a: Device Orientation to Target
Flux Density, B (G)
For the direction signal to be correct, the switch points of the Hall
elements must be adequately matched and a quadrature relationship must be maintained between the target’s magnetic poles and
the spacing of the two Hall elements (E1 and E2). A quadrature
relationship produces Hall switch phase separation of 90°.
BOP(MAX) (S)
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
0
N
S
N
S
Ring
Magnet
Target
+B
-B
Element Pitch
Target
Magnetic
Profile
Figure 6b: Mechanical Position
(Target moves past device pin 1 to pin 8)
Figure 6: Target Profiling During Operation
+
Time
Figure 7a: Example of Ring Target Magnetic Profile
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
Direction of Rotation
S
BRP(MIN) (N)
-40
Peak-to-Peak Flux Density, BPK-PK (G)
Internal logic circuitry produces outputs representing the speed
(OUTPUT A) and direction (OUTPUT B) of the magnetic field
passing across the face of the package. The response of the device
to the magnetic field produced by a rotating ring magnet is shown
in Figure 3. (Note the phase shift between the two integrated Hall
elements.)
+
Air Gap
Figure 7b: Example of Ring Magnetic Flux Density Peak-to-Peak vs.
Air Gap
Figure 7: Example of Target Magnetic Field Profile
The A1232 requires a minimum magnetic field input to guarantee
switching, as described in Equation D:
BPK-PK = BOP(MAX) + |BRP(MIN)|,(D)
BPK-PK = 30 G + 30 G = 60 G
Based on the maximum operate point (BOP(MAX)) and the miniAllegro MicroSystems, LLC
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Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
mum release point (BRP(MIN)), it is recommended to ensure the
target’s magnetic input signal remains above 60 G peak-to-peak
when centered about 0 G. If the system has a magnetic offset
component present, field values BOP and BRP must be exceeded
to continue switching. Thus for optimal performance it is recommended to interface the sensor with an alternating bipolar
magnetic field profile that continuously exceeds BOP(MAX) and
BRP(MIN).
As depicted in Figure 7, the sinusoidal profile created by the
alternating north and south poles of a rotating ring magnet
decreases in magnitude as the air gap is increased. The minimum
Normal Coplanar Alignment
peak-to-peak flux density must be accounted for in system air gap
tolerances.
Operation with Fine-Pitch Ring Magnets
For targets with a circular pitch of less than 4 mm, a performance
improvement can be observed by rotating the front face of the
device (refer to Figure 8). This rotation decreases the effective
Hall element-to-element spacing (D), provided that the Hall elements are not rotated beyond the width of the target.
Rotated Alignment
D
D cos α
Target Profile of Rotation
S
N
E1
S
E1
E2
E2
α
Target Face Width (F)
F < D sin a
Target Circular Pitch (P)
Figure 8: Operation with Fine-Pitch Ring Magnets
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Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Chopper Stabilization Technique
A limiting factor for switch point accuracy when using Halleffect technology is the small signal voltage developed across
the Hall plate. This voltage is proportionally small relative to the
offset that can be produced at the output of the Hall sensor. This
makes it difficult to process the signal and maintain an accurate,
reliable output over the specified temperature and voltage range.
Chopper Stabilization is a proven approach used to minimize Hall
offset.
The Allegro patented technique, dynamic quadrature offset
cancellation, removes key sources of the output drift induced by
temperature and package stress. This offset reduction technique
is based on a signal modulation-demodulation process. Figure
9: Example of Chopper Stabilization Circuit (Dynamic Offset
Cancellation) illustrates how it is implemented.
The undesired offset signal is separated from the magnetically
induced signal in the frequency domain through modulation.
The subsequent demodulation acts as a modulation process for
the offset causing the magnetically induced signal to recover its
original spectrum at baseband while the dc offset becomes a high
frequency signal. Then, using a low-pass filter, the signal passes
while the modulated DC offset is suppressed.
Allegro’s innovative chopper-stabilization technique uses a high
frequency clock. The high-frequency operation allows a greater
sampling rate that produces higher accuracy, reduced jitter, and
faster signal processing. Additionally, filtering is more effective
and results in a lower noise analog signal at the sensor output.
Devices such as the A1232 that utilize this approach have an
extremely stable quiescent Hall output voltage, are immune to
thermal stress, and have precise recoverability after temperature
cycling. This technique is made possible through the use of a
BiCMOS process which allows the use of low offset and low
noise amplifiers in combination with high-density logic and
sample and hold circuits.
Regulator
Amp
Sample
and
Hold
LowPass
Filter
Figure 9: Example of Chopper Stabilization Circuit (Dynamic Offset Cancellation)
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Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Regulated Supply
VOUTPUT A
This device requires minimal protection circuitry for operation
from a regulated power supply. The on-chip voltage regulator
provides immunity to power supply variations between 3.3 V and
18 V. Because the device has open-drain outputs, pull-up resistors
must be used. If protection against coupled and injected noise is
required, then a simple bypass capacitor filter is recommended.
Refer to the circuit in Figure 10 for an example.
VOUTPUT B
RLOAD =
12 k
4
OUTPUT B
RLOAD =
12 k
VSUPPLY
3
Unregulated Supply
A1232
OUTPUT A
VCC
5
+
100 nF
In applications where the A1232 receives its power from an
unregulated source such as a car battery, additional measures may
be required to protect it against supply-side transients. Specifications for such transients will vary so protection-circuit design
should be optimized for each application. For example, the circuit
shown in Figure 11 includes an optional Zener diode that offers
additional high voltage load-dump protection and noise filtering
by means of a series resistor and capacitor. In addition to this, an
optional series diode is included, and this protects against highvoltage reverse battery conditions beyond the capability of the
built-in reverse-battery protection.
GND
6
Figure 10: Typical Application Circuit for Regulated
Power Supply
VOUTPUT A
VOUTPUT B
+
COUT =
4.7 nF
RLOAD =
12 k
+ COUT =
4.7 nF
4
OUTPUT B
RLOAD =
12 k
100 VSUPPLY
3
A1232
VCC
OUTPUT A
5
A
+
A
100 nF
GND
6
A Diodes are optional for systems not
exceeding VZ and VRCC depending on
Conducted Immunity requirements.
Figure 11: Typical Application Circuit for Unregulated Power Supply
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Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
VSUPPLY
+
3
A1232
To All
Subcircuits
VPULL-UP(A)
VPULL-UP(B)
+
+
RLOAD(A)
5
RLOAD(B)
4
IOUTPUT(A)
IOUTPUT(B)
COUTPUT(B)
COUTPUT(A)
OUTA
OUTB
6
Figure 12: Application Circuit Example
Table 1: Circuit Analysis Example
Startup Operation Analysis
Condition
t > tON
Before first magnetic field
transition of each channel
BRP < B < BOP
VPULL-UP(A/B) (V)
RLOAD(A/B) (Ω)
OUTPUT (V)
IOUTPUT(A/B)
(Internally Limited)
3.3
2.8 k
1.9
0.5
5
4.5 k
2.75
0.5
12
12 k
6
0.5
18
18 k
9.0
0.5
VPULL-UP(A/B) (V)
RLOAD(A/B) (Ω)
OUTPUT (mV)12
IOUTPUT(A/B)13
3.3
2.8 k
500
1
5
4.5 k
500
1
12
11.84 k
160
1
18
875
500
20
Normal Operation Analysis
Condition
t > tON
After first magnetic field
transition of each channel
B > BOP
12Except
for the 12 V typical calculations, the output on voltage is assumed worse case of 500 mV. Actual application values will vary.
sink current calculations are for demonstrational purposes only and actual IOUT(ON) and VOUT(ON) values will vary with different pull-up source and resistor values, in
addition to TJ and VCC. During normal operation the device’s output sink current is internally limited to between 30 mA and 70 mA.
13Output
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Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
POWER DERATING
The device must be operated below the maximum junction temperature of the device (TJ(max)). Under certain combinations of
peak conditions, reliable operation may require derating supplied
power or improving the heat dissipation properties of the application. This section presents a procedure for correlating factors
affecting operating TJ (Thermal data is also available on the
Allegro MicroSystems Web site, www.AllegroMicro.com).
The Package Thermal Resistance (RθJA) is a figure of merit summarizing the ability of the application and the device to dissipate
heat from the junction (die), through all paths to the ambient air.
Its primary component is the Effective Thermal Conductivity (K)
of the printed circuit board, including adjacent devices and traces.
Radiation from the die through the device case (RθJC) is relatively
small component of RθJA. Ambient air temperature (TA) and air
motion are significant external factors, damped by overmolding.
The effect of varying power levels (Power Dissipation or PD), can
be estimated. The following formulas represent the fundamental
relationships used to estimate TJ, at PD.
PD = VIN × IIN
(1)
ΔT = PD × RθJA
(2)
TJ = TA + ΔT
(3)
For example, given common conditions such as:
TA= 25°C, VCC = 12 V, ICC = 4 mA, and RθJA = 145°C/W, then:
PD = VCC × ICC = 12 V × 4 mA = 48 mW
ΔT = PD × RθJA = 48 mW × 145°C/W = 7°C
TJ = TA + ΔT = 25°C + 7°C = 32°C
A worst-case estimate (PD (max)) represents the maximum allowable power level, without exceeding TJ (max), at a selected RθJA
and TA.
Example: Reliability for VCC at TA = 150°C, package LE, using a
four-layer PCB.
Observe the worst-case ratings for the device, specifically:
RθJA = 145°C/W, TJ (max) = 165°C, VCC (max) = 24 V, and ICC (max)
= 6 mA.
Calculate the maximum allowable power level (PD (max)). First,
invert equation 3:
power dissipation. Then, invert equation 2:
PD (max) = ΔT (max) ÷ RθJA
PD (max) = 15°C ÷ 145°C/W = 103 mW
Finally, invert equation 1 with respect to voltage:
VCC (est) = PD (max) ÷ ICC (max)
VCC (est) = 103 mW ÷ 6 mA = 17.2 V
The result indicates that, at TA, the application and device can
dissipate adequate amounts of heat at voltages ≤ VCC (est).
Compare VCC (est) to VCC (max). If VCC (est) ≤ VCC (max), then reliable operation between VCC (est) and VCC (max) requires enhanced
RθJA. If VCC (est) ≥ VCC (max), then operation between VCC (est) and
VCC (max) is reliable under these conditions.
In cases where the VCC (max) level is known, and the system
designer would like to determine the maximum allowable ambient temperature (TA (max)), the calculations can be reversed.
For example, in a worst case scenario with conditions VCC (max) =
24 V and ICC (max) = 6 mA, using equation 1 the largest possible
amount of dissipated power is:
PD = VIN × IIN
PD = 24 V × 6 mA = 144 mW
Then, by rearranging equation 3:
TA (max) = TJ (max) – ΔT
TA (max) = 165°C/W – (144 mW × 145°C/W)
TA (max) = 165°C/W – 20.88°C = 144.12°C
In another example, the maximum supply voltage is equal to
VCC(MIN). Therefore, VCC (max) = 3.3 V and ICC (max) = 6 mA. By
using equation 1 the largest possible amount of dissipated power
is:
PD = VIN × IIN
PD = 3.3 V × 6 mA = 19.8 mW
Then, by rearranging equation 3:
TA (max) = TJ (max) – ΔT
ΔT (max) = TJ (max) – TA = 165°C – 150°C = 15°C
TA (max) = 165°C/W – (19.8 mW × 145°C/W)
This provides the allowable increase to TJ resulting from internal
TA (max) = 165°C/W – 2.9°C = 162.1°C
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20
Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
PACKAGE OUTLINE DRAWING
For Reference Only – Not for Tooling Use
(Reference MO-153 AA)
Dimensions in millimeters - NOT TO SCALE
Dimensions exclusive of mold flash, gate burrs, and dambar protrusions
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
3.00 ±0.10
0.45
0.65
8º
0º
D
1.50
8
E
8
1.70
0.02
0.09
1.38 D
6.40 BSC
1.63 D
4.40 ±0.10
A
6.40 BSC
E2 D
0.60
E1 D
1
+0.15
-0.10
1.00 REF
2
1
Branded Face
0.25 BSC
B
2
PCB Layout Reference View
SEATING PLANE
GAUGE PLANE
C
8X
1.10 MAX
0.10 C
SEATING
PLANE
0.15
0.05
0.30
0.19
NNN
0.65 BSC
YYWW
A
Terminal #1 mark area
B
Reference land pattern layout (reference IPC7351 SOP65P640X110-8M);
all pads minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as necessary
to meet application process requirements and PCB layout tolerances; when
mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal vias can improve thermal dissipation
(reference EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
1
C
Branding scale and appearance at supplier discretion
D
Hall elements (E1 and E2), not to scale
E
Active Area Depth = 0.36 mm REF
C
Standard Branding Reference View
N = Last 3 digits of device part number
= Supplier emblem
Y = Last two digits of year of manufacture
W = Week of manufacture
Figure 13: Package LE, 8-Pin TSSOP
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Ultra-Sensitive, Hall-Effect Speed
and Direction Sensor with TPOS
A1232
Revision History
Revision
Revision Date
Description of Revision
–
December 10, 2014
Initial Release
1
September 21, 2015
Added AEC Q100 qualification under Features and Benefits
Copyright ©2015, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in any devices or systems, including but not limited to life support devices or systems, in which a failure of
Allegro’s product can reasonably be expected to cause bodily harm.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its
use; nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
For the latest version of this document, visit our website:
www.allegromicro.com
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22
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