DN335 - Wideband RF ICs for Power Detection and Control

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Wideband RF ICs for Power Detection and Control – Design Note 335
James Wong and Vladimir Dvorkin
Introduction
Radio frequency devices are being deployed in ever
increasing numbers, not just in cell phones and cordless
telephones. Other applications include 802.11 wireless
LAN, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, inventory monitors, satellite transceivers, fixed wireless
access and wireless communications infrastructure. All
RF devices must carefully monitor and control their RF
power transmission to comply with government regulation and minimize RF interference with other radio
devices. For this reason, accurate RF power detection is
important in both RF receivers and transmitters.
This article presents some solutions using Linear
Technology’s versatile family of high frequency Schottky
diode detectors. Table 1 summarizes the features of this
family and lists more applications.
A Dual-Band Mobile Phone Transmitter Power
Control Application
Figure 1 is a simplified block diagram illustrating transmit
power control for a dual band mobile phone (the receiver
is not shown here). In this example, a 324Ω, 1% tolerance
resistor (R1) followed by a 2.2pF capacitor (C1) form a
coupling circuit with 18dB to 20dB coupling factor at
850MHz to 1850MHz, referenced to the LTC®5509 RF
input pin. C1 is also a DC blocking capacitor. R1 should
have a tolerance of 1% while C1 should be 2% to 5%. The
coupling circuit (R1 and C1) introduces about 0.15dB to
0.2dB losses into the main signal line. R1 should be
placed as close as possible to the antenna without forming
a “T” connection on the microstrip line and immediately
followed by capacitor C1 and the LTC5509. Ideally, C1, R1
and LTC5509 should be placed on the same side of the
PCB as the Tx output microstrip line to the antenna. The
component values shown here should be used as a
reference. In the actual product implementation, component values may differ slightly depending on the output
impedance of the Tx PAs, antenna impedance, component placement and PC board parasitics.
An RFID Reader Application
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a promising technology for many monitoring and tracking applications,
,LTC and LT are registered trademarks and ThinSOT is a trademark of
Linear Technology Corporation.
C1
2.2pF
ANTENNA
R1
324Ω
Tx PA MODULE
CELL BAND
LTC5509
6
SHDN RFIN
5
2
GND
GND
4
3
VOUT
VCC
DIPLEXER
1
0.1µF
+
PCS BAND
Li-Ion
MOBILE PHONE BB/DSP
VPC
DN335 F01
Figure 1. A Dual Band Mobile Phone Transmit Power
Control Using a Resistive Tap
Table␣ 1. Summary of RF Detector Specifications and Applications
DEVICE
FREQUENCY RANGE
PACKAGE
DYNAMIC RANGE/FEATURES
LTC5505-1
300MHz to 3GHz
ThinSOTTM
–28dBm to 18dBm*
General Purpose, Phones, ISM
LTC5505-2
300MHz to 3GHz
ThinSOT
–32dBm to 12dBm*
General Purpose, Phones, ISM
LTC5507
100 KHz to 1GHz
ThinSOT
–34dBm to 14dBm*
General Purpose LF & Broadband Detection
LTC5508
300MHz to 7GHz
SC–70†
–32dBm to 12dBm*
General Purpose, WLAN, Microwave
LTC5509
300MHz to 3GHz
SC–70†
–30dBm to 6dBm**
Mobile Phones Tx Power Control
LTC5532
300MHz to 7GHz
ThinSOT
Adjustable Gain & Starting Voltage
*Gain compression extends the dynamic range with a tradeoff of reduced linearity in the transfer characteristic.
**No gain compression. †Smallest package.
04/04/335
APPLICATIONS
Precision RSSI & Envelope Detection
To form a complete RFID reader receiver, an RF Schottky
peak detector can also make an excellent low cost data
receiver to demodulate ASK or AM modulated signals
with data rates up to 3MHz. Because RF detectors such as
the LTC5507 can detect RF signals over a wide frequency
range, filtering can improve the sensitivity of the receiver.
Figure 2 shows a data receiver with an input LNA (Low
Noise Amplifier) and an input BPF (Bandpass Filter). The
LNA can be a general-purpose, low cost gain block that
provides fixed gain at the operating frequency of interest.
The added gain increases sensitivity and extends the
detection range. A lowpass or bandpass filter at the
detector output provides additional receiver selectivity, if
needed. The RSSI (Receive Signal Strength Indicator)
DC-coupled output provides signal strength information
using a lowpass filter (R2 and C5) to filter out the
modulation components.
ANTENNA
RF BPF
LNA
Application of RF Power Detectors at Frequencies
above 7GHz
Although the LTC5532 is optimized for an operating
frequency range from 300MHz to 7GHz, it can offer
useful performance well above this frequency range. The
performance at higher frequencies does fall off but
gracefully. Figure 3 shows a plot of the LTC5532’s output
voltage versus RF input power characteristics at 12GHz.
Figure 4 shows the LTC5532’s input S11 Smith Chart,
extending to 12GHz. Coupling to the LTC5532 at these
high frequencies is in principle very similar to lower
frequency operation.
VOUT (V)
including retail store check-out registers, inventory management, vehicle tracking, tire-pressure monitoring and
live-stock/agricultural tracking. Common to all of them are
the need for well-controlled RF power and a cost-effective
means of reliably detecting the received data. Well-regulated RF power allows maximum power transmission to
the ID tags while staying within regulatory emission limits. A well-controlled transmitter is possible if an RF
detector is used in a closed-loop feedback circuit, similar
to the example shown in Figure␣ 1. The choice of RF power
detector is determined by the RF frequency, as well as by
other constraints such as the required dynamic range and
sensitivity.
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
–20
–16
–4
0
4
–12 –8
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
8
DN335 F03
Figure 3. LTC5532 Typical Detector Transfer
Characteristics at 12GHz Frequency
C1
VCC
R1
VCC
LTC5507
SHDN RFIN
GND
PCAP
VOUT
VCC
C2
C4
C3
FILTER
DATA
OUTPUT
R2
RSSI OUTPUT
C5
DN335 F02
Figure 2. An RFID Reader ASK Receiver with Output Filter
5.0-12.0GHz
Figure 4. LTC5532 Input S11 Smith Chart
Data Sheet Download
http://www.linear.com
Linear Technology Corporation
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 2482
dn335f LT/TP 0404 305K • PRINTED IN THE USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
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 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2004
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