70668B.pdf

Sample Rate Conversion
Library for dsPIC®
User’s Guide
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B
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© 2011-2013, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in
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Printed on recycled paper.
ISBN: 978-1-62077-327-7
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFIED BY DNV == ISO/TS 16949 == DS70000668B-page 2
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2009 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION
LIBRARY FOR dsPIC® USER’S GUIDE
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Algorithm Overview ........................................................................................ 9
Chapter 2. Installation
2.1 Installation Procedure ................................................................................... 11
2.2 Resource Usage ........................................................................................... 11
Chapter 3. Application Programming Interface (API)
3.1 Sample Rate Conversion Library API Functions .......................................... 14
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B-page 3
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC® User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS70000668B-page 4
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION
LIBRARY FOR dsPIC® USER’S GUIDE
Preface
NOTICE TO CUSTOMERS
All documentation becomes dated, and this manual is no exception. Microchip tools and
documentation are constantly evolving to meet customer needs, so some actual dialogs
and/or tool descriptions may differ from those in this document. Please refer to our web site
(www.microchip.com) to obtain the latest documentation available.
Documents are identified with a “DS” number. This number is located on the bottom of each
page, in front of the page number. The numbering convention for the DS number is
“DSXXXXXXXXA”, where “XXXXXXXX” is the document number and “A” is the revision level
of the document.
For the most up-to-date information on development tools, see the MPLAB® IDE online help.
Select the Help menu, and then Topics to open a list of available online help files.
INTRODUCTION
This chapter contains general information that will be useful to know before you use the
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC®. Items discussed in this Preface include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Document Layout
Conventions Used in this Guide
Warranty Registration
Recommended Reading
The Microchip Web Site
Development Systems Customer Change Notification Service
Customer Support
Document Revision History
DOCUMENT LAYOUT
This document describes how to use the Sample Rate Conversion (SRC) library with the
dsPIC33E family of devices. The document layout is as follows:
• Chapter 1. “Introduction” – This chapter provides an overview of the SRC
library.
• Chapter 2. “Installation” – This chapter describes the installation procedure for
the SRC library.
• Chapter 3. “Application Programming Interface (API)” – This chapter outlines
how the API functions provided in the SRC library can be included in your
application software via the Application Programming Interface.
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B-page 5
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC® User’s Guide
CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS GUIDE
This manual uses the following documentation conventions:
DOCUMENTATION CONVENTIONS
Description
Italic characters
Initial caps
Examples
Referenced books
MPLAB® IDE User’s Guide
Emphasized text
...is the only compiler...
A window
the Output window
A dialog
the Settings dialog
A menu selection
select Enable Programmer
Quotes
A field name in a window or
dialog
“Save project before build”
Underlined, italic text with
right angle bracket
A menu path
File>Save
Bold characters
A dialog button
Click OK
A tab
Click the Power tab
Text in angle brackets < >
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Press <Enter>, <F1>
Plain Courier New
Sample source code
#define START
Filenames
autoexec.bat
File paths
c:\mcc18\h
Keywords
_asm, _endasm, static
Command-line options
-Opa+, -Opa-
Bit values
0, 1
Constants
0xFF, ‘A’
Italic Courier New
A variable argument
file.o, where file can be any
valid filename
Square brackets [ ]
Optional arguments
mcc18 [options] file
[options]
Curly brackets and pipe
character: { | }
Choice of mutually exclusive
arguments; an OR selection
errorlevel {0|1}
Ellipses...
Replaces repeated text
var_name [, var_name...]
Represents code supplied by
user
void main (void)
{ ...
}
Notes
DS70000668B-page 6
Represents
A Note presents information
that we want to re-emphasize,
either to help you avoid a
common pitfall or to make you
aware of operating differences
between some device family
members. A Note can be in a
box, or when used in a table
or figure, it is located at the
bottom of the table or figure.
Note:
This is a standard
note box.
CAUTION
This is a caution note.
Note 1: This is a note used in a
table.
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preface
WARRANTY REGISTRATION
Please complete the enclosed Warranty Registration Card and mail it promptly.
Sending in the Warranty Registration Card entitles you to receive new product updates.
Interim software releases are available at the Microchip web site.
RECOMMENDED READING
This user’s guide describes how to use the Sample Rate Conversion Library for
dsPIC®. The following are available and recommended as supplemental reference
resources.
dsPIC33E/PIC24E Family Reference Manual Sections
Family Reference Manual sections are available, which explain the operation of the
dsPIC33E device family architecture and peripheral modules. The specifics of each
device family are discussed in the individual family’s device data sheet.
MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC24 MCUs and dsPIC DSCs User’s Guide
(DS50001284)
This document details the use of Microchip’s MPLAB C Compiler for dsPIC Digital
Signal Controllers to develop 16-bit applications.
MPLAB® IDE User’s Guide (DS50001519)
Consult this document for more information pertaining to the installation and
implementation of the MPLAB IDE software, as well as the MPLAB Editor and MPLAB
SIM Simulator software that are included with it.
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
Microchip provides online support via our web site at www.microchip.com. This web
site is used as a means to make files and information easily available to customers.
Accessible by using your favorite Internet browser, the web site contains the following
information:
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• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), technical
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member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and ordering guides, latest Microchip
press releases, listing of seminars and events, listings of Microchip sales offices,
distributors and factory representatives
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B-page 7
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC® User’s Guide
DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep customers current on Microchip
products. Subscribers will receive e-mail notification whenever there are changes,
updates, revisions or errata related to a specified product family or development tool of
interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at www.microchip.com, click on Customer
Change Notification and follow the registration instructions.
The Development Systems product group categories are:
• Compilers – The latest information on Microchip C compilers and other language
tools. These include the MPLAB® C compiler; MPASM™ and MPLAB 16-bit
assemblers; MPLINK™ and MPLAB 16-bit object linkers; and MPLIB™ and
MPLAB 16-bit object librarians.
• Emulators – The latest information on the Microchip in-circuit emulator, MPLAB
REAL ICE™
• In-Circuit Debuggers – The latest information on the Microchip in-circuit
debugger, MPLAB ICD 3.
• MPLAB IDE – The latest information on Microchip MPLAB IDE, the Windows®
Integrated Development Environment for development systems tools. This list is
focused on the MPLAB IDE, MPLAB SIM simulator, MPLAB IDE Project Manager
and general editing and debugging features.
• Programmers – The latest information on Microchip programmers. These include
the MPLAB PM3 device programmer and the PICkit™ 3 development
programmers.
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance through several channels:
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Customers should contact their distributor, representative or field application engineer
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Technical support is available through the web site at:
http://www.microchip.com/support
DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY
Revision A (September 2011)
This is the initial release of the document.
Revision B (July 2013)
Document title was changed and all references to PIC32 were removed. Refer to the
“Sample Rate Conversion Library for PIC32 User’s Guide” (DS60001190) for this
content.
DS70000668B-page 8
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION
LIBRARY FOR dsPIC® USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 1. Introduction
The Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC®, which can be used with Microchip’s
dsPIC33E family of devices, provides the ability to upconvert the sampling rate of
real-time 16-bit stereo audio data. At run-time, the input sampling rate can be selected
between 32 kHz or 44.1 kHz, with a fixed output sample rate of 48 kHz.
1.1
ALGORITHM OVERVIEW
The SRC algorithm converts real-time 16-bit audio data sampled at 44.1 kHz or 32 kHz,
to a sampling rate of 48 kHz. The size of the input audio data in 1 ms interval will be 32
samples for 32 kHz input, and 44 or 456 samples for 44.1 kHz input. The output
consists of 48 stereo samples per 1 ms interval.
Figure 1-1 shows the various blocks of the SRC algorithm. The incoming audio data
passes through an upsampler or an interpolation stage. The signal then passes through
an anti-aliasing low-pass filter followed by a downsampler or decimation stage.
FIGURE 1-1:
Audio
Data In
Upsample
FIR Filter
Downsample
Polynomial
Interpolation
SRC Audio
Data Out
Polyphase Filtering
1.1.1
32 kHz to 48 kHz Sample Rate Conversion
The input is upsampled by a factor of 3 followed by a Finite Impulse Response (FIR)
filter to smooth the signal. A gain factor is applied to the smoothed signal to
compensate for the loss caused by inserting the zeros.
The resulting intermediate signal is then downsampled by a factor of 2 to obtain an output audio signal at a sampling rate of 48 kHz. Since downsampling creates redundancy
in the filtering of the sample that is decimated, the filtering of this sample can be
skipped, resulting in significant instruction cycle execution savings. This is a simplified
form of the polyphase filtering technique, which improves the speed of the SRC.
In this mode, every 1 ms of audio frame is expected to have 32 stereo samples since
the sample rate is 32 kHz.
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B-page 9
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC® User’s Guide
1.1.2
44.1 kHz to 48 kHz Sample Rate Conversion
The input is upsampled by a factor of 2, by inserting a zero after every input sample
followed by a FIR filter, which is applied to smooth the signal. A gain factor of 2 is
applied to the smoothed signal to compensate for the loss caused by inserting the
zeros.
Polynomial interpolation is used to reduce every sequence of 147 samples at 88.2 kHz
to 80 samples at 48 kHz. This ensures the sampling rate of the output audio data to be
48 kHz. Polyphase filtering is also employed in this mode to reduce redundancy.
In this mode, the first nine audio frames are expected to contain 44 stereo samples and
the tenth frame is expected to contain 45 stereo samples.
1.1.3
Filter design
For 32 kHz input, a low-pass filter is utilized with a very steep roll-off to limit aliasing
effects. The corner frequency lies below one-sixth of the intermediate sample rate. This
is below the Nyquist frequency, so that aliasing effects should not be a problem when
downsampling. The corner frequency used here is 14.5 kHz, which may be desirable
when optimizing the filter design to adjust the corner frequency so that the first
stop-band null covers the input Nyquist frequency.
The overall processing load is dominated by the FIR filter; however, there is a trade-off
between processing load (i.e., filter length) and the quality of the outputs.
For 44.1 kHz input, the corner frequency of the low-pass filter lies below one-fourth of
the intermediate sample rate. The greater processing load at this frequency requires a
shorter filter length. The corner frequency used here is 19.7 kHz.
A more aggressive optimization of the filter is needed, which can be provided by an
equiripple design technique.
The code uses polynomial interpolation to convert intermediate data at 88.2 kHz to
output data at 48 kHz.
DS70000668B-page 10
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION
LIBRARY FOR dsPIC® USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 2. Installation
This chapter describes the installation procedure for the Sample Rate Conversion
Library for dsPIC® and includes resource usage.
Topics covered include:
• Installation Procedure
• Resource Usage
2.1
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
The SRC library is available as a download from the Sample Rate Conversion Web
page at www.microchip.com/SRC. After downloading and extracting the files, run the
dsPIC SRC installer to install the library in the desired path.
Use the following procedure to add the library to the application:
1. In the application MPLAB workspace, right-click Library Files in the Project
Window, and select Add files.
2. Browse to the location of the archive file (libSRC_LITE_dsPIC33E_v1_0.a or
libSRC_FULL_dsPIC33E_v1_0.a), which is located in the libs folder within the
installation directory.
3. Select the file and click Open. The SRC library is now added to the application.
2.2
RESOURCE USAGE
TABLE 2-1:
SRC Library
Version
Lite Version
Full Version
Note 1:
PERFORMANCE AND RESOURCE CONSUMPTION FOR
dsPIC33E LIBRARY MODES
SRC Mode
MIPS
Code Size
(bytes)
Data Size
(bytes)
SNR (dB)(1)
32k to 48 kHz
6.1
7624
2744
82
32k to 44.1 kHz
9.1
32k to 48 kHz
7.2
32k to 44.1 kHz
10.1
82
7704
2866
84
82
Tested with a 1 kHz full-scale sinusoidal signal.
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B-page 11
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC® User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS70000668B-page 12
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION
LIBRARY FOR dsPIC® USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 3. Application Programming Interface (API)
This chapter describes the Application Programming Interface (API) to the Sample
Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC®.
Topics covered include:
• Sample Rate Conversion Library API Functions
The API functions of the SRC Library are easy to use. The prototype declaration of the
API functions, the state buffer used, and buffer sizes to be used for the two SRC modes
are located in the header file, src_api.h.
The archive file, libSRC_x_dsPIC33E_v1_0.a (x = LITE or FULL), is the library
file to be used in the project workspace.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
|
|----- h
|
|
|
|
|----- libs
|
|
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
src_api.h
(header file for SRC APIs)
libSRC_x_dsPIC33E_v1_0.a (SRC library archive)
DS70000668B-page 13
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC® User’s Guide
3.1
SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION LIBRARY API FUNCTIONS
This section lists and describes the two API functions that are available in the SRC
Library.
SRC_init()
Description
The API function, SRC_init(), configures the conversion mode to be used and initializes the local state buffer required by the SRC library. The SRC state contains buffer
pointers, split buffers needed for the filters, and buffers for polynomial interpolation.
Prototype
void SRC_init(int* ptrSRC_state, int cd_flag);
Arguments
ptrSRC_state
a pointer to the state memory for this instance of SRC
cd_flag
SRC_32KHZ_TO_48KHZ - 32 kHz to 48 kHz conversion mode
SRC_44_1KHZ_TO_48KHZ - 44.1 kHz to 48 kHz conversion mode
Example
#define CD_FLAG SRC_32KHZ_TO_48KHZ
.
.
.
int srcStateMem[SRC_STATE_MEM_SIZE_INT];
.
.
.
SRC_init(srcStateMem, CD_FLAG);
DS70000668B-page 14
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Application Programming Interface (API)
SRC_apply()
Description
The API function, SRC_apply(), is the function call that performs sample rate conversion on the input audio signal. The API takes pointer to the input buffer, pointer to the
output buffer along with a pointer to the SRC state. It also takes the size of the input
audio buffer as a parameter. The size of the input audio data buffer is 64 for input
sample rate of 32 kHz and 88 or 90 for the input sample rate of 44.1 kHz. The sample
count includes both the left and right channels of the stereo audio.
Prototype
int SRC_apply(int* ptrSRC_state, short* Sin, short* Sout,
int readCount);
Arguments
ptrSRC_state
a pointer to the state memory for this instance of SRC
Sin
a pointer to the input buffer of size with incoming audio
signal SRC_IN_PROC_SIZE
Sout
a pointer to the output buffer of size
SRC_OUT_PROC_SIZE
readCount
the actual number of samples to be read from the input
buffer
Example
#define CD_FLAG SRC_32KHZ_TO_48KHZ
.
.
.
short
Sin[SRC_IN_PROC_SIZE];
short
Sout[SRC_OUT_PROC_SIZE];
int
srcStateMem[SRC_STATE_MEM_SIZE_INT];
int
read_count;
int
write_count;
.
.
.
read_count = 64;
.
.
.
SRC_init(srcStateMem, CD_FLAG);
.
.
.
write_count = SRC_apply(srcStateMem, Sin, Sout, read_count);
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B-page 15
Sample Rate Conversion Library for dsPIC® User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS70000668B-page 16
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
 2011-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS70000668B-page 17
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11/29/12
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