8 W DTA Power Supply GreenPoint Reference Design

TND332/D
Rev. 0, FEB - 2008
8 W Power Supply for DTA
(Digital-to-Analog Converter Box)
Reference Design Documentation Package
© Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2008
February, 2008 - Rev. 0
1
Publication Order Number:
TND332/D
Disclaimer: ON Semiconductor is providing this reference design documentation package “AS IS” and the recipient assumes
all risk associated with the use and/or commercialization of this design package. No licenses to ON Semiconductor's or any
third party's Intellectual Property is conveyed by the transfer of this documentation. This reference design documentation
package is provided only to assist the customers in evaluation and feasibility assessment of the reference design. It is expected
that users may make further refinements to meet specific performance goals.
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TND332
TND332
8 W Power Supply for DTA
(Digital-to-Analog
Converter Box)
Reference Design Documentation
Package
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TECHNICAL NOTE
1 Overview
This reference document describes a built-and-tested,
GreenPointt solution for an 8 W Digital-to-Analog
converter box power supply.
The power supply design is build around
ONSemiconductor's NCP1308 Current-Mode Controller,
on the primary side, using Free Running Quasi-Resonant.
The secondary side offers three outputs (5 V, 3.3 V and
1.8V). The 3.3 V and 1.8 V are derived from the 5 V output
by using the NCP1595 in a buck (step-down) DC-DC
topology with synchronous rectification.
Figure 1 shows a simplified block diagram of the
reference design circuit.
Figure 1. 8 W Power Supply for Digital-to-Analog Converter Box
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2 Introduction
As a result of a bill passed in Congress, at midnight on
February 17, 2009, all full-power television stations in the
United States will stop broadcasting in analog and switch to
100% digital broadcasting. After that date, conventional
CRT TVs with analog-NTSC tuners will be unable to
receive over-the-air broadcasts. Anyone who watches TV
via “rabbit ears” or a rooftop antenna (as opposed to cable
or satellite), and whose TV does not have a built-in or
separate digital tuner, will stop receiving programs on that
TV.
For most owners of new HDTVs, getting over-the-air
high-definition programming will be as simple as putting up
a high definition antenna. In effect, most TVs that can now
display HDTV are sold with built-in ATSC (Advanced
Television Systems Committee) tuners and are required to
receive high-definition as well as lower-resolution digital
broadcasts over the air.
Because the switch-off of analog TV broadcasts would
deprive many viewers of their only source of television,
Congress also created a subsidy program. Run by the
government's
National
Telecommunications
and
Information Administration (NTIA), this program will
provide coupons which can be used to pay for a
Digital-to-Analog (DTA) converter box. A DTA box can
receive digital television broadcasts and converts them into
standard-definition programming to be viewed on
conventional CRT TVs with analog-NTSC tuners.
More information on the over-the-air broadcasting
television method from analog to digital can be found at
www.dtvtransition.org.
More information on DTAs and the coupon program:
www.ntia.doc.gov.
•
•
•
digital television service into a format that the
consumer can display on television receivers designed
to receive and display signals only in the analog
television service, but may also include a remote
control device. In addition to meeting the requirements
laid out in this Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR
specification, DTAs must also meet the minimum
technical requirements laid out in the Technical
Appendices of the National Telecommunications and
Information Administration's (NTIA) final rule-making
on its Digital Television Converter Box Coupon
Program (see http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ for the final
rulemaking).
On Mode: A state in which the DTA is actively
delivering its principal functions and some or all of its
applicable secondary functions.
Off Mode: A state in which there is negligible or no
power consumption
Sleep Mode: A state in which the device has greater
power consumption, capability, and responsiveness than
it does in the Off state, and has less (or similar) power
consumption, capability and responsiveness than it does
in the On state.
3.2 Energy Efficiency Specification
Mode
On Mode
Sleep Mode
Input Power Consumption under Test
Conditions Effective Date: Jan. 31, 2007
≤ 8 watts
≤ 1 watts (NTIA's requirement is 2 W)
1. Source: ENERGY STAR and NTIA
ENERGY STAR requirements have set a maximum input
power to the DTA box to be no more than 8 W. This low
power requirement puts severe constraints on the DTA's
efficiency and obviously on the power supply's efficiency.
At single digit low power levels such as this, achieving
efficiencies in the 70 percent range is difficult because of the
inherent low voltage outputs required for the DTA's ASIC
circuitry (typically 5 volts and below), and the significant
fraction of the total power that the power supply's internal
quiescent current represents.
3 AC-DC Power Supply Requirements
3.1 Definitions
The version 1.1 ENERGY STAR® guidelines for DTAs
(more details can be found on the web site
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=dta.pr_dta)
provide the following definitions:
• DTA: Stand-alone device that does not contain features
or functions except those necessary to enable a
consumer to convert any channel broadcast in the
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4 DTA Power Supply Specification
The reference design described in this document provides
5.0V, 3.3 V, and 1.8 V outputs with universal AC input and
an efficiency of greater than 72%. Other output voltages are
possible with simple changes in the sensing networks on the
3.3 and 1.8 V outputs. The design also provides an option for
inhibiting the 5 V output if “sleep mode” is required. The
power supply's main converter is designed around
ONSemiconductor's NCP1308 current mode controller
and an external Mosfet in a quasi-resonant (QR) flyback
topology. The 5 volt output utilizes a synchronous rectifier
Mosfet and the two lower voltage output converters are
implemented using the NCP1595 monolithic, synchronous
buck regulator operating at 1 MHz. The 5 V output also
functions as a dc source for the two buck regulators. This
particular combination of parts provides a simple yet
effective triple output switcher with an effective power
output of approximately 6 watts depending on the output
voltage and current combination and the subsequent overall
system efficiency (see efficiency results in Table 1). Typical
protection functions such as over-current and over-voltage
are included in addition to an input conducted EMI filter.
Input: 90 to 265 Vac, 50/60 Hz, two-wire input (line and
neutral)
Input Power (Sleep mode): 8 W max (as specified by
Energy Star)
Standby Input Power (no load): Less than 200 mW
Input Fuse: 1 amp
Inrush Limiting: 5 ohms approximately
Input Filter: Common and differential mode conducted
EMI filter
Outputs (also see Table 1)
•
•
•
•
5 V @ 1A
3.3 V @ 1A
1.8 V @ 1A
Total output power not to exceed approximately 6 watts
Regulation: Better than ±3% for all outputs
Output Ripple (Vpk/pk): 30 mV max on any output
Efficiency: Better than 72%; actual value will depend on
output voltage and current combinations (see efficiency
results in Table 1)
Protection: Over-current and over-voltage
Temperature Range/Cooling: 0 to 55°C; convection cooled
Control Features: Inhibit of 5 Vout for sleep mode operation
(optional)
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5 Circuit Operation
Referring to the power supply circuit schematic of
Figure2, the operation of the supply is as follows: Inrush
current into the bulk capacitor C3 is limited at supply
turn-on by Resistor R1 and the winding resistance of EMI
filter inductor L1. This inductor along with “X” capacitors
C1 and C2 form a differential mode EMI filter while the
winding-to-winding leakage inductance of L1 and C8
comprise a common mode filter. The AC input is full-wave
rectified by D1 - D4 and produces a “bulk” dc bus level of
1.4 x Vac rms across C3.
The quasi-resonant flyback converter is implemented
using ONSemiconductor's quasi-resonant NCP1308
current mode controller (U1) and a 2 A, 650 V Mosfet (Q7).
This controller contains all the internal circuitry for
self-protection from over-current and over-voltage
conditions. Although the control chip can be self-powered
due to the inclusion of ON's patented dynamic self supply
(DSS) feature, an auxiliary winding on the flyback
transformer T1 and the associated components of D7, C5,
C6, and R3 provide a “bootstrapped” Vcc supply for the IC.
The bootstrapped Vcc significantly lowers dissipation in U1
during normal operation and reduces the standby or no-load
power consumption of the supply to less than 200mW.
Resistor R3 limits the Vcc voltage and provides a convenient
means for setting the OVP trip level in the chip in the event
of an optocoupler or open sense loop failure.
The snubber network of D5, C4, R20 and R21 provides
voltage spike suppression for the external Mosfet Q7. This
voltage spike is generated by the leakage inductance of the
primary winding of T1 and can be destructive if not properly
managed. Such snubber networks are essential in simple,
single switch flyback circuits such as this one. Note the use
of a conventional 50/60 Hz PN diode for D5 and the
inclusion of a resistor in series with it. This arrangement,
along with C4, not only suppresses the voltage spike at
Mosfet turn-off, but also dampens the resonant ringing
associated with T1's leakage inductance and C4.
L2
R1
4.7,
2W
R22
15K
0.5W
R23
39K
Q7
NCP1308
R24
8
3
5
1K
1
2
U1
NC 7
4
Q4
1K
R5
R21
100K
C4
270pF
2kV
1
MMSD4148T
D7
C5
C9
1nF
MMBT2222AW
Q5
100
D6
MMSD4148T
3
4
10uF,
35V
R3
3.3K
C8
2.2 nF
”Y”
+
C6
22uf
25V
Q6
R6
1K
Q2
COM
R10
Sleep
100K
R9
20K
R7
20K
R11
4
U2
1
3
opto
2
C7
6
R25
1.8
1/4W
C12
0.1
50T
R4
R20
47
47uF
400V
2.2M
0.5W
5
D5
MRA4007T
C3
R8
MMBT2222AW
0.1
”X”
6,7 1T
MMBT2907AW MMBT2222AW
0.1 R2
”X”
D1 - D4
MRA4007T
+
C2
FQPF2N60C
C1
5V
1500uF C10 4.7uH
6.3V
C11
470uF
NTB30N06L
16V
Q3
T2
9,10
L1
90 270
Vac
Q1
NTD25P03L
T1
F1
1A
1nF
120
R12
1K
R13
10K
R14
4.99K
C13
0.1uF
R15
4.75K
U5
TL431A
L3
4
C14
+
U3
NCP1595
5
3
2
8.2uH
1
3.3V
R16
31K
+
R17
10K
2.2uF
L4
4
C16
+
3
NCP1595 2
5
1
2.2uF
Figure 2.
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U4
22uF
8.2uH
R18
12.5K
R19
10K
C15
22uF
1500uF
6.3V
+ C17+
C18
1.8V
TND332
6 Transformer Design
The design of flyback transformer T1 requires the
minimizing of typical transformer parasitic parameters such
as leakage inductance and winding capacitance. This
becomes increasingly difficult for small transformer core
structures due to the required increased primary and
secondary turns as the core's cross sectional area decreases
with overall core size. The balance between sufficient turns
to limit the magnetic flux density (< 3 kilogauss) versus
increased leakage inductance can become tricky in small
cores. In this design an EF-16 core was used and it was
possible to get the primary wound with just 2 layers and the
Vcc winding and 5 volt secondary in just one layer each.
Tests indicated that the voltage spike generated by the
resultant leakage inductance was of minimal energy and the
snubber network of D5, C4, R20, and R21 was adequate to
suppress the voltage spike with minimal impact on the
efficiency. Figure 3 gives the details of the transformer
design.
The main secondary output of T1 produces 5 volts with Q3
and the associated circuitry of T2, C9, R4 thru R7, Q4 thru
Q6, and D6 comprising a synchronous flyback rectifier for
maximum efficiency. When the Mosfet Q7 switches off, the
secondary flyback current charging output capacitor C10 is
sensed by the small current sense transformer T2 which
develops sufficient voltage across R4 to turn on the
complementary driver circuit of Q5 and Q6. This driver in
turn switches the gate of Q3 on which functions as a very low
forward voltage drop rectifier for the 5 volt secondary. When
no secondary current flows, Q3 is in an off-state and reverse
blocking mode. For reduced output ripple and noise an
addition filter composed of inductor L2 and C11 is provided.
In addition, P-Mosfet Q1 and driver transistor Q2 are
included (optional) to allow shutdown of the 5 volt output
for “sleep mode” or similar requirement if needed to reduce
power drain to an absolute minimum.
The 5 volt output is regulated by sensing the voltage
across primary output capacitor C10 and dividing this
voltage down via R14 and R15 to match the 2.5 volt internal
reference of programmable zener U5 (TL431A). U5
functions as an error amplifier and provides feedback to the
primary side controller U1 through optocoupler U2. Control
loop phase and gain compensation is provided by C13 and
R13 while C7 provides high frequency noise decoupling for
the feedback input of U5.
The other two low voltage outputs (3.3 V and 1.8 V) are
derived from the 5 volt output using a couple of NCP1595
monolithic, synchronous buck regulators (U3 and U4).
These buck converters switch at 1 MHz, so very small output
inductors (L3 and L4) and capacitors (C15 and C17) are
needed. Because of the very high input and output ripple
frequency of these buck chips, low impedance multilayer
ceramic capacitors should be used for C14 through C17. C18
is a standard aluminum electrolytic and was required for
minimal output voltage droop when the particular DTA
microprocessor that this supply was tested with started up
from a sleep mode. A large output capacity was not needed
for the 3.3 V output in this test application but is an option
to be considered if it is the main power source for the DTA's
microprocessor. For voltages other than the selected 3.3 V
and 1.8 V levels, one merely needs to modify the voltage
sense divider network trim resistor (R17 or R19) to provide
the correct feedback level to the buck controller's sense
input (see NCP1595 data sheet at www.onsemi.com website
for device application details).
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MAGNETICS DESIGN DATA SHEET
Project / Customer: ON Semiconductor - DTA power supply, QR Version
Part Description: 6 watt flyback xfmr, QR version - Rev. 1
Schematic ID: T1
Core Type: EF16 (E16/8/5); 3C95 material (Ferroxcube) or similar
Core Gap: Gap for 1.75 mH inductance
Inductance: 1.75 mH +/-10%
Bobbin Type: 8 pin horizontal mount for EF16
Windings (in order):
Winding # / type
Turns / Material / Gauge / Insulation Data
Vcc/Boost (3 - 2)
10 turns of #34HN spiral wound over 1 layer. Insulate
with 1 layer of tape (1000V insulation to next winding)
Primary (4 - 1)
90 turns of #34HN over 2 layers (45 turns/layer);
Insulate for 3 kV to the next winding with tape.
5V Secondary (7,8 - 5,6)
6 turns of 2 strands of #26HN wound bifilar
over one layer with 2 mm end margins and
cuffed ends. Self leads to pins as shown below.
Insulate with final layer of tape.
Vacuum varnish assembly
Hipot: 3 kV from boost/primary to secondary
Lead Breakout / Pinout
Schematic
(Bottom View - facing pins)
1
8
7
4
4
3
2
1
6
5
3
2
Figure 3.
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5
6
7
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7 Test Results
7.1 Active Mode Efficiency
different load configurations. The results are shown in
Table1. As would be expected the configuration with the
greatest amount of loading on the 5 V output resulted in the
highest overall efficiency.
Since efficiency and circuit simplicity were the primary
goals in this design, and the necessary voltage and current
configurations for specific DTA circuit applications will
obviously vary, the efficiency was measured at several
Table 1. Power Supply Efficiency versus Loading Configuration
Load Configuration
1.8 V Load
3.3 V Load
5 V Load
Pout Total
Pin Total
Efficiency
#1
1.0 A
#2
0.5 A
0.5 A
0.4 A
5.45 W
7.46 W
73%
1.0 A
0.25 A
5.45 W
7.45 W
73%
#3
0.5 A
0.25 A
0.75 A
5.47W
7.29 W
75%
7.2 Sleep Mode and Off Mode
7.3 Waveforms
• Sleep mode: ≤720 mW input power
• Off mode (no load power): ≤200 mW input power
The output ripple for a 1 amp load on the 5 volt channel
is shown in Figure 4 while Figure 5 displays the ripple on the
1.8volt output with a load of 1 amp. Although not shown,
the ripple on the 3.3 volt output with a 1 amp load was
essentially identical to that on the 1.8 volt channel.
Measurements were taken at 120 Vac input and a total power
load of approximately 5.5 watts. Operating at 240 Vac input
had negligible effects on the output ripple and efficiency.
Figure 4. 5.0 Volt Output Ripple @ 1 A
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Figure 5. 1.8 Volt Output Ripple @ 1 A
the voltage on the Mosfet drain is minimum. The high
frequency ringing at the beginning of the flyback pulse is
caused by the transformer's leakage inductance resonating
with the Mosfet's drain-to-source capacitance and any stray
transformer winding capacitance. The snubber network of
D5, C4, R20 and R21 acts to suppresses the peak voltage
excursion and dampens the residual ringing.
Figure 6 displays the Mosfet's drain voltage profile with
120Vac input and a total load of 5.5 watts. Note that from
the waveform at this particular load, the circuit is operating
in discontinuous conduction mode where the Mosfet
switches back on in one flyback ring-out cycle after core
reset. Note also that the Mosfet turn-on occurs at the 2nd
valley point of the ring-out waveform. Switching at this
point allows for very efficient quasi-resonant turn-on when
Figure 6. Mosfet Drain - Switching Waveform Profile
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8 Additional Comments and Recommendations
Although conducted EMI was not tested on this particular
reference design, the same input filter design has been used in
other similar ON Semiconductor low power flyback reference
designs which do pass FCC Level B for conducted EMI.
For best thermal management, the NCP1595's DFN
surface mount packages (U3 & U4) should be properly
soldered to extended copper clad areas of the pc board, and
this is particularly important for higher current outputs on
the NCP1595 buck devices. Consult the respective device
data sheets for more information on this.
The design of current sense transformer T2 is not
necessarily critical and any small ferrite core with a 30:1 to
a 50:1 turns ratio can be utilized. The design of T1, however,
the main flyback transformer, is critical to the efficiency and
optimum performance of the power supply. Re-designing
the transformer in a smaller core structure (smaller core
cross sectional area Ae) is not recommended. Using cores
with a larger Ae can result in less overall turns and a possible
incremental improvement in the efficiency, however the
specified inductance value should be maintained for proper
circuit operation.
It is recommended that the data sheets for the
ONSemiconductor NCP1308 and NCP1595 monolithic
controllers be thoroughly studied when applying this
reference design.
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9 Bill of Materials
Part
Qty
ID
Description
Comments
SEMICONDUCTORS
MRA4007T3G
5
D1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1 A, 800 V diode
ON Semiconductor
MMSD4148T1
2
D6, D7
100 mA signal diode
ON Semiconductor
MMBT2222AWT1
3
Q2, 4, 5
500 mA, 40 V NPN transistor
ON Semiconductor
MMBT2907AWT1
1
Q6
500 mA, 40 V PNP transistor
ON Semiconductor
NCP1308
1
U1
Ouasi-resonant PWM controller
ON Semiconductor
FQPF2N60C
1
Q7
2 A, 600 V Mosfet
Fairchild
NTD25P03LG
1
Q1
P-channel Mosfet, 30 V
ON Semiconductor
NTB30N06LT4G
1
Q3
N-channel Mosfet, logic level
ON Semiconductor
NCP1595AMNR2G
2
U3, U4
Synchronous buck regulator
ON Semiconductor
Optocoupler
1
U2
SFH6156A-4 (4 pin) or similar
Vishay
TL431ACD (SOIC-8)
1
U5
Programmable zener
ON Semiconductor
“X” cap, (box package)
2
C1, C2
100 nF “X2” capacitor, 270 Vac
Vishay
“Y” cap, disc package
1
C8
2.2 nF “Y2” cap, 270 Vac
Vishay
Ceramic cap, disc
1
C4
270 pF, 2 kV capacitor (snubber)
Vishay
Ceramic cap, monolythic
2
C12, C13
0.1 mF, 50 V ceramic cap
Vishay
Ceramic cap, monolythic
2
C14, C16
2.2 mF, 16 V low impedance ceramic
Vishay
Ceramic cap, monolythic
2
C15, C17
22 mF, 10 V, multilayer
Vishay
Ceramic cap, monolythic
2
C7, C9
1 nF, 50 V ceramic cap
Vishay
Electrolytic cap
1
C11
470 mF, 6.3 V
UCC, Rubycon
Electrolytic cap
1
C3
47 mF, 400 Vdc
UCC, Rubycon
Electrolytic cap
2
C10, C18
1500 mF, 6.3 V (low ESR)
UCC, Rubycon
Electrolytic cap
1
C5
10 mF, 35 V
UCC, Rubycon
Electrolytic cap
1
C6
22 mF, 25 V
UCC, Rubycon
Resistor, 2 W
1
R1
4.7 ohm, 2 W ceramic, axial lead
Ohmite
Resistor, 1/2 W
1
R2
1 Meg, 1/2 W, axial lead, metal film
Ohmite
Resistor, 1/2 W
1
R22
15 K, 1/2 W, 1210 SMD
5% SMD (1210)
Resistor, 1/4 W
1
R4
1K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/4 W
1
R25
1.8 ohm, 1/4 W, 1206 SMD
5% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/4 W
1
R21
82 K
5% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
3
R6, R12, R24
1K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R23
39 K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R5
100 ohms
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R3
3.3 K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R7, R9
20 K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R11
120 ohms
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
2
R8, R10
100 K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
3
R13, 17, 19
10 K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R14
4.99 K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R15
4.75 K
1% SMD (1206)
CAPACITORS
RESISTORS
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9 Bill of Materials
Part
Qty
ID
Description
Comments
RESISTORS
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R16
31 K
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R20
47 ohms
1% SMD (1206)
Resistor, 1/8 W
1
R18
12.5 K
1% SMD (1206)
1
F1
1 to 1.5 A, 250 Vac
Bussmann
EMI Inductor
1
L1
BU16-4530R5BL
Coilcraft
Choke, 4.7 mH, 4A
1
L2
RFB0807-4R7L
Coilcraft
Choke, 8.2 mH, 3 A
2
L3, L4
RFB0807-8R2L
Coilcraft
Flyback Transformer (custom)
1
T1
Primary L = 1.75 mH
See Figure 3
Current sense transformer (1:50)
1
T2
T6522-AL
Coilcraft
MISCELLANEOUS
Fuse (TR5 type)
MAGNETICS
Figure 7. Board Picture
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TND332
10 Appendix
References:
• ENERGY STAR: Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes
•
• NTB30N06L: Power MOSFET 30 Amps, 60 Volts,
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=dta.pr_dta
National Telecommunications and Information
Administration (NTIA): Digital Television Transition
and Public Safety Act of 2005
http://www.ntia.doc.gov/otiahome/dtv/index.html
http://www.ntia.doc.gov/
•
•
•
•
Additional Collateral from ON Semiconductor:
• NCP1308: Current-Mode Controller for Free Running
•
•
•
•
•
Quasi-Resonant Operation
NCP1595: 1.5 A Synchronous Converter with 5 V
input
MMBT2222AW: General Purpose Transistor NPN
MMBT2907AW: General Purpose Transistor PNP
NTD25P03L: Power MOSFET 25 A, 30 V Logic Level
P-Channel in DPAK
•
•
Logic Level
TL431A: Programmable Precision Reference
MMSD4148/D: 100 V Switching Diode
Design note DN06008/D: NCP1308: ±18 V Dual
Output Power Supply
Design note DN06029/D: NCP1308_LM2575:
Universal Input, 50 W, 5 Output quasi-resonant flyback
converter
Application Note AND8112/D: A Quasi-Resonant
SPICE Model Eases Feedback Loop Designs
Application Note AND8127/D: Implementing
NCP1207 in QR 24 W AC-DC Converter with
Synchronous Rectifier
Application Note AND8129/D: A 30 W Power Supply
Operating in a Quasi-Square Wave Resonant Mode
GreenPoint is a trademark of Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC (SCILLC).
ON Semiconductor and
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