DN411 - Simple and Compact 4-Output Point-of-Load DC/DC uModule System

Simple and Compact 4-Output Point-of-Load DC/DC µModule
System – Design Note 411
Jian Yin and Eddie Beville
Introduction
Advancements in board assembly, PCB layout and
digital IC integration have produced a new generation
of densely populated, high performance systems. The
board-mounted, point-of-load (POL) DC/DC power supplies in these systems are subject to the same demanding size, performance and power requirements as other
subsystems—demands that are difficult to meet with
traditional power modules or controller/regulator ICs.
The LTM4601 DC/DC µModuleTM converter meets these
demands by shrinking an entire solution to the size of a
low profile IC. Its frequency synchronization and voltage
tracking features allow multiple LTM4601s to be easily
and quickly configured for multioutput applications.
4-Output DC/DC Converter Power System
Figure 1 shows the photo of a 4-output DC/DC supply
using four µModule converters with frequency synchronization and output tracking. The operating waveforms of
the four outputs are interleaved with a 90° relative phase
difference, thus reducing the effective input current ripple.
This in turn significantly reduces the bulk capacitance of
the circuit and the circuit size.
Figure 2 presents the efficiency of each output in Figure 1.
With 12V input voltage, each output is tested up to 12A
by disabling the other three outputs. The high efficiencies
up to 92% guarantee low losses in the circuit board, thus
leading to a reduced system profile.
Figure 3 shows the simplified block diagram for Figure 1.
For a detailed schematic, please refer to page 22 of the
LTM4601 data sheet. An intermediate bus input of 8V–16V
is converted to four different outputs: 1.5V at 12A, 1.8V
at 12A, 2.5V at 12A and 3.3V at 10A. The output voltages are set by resistances on the LTM4601 VFB pins. A
4-phase oscillator LTC6902 generates 90° interleaved
clock signals. Moreover, spread spectrum frequency
modulation (SSFM) can be activated by adding an external
resistor from the LTC6902 MOD pin to V+.
, LT, LTC and LTM are registered trademarks and µModule is a trademark of
Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their
respective owners.
95
90
cm
EFFICIENCY (%)
85
80
75
70
3.3 VOUT
2.5 VOUT
1.8 VOUT
1.5 VOUT
65
60
0
2
8
6
10
4
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
12
14
DN411 F02
Figure 1. A 4-Output 103W DC/DC System Can Fit This Tiny
Space (Each LTM4601 µModule DC/DC Converter Contains
an Inductor, MOSFETs, Bypass Capacitors, Etc.)
03/07/411
Figure 2. Efficiency of Each Output
for the Circuit in Figure 1
Output Tracking
The output voltage of the LTM4601 can track another
converter’s output ratiometrically or coincidently. The
circuit in Figure 1 implements coincident tracking by
connecting the 3.3V output (master) to the TRACK/SS
pins of the other µModule converters (slaves) via resistive
dividers. For coincident tracking, the master must have
a higher output voltage than the slaves. The soft-start
capacitor on the TRACK/SS pin of the 3.3V master supply sets the ramp rate of the start-up voltage. Figure 4
shows the start-up waveforms of the four outputs with
output tracking.
Frequency Synchronization
The operating frequency of the LTM4601 can be synchronized with an external clock to reduce undesirable
frequency harmonics, and its operation can be interleaved
with other LTM4601s. Figure 5 shows the input current
ripple of the 180° phase-interleaved 1.8V and 3.3V outputs of the circuit in Figure 1. The input current ripple of
the 3.3V output is synchronized with its PLLN signal in
Figure 5. Therefore, with four 90° interleaved inputs, the
input current ripples are partially cancelled, reducing the
required input capacitance.
Conclusions
The synchronization and tracking features of the LTM4601
allow interleaved phases in the 4-output solution, thus
reducing input capacitance and producing a compact
design. High efficiency and excellent thermal performance
make it possible to handle the total maximum power of
103W in a 4-layer PCB at 11cm × 11cm.
SOFT-START
INPUT
OUTPUT 1
LTM4601
TRACKING
OUTPUT 2
LTM4601*
LTC6902
QUAD MULTIPHASE
OSCILLATOR
TRACKING
LTM4601*
OUTPUT 3
TRACKING
LTM4601*
OUTPUT 4
*OR USE THE LTM4601-1
DN411 F03
Figure 3. Simplified Schematic of a Compact 4-Output Point-of-Load DC/DC µModule Converter Solution. The LTC6902
Interleaves the Operating Waveforms of the Four µModule Converters, So That the Ripple Currents Cancel Each Other.
This Significantly Reduces the Size of the Required Input Capacitors. Start-Up and Shutdown Voltage Rracking Is Simply
Accomplished by Connecting the Output of the 3.3V µModule (Output 1) to the Other µModule Converters
3.3V
2.5V
500mV/DIV
1.8V
1.5V
PLLN OF
3.3V OUTPUT
1V/DIV
50mA/DIV
AT 3.3V OUTPUT
INPUT
CURRENT
RIPPLES
20mA/DIV
AT 1.8V OUTPUT
10ms/DIV
DN411 F04
Figure 4. Start-Up Voltage Waveforms of the Circuit in
Figure 1 Show Coincident Tracking of the Outputs
0.5µs/DIV
DN411 F05
Figure 5. Input Current Ripple Is Reduced by
Interleaving the Operation of the Supplies Using
Frequency Synchronization
Data Sheet Download
www.linear.com/micromodule
Linear Technology Corporation
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 2593
dn411f LT 0307 409K • PRINTED IN THE USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
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 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2007
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