Application Notes

AN10910
Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging
topologies with external bypass transistors
Rev. 2 — 23 June 2011
Application note
Document information
Info
Content
Keywords
BISS, MOSFET-Schottky, low VCEsat, battery charger, Li-Ion battery
(Li-polymer battery), overvoltage protection, reverse polarity protection,
ESD protection
Abstract
This application note illustrates how to protect a mobile device charger
port against overvoltage and reverse polarity and gives an overview of
typical battery charging topologies and how to use NXP Semiconductors
protection devices, bipolar and MOS transistors.
AN10910
NXP Semiconductors
Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging topologies
Revision history
Rev
Date
2
20110623
1
20100428
Description
•
•
Table “Document information” updated
Section 7 “Appendix” updated
Initial version
Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
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Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging topologies
1. Introduction
This application note describes a complete solution for battery charging in mobile devices.
This includes how to charge a Li-Ion battery with typical battery charger topologies,
particularly with external bypass transistors and ways to effectively protect against
overvoltage and overcurrent from the charger connector.
2. Battery charging via USB interface
2.1 Chinese battery charging standard (YDT1591-2006)
This standard describes an AC-to-DC power adapter with a standard USB type A output
connector, allowing different vendors to share common AC-to-DC adapters or allow the
handset to be charged via a standard PC USB port.
This will enable customers to carry only one cable to charge their handsets when USB
ports are available.
The idea behind this is to reduce the overall volume of AC-to-DC adapters, reduce the Bill
Of Material (BOM) cost and improve the “think green” factor.
The electrical specifications of the common AC-to-DC adapters are:
• 5 V output voltage (5% tolerance)
• 300 mA to 1800 mA charging current (PC USB port can offer 500 mA/900 mA)
• included overvoltage protection for voltages higher than 6 V
The battery charger circuit is located in the handset. To make sure that the handset can
draw more than 500 mA (five unit loads) from the power adapter, the D+ and D lines
must be shorted inside the adapter.
2.1.1 PC USB port
The power distribution of USB devices is divided into different classes. With this
separation the classes can be simplified into different unit loads. A unit load is defined to
be 100 mA in USB 2.0 and 150 mA into USB 3.0. After configuration the maximum
number of loads is five or six (500 mA or 900 mA) in USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 respectively.
For configuration, communication with a PC must often be established to ensure so-called
high-power, bus-powered function. A USB 3.0 port may support the USB charging
specifications (D+/D shorted).
Note that the USB 2.0 power distribution requirements are mandatory when a USB 3.0
device is operating in USB 2.0 modes (high-speed, full-speed or low-speed).
2.2 Micro-USB connector in smart phone
Beginning in 2010, with a deadline of 2012, all data transfer capable mobile handsets
must use a micro-USB connector as the battery charging interface.
This agreement was signed by ten supplier of mobile handsets and network service
providers in June 2009. In February 2009 seventeen partners published a memorandum
on a volunteer basis.
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The idea behind is similar to the chinese battery charging standard, where any device can
be charged by a common AC-to-DC adapter or a PC USB port.
Today’s mobile handset volume is between 350 million to 400 million units, with a renew
rate of approximately 180 million mobile handsets per year. 25% of today’s total volume
are capable of data communication or can be connected to a PC. In addition the energy
efficiency of the AC-to-DC adapter will be improved. All these changes will reduce up to
51.000 tonnes of excess AC-to-DC adapters.
2.3 VBUS electrical characteristics
Table 1.
DC electrical characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
4.45
5.25
V
4.0
-
V
Supply voltage
Downstream connector
bus supply voltage
VBUS
Upstream connector
bus supply voltage
VBUS
Supply current
ICCPRT
high-power hub port (out) supply current
500/900
-
mA
ICCUPT
low-power hub port (out) supply current
100/150
-
mA
ICCHPF
high-power function (in) supply current
-
500/900
mA
ICCLPF
low-power function (in) supply current
-
100/150
mA
ICCINIT
unconfigured function/hub (in) supply current
-
100/150
mA
ICCSH
suspended high-power device supply current
-
2.5
mA
2.4 General USB requirements
Depending on the communication speed of the USB interface, different prerequisites
apply for protection devices that are placed at this interface. Table 2 lists limits for
capacitive load on the differential data lines of the USB port.
Table 2.
USB differential data line requirements
Interface speed
maximum bit
rate
min
max
unit
Low speed
1.5 MB/s
200[1]
450[1]
pF
pF
Full speed
10 MB/s
-
150[2]
High speed
480 MB/s
-
3[3]
pF
-
0.5[3]
pF
Super speed
AN10910
Application note
5 GB/s
[1]
Total capacitance of cable and device on D+ or D lines
[2]
Total capacitance of a downstream facing port including cable connector and transceiver.
[3]
Approximate value. Not specified by the USB standard.
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Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging topologies
3. Charger interface and USB protection
Whether a mobile device is charged via the USB port or via a discrete charger connector
incorrect polarity or a too high voltage applied to this input poses a threat to the charger
circuit and the Power Management Unit (PMU) of the mobile device. In addition to the
danger of accidentally applying the wrong charging voltages, the USB/charger port can be
subject to ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) strikes.
USB / charger
connector
PMU /
charger control
Reverse-polarity- ,
overvoltage-,
E S Dprotec tion
Charger / VB us
DD+
V in
GND
ID
USB transceiver
GND
DD+
ID
GND
E S D-protection
Fig 1.
Charger interface and USB protection block diagram
As shown in Figure 1 a complete protection solution for the USB and charger port consists
of two blocks. The first block protects the USB VBUS or charger interface against reverse
polarity and overvoltage. The second block protects the USB data lines and the
downstream components against damage from ESD. The subsequent sections illustrate
the protection concepts of these blocks in more detail.
3.1 Reverse polarity protection
In case the charger voltage is accidentally supplied in reverse polarity a PMU and any
other downstream circuit needs to be properly protected in order to survive with no
damage. A simple and yet effective concept providing this functionality is depicted in
Figure 2.
USB / charger
connector
Fuse
Protection
Diode
Charger / VB us
PMU /
charger control
V in
GND
GND
Fig 2.
Reverse polarity protection operation
The positive voltage supplied to the GND input of the charger can pass through the
forward biased protection diode and the protective fuse, back to the charger negative
pole. In this concept the protection diode needs to be able to conduct high currents only
until the fuse clears. Fast reacting fuses can clear in 100 ms. Section 3.4 describes
protection diodes that are able to conduct up to 5 A for the necessary period of time.
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Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging topologies
The transient negative voltage that can be observed behind a diode used as reverse
polarity protection can be approximated below.
(1)
V diode =  I  R on  + V f
For a diode with Ron = 0,268  and Vf = 0.85 V that is operating forward biased in linear
region at room temperature, the resulting voltage for a current of I = 5 A is Vdiode = 1.65 V.
3.2 Overvoltage protection
Given the multitude of accessories that are available to replace originally supplied
chargers, the threat of a voltage being accidentally applied that is too high is omnipresent.
A simple solution means to limit the overvoltage is by adding a Zener diode with a
breakdown voltage above the required working voltage.
Figure 3 shows the operation principle of an overvoltage protection based on a Zener
diode. A high voltage applied to the charger / VBUS terminal sets the diode into breakdown
mode once the diode breakdown voltage is reached. Subsequently the voltage at the
PMU / charger input is limited to the breakdown voltage of the diode.
USB / charger
connector
Fuse
Protection
Diode
Charger / VB us
PMU /
charger control
V in
GND
GND
Fig 3.
Overvoltage protection operation
If not already present for reverse polarity protection (see Section 3.1), a fuse or Positive
Temperature Coefficient (PTC) element should be placed in the supply path. This limits
the current if, for example, defective charger supplying the primary voltage is connected
and the continuous current that passes via the Zener diode exceeds the limit imposed by
the maximum power dissipation.
3.3 USB data ESD protection
While for low speed and full speed USB the constraints for applying additional ESD
protection on the differential data lines are relaxed, a high-speed USB port specifies
additional capacitance to a much lower value.
3.3.1 Rail-to-rail concept for low capacitance ESD protection
A common architecture utilized to build low capacitance ESD protection devices is the
so-called ‘rail-to-rail’ diode concept, which shunts ESD transients from Input/Output (I/O)
lines into the ground or power supply “rails.”
While some implementations comprise simply of the rail-to-rail diodes themselves, the
typical NXP Semiconductors’ solution also contains an additional Zener diode in parallel
to the rail-to-rail diode string. This minimizes the clamping voltages by routing all ESD
current (positive and negative strikes) back to ground and also to eliminate external
components.
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Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging topologies
The principle of operation of the rail-to-rail concept is illustrated in Figure 4
a. Discharge path of negative ESD pulse
Fig 4.
b. Discharge path of positive ESD pulse
Rail-to-rail ESD protection concept
With the rail-to-rail concept, a negative ESD strike on the I/O pin will cause one rail-to-rail
diode (the lower diode at the flash sign in Figure 4, left side) to become forward biased,
thereby transferring the ESD strike through the lower diode to ground.
A positive discharge strike will cause the other rail-to-rail diode (the upper diode at the
flash sign in Figure 4, right side) to become forward biased transferring the discharge to
the cathode of the Zener diode that will clamp voltages exceeding its breakdown voltage
by the ESD strike to ground.
3.3.2 USB data line ESD protection with rail-to-rail devices
A common technique to provide such a low capacitive ESD protection, for example with a
line capacitance below 1.5 pF, is the rail-to-rail ESD protection architecture. Figure 5
shows how a four-channel rail-to-rail ESD protection device can be used to protect all the
lines of a USB On-The-Go (OTG) port.
USB
connector
V B us
V DD
D-
D-
D+
D+
ID
ID
GND
Fig 5.
USB
transceiver
GND
Four-channel rail-to-rail ESD protection
The influence of a low capacitance rail-to-rail protection device on the data transmission
can be very small. Figure 6 shows the eye diagram of a high-speed USB transmission
captured on the D+/D lines with and without 1 pF rail-to-rail ESD protection applied.
Comparing the two measurements illustrates that the influence of this kind of low
capacitance ESD protection is negligible.
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f = 480 MHz, V= 400 mV
(1) f = 480 MHz, V= 400 mV
a. Without ESD protection
Fig 6.
b. With 1 pF rail-to-rail ESD protection
High-speed USB eye diagrams
3.4 Protection devices
NXP offers a wide range of protection devices in order to protect against ESD,
overvoltage and reverse polarity at a charger interface. These products can be used to
realize simple but effective protection concepts as described in the previous section.
Table 5 in Section 7 lists a number of products that meet the special requirements of this
application.
One product in the comparison table that deserves special attention is IP4389CX4 as it
offers a complete reverse polarity and overvoltage protection solution by integrating a fast
reacting fuse.
Products that are ideally suited to protecting USB data lines are listed in Table 4 of
Section 7. Further information on USB data line protection can also be found in AN10753.
4. Li-Ion batteries
Li-Ion batteries have some advantages compared to Ni-based batteries, like NiCd or
NiMH batteries.
•
•
•
•
High average operating cell voltage of 3.6 V, instead of 1.2 V (Ni-based batteries)
High energy density - smaller and lighter batteries
Lower self-discharge rates
Little or no memory effect
For these reasons Li-Ion batteries are widely used in mobile applications. On the other
hand Li-Ion batteries must be protected against undervoltage, overvoltage, over current
and over temperature. Therefore battery management and system monitoring are built
into battery packs and most PMU also measure the battery temperature.
Li-Ion batteries need a different charging algorithm compared to Ni-based batteries. This
algorithm is called CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage)-algorithm.
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The CC/CV charging algorithm is shown in Figure 7.
Constant Current
region
V, I
Constant Voltage
region
VMAX
VBAT
Battery voltage
ICC
ICHG
Charge current
IMIN
tCHARGE
Fig 7.
tMAX time
Charging algorithm Li-Ion battery
The value of VMAX and ICC depends on the type of battery that is used. The maximum
charge rate in CC mode is 1C, where 1C indicates the capacity of the battery e.g.
1000 mAh. The value of VMAX is typically in the range of 4.1 to 4.2 volts.
During the CV mode the voltage is constant and the charge current decreases as the
battery is charged. There are two possibilities to terminate the charging process. First
when the charge current drops below the IMIN. Alternatively, a fixed total charging time
(tMAX) could be used to stop the charging process.
For the CC/CV charging, there are different modes available, depending on the PMU:
• Idle mode: No valid charger adapter is connected. Once a charger adapter is
detected most PMUs will enter the qualification mode. The PMU will return to Idle
mode when the end-of-charge condition is reached.
• Qualification mode: This mode is used for qualifying a discharged battery. Most
PMUs remain in qualification mode as long as the battery voltage is below the
VVERYLOWBAT-level, typically 2.7 V.
• Pre charge mode: After qualification mode the PMU will enter the pre charge mode.
A low charge current is used. Normally the battery is charged until the battery level is
higher than VLOWBAT and the fast charge mode will be activated.
• Fast charge mode (CC/CV): The battery will be charged with ICC charging rate until
the CV condition, VBAT > VMAX, is reached. CV mode will stop after the end-of-charge
condition is reached (IMIN or tMAX).
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5. Li-Ion battery charging topologies
There are several different battery technologies available in the market. This application
note highlights the battery chargers, that are using external pass elements. You can differ
between two main paths:
• Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) as pass element
– BJT as current regulator
– BJT as current regulator + MOSFET as control switch (load switch)
• MOSFET as pass element
– Single MOSFET-Schottky diode module
– Double MOSFET in back-to-back configuration
Often PMU with external bypass transistor are capable of driving a MOSFET. As an
alternative a lower cost bipolar transistor can be used. NXP Semiconductors low VCEsat
Breakthrough In Small Signal (BISS) transistor perform the same function as a MOSFET
at a lower cost, as an advantage there is no need for a blocking diode.
So a MOSFET-Schottky diode module or a double MOSFET can be replaced by a low
VCEsat BISS transistor and a resistor, if the PMU is capable of direct biasing the low VCEsat
BISS transistor.
5.1 Low VCEsat BISS transistors as pass element
The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is a current-driven device, compared to the
MOSFET which is a voltage-driven device. When designers want to use a BJT, as
replacement of the MOSFET, they have to understand the current limitations of the PMU.
To ensure the low VCEsat BISS transistor goes into saturation, the control pin of the PMU
must be able to supply the base current (IB), otherwise an additional control transistor
would be required.
For example:
• Charging current 1000 mA
• Worst case current gain (hFE) of 100
The control pin must be able to provide 10 mA for the low VCEsat BISS transistor.
Low VCEsat BISS transistors can be used in saturation mode and in linear mode. Both
modes will be shown in the next two chapters.
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5.1.1 BJT as current regulator
Fig 8.
PMU with external low VCEsat (BISS) pass transistor
In switched current sources the low VCEsat transistor is used in saturation mode, the
minimum gain should be taken into account, at 1 A the gain of the PBSS304PX is 200.
Therefore a minimum base current of 5 mA is needed, to ensure we will set the base
current to 10 mA. The additional resistor R2 should limit the maximum current of the drive
stage.
(2)
P tot = P T + P R
(3)
2
P tot =  I C  V CEsat  +  I B  R 
(4)
2
P tot =  1A  80mV  +  10mA  200  = 100mW
In linear mode the power dissipation of the low VCEsat BISS transistor increases due to
higher voltage drops across the collector-emitter junction. In this case the PMU has to
provide lower base currents compared to the switched mode. If the battery has to be
charged via the USB interface the maximum supply voltage is 5.25 V. In worst case the
minimum allowed battery voltage is 3.6 V, depends on the battery supplier specifications,
for fast charge-mode.
(5)
P tot
·
=  1A  1 65V  =  1 65W 
Therefore a package must be chosen that fits mechanically in the application and the
charging current must be adopted to the thermal capability of the transistor package.
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5.1.2 BJT - MOSFET as load switch
Fig 9.
PMU with external low VCEsat BISS pass transistor with additional small-signal
MOS control transistor
(6)
P tot = P T + P R + P M
(7)
2
P tot =  I C  V CEsat  +  I B  R  +
2
 IB
 R DSon
(8)
P tot
·
=  1A  80mV  +  10mA  200  +  10mA  390m  =  100 04mW 
2
2
5.2 MOSFETs as pass elements
Due to the fact that MOSFETs are voltage-driven, most PMUs will drive the MOSFET in a
switched-mode. In addition to a MOSFET there is a need for a blocking diode in series
connection to the MOSFET, because the body diode of each MOSFET conducts in
reverse mode to prevent any reverse current from the battery.
5.2.1 MOSFET-Schottky diode module solution
Fig 10. PMU with external pass MOSFET-Schottky diode module
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The typical power dissipation through the MOSFET-Schottky diode module can be
calculated as follows:
(9)
P tot = P T + P D
(10)
2
P tot =  I D  R DSon  +  I D  V F 
(11)
2
P tot =  1A  65m  +  1A  325mV  = 390mW
5.2.2 Double FET solution
Fig 11. PMU with external double MOSFET as pass element
By connecting the MOSFET in this configuration, the Schottky diode has been eliminated.
If both gates can be controlled independently, the PMU can control the charging current
and also the discharging current if the USB port has to supply power. It is a superior
solution compared to using a MOSFET-Schottky diode module, but it does cost more.
The typical power dissipation through the double MOSFET can be calculated as follows:
(12)
P tot = 2  P T
(13)
2
P tot = 2   I D  R DSon 
(14)
2
P tot = 2   1A  65m  = 130mW
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6. Conclusion
NXP Semiconductors offers a wide variety of low VCEsat BISS transistor, small signal
Trench MOSFET and Maximum Efficiency General Application (MEGA) Schottky rectifier
for Li-Ion battery charging applications in mobile device, as cellular phones, navigation
systems and low power mobile computing.
Every solution has it own advantage and disadvantage, so every proposal is specific to
customer’s requirements and often other products can fit in a given customer’s
application. The usage of a low VCEsat BISS transistor or a MOSFET / MOSFET-Schottky
diode module depends initially on the technology of the PMU. But with an extra
small-signal MOS, to control the base current, any MOSFET / MOSFET-Schottky diode
module can be replaced by low VCEsat BISS transistor.
NXP Semiconductors’ low VCEsat BISS is less sensitive to ESD damage compared to the
MOSFET without internal ESD protection. It has a lower turn on voltage (typical
VBE = 0.7 V) compared to a MOSFET (VGS = 1.8 V to 10 V). These advantages are very
attractive for low voltage, battery-driven devices like cell phones. Because of the blocking
voltages in both directions, the low VCEsat BISS transistors eliminate the need for a
blocking diode which is required when using a MOSFET, included in a MOSFET-Schottky
diode module.
The IP428x family is designed for the tough requirements of reverse polarity and
over-voltage protection. These products enable a simple and very effective protection
concept for mobile device charger inputs. A further simplified solution with even higher
integration density can be found in the IP4389CX4 which integrates a fast reacting fuse.
7. Appendix
Table 3.
Transistor product portfolio
Name
Description
Dimension [mm]
Package Release
PBSS304PD
PNP low VCEsat, VCEO = 80 V, IC = 3 A
2.9 x 1.5 x 1.0
SOT457
Released
PBSS304PX
PNP low VCEsat, VCEO = 60 V, IC = 4.2 A
4.5 x 2.5 x 1.5
SOT89
Released
PMV65XP
P-ch. MOSFET-Schottky, VDS = 20 V, RDSon= 65 m
2.9 x 1.3 x 1.0
SOT23
Released
PMN50XP
P-ch. MOSFET-Schottky, VDS = 20 V, RDSon = 48 m
2.9 x 1.5 x 1.0
SOT457
Released
PMZ390UN
N-ch. MOSFET, VDS = 30 V, RDSon = 390 m
1.0 x 0.6 x 0.5
SOT883
Released
PMFPB6545UP
P-ch. MOSFET-Schottky, VDS = 20 V, RDSon = 65 m,
VF = 455 mV
2.0 x 2.0 x 0.65
SOT1118 Released
PMFPB6532UP
P-ch. MOSFET-Schottky, VDS = 20 V, RDSon = 65 m,
VF = 325 mV
2.0 x 2.0 x 0.65
SOT1118 Released
PBSS5330X
PNP low VCEsat, VCEO = 30 V, IC = 3 A
4.5 x 2.5 x 1.5
SOT89
PBSS5330PA
PNP low VCEsat, VCEO = 30 V, IC = 3 A
2.0 x 2.0 x 0.65
SOT1061 Released
Released
PMR400UN
N-ch. MOSFET, VDS = 30 V, RDSon = 400 m
1.6 x 0.8 x 0.77
SOT416
PMDPB70XP
Double P-ch. MOSFET, VDS = 30 V, RDSon = 70 m
2.0 x 2.0 x 0.65
SOT1118 Dec. 2011
Released
PBSM5240PF
PNP low VCEsat, VCEO = 40 V, IC = 2 A
2.0 x 2.0 x 0.65
SOT1118 Released
2.0 x 2.0 x 0.65
SOT1118 Released
N-ch. MOSFET, VDS = 30 V, RDSon=400 m
PMDPB65UP
AN10910
Application note
Double P-ch. MOSFET, VDS = 20 V, RDSon = 65 m
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Table 4.
ESD protection product portfolio
Name
Description
Dimension [mm] Package
Release
IP4221CZ6-S
VRWM = 5.5 V, Cd = 1.0 pF, VESD(max) = 8 kV, quad
1.45 x 1.0 x 0.5
Released
IP4221CZ6-XS
VRWM = 5.5 V, Cd = 1.0 pF, VESD(max) = 8 kV, quad
1.0 x 1.0 x 0.5
SOT891
Released
IP4282CZ6
VRWM = 5.5 V, Cd = 0.7 pF, VESD(max) = 8 kV, dual
1.45 x 1.0 x 0.5
SOT886
Released
IP4284CZ10-TB
VRWM = 5.5 V, Cch = 0.5 pF, VESD(max) = 8 kV, quad
2.5 x 1.0 x 0.5
SOT1059 Released
IP4059CX5
VRWM = 5.5 V, Cd = 3.0 pF, VESD(max) = 15 kV, triple
0.96 x 1.34 x 0.65 WLCSP5
Released
IP4359CX4/LF
VRWM = 5.5 V, Cd = 1.3 pF, VESD(max) = 15 kV, dual
0.91 x 0.91 x 0.65 WLCSP4
Released
PESD5V0F1BL
VRWM = 5.5 V, Cd = 0.4 pF, VESD(max) = 10 kV, single
1.0 x 0.6 x 0.5
SOD882
Released
PESD5V0X1BL
VRWM = 5 V, Cd = 0.9 pF, VESD(max) = 9 kV, single
1.0 x 0.6 x 0.5
SOD882
Released
PRTR5V0U2F
VRWM = 5 V, CL = 1.0 pF, VESD(max) = 8 kV, dual
1.45 x 1.0 x 0.5
SOT886
Released
Table 5.
SOT886
Reverse polarity and overvoltage protection product portfolio
Name
Description
Dimension [mm]
Package Release
IP4085CX4/LF
VRWM = 14 V, IPP(min) = 60 A, Ptot = 1 W, VESD(max) = 30 kV
0.91 x 0.91 x 0.65
WLCSP4 Released
IP4385CX4
VRWM = 5.5 V, IPP(min) = 33 A, Ptot = 0.7 W,
VESD(max) = 30 kV
0.76 x 0.75 x 0.61
WLCSP4 Released
IP4386CX4
VRWM = 14 V, IPP(min) = 28 A, Ptot = 0.7 W,
VESD(max) = 30 kV
0.76 x 0.75 x 0.61
WLCSP4 Released
IP4387CX4
VRWM = 8 V, IPP(min) = 33 A, Ptot = 0,7 W, VESD(max) = 30 kV 0.76 x 0.75 x 0.61
WLCSP4 Released
IP4389CX4
VRWM = 8 V, IPP(min) = 24 A, Ptot = 0.7 W, VESD(max) = 30 kV, 0.76 x 0.75 x 0.61
Ifuse(M) = 2 A, tfuse(max) = 100 ms
WLCSP4 Released
For further information, please visit the following web site:
www.nxp.com/applications/portable/cellular_phone_mms/index.html
8. References
[1]
AN10910
Application note
“PCF50603 Application Note” — Charging a Li-Ion battery with PCF50603, Philips
Semiconductors BL Power Management
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 2 — 23 June 2011
© NXP B.V. 2011. All rights reserved.
15 of 17
AN10910
NXP Semiconductors
Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging topologies
9. Legal information
9.1
Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of
use of such information.
9.2
Disclaimers
Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to
be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or
completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the
consequences of use of such information.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors be liable for any indirect, incidental,
punitive, special or consequential damages (including - without limitation - lost
profits, lost savings, business interruption, costs related to the removal or
replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such
damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of
contract or any other legal theory.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability towards
customer for the products described herein shall be limited in accordance
with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP Semiconductors.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in life support, life-critical or
safety-critical systems or equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected
to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental
damage. NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of
NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or applications and
therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications
and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP Semiconductors
accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or customer product
AN10910
Application note
design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine whether the NXP
Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the customer’s applications and
products planned, as well as for the planned application and use of
customer’s third party customer(s). Customers should provide appropriate
design and operating safeguards to minimize the risks associated with their
applications and products.
NXP Semiconductors does not accept any liability related to any default,
damage, costs or problem which is based on any weakness or default in the
customer’s applications or products, or the application or use by customer’s
third party customer(s). Customer is responsible for doing all necessary
testing for the customer’s applications and products using NXP
Semiconductors products in order to avoid a default of the applications and
the products or of the application or use by customer’s third party
customer(s). NXP does not accept any liability in this respect.
Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein
may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior
authorization from national authorities.
Evaluation products — This product is provided on an “as is” and “with all
faults” basis for evaluation purposes only. NXP Semiconductors, its affiliates
and their suppliers expressly disclaim all warranties, whether express, implied
or statutory, including but not limited to the implied warranties of
non-infringement, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The
entire risk as to the quality, or arising out of the use or performance, of this
product remains with customer.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors, its affiliates or their suppliers be liable
to customer for any special, indirect, consequential, punitive or incidental
damages (including without limitation damages for loss of business, business
interruption, loss of use, loss of data or information, and the like) arising out
the use of or inability to use the product, whether or not based on tort
(including negligence), strict liability, breach of contract, breach of warranty or
any other theory, even if advised of the possibility of such damages.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever (including without limitation, all damages referenced above and
all direct or general damages), the entire liability of NXP Semiconductors, its
affiliates and their suppliers and customer’s exclusive remedy for all of the
foregoing shall be limited to actual damages incurred by customer based on
reasonable reliance up to the greater of the amount actually paid by customer
for the product or five dollars (US$5.00). The foregoing limitations, exclusions
and disclaimers shall apply to the maximum extent permitted by applicable
law, even if any remedy fails of its essential purpose.
9.3
Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks
are the property of their respective owners.
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 2 — 23 June 2011
© NXP B.V. 2011. All rights reserved.
16 of 17
AN10910
NXP Semiconductors
Protecting charger interfaces and typical battery charging topologies
10. Contents
1
2
2.1
2.1.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.4
4
5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
6
7
8
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
10
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Battery charging via USB interface . . . . . . . . . 3
Chinese battery charging standard
(YDT1591-2006) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
PC USB port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Micro-USB connector in smart phone. . . . . . . . 3
VBUS electrical characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
General USB requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Charger interface and USB protection. . . . . . . 5
Reverse polarity protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Overvoltage protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
USB data ESD protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Rail-to-rail concept for low capacitance ESD
protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
USB data line ESD protection with rail-to-rail
devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Protection devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Li-Ion batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Li-Ion battery charging topologies. . . . . . . . . 10
Low VCEsat BISS transistors as pass element 10
BJT as current regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
BJT - MOSFET as load switch . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
MOSFETs as pass elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
MOSFET-Schottky diode module solution . . . 12
Double FET solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Legal information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Trademarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’.
© NXP B.V. 2011.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 23 June 2011
Document identifier: AN10910
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