Application Note 650V CoolMOS™ CFDA

AN-HV-10-2013-V0.5-EN-054
CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for automotive
About this document
Scope and purpose
Nowadays, there is a growing need of resonant topologies in automotive applications, in topologies like main
inverter, DC-DC converter, flyback converter, LLC resonant topologies, HID lighting and onboard battery
charger. This application note sets its focus on describing the CoolMOS™ CFDA[1] generation of superjunction
MOSFETs[2] which is especially optimized for these applications and is also suitable for non-resonant topologies
giving a higher margin in repetitive hard commutation of the body diode limited by the junction temperature.
Additionally the CFDA automotive qualified generation are the first 650 V high voltage devices on the market
with an integrated fast body diode. This paper will prove that the two major goals, high efficiency and high
reliability, are completely reached and Infineon Technologies sets a new reference in the market for high
voltage automotive qualified MOSFETs. Furthermore, a detailed comparison between CFDA and the former
CoolMOS™ generations CPA and C3A will be demonstrated in different kind of application conditions.
Intended audience
This application note was designed to give an engineer the opportunity to see improvements of the CFDA
automotive qualified CoolMOS™ family in comparison to CPA and C3A CoolMOS™ families.
Table of contents
About this document ............................................................................................................................................. 1
Table of contents ................................................................................................................................................... 1
1
1.1
1.1.1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction to superjunction MOSFET.................................................................................................. 3
Superjunction principle ..................................................................................................................... 4
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.5
2.6
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA .............................................................................................. 7
Voltage rating (V(BR)DSS) ............................................................................................................................. 7
Key parameter comparision CFDA .......................................................................................................... 7
Internal gate resistor Rg,int , selflimiting di/dt and dv/dt ........................................................................ 8
Diode reverse recovery charge; time and current (Qrr, trr, Irrm) ............................................................... 9
Dependence of Qrr and trr with temperature ................................................................................... 12
Dependence of Qrr and trr with RDS(on), comparison with CFD device .............................................. 12
Commutation behaviour (hard switching of fast body diode) ............................................................ 14
Input gate charge (Qg) ........................................................................................................................... 16
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Circuit design and layout recommendations for CFDA ..................................................................... 19
Control dv/dt and di/dt by proper selection of external gate resistor Rg,ext ........................................ 19
Minimize parasitic gate-drain board capacitance ............................................................................... 20
Use gate ferrite beads ........................................................................................................................... 20
Locate gate drivers and gate turn-off components as close as possible to the gate ......................... 20
Use symmetrical layout for paralleling MOSFETs, and good isolation of gate drive between FETs .. 20
How to make best use of the high performance of CoolMOSTM CFDA ................................................. 20
4
4.1
Specific target applications ............................................................................................................. 23
HID lighting bridge ................................................................................................................................ 23
Application Note
Please read the Important Notice and Warnings at the end of this document
www.infineon.com/CFDA
Revision 0.5
2015-11-16
CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Introduction
4.2
DC-DC Converter (ZVS phase shifted full bridge) ................................................................................. 26
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Detailed explanations ...................................................................................................................... 30
Cosmic radiation impact ....................................................................................................................... 30
Operation in linear mode ...................................................................................................................... 30
Parallel operation of power MOSFETS ................................................................................................. 30
Recommendations for electrical safety and isolation in high voltage applications .......................... 30
Further datasheet explanation automotive MOSFETS ........................................................................ 30
General recommendations for assembly of Infineon packages .......................................................... 30
6
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 31
7
Product portfolio and naming system.............................................................................................. 32
8
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................. 34
9
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 36
Revision History ................................................................................................................................................... 36
Application Note
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Introduction
1
Introduction
According to the construction of the MOSFET different theoretical improvements will be analyzed and verified
by measurements. These improvements are for example a significant reduction of reverse parameters like the
QG[3], trr[4]and Qrr[5] values, cost down for customers and other features and benefits which will be described in
the next chapters of this application note. The following table shows the typical topologies and applications in
which this product comes into operation.
Table 1
Target topologies and applications
Topology
Application
[6]
DC-DC converter as ZVS full bridge
ZVS phase shifted full bridge
DC-DC converter
On-board / off-board battery charger
LLC resonant topology
HID[7] lighting lamp ballast
LED[8] lighting
H4 bridge
DC-DC converter, HID[7] lighting
DC-DC converter
Flyback
PFC stages
Now that the target topologies and applications are listed, the table below illustrates the features and benefits
of the CFDA.
Table 2
Main features and benefits
Features
Benefits
less gate drive capability necessary
Significant QG reduction
reduced turn ON and turn OFF time (better usage for
ZVS window)
Reduced Qrr[9]
repetitive hard commutation (limited by Tjunction[10])
Defined trr,max and Qrr,max values
design advantages
Overall
Automotive qualification and lower price compared
to C3[11] technology based industrial CFD family
The CFDA is based on the C6[12] technology which, therefore, includes all improvements of the C6 technology
compared to the previous C3 technology (the C3 technology is described in a comparison in the Infineon
application note AN 2010-11: “650 V CoolMOSTM C6/E6”, see:
http://www.infineon.com/dgdl/Infineon-ApplicationNote_PowerMOSFETs_650VCoolMOSC6E6.pdf
1.1
Introduction to superjunction MOSFET
With the increasing demand for higher power density, especially soft switching topologies like half bridge (e.g.
HID half bridge or LLC) and full bridge concepts (e.g. ZVS bridge) seem to be the ideal solution. These
topologies reduce the switching losses and increase the reliability of the system due to less dynamic di/dt and
dv/dt stress on the power device. Such high stresses occur predominantly in light-load operation [1]. It is
already shown that superjunction devices like the CoolMOS™ help to overcome this problem by inherent
optimized charge carrier removal during reverse recovery and eliminating the problem of latch-up of the
parasitic npn-bipolar transistor [1]. A significant reduction of the reverse recovery charge can be achieved by an
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Introduction
enhanced recombination rate of the injected carriers resulting in lower reverse recovery peak currents during
turn-off and strongly reduced reverse recovery charge by almost a factor of 10. For optimized body diode
(Figure 1) performance in hard switching conditions, especially the shape of the resulting reverse recovery
waveform and the design conditions of the printed circuit board are important [2],[3]. The new CoolMOS™ 650 V
CFDA is designed in this manner with improved reverse recovery behaviour together with increased safety
margin in breakdown voltage, compared to the former Infineon CoolMOS™ family of CPA type.
Figure 1
Schematic cross section of the CoolMOS™ high voltage power MOSFET and its integral body diode
1.1.1
Superjunction principle
The Infineon CoolMOSTM technology is a revolutionary approach for high voltage power MOSFETs and designed
according to the superjunction (SJ) principle [4], which in turn is based on the RESURF [5] ideas being
successfully used for decades in lateral power MOSFETs. Conventional power MOSFETs suffer from the
limitation of the so-called silicon limit [6], which means that doubling the voltage blocking capability typically
leads to an increase in the on-state resistance by a factor of five. The silicon limit is shown in Figure 2, where the
area specific on-state resistance of state-of-the-art standard MOSFETs as well are indicated. SJ technology may
lower the on-state resistance of a power MOSFET virtually towards zero. The basic idea is to allow the current to
flow from top to bottom of the MOSFET in very high doped vertically arranged regions. In other words, a lot
more charge is available for current conduction compared to what is the case in a standard MOSFET structure.
In the blocking state of the SJ MOSFET, the charge is counterbalanced by exactly the same amount of charge of
the opposite type. The two charges are separated locally in the device by a very refined technology, and the
resulting structure shows a laterally stacked fine-pitched pattern of alternating arranged p- and n-areas, see
Figure 3. The finer the pitch can be made, the lower the on-state resistance of the device will be. With every
CoolMOSTM generation the pitch is reduced, moving ever closer to the zero resistance point without losing
voltage blocking capability.
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Introduction
12
RDSon*A [Ohm*mm2]
10
Si Limit
State-of-the-art
standard MOSFETs
8
CoolMOSTM C3
6
Previous Version
4
CoolMOSTM CP
2
0
400
500
600
700
Current Super
Junction
800
900
Breakdown Voltage [V]
Figure 2
Area-specific RDS(on) [1] versus breakdown voltage for standard MOSFET and CoolMOSTM
Figure 3
Schematic cross-section of a standard power MOSFET versus a superjunction MOSFET
Another signature of SJ technology is the extremely fast switching speed. The turn-off behaviour of a SJ
MOSFET is not characterized by the relatively slow voltage driven vertical expansion of the space charge layer
but by a sudden nearly intrinsic depletion of the laterally stacked p-n structure. This unique behaviour makes
the device very fast. The neutralization of these depletion layers is done via the MOS controlled turn-on of the
load current for the n-areas and via a voltage driven drift current for the p-areas. SJ devices reach therefore
theoretical switching speeds in the range of few nanoseconds.
Figure 4 shows a comparison of the figure-of-merit RDS(on)*Qg between the most advanced MOSFET technologies
available in the market today.
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Introduction
Gen 1
25
Gen 2
20
Gen 2
10
CP
650 V
Gen 1
CFDA
5
Gen 1
15
C3
FOM = Rdson, max *Qg [Ohm*nC]
30
0
Infineon 600V
Figure 4
Other SJ MOS 600V Other SJ MOS 600V
Best conventional
MOS 600V
Comparison of figure-of-merit RDS(on),max*QG for most advanced 600 V MOSFETs available in the
market, vs. Infineon industrial families (600 V) and automotive CFDA family (650 V)
The listed CoolMOS™ families CP and C3 shown in Figure 4 above are cross reference industrial types and
comparable with the related (automotive qualified) CPA and C3A families according to the FOM (figure-ofmerit).
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
2
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
This chapter is going to analyze the most important differences between the high voltage CoolMOS™ families:
CFDA (C6 CoolMOS™ technology based, automotive qualified), C3 and C3A (both C3 CoolMOS™ technology
based, C3 industrial qualified, C3A automotive qualified) and CPA (C5 CoolMOS™ technology based,
automotive qualified).
2.1
Voltage rating (V(BR)DSS)
As visible in the datasheet there is a minimum drain-source breakdown voltage (V(BR)DSS)[13] of 600 V for CPA,
650 V of CFDA and 800 V for C3A. The 650 V CFDA family is going to complement the 600 V CPA family. This
increase of the breakdown voltage was decided to address the automotive market which needs 650 V devices.
This requirement is claimed to have a higher margin on the input stage of a DC-DC converter due to the
occurring voltage peaks at the DC link.
2.2
Key parameter comparision CFDA
Below is a comparison of typical key parameters for the CFDA family vs. CPA and C3A family, based on a
reference type with an RDS(on) of approximately 190 mΩ.
Table 3
Key parameter comparison CFDA versus C3A/CPA families
Specification
Symbol
CFDA
C3A
CPA
Breakdown voltage (Drain
– Source)
V(BR)DSS
650 V
800 V
600 V
Reference type
on-state resistance,
maximum rating,
25°C
RDS(on)
190 mΩ
190 mΩ
199 mΩ
Drain current rating, max.
ID
17.5 A
20.7 A
16.0 A
Pulse current rating, max.
ID,pulse
57.2 A
62.1 A
51.0 A
Typ. gate source charge
QGS
12 nC
11 nC
8 nC
Typ. gate drain charge
QGD
37 nC
33 nC
11 nC
Total gate charge
QG
68 nC
87 nC
32 nC
Gate Miller-plateau
VPlateau
6.4 V
5.5 V
5V
Energy stored in output
capacitance @400 V
EOSS
5.7 µJ
10 µJ
7.5 µJ
Gate threshold voltage
min. ... max.
Vthr
3.5 / 4.5 V
2.1 / 3.9
2.5 / 3.5 V
Body diode, reverse
recovery charge
Qrr
0.7 µC
11 µC
5.5 µC
Body diode, di/dt
dIF /dt
900 A / µs
400 A / µs
200 A / µs
Body diode, dv/dt
dV /dt
50 V /ns
4 V /ns
15 V /ns
Note: Listed values for the 190 mΩ reference type in C3A family column (grey marked) are taken from the C3 family
(equates to corresponding non automotive C3 Industrial type of same technology), for performance
comparison only.
Application Note
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
2.3
Internal gate resistor Rg,int , selflimiting di/dt and dv/dt
CoolMOS™ CFDA comes with an integrated gate resistor in order to achieve self-limiting di/dt and dv/dt
characteristics. Internal gate resistors have the advantage to be a low inductive type and lead to the self
limiting di/dt and dv/dt.
This integrated RG,int [23] allows fast turn ON and turn OFF at normal operating current conditions but limits the
di/dt and dv/dt in case of peak current conditions. The values of integrated RG,int [23] scales inversely with the gate
charge respectively device capacitances.
650 V CFDA integrated gate resistor
7
6
RG,int [Ω]
5
4
3
2
1
0
48
80
110
150
190
310
420
660
RDS(on) [mΩ]
Figure 5
Integrated gate resistor (Rg,int) for CoolMOS™ CFDA family
The CFDA devices with RDS(on) values below 150 mΩ come with no built-in gate resistances. Low RDS(on) values
require larger silicon area and thus exhibit larger device capacitances. For those parts it is usually not necessary
to additionally limit the di/dt and dv/dt values. Low ohmic CFDA parts are therefore ideally suited for
applications with highest efficiency requirements, like e.g. DC-DC converters.
Please note that the listed internal gate resistor RG,int in Figure 5 above is showing the sum of all internal gate
resistor parts (build-in gate resistor, bond wire, bond finger, solder resistance etc.). In the application the
additional external gate resistor RG,ext[25]allows to control the final dv/dt.
The CFDA is designed for “ease-of-use” feature and provides a stable switching behaviour. Due to its self
limiting behaviour the C6 technology can be easier implemented in a parasitic layout environment. These easeof-use requirements are: the Crss[24]of C6 is close to C3A level, and the implementation of an internal gate
resistor brings the advantage of stable switching, and switching losses are comparable to C3A. As the CFDA is
based on the C6 technology, it also shows a stable and self-limiting switching behaviour and is easy to designin, even in layouts which are not perfectly optimized with respect to their parasitic environment.
The following diagrams, in Figure 6, represent the CFDA CoolMOS™ switching behaviour for the 80 mΩ type
PW65R080CFDA:
 di/dt and dv/dt , for turn OFF slopes
 di/dt and dv/dt , for turn ON slopes
All combined with different external gate resistors Rg,ext[25].
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
Figure 6
CoolMOSTM CFDA measurements for di/dt and dv/dt (OFF / ON slopes)
After the analysis of the most important improvements this application note is going to describe some
measurements of CFDA in target applications, see:
 Chapter 4.1(HID lighting bridge)
 Chapter 4.2 (DC-DC Converter (ZVS phase shifted full bridge))
2.4
Diode reverse recovery charge; time and current (Qrr, trr, Irrm)
Compared to CFD/C3 industrial family, the Qrr of CFDA was further reduced. As consequence trr34[19] is shortened
and the Irrm[20] is also reduced which brings a higher margin in repetitive hard commutation of the body diode
limited by the junction temperature which is allowed by the datasheet. Figure 7 shows the improved behaviour
of a lowered Qrr in a theoretical way.
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
Figure 7
Simplified ID waveform depending on Qrr, trr, Irrm
Figure 9 illustrates the Qrr value of CFDA in comparison to a CFD/C3 industrial type and a competitor technology
by showing the example of an 80 mΩ product. It is visible that CFDA has the lowest Qrr values from 10 A to 25 A
in a half bridge configuration with a supply voltage of 400 V, like seen in Figure 8. The high side switch is used to
load the inductance to the specified current. After switching OFF the high side MOSFET current is commutating
to the body diode of the low side MOSFET which corresponds to the DUT (device under test).
SWITCH
10Ω
250µH
400V
DUT
Figure 8
Half bridge configuration
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
Qrr comparison - half-bridge configuration
2,5
Qrr [µC]
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
10
20
25
CURRENT [A]
CFDA (IPW65R080CFDA)
Figure 9
CFD (SPW47N60CFD)
Competitor
Qrr comparison of low side MOSFET in a half bridge configuration
Furthermore, due to an improved production process of the CFDA the trr and Qrr values will be given in the
datasheet which results in a major benefit in the design of e.g. HID lamp ballast applications, where the
reduced Qrr and trr is also of advantage. An HID application example is listed in Chapter 4, Specific target
applications.
The absolute measured reverse recovery behaviour of the new CoolMOS™ 650 V CFD(A) is shown in Figure 10. It
appears that the new CoolMOS™ 650 V CFDA devices have a very low reverse recovery charge Qrr, reverse
recovery time trr and reverse recovery current Irrm when compared to the standard CFD device.
Figure 10
Measured reverse recovery waveforms at di/dt = 100A/µs, 25°C, Vr = 400 V. The new CFDA device
(red curve) shows very low Qrr, trr and Irrm compared to the standard CFD device (blue curve).
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
Additional the blue standard CFD device shows a waveform with a hard slope transition. In comparison, the red
waveforms of the new CFDA device shows a soft slope characteristic, in spite of the strongly reduced Qrr, trr and
Irrm. This characteristic is highly desirable during hard commutation in order to avoid voltage overshoot and to
ensure reliable device operation.
2.4.1
Dependence of Qrr and trr with temperature
Of importance for the designer is the dependence of Qrr and trr on temperature. The Qrr and trr values tend to
increase with temperature, due to increased carrier generation in the device. This dependence is shown in
Figure 11 for the 310 mΩ 650 V CFDA type. An almost linear increase of Qrr and trr with temperature is observed.
160
0.9
0.8
150
0.7
140
0.6
130
trr (ns)
0.5
120
0.4
0.3
110
0.2
trr
100
0.1
Qrr
90
0
20
Figure 11
Qrr (µC)
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
T(°C)
100
110
120
130
140
Dependence of Qrr and Trr with temperature, for the 310 mΩ CFDA device
2.4.2
Dependence of Qrr and trr with RDS(on), comparison with CFD device
Another important aspect to be considered is the dependence of Qrr and trr on the devices RDS(on). This can be
seen in Figure 12 and Figure 13 respectively, where the new 650 V CFDA device is compared with the former
Infineon’s CoolMOS™ CFD (non automotive, fast diode) technology.
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
2.5
CFD
CFDA
2
1.5
Qrr (µC)
1
0.5
0
0
Figure 12
100
200
300
400
RDS(on) (mΩ)
500
600
700
Dependency of Qrr versus RDS(on), measured at 25°C and for the 80 mΩ, 310 mΩ and 660 mΩ 650 V
CFDA devices , in comparison with the former 600 V industrial CFD (non automotive) technology
230
CFD
CFDA
210
190
170
trr (ns)
150
130
110
90
70
50
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
RDS(on) (mΩ)
Figure 13
Dependence of trr on RDS(on), measured at 25°C and for the 80 mΩ, 310 mΩ and 660 mΩ 650 V CFDA
devices in comparison with the former 600 V industrial (non automotive) CFD technology
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
The new 650 V CFDA device clearly offers an even better trade-off than the former technology between
dynamical characteristics (Qrr,trr) and lowest RDS(on).
2.5
Commutation behaviour (hard switching of fast body diode)
The behaviour analyzed in Chapter 2.4 brings a more stable and rugged behaviour during commutation of the
body diode. The following figure represents the maximum VDS overshoot (VDS,max[22]) which occurs during
commutation. Root is a voltage drop over inductances in the commutation loop, due to a change in the slope of
the body diode current.
Figure 14
Measured VDS,max in a half bridge configuration represented in Figure 16 of the IPW65R080CFDA
Parameter:
 Y (C1, brown, Current) 10 A/div.
 Y (C4, green, VDS) 100 V/div
 X 200 ns/div
 Delta t (b-a) 107.9 ns
This waveform was acquired in a half bridge configuration where the low side MOSFET is the device under test
which is shown in Figure 16. This figure also illustrates the values of VDS,max of CFDA (at temperature Tj = 25ºC) in
comparison to industrial CFD type and a comparable competitor product with a maximum RDS(on) of 80 mΩ.
Application Note
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
SWITCH
10Ω
100µH
400 V
DUT
10Ω
Figure 15
Half bridge configuration
Commutation with DUT = Switch R g,ext = 10 Ω
700
VDS,max [V]
650
over V(BR)DSS limit
for a 600V device
600
550
500
450
400
0
5
10
15
20
25
IDIODE [A]
IPW65R080CFDA 10R
Figure 16
SPW47N60CFD 10R
Competitor 2 10R
VDS,max comparison CFDA, CFD and Competitor 2
Figure 16 describes that even when reaching high loads (20 A) the CFDA has a voltage peak of only at about
535 V which is at about 115 V lower than the maximum breakdown voltage of 650 V (only CFDA). As can be seen
in the diagram the competitor product reaches approximately 700 V at this high current which is 100 V higher
than the breakdown voltage of the product (V(BR)DSS = 600 V) which could lead to the failure of the device.
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
The commutation ruggedness of the CoolMOS™ 650 V CFDA device is demonstrated in reverse recovery
measurements in Figure 17, where the devices were tested up to di/dt ≈ 2000 A/µs.
500
40
Vr
If
400
30
20
Test Conditions:
Vr=400V, If=12A, Tj=125°C
di / dt = 1000 A/µs
200
10
100
0
0
I [A]
U [V]
300
-10
0.6
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.68
-100
0.7
0.72
0.74
-20
t [µs]
Figure 17
Measured reverse recovery waveforms for the new CoolMOS™ 650 V CFDA device. The devices
could not be destroyed even at the maximum capability of the tester.
No device could be destroyed under these conditions and the waveforms show still a soft characteristic,
compared to snappy waveforms for other superjunction devices. This is a clear advantage for the designer,
once one can optimize its application for maximum performance without being concerned with device
destruction during hard commutation of the body diode.
2.6
Input gate charge (Qg)
This section of the application note will describe another improvement of the CFDA family, the reduced Qg
compared to the industrial types C3, automotive types C3A and CFD types. The following figure describes what
happens if the MOSFET has a lower Qg.
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Main differences of CFDA vs. C3A / CPA
Figure 18
Simplified Gate charge
Figure 19
Simplified small signal MOSFET equivalent circuit
As visible in Figure 18 due to a reduced gate charge it is possible to switch the device ON and OFF faster or
reach the same performance with lower driver capability. The length of the Miller-plateau is dependent on the
relation between the internal CGS[14] and CGD[15]. “In order to simplify the clarification of the Miller-plateau it is
assumed that the voltage supply has a value of 400 V and the gate driver is represented as a constant current
source. During t0 till t2 the current from the gate driver is charging CGS and discharging CGD. Directly after t2 the
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CoolMOS™ CFDA
650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Table of contents
MOSFET switches ON and VDS decreases to nearly 0 V. At this time the VGS[16] has the value of about 6.3 V (this is
an assumed value for easier description). During the period from t2 to t3 when VDS[17] drops from a supply
voltage of 400 V, CGD has to be discharged until the voltage over CGD reaches 6.4 V. Because CGD is discharged
from 393.7 V to -6.3 V a lot of energy is needed from the driver. For this reason CGS cannot be charged due to the
fact that nearly the whole current from the driver flows through CGD until t3. From t3 to t4 VDS stays constant at
nearly 0 V and the current from the driver is able to charge CGS until the defined voltage is reached.”[7]
As mentioned before it is possible to switch the MOSFET ON and OFF faster, which leads to a wider window to
achieve zero voltage switching. The next figure is going to represent this behaviour in a theoretical way where
only the Qg is decreasing and all other characteristics of the same part stay the same.
Figure 20
Simplified ZVS window (switch ON), depending on Qg at same delay time
Figure 20 illustrates that with a lower Qg a larger ZVS window is given with the same delay time at turning OFF.
Due to this behaviour it is also possible to decrease the delay time which also gives the benefit of a shortening
of the conduction time of the body diode. For example, in a phase shifted full bridge this allows to use a higher
duty cycle and therefore an efficiency improvement.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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3
Circuit design and layout recommendations for CFDA
As the CFDA CoolMOS™ family is based on the C6 technology, it also shows a stable and self-limiting switching
behaviour and is easy to design in, even in layouts that are not perfectly optimized with respect to their
parasitic environment. Although the CFDA switching behaviour is helping for a design in when compared to the
CPA CoolMOS™ family, it is recommended that some layout considerations are regarded ensuring a proper
functionality.
There are a number of recommendations to make with regards to circuit design and layout practices which will
assure a combination of high performance and reliability. They can be recommended as if “in order of
importance”, but realistically all are important, both in contribution toward circuit stability and reliability as
well as overall efficiency and performance. They are not that dissimilar to recommendations made for the
introduction of MOSFETs compared to bipolar transistors, or CoolMOS™ compared with standard MOSFETs; it is
a matter of the degree of care.
3.1
Control dv/dt and di/dt by proper selection of external gate resistor Rg,ext
In order to exert full Rg control on the device maximum turn-off dv/dt we recommend the following procedure:
1. Check for highest peak current in the application
2. Choose external Rg,ext accordingly not to exceed 50 V/ns
3. At normal operation condition quasi ZVS condition can be expected, which gives best efficiency results
For the CFDA CoolMOS™ family, detailed information for the switching characteristics of the CFDA family can be
found in chapter 2.3, Internal gate resistor Rg,int , selflimiting di/dt and dv/dt.
There are listed diagrams which are representing the CFDA CoolMOS™ related switching behaviour:
 di/dt and dv/dt , for turn ON slopes, and
 di/dt and dv/dt , for turn OFF slopes ,
All with different external gate resistors Rg,ext[25] , see Figure 6 in Chapter 2.3.
Table 4
CFDA CoolMOS™ Internal Gate Resistor Rg,int (all values = total sum of all internal gate resistor
parts)
CoolMOSTM Type
RG,int
(typ.)
IPx65R190CFDA
1.5 
IPx65R150CFDA
1.5 
IPx65R110CFDA
1.3 
IPx65R080CFDA
0.75 
IPx65R048CFDA
0.6 
IPx65R660CFDA
6.5 
IPx65R310CFDA
4.5 
IPx65R420CFDA
4.0 
Internal gate resistors have the advantage to be a low inductive type and lead to self limiting di/dt and dv/dt.
The listed internal gate resistor Rg,int in Table 4 above, is the sum of all internal gate resistor parts (build-in
resistor, bond wire, bond finger and solder resistance). In the application the additional external gate resistor
Rg,ext allows to control the final dv/dt.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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3.2
Minimize parasitic gate-drain board capacitance
Particular care must be spent on the coupling capacitances between gate and drain traces on the PCB. As fast
switching MOSFETs are capable to reach extremely high dv/dt values any coupling of the voltage rise at the
drain into the gate circuit may disturb proper device control via the gate electrode. As the CoolMOSTM CFDA
series reaches low values of the internal CGD capacitance (Crss in datasheet), we recommend keeping layout
coupling capacitances below the internal capacitance of the device to exert full device control via the gate
circuit. Figure 21 shows a good example, where the gate and drain traces are either perpendicular to each other
or go into different directions with virtually no overlap or paralleling to each other. A “bad” layout example is
shown as reference to the good layout in Figure 23.
If possible, use source foils or ground-plane to shield the gate from the drain connection.
3.3
Use gate ferrite beads
We recommend the use of ferrite beads in the gate as close as possible to the gate electrode to suppress any
spikes, which may enter from drain dv/dt into the gate circuit. As the ferrite bead sees a peak pulse current
determined by external Rg and gate drive, it should be chosen for this pulse current. Choose the ferrite bead
small enough in order not to slow down normal gate waveforms but with enough attenuation to suppress
potential spikes at peak load current conditions. A suitable example is Murata BLM41PG600SN1, in an 1806 SMD
package. It is rated for 6 A current and a DCR of 10 mΩ, with about 50-60 Ω effective attenuation above 100 MHz.
3.4
Locate gate drivers and gate turn-off components as close as possible to
the gate
Always locate the gate drive as close as possible to the driven MOSFET and the gate resistor in close proximity
of the gate pin (as an example, see R1 in Figure 21). This prevents it acting as an antenna for capacitive coupled
signals. The controller/IC driver should be capable of providing a strong “low” level drive with voltage as near
to ground as possible - MOS or bipolar/MOS composite output stages work well in that regard, due to low
output saturation voltages. While some drivers may be deemed to have sufficient margin under static or “DC”
conditions, with ground bounce, source inductance drop, etc., the operating margin to assure “OFF” mode can
quickly disappear.
3.5
Use symmetrical layout for paralleling MOSFETs, and good isolation of
gate drive between FETs
We recommend the use of multi-channel gate drivers in order to have separate channels for each MOSFET.
Physical layout should be as symmetrical as possible, with the low impedance driver located as close as
possible to the MOSFETs and on a symmetric axis.
3.6
How to make best use of the high performance of CoolMOSTM CFDA
To summarize, below recommendations are important when designing in CoolMOSTM CFDA to reach highest
efficiency with clean waveforms and low EMI stress.
 Control dv/dt and di/dt by proper selection of external gate resistor
 Minimize parasitic gate-drain capacitance on board
 Use gate ferrite beads
 Locate gate drivers and gate turn-off components as close as possible to the gate
 Use symmetrical layout for paralleling
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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Figure 21
Good layout example ensuring clean waveforms when designing in CoolMOSTM CFDA
D1
IDT06S60C
L1
Q2
C1
470µF
450V
Q1
R1
10
R2
10
Vout
VIN
R6
4K7
R9
0.047
R4
4K7
R10
0.047
VAUX
R11
2R2
R12
2R2
C3
1µF/25V
C2
1µF/25V
C4
1µF/25V
Q3
R9
22
R11
43
R14
2.2
Q4
R10
22
R12
43
R13
2.2
Gate drive PFC
R15
10K
R16
10K
Q6
Q5
Figure 22
Good layout example showing schematic for PCB layout in Figure 21
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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Figure 23
Bad layout example
L1
Q2
R3
4K7
C1
470µF
450V
Q1
R1
10
R2
10
R5
0.047
Vout
R4
4K7
R6
0.047
VAUX
R7
2R2
C2
1µF/25V
C3
1µF/25V
Q3
R8
22
R9
43
R10
2.2
Gate drive PFC
R11
10K
Q4
Figure 24
Schematic for bad layout example in Figure 23
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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4
Specific target applications
4.1
HID lighting bridge
The following schematic Figure 25 represents a typical HID[7] lamp ballast circuit, like in XENON lamp
automotive.
Due to the non-optimized performance of the body diode of standard MOSFETs, D2 and D3 are used to override
the body diodes of MOSFET T2 and T3 in the half bridge. For the current commutation it is now obligatory to
implement fast or ultra fast diodes parallel to T2 and T3 because their trr is directly involved in the efficiency
calculation. One of the main benefits of the lowered Qrr of CFDA is that it is possible to remove these four diodes
and use the implemented body diode with even higher efficiency in the same setup. The main benefit is
therefore the reduction of needed components, with advantages in term of cost and space available on the
PCB[21].
The following table visualizes the three measured efficiency values of the represented circuit.
Table 5
Efficiency comparison HID lamp ballast
T1, T2 half bridge MOSFETs
D2, D3, D4, D5 Diodes
Efficiency ŋ [%]
SPD07N60C3
all Diodes assembled
91,81
SPD07N60C3
not assembled (only body diode)
89,72
IPD65R660CFDA
not assembled (only fast body diode)
92,81
Note: The listed industrial type SPD07N60C3 in the table is a non automotive qualified device in former C3
technology and is used in this target application as a comparison reference device.
Another very important behaviour in an HID application is the long conduction phase of up to 2 ms of the body
diode of the MOSFET which lowers the losses with a lower Qrr.
Details and wave forms of the three different circuit constellations: We have compared the performance of the
new devices with the commercial available SPD07N60C3 (a not automotive qualified type, used as comparison
device) in a HID half bridge application. Using the new CoolMOS™ CFDA devices, the diodes D2, D3, D4 and D5
can be eliminated and allow reduced system costs Figure 25.
+Vdd
Iamp
Figure 25
Typical HID half bridge circuit. By replacing the transistors T2 and T3 with the new CoolMOS™ 650 V
CFDA device, the diodes D2 to D5 can be eliminated
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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Figure 26
Circuit wave forms during the turn-off phase of transistor T3 with SPD07N60C3 as switch and with
diodes D2 – D5. An efficiency of 91,81% is achieved.
For reference Figure 26 shows, the wave forms obtained by using the SPD07N60C3 device as transistors T2 and
T3 and additionally the diodes D2, D3, D4 and D5. With this setup, we achieved an efficiency of 91,81%.
By removing the diodes in series to the transistors, the additional voltage drop in forward operation is
eliminated. This solution requires, however, an even superior performance of the internal body diode of the
MOSFET once the switching losses increase due to the reverse recovery charge stored in the MOSFET. This
situation is depicted in Figure 27.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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Figure 27
Circuit wave forms during the turn-off phase of transistor T3 with SPD07N60C3 without the diodes
D2–D5. An efficiency of 89,72% is achieved.
In addition to increased switching losses, this setup also has the disadvantage that the MOSFET’s could be
destroyed due to the high reverse recovery current.
A superior solution is achieved by using the new IPD65R660CFDA device. Due to the superior performance of
the internal body diode of the MOSFET, it is possible to implement a solution without the diodes D2-D5 and
obtain at the same time a considerably better efficiency.
This is shown in Figure 28. The optimized construction of the internal body diode of the new IPD65R660CFDA
device combined with a very low reverse recovery charge also enable reliable device operation.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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Figure 28
Circuit wave forms during the turn-off phase of transistor T3 with IPD65R660CFDA without the
diodes D2–D5. An efficiency of 92,81% is achieved.
As a conclusion, the solution using CFDA devices for T2 / T3 (without Diodes D2 – D5) leads to a efficiency
performance improvement of ŋ = +3.09% (using C3 devices, without Diodes D2 – D5); and ŋ = +1.0% (using C3
devices, with Diodes D2 – D5). Finally the superior solution using CFDA devices is much more robust and has a
lower BOM compared to the other solutions.
4.2
DC-DC Converter (ZVS phase shifted full bridge)
The ZVS exploits the parasitic circuit elements to guarantee zero voltage across the switching device before
turn ON, eliminating hence any power losses due to the simultaneous overlap of switch current and voltage at
each transition, see also [9]. This chapter will describe the principal operation of the ZVS phase shifted full
bridge and compare efficiency and transition time of the automotive qualified CFDA type versus the industrial
CFD type.
Note: The listed industrial CFD type in this target application is a non automotive qualified device based on
modified C3 technology and is used in this target application as a comparison reference device.
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Figure 29
Simplified circuit of the ZVS phase shifted full bridge
Figure 29 shows the main parts of the ZVS phase shifted full bridge. The primary side including the full bridge
(MOSFET A, B, C, D) in which the usage of CFDA will be analyzed. Furthermore, the resonant inductance which is
necessary to have enough energy stored in the system to reach zero voltage switching and the primary
windings of the main transformer. In the used setup the main transformer has a winding partitioning of 18 turns
on the primary side and 3 plus 3 turns with a center tap on the secondary side. The synchronous rectification is
done with two paralleled 200 V MOSFETs from the OptiMOSTM product line. The output choke has a value of
about L = 10 mH inductance. This stage is a DC-DC converter from 400 V to 45 V which is minimum output
voltage in a typical application for telecom servers. All the measurements and comparisons are done with the
IPW65R080CFDA and SPW47N60CFD in the full bridge (MOSFET A, B, C, D).
First the overall efficiency of the whole converter will be analyzed. As visible in Figure 30 it is possible to reach
efficiency values up to about 94.6% at 45 V output when the synchronous rectification is not activated. The
efficiency measurements have been performed in this way in order to be independent from the delay time
control between the primary and secondary switches, which strictly depends on the characteristics of primary
devices used in each test. So, in order to see only the difference on the efficiency due to the different parts used
in primary full bridge, it was obligatory only to use the body diodes for rectification.
This system efficiency has currently the highest value which can be achieved with the CFDA. Two ways are
possible to improve the efficiency: using a new transformer with better primary-secondary coupling, which will
reduce the peak on synchronous rectification MOSFETs, allowing the use of 150 V rating for them, with reduced
RDS(on) losses. Additionally the output choke with about L = 10 mH inductance can be decreased (this choke is
now a little bit over dimensioned to decrease the current ripple to a minimum) to reduce the copper losses and
the output capacitance is represented.
The resonant inductance is dimensioned in order to achieve the best compromise between reaching ZVS at
light load and copper losses impacting on the high load efficiency.
The comparative tests have been performed on a platform with VOUT[26] = 45.16 V and POUT[27] = 1400 W.
Further efficiency increase can be realized by increasing the output voltage, increasing the windings of the
main transformer to 22 on the primary and 4 plus 4 on the secondary side is a way to achieve a higher duty
cycle window available for the regulation.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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Nevertheless, current test platform is anyway valid to make a comparative analysis and show main differences
between the technologies.
Figure 30 below represents the efficiency of the whole system. The measurement was done in the following
way:
1. Set the delay times for A/B (Figure 29) and C/D (Figure 29) to optimize efficiency for CFD and measure
efficiency
4. Plug in CFDA in the CFD optimized setup
2. Readjust delay times to optimize setup for CFDA
3. Implement the synchronous rectification in the CFDA optimized setup
Efficiency - ZVS phase shifted full bridge
SPW47N60CFD CFD
optimized
97
96
Efficiency [%]
95
IPW65R080CFDA
CFD optimized
94
93
IPW65R080CFDA
CFDA optimized
92
91
90
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Output power[W]
Figure 30
IPW65R080CFDA
CFDA optimized
with sync. rect.
Efficiency comparison CFDA vs. CFD in ZVS phase shifted full bridge (Figure 29)
The main difference in the efficiency is given by the lower Qg of CFDA which was mentioned in Chapter 2.6
(Input gate charge (Qg)). The overall efficiency improvement is mainly due to the fact that, at VDRIVER34[28] = 12 V,
CFD needs about 32.5 mA more current from the gate drive for each MOSFET of the full bridge, that means 130
mA for the full bridge. At VDRIVER = 12 V, this brings 1.56 W more losses over the whole operation area.
This result can be also theoretically achieved by calculating the driving losses as function of Qg by:
 (29) = 2 ∙  ∙  ∙  (30)
Where QG = 168 nC for CFDA and 322 nC for CFD (these values correspond to the parameters directly measured
on characterized parts), so
PDRIVING = 1.6128 W for CFDA and 3.0912 W for CFD, from this calculation the difference in driving losses is
1.4784 W.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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The next figure describes the VDS transition time at 7.47 A and 1.05 A primary current which correspond to the
time difference between 90% and 10% of VDS.
Figure 31
VDS transition time of the low side MOSFET (D) on the primary side of the ZVS phase shifted full
bridge (Figure 29). Comparison IPW65R080CFDA (blue) vs. SPW47N60CFD (red) at different loads
For all technologies, the VDS transition time is independent on Rg and mainly depends on the Qoss(31). Therefore,
it is decreasing with increasing load.
In our case, the VDS transition time is a little bit lower for CFD. This is due to the lower Qoss of CFD compared to
CFDA. This lower Qoss can be negligible because firstly there is only a slight influence at low loads (when there is
enough energy in the system the advantage of faster removing the charge of the output capacitance of the
MOSFET does not exist anymore), secondly the impact of the driving losses is much higher. On the other hand,
for all technologies, td_off[32] increases with increasing Rg_turn-off[33]) and decreases with increasing load. In fact, at
very light load, the contribution of VDS transition (from 10% to 90%) is predominant rather than Rg. As soon as
the load is increasing, the contribution of Rg becomes more important. So at light load, the turn-off time
duration is also influenced by Qg, in fact it is lower for CFDA compared to CFD, giving benefit in ZVS design at
light load.
Furthermore with the CFDA it is visible that the time window between high load and light load is much more
narrow than with the CFD.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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5
Detailed explanations
5.1
Cosmic radiation impact
The cosmic radiation impact is depending on the following paramters
 VDS voltage
 Junction temperature
 Altitude
 Device silicon area
as a profile versus time.
For the impact of the cosmic radiation please regard the explanation in the datasheet [10] in Chapter “Electrical
characteristics, static characteristics, drain-source breakdown voltage”
5.2
Operation in linear mode
We do not recommend to operate our automotive MOSFET’s in linear mode. For the constraints of operating
automotive MOSFETS in this mode and the related thermal instability under special circumstances we refer to
the related Infineon application note:
http://www.infineon.com/dgdl/AutomotiveMOSFETsinLinearApplication-ThermalInstability.pdf
5.3
Parallel operation of power MOSFETS
For the parallel operation of power MOSFETS we refer to the related Infineon application note:
http://www.infineon.com/dgdl/Parallel_Operation_of_Power_MOSFET_.pdf
5.4
Recommendations for electrical safety and isolation in high voltage
applications
For a proper functionality of discrete components according to electrical safety and isolation in HV
applications, we refer to the related Infineon application note:
http://www.infineon.com/dgdl/Safety_and_isolation_high_voltage_discrete.pdf
5.5
Further datasheet explanation automotive MOSFETS
For a further detailed explanation of Datasheet topics, we refer to the related Infineon application note:
http://www.infineon.com/dgdl/20140428_appnote_MOSFET_Datasheet_explanation.pdf
5.6
General recommendations for assembly of Infineon packages
According to general recommendations for assembly Infineon packages, we refer to the related Infineon
application note:
http://www.infineon.com/dgdl/General%20Recommendations%20for%20Assembly%20of%20Infineon%20Pac
kages.pdf
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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6
Conclusion
Infineon’s new CoolMOS™ CFDA device, offers the lowest RDS(on) combined with a high blocking voltage of 650 V.
This new device features also a very low reverse recovery charge combined with a robust integral body diode. A
specification of the max-values of the Qrr and trr will be available in the datasheet. We have also evaluated the
performance of this new device in a typical HID half bridge circuit, leaving out four diodes and getting superior
efficiency. A second evaluation showed the performance improvement in a DC-DC converter with zero voltage
switching (ZVS phase shifted full bridge). Due to the breakdown voltage of 650 V and the robust construction of
the integral body diode, this new device offers additional safety against destruction during hard commutation
of the MOSFET.
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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7
Product portfolio and naming system
650 V CoolMOSTM C6 CFDA series follows the same naming guidelines as already established with the former
series e.g. IPW65R080CFDA:
Figure 32
Product portfolio
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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Figure 33
Naming system
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8
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
[1]
…
CFDA
CoolMOSTM Fast Diode Automotive
Page
4
[2]
…
MOSFET
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
Page
4
[3]
…
QG
Gate charge [10]
Page
4
[4]
…
trr,max
maximum reverse recovery time [10]
Page
4
[5]
…
Qrr,max
maximum reverse recovery charge [10]
Page
4
[6]
…
ZVS
Zero Voltage Switching
Page
4
[7]
…
HID
High Intensity Discharge
Page
4
[8]
…
LED
Light Emitting Diode
Page
4
[9]
…
Qrr
Reverse recovery charge [10]
Page
5
[10]
…
Tjunction
Junction temperature of a MOSFET [10]
Page
5
[11]
…
C3
CoolMOSTM technology
Page
5
[12]
…
C6
CoolMOSTM technology
Page
5
[13]
…
V(BR)DSS
Drain-Source-substrate breakdown voltage [10]
Page
8
[14]
…
CGS
Internal gate source capacitance CGS = Ciss(34)-Crss
Page
20
[15]
…
CGD
Internal gate drain capacitance CGD = Crss
Page
20
[16]
…
VGS
Gate source voltage
Page
20
[17]
…
VDS
Drain source voltage
Page
20
[18]
…
RDS(on)
Drain-source on-state resistance [10]
Page
7
[19]
…
trr
Reverse recovery time [10]
Page
12
[20]
…
Irrm
Maximum reverse recovery current [10]
Page
12
[21]
…
PCB
Printed Circuit Board
Page
28
[22]
…
VDS,max
Maximum measured drain source voltage
Page
17
[23]
…
Rg,int
Internal gate resistor
Page
9
[24]
…
Crss
MOSFET reverse transfer capacitance Crss = CGD [10]
Page
10
[25]
…
Rg,ext
External gate resistor
Page
10
[26]
…
VOUT
Output voltage
Page
32
[27]
…
POUT
Output power
Page
32
[28]
…
VDRIVER
Gate drive voltage
Page
33
[29]
…
PDRIVING
Gate drive power
Page
33
[30]
…
fsw
Switching frequency
Page
33
Application Note
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
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[31]
…
Qoss
Output charge
Page
34
[32]
…
td_off
Switching OFF delay time
Page
34
[33]
…
Rg_turn-off
Gate resistance at turning OFF the device
Page
34
[34]
…
Ciss
MOSFET input capacitance Ciss = CGS+CGD [10]
Page
20
Application Note
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650 V rated Superjunction MOSFET with fast body diode for Automotive
Revision History
9
REFERENCES
The referenced application notes can be found at http://www.infineon.com
Direct link to the CoolMOSTM automotive site:
http://www.infineon.com/cms/en/product/power/automotive
[1]
L. Saro, K. Dierberger and R.Redl, “High voltage MOSFET behaviour in soft switching converters: analysis
and reliability improvements”, Proc. INTELEC 1998, pp. 30-40, San Francisco, Oct. 1998
[2]
W. Frank, F. Dahlquist. H. Kapels, M. Schmitt, G. Deboy, “Compensation MOSFETs with fast body diode –
Benefits in Performance and Reliability in ZVS Applications“, Proceedings-CD of the International Power
Electronics Component Systems Applications Conference (IPECSA), San Francisco, California, March 29 –
April 1, 2004
[3]
R. Ng, F.Udrea, K.Sheng, G.A.J.Amaratunga, “A Study of the CoolMOS™ Integral Diode: Analysis and
Optimization”, The 24th International Semiconductor Conference; CAS 2001, October 2001, Sinaia,
Romania.Grütz, A.: Jahrbuch Elektrotechnik '98. Berlin-Offenbach: VDE-Verlag, 1997.
[4]
R.K.Burra, K.Shenai, “CoolMOS™ Integral Diode: A Simple Analytical Reverse Recovery Model”, Power
Electronics Specialist Conference, 2003. PESC '03. 2003 IEEE 34th Annual.
[5]
T. Fujihira: “Theory of Semiconductor Superjunction Devices”, Jpn.J.Appl.Phys., Vol. 36, pp. 6254-6262,
1997.
[6]
A.W. Ludikhuize, "A review of the RESURF technology", Proc. ISPSD 2000, pp. 11-18.
[7]
X. B. Chen and C. Hu, “Optimum doping profile of power MOSFET’s epitaxial Layer.” IEEE Trans. Electron
Devices, vol. ED-29, pp. 985-987, 1982.
[8]
Mente Rene MSc, “Parallelization of MOSFETs for Low Voltage Drives”, Master Thesis, Austria, 2010
[9]
L. Saro, et al., “High voltage MOSFET behaviour in soft switching converter: Analysis and Reliability
Improvements”, International Tel-communication Conference, San Francisco, 1998.
[10] IPW65R080CFDA final datasheet, rev. 2.0 .
Revision History
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Application Note
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2015-11-16
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