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LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
1
Product name
Description
Version
LS2003C-G
Standalone multiple GNSS smart antenna module
0.3
Introduction
LS2003C-G is a complete standalone GNSS smart antenna module, including embedded patch
antenna and GNSS receiver circuits. The module can simultaneously acquire and track multiple satellite
constellations that include GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, QZSS and SBAS. It features low power and small
form factor. Besides, it can provide you with superior sensitivity and performance even in urban canyon and
dense foliage environment.
This module supports hybrid ephemeris prediction to achieve faster cold start. One is self-generated
ephemeris prediction (called EASY) that is no need of both network assistance and host CPU’s intervention.
This is valid for up to 3 days and updates automatically from time to time when GNSS module is powered on
and satellites are available. The other is server-generated ephemeris prediction (called EPO) that gets from an
internet server. This is valid for up to 14 days. Both ephemeris predictions are stored in the on-board flash
memory and perform a cold start time less than 15 seconds.
It is easy to install without both RF connector and coaxial cable that are needed in a separated GNSS
active antenna. In other words, reduce the cost and size. Also, speed up the time to market by eliminating
R&D efforts on RF matching and stability between separated GNSS antenna and module. Furthermore, it can
be directly powered by a lithium battery without any external voltage regulars. Therefore, LS2003C-G of
miniature size and brilliant performance is the best choice to be integrated into your slim devices.
2
Features
Easy to install (SMT process capable)
MediaTek high sensitivity solution
Support GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO and QZSS
Capable of SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS, MSAS, GAGAN)
Support 99-channel GNSS
Ultra low power consumption
Fast TTFF at low signal level
Built-in 12 multi-tone active interference canceller
Free hybrid AGPS to achieve faster cold start
Built-in data logger
Built-in DC/DC converter to save power
Up to 10 Hz update rate
±11ns high accuracy time pulse (1PPS)
Indoor and outdoor multi-path detection and compensation
Page 1/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
3
RoHS compliant
Application
Personal positioning and navigation
Automotive navigation
Marine navigation
Weather balloon
RTC
GNSS antenna
TCXO
DC/DC
converter
LNA
MediaTek
GNSS chip
1PPS
UART
SAW
ESD
protection
VCC
V_BCKP
GND
LS2003C-G
Fig 3-1 System block diagram of LS2003C-G
Fig 3-2 Typical application circuit
Page 2/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
4
GNSS receiver and antenna
4.1 GNSS receiver
Chip
Frequency
MediaTek MT3333
GPS, GALILEO, QZSS: L1 1575.42MHz, C/A code
GLONASS: L1 1598.0625MHz ~ 1605.375MHz, C/A code
Channels
Support 99 channels (33 Tracking, 99 Acquisition)
Update rate
1Hz default, up to 10Hz
Hot start (Open Sky)
Acquisition Time
Cold Start (Open Sky)
< 1s (typical)
32s (typical) without AGPS
< 15s (typical) with AGPS (hybrid ephemeris prediction)
Position Accuracy
Autonomous
3m (2D RMS)
SBAS
2.5m (depends on accuracy of correction data)
Datum
WGS-84 (default)
Max. Altitude
< 50,000 m
Max. Velocity
< 515 m/s
Protocol
NMEA 0183 ver 4.1
9600 bps (1), 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bits
1Hz: GGA, GLL, GSA, GSV, RMC, VTG
Note 1: Both baud rate and output message rate are configurable.
4.2 GNSS antenna
Antenna type
Patch antenna
Frequency Range
1575.42MHz ± 1.023MHz (1)
1598MHz ~ 1606MHz (1)
Gain
0.5 dBic Typ. @zenith (1)
Note 1: This value is measured with the evaluation board and must be fine tuned when installed into your device. Please
contact LOCOSYS for your antenna tuning.
Fig 4-1 Evaluation board of LS2003C-G.
Page 3/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
Fig 4-2 Receiving performance of LS2003C-G on the evaluation board in the open-sky field.
5
Software interface
5.1 NMEA output message
Table 5.1-1 NMEA output message
NMEA record
Description
GGA
Global positioning system fixed data
GLL
Geographic position - latitude/longitude
GSA
GNSS DOP and active satellites
GSV
GNSS satellites in view
RMC
Recommended minimum specific GPS data
VTG
Course over ground and ground speed
GGA--- Global Positioning System Fixed Data
Table 5.1-2 contains the values for the following example:
$GPGGA,183015.000,2503.7123,N,12138.7446,E,2,16,0.68,123.2,M,15.3,M,0000,0000*66
Table5.1- 2 GGA Data Format
Name
Example
Units
Description
Message ID
$GPGGA
GGA protocol header
UTC Time
183015.000
hhmmss.sss
Latitude
2503.7123
ddmm.mmmm
N/S indicator
N
N=north or S=south
Longitude
12138.7446
dddmm.mmmm
E/W Indicator
E
E=east or W=west
Position Fix Indicator
2
See Table 5.1-3
Satellites Used
16
Range 0 to 33
HDOP
0.68
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
MSL Altitude
123.2
mters
Units
M
mters
Page 4/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
Geoid Separation
15.3
mters
Units
M
mters
Age of Diff. Corr.
0000
second
Diff. Ref. Station ID
0000
Checksum
*66
<CR> <LF>
Null fields when DGPS is not used
End of message termination
Table 5.1-3 Position Fix Indicators
Value
Description
0
Fix not available or invalid
1
GPS SPS Mode, fix valid
2
Differential GPS, SPS Mode, fix valid
3-5
Not supported
6
Dead Reckoning Mode, fix valid
GLL--- Geographic Position – Latitude/Longitude
Table 5.1-4 contains the values for the following example:
$GPGLL,2503.7123,N,12138.7446,E,183015.000,A,D*59
Table 5.1-4 GLL Data Format
Name
Example
Units
Message ID
$GPGLL
GLL protocol header
Latitude
2503.7123
ddmm.mmmm
N/S indicator
N
N=north or S=south
Longitude
12138.7446
dddmm.mmmm
E/W indicator
E
E=east or W=west
UTC Time
183015.000
hhmmss.sss
Status
A
A=data valid or V=data not valid
Mode
D
Checksum
*59
A=autonomous, D=DGPS, E=DR, N=Data not valid,
R=Coarse Position, S=Simulator
<CR> <LF>
Description
End of message termination
GSA---GNSS DOP and Active Satellites
Table 5.1-5 contains the values for the following example:
$GNGSA,A,3,18,193,21,09,12,22,27,15,25,14,,,1.44,0.68,1.27*2F
$GNGSA,A,3,76,72,77,75,66,65,,,,,,,1.44,0.68,1.27*12
Table 5.1-5 GSA Data Format
Page 5/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
Name
Example
Units
Description
Message ID
$GNGSA
GSA protocol header
Mode 1
A
See Table 5.1-6
Mode 2
3
See Table 5.1-7
ID of satellite used
18
Sv on Channel 1
ID of satellite used
193
Sv on Channel 2
….
….
ID of satellite used
Sv on Channel N
PDOP
1.44
Position Dilution of Precision
HDOP
0.68
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
VDOP
1.27
Vertical Dilution of Precision
Checksum
*2F
<CR> <LF>
End of message termination
Table 5.1-6 Mode 1
Value
Description
M
Manual- forced to operate in 2D or 3D mode
A
Automatic-allowed to automatically switch 2D/3D
Table 5.1-7 Mode 2
Value
Description
1
Fix not available
2
2D
3
3D
GSV---GNSS Satellites in View
Table 5.1-8 contains the values for the following example:
$GPGSV,3,1,11,18,67,344,48,09,55,031,50,42,54,142,40,193,47,174,45*4D
$GPGSV,3,2,11,21,44,219,46,27,39,035,48,12,34,131,44,15,30,057,46*76
$GPGSV,3,3,11,22,27,319,47,14,22,285,42,25,19,171,40*44
$GLGSV,2,1,07,76,71,201,44,65,57,041,40,75,48,028,39,72,27,108,39*68
$GLGSV,2,2,07,66,25,333,43,77,17,207,37,81,02,280,29*5C
Table 5.1-8 GSV Data Format
Name
Example
Message ID
$GPGSV
Total number of messages1 3
Message number
1
1
Satellites in view
11
Satellite ID
18
Units
Description
GSV protocol header (GPGSV and GLGSV)
Range 1 to 6
Range 1 to 6
Channel 1 (Range 01 to 196)
Page 6/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
Elevation
67
degrees
Channel 1 (Range 00 to 90)
Azimuth
344
degrees
Channel 1 (Range 000 to 359)
SNR (C/No)
48
dB-Hz
Channel 1 (Range 00 to 99, null when not tracking)
Satellite ID
09
Elevation
55
degrees
Channel 4 (Range 00 to 90)
Azimuth
031
degrees
Channel 4 (Range 000 to 359)
SNR (C/No)
50
dB-Hz
Channel 4 (Range 00 to 99, null when not tracking)
Checksum
*4D
Channel 4 (Range 01 to 196)
<CR> <LF>
End of message termination
1. Depending on the number of satellites tracked multiple messages of GSV data may be required.
RMC---Recommended Minimum Specific GNSS Data
Table 5.1-9 contains the values for the following example:
$GNRMC,183015.000,A,2503.7123,N,12138.7446,E,0.01,34.92,270812,,,D*43
Table 5.1-9 RMC Data Format
Name
Example
Units
Message ID
$GPRMC
RMC protocol header (GNRMC or GPRMC)
UTC Time
183015.000
hhmmss.sss
Status
A
A=data valid or V=data not valid
Latitude
2503.7123
ddmm.mmmm
N/S Indicator
N
N=north or S=south
Longitude
12138.7446
dddmm.mmmm
E/W Indicator
E
E=east or W=west
Speed over ground
0.01
knots
Course over ground
34.92
degrees
Date
270812
True
ddmmyy
degrees
Magnetic variation
Variation sense
E=east or W=west (Not shown)
Mode
D
Checksum
*43
A=autonomous, D=DGPS, E=DR, N=Data not valid,
R=Coarse Position, S=Simulator
<CR> <LF>
Description
End of message termination
VTG---Course Over Ground and Ground Speed
Table 5.1-10 contains the values for the following example:
$GPVTG,34.92,T,,M,0.01,N,0.02,K,D*07
Table 5.1-10 VTG Data Format
Page 7/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
Name
Example
Message ID
$GPVTG
Course over ground
34.92
Reference
T
Units
VTG protocol header
degrees
Reference
M
Speed over ground
0.01
Units
N
Speed over ground
0.02
Units
K
Mode
D
Checksum
*07
Measured heading
True
degrees
Course over ground
Description
Measured heading
Magnetic
knots
Measured speed
Knots
km/hr
Measured speed
Kilometer per hour
A=autonomous, D=DGPS, E=DR, N=Data not valid,
R=Coarse Position, S=Simulator
<CR> <LF>
End of message termination
5.2 Proprietary NMEA input message
Please refer to MTK proprietary message.
5.3 Examples to configure the power mode of GNSS module
5.3.1 Standby mode
User can issue software command to make GNSS module go into standby mode that
consumes less than 200uA current. GNSS module will be awaked when receiving any byte.
The following flow chart is an example to make GNSS module go into standby mode and
then wake up.
Page 8/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
Start
GPS module is powered on
and in normal operation mode
Change GPS to
standby mode
Wake up
GPS module
unsigned char StandbyMode[] = {"$PMTK161,0*28\x0D\x0A"};
Yes
Issue any byte to
wake up GPS module
No
GPS module will return {"$PMTK010,001*2E\x0D\x0A"}
and start normal operation.
End
5.3.2 Periodic mode
When GNSS module is commanded to periodic mode, it will be in operation and
standby periodically. Its status of power consumption is as below chart.
The following flow chart is an example to make GNSS module go into periodic mode
Page 9/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
and then back to normal operation mode.
Start
GPS module is powered on
Change GPS to periodic mode with
3000ms on and 12000ms standby
if position fix is available, otherwise
(18000, 72000) ms will be applied.
unsigned char PeriodicMode[] =
{"$PMTK225,2,3000,12000,18000,72000*15\x0D\x0A"};
Note: minimum on time is 2000ms.
maximum standby time is 518400000ms (6 days)
GPS module will return message
"$PMTK001,225,3*35\x0D\x0A"
if command is accepted.
Set GPS to normal
operation mode?
Yes
GPS is in
standby now
Yes
Issue any byte to GPS
and wait it awake
No
No
Issue command of
normal operation mode
unsigned char NormalMode[] =
{"$PMTK225,0*2B\x0D\x0A"};
GPS module will return message
"$PMTK001,225,3*35\x0D\x0A"
if command is accepted.
End
GPS is in periodic mode
End
GPS is in normal mode
5.3.3 AlwaysLocateTM mode
AlwaysLocateTM is an intelligent controller of periodic mode. Depending on the
environment and motion conditions, GNSS module can adaptively adjust working/standby
time to achieve balance of positioning accuracy and power consumption. In this mode, the
host CPU does not need to control GNSS module until the host CPU needs the GNSS
position data. The following flow chart is an example to make GNSS module go into
AlwaysLocateTm mode and then back to normal operation mode.
Page 10/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
Note: AlwaysLocateTM is a trade mark of MTK.
Start
GPS module is powered on
Change GPS to
AlwaysLocate mode
unsigned char AlwaysLocateMode[] =
{"$PMTK225,8*23\x0D\x0A"};
Yes
GPS module will return message
"$PMTK001,225,3*35\x0D\x0A"
if command is accepted.
Request a GPS
position data
No
Yes
Issue any byte to get
GPS position data
No
Set GPS to normal
operation mode?
Change GPS back to
AlwaysLocate mode
Yes
Issue any byte to GPS
and wait it awake
No
Set GPS to normal
operation mode
unsigned char NormalMode[] =
{"$PMTK225,0*2B\x0D\x0A"};
End
GPS is in normal mode
5.4 Data logger
The GNSS module has internal flash memory for logging GNSS data. The configurations
Page 11/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
include time interval, distance, speed, logging mode, and … etc. For more information, please
contact us.
5.5 Examples to configure the update rate of GNSS module
The GNSS module supports up to 10Hz update rate that user can configure by issuing
software commands. Note that the configurations by software commands are stored in the
battery-backed SRAM that is powered through VBACKUP pin. Once it drains out, the
default/factory settings will be applied.
Due to the transmitting capacity per second of the current baud rate, GNSS module has to
be changed to higher baud rate for high update rate of position fix. The user can use the
following software commands to change baud rate.
Baud rate
Software command
Factory default
$PMTK251,0*28<CR><LF>
4800
$PMTK251,4800*14<CR><LF>
9600
$PMTK251,9600*17<CR><LF>
19200
$PMTK251,19200*22<CR><LF>
38400
$PMTK251,38400*27<CR><LF>
57600
$PMTK251,57600*2C<CR><LF>
115200
$PMTK251,115200*1F<CR><LF>
Note: <CR> means Carriage Return, i.e. 0x0D in hexadecimal. <LF> means Line Feed, i.e. 0x0A in
hexadecimal.
If the user does not want to change baud rate, you can reduce the output NMEA sentences
by the following software commands.
NMEA sentence
Software command
Factory default
$PMTK314,-1*04<CR><LF>
Only GLL at 1Hz
$PMTK314,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*29<CR><LF>
Only RMC at 1Hz
$PMTK314,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*29<CR><LF>
Only VTG at 1Hz
$PMTK314,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*29<CR><LF>
Only GGA at 1Hz
$PMTK314,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*29<CR><LF>
Only GSA at 1Hz
$PMTK314,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*29<CR><LF>
Only GSV at 1Hz
$PMTK314,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*29<CR><LF>
Only ZDA at 1Hz
$PMTK314,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0*29<CR><LF>
RMC, GGA, GSA
at 1Hz and GSV at $PMTK314,0,1,0,1,1,5,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*2C<CR><LF>
0.2Hz
If the command is correct and executed, GNSS module will output message
Page 12/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
$PMTK001,314,3*36<CR><LF>
After the GNSS module is changed to higher baud rate or reduced NMEA sentence, the
user can configure it to high update rate of position fix by the following commands.
Interval of position fix
Software command
(1)
Every 100ms (10Hz)
$PMTK220,100*2F<CR><LF>
Every 200ms (5Hz)
$PMTK220,200*2C<CR><LF>
Every 500ms (2Hz)
$PMTK220,500*2B<CR><LF>
Every 1000ms (1Hz)
$PMTK220,1000*1F<CR><LF>
(2)
Every 2000ms (0.5Hz)
$PMTK220,2000*1C<CR><LF>
If the command is correct and executed, GNSS module will
output message $PMTK001,220,3*30<CR><LF>
Note 1: The minimum interval of position fix is 100ms, i.e. the maximum update rate is 10Hz.
Note 2: The current consumption is the same with the update rate of 1Hz.
6
Pin assignment and descriptions
Pin # Name
Type Description
1
GND
P
Ground
2
1PPS
O
Pulse per second (default 100 ms pulse/sec when 3D fix is available)
3
RX
I
Serial data input
4
TX
O
Serial data output
5
GND
P
Ground
6
GND
P
Ground
7
NC
8
V_BCKP
P
9
VCC
P
DC supply voltage
10
GND
P
Ground
Not connect.
Backup battery supply voltage.
This pin must be powered to enable the module.
Page 13/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
7
DC & Temperature characteristics
7.1 Absolute maximum ratings
Parameter
Symbol
Ratings
Units
VCC
4.3
V
Input Backup Battery Voltage
V_BCKP
4.3
V
Operating Temperature Range
Topr
-40 ~ 85
℃
Storage Temperature Range
Tstg
-40 ~ 85
℃
Input Voltage
7.2 DC Electrical characteristics
Parameter
Input Voltage
Input Backup Battery Voltage
Symbol
Conditions
Min.
VCC
3.0
V_BCKP
2.0
Typ.
21
(1)
Max.
Units
4.3
V
4.3
V
76
(2)
Supply Current
IVCC
Full operation
Backup Battery Current
IBAT
VCC = 0
High Level Input Voltage
VI H
2.0
3.6
V
Low Level Input Voltage
VI L
-0.3
0.8
V
High Level Input Current
I IH
-1
1
uA
Low Level Input Current
I IL
-1
1
uA
High Level Output Voltage
VOH
2.4
Low Level Output Voltage
VOL
High Level Output Current
I OH
2
mA
Low Level Output Current
I OL
2
mA
6
mA
uA
V
0.4
V
Note 1: Measured when position fix (1Hz) is available and input voltage is 3.3V. For different input voltage (VCC), the
current consumption is as below chart. This is because LS2003C-G is built-in DC/DC converter.
Note 2: This happens when downloading AGPS data to LS2003C-G.
7.3 Temperature characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Operating Temperature
Topr
-40
-
85
℃
Storage Temperature
Tstg
-40
25
85
℃
Page 14/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
8
Mechanical specification
8.1 Outline dimensions
8.2 Recommended land pattern dimensions
If double-sided SMT soldering is adopted and LS2003C-G is flipped over to pass through the
reflow oven, heat curable SMD adhesives are strongly suggested between LS2003C-G and the
PCB board to avoid LS2003C-G from falling off.
Page 15/17
© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
9
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© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
20F.-13, No.79, Sec. 1, Xintai 5th Rd.,
Xizhi District, Taipei City 221, Taiwan
℡ 886-2-8698-3698
886-2-8698-3699
www.locosystech.com
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© 2012 LOCOSYS Technology Inc.
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