What are the precedents for CO2 reduction? • Annual reductions of greater than 1% p.a. have only “been associated with economic recession or upheaval” Stern 2006 • Collapse Soviet Union economy ~5% p.a. reductions 2009 CO2 reduction 2030 EV IC Plug-in Hybrids Hybrids Do HEVs need Li? C/LiMn2O4 C/LiFePO4 C/NMC New Anodes/ Li(Si) - air etc New Cathodes Li(Si) - S Zn - air Titanate anodes other? - Explore several options - Basic science - Don’t pick winners Reduce cost, size, weight Domestic infrastructure insufficient Invisible charging Pure EV Fuel cells (still a hybrid!) Do we need pure EV? Charging times?