DN531 - 55V High Efficiency Buck-Boost Power Manager and 55V High Efficiency Buck-Boost Power Manager and

55V High Efficiency Buck-Boost Power Manager and
Multi-Chemistry Battery Charger
Design Note 531
Charlie Zhao
Introduction
Today, battery chargers are expected to easily support
a variety of battery chemistries and accept a range of
voltage inputs, including wide-ranging solar panels. It is
increasingly common for input voltage ranges to span
above and below the output battery voltage, requiring
both step-down and step-up capability (buck-boost topology). The LTC4020 buck-boost power manager and
multi-chemistry battery-charging controller can take
wide-ranging 4.5V to 55V inputs and produce output
voltages up to 55V. Its buck-boost DC/DC controller
supports battery and system voltages above, below,
or equal to the input voltage.
The charger is easily optimized for a variety of battery
chemistries. For instance, it can follow a constantcurrent/constant-voltage (CC/CV) charge algorithm,
with either C/10 or timed termination for lithium-based
battery systems, a constant-current (CC) characteristic
with timed termination, or an optimized 4-step, 3-stage
lead-acid charge profile.
6.3A Charger for 25.2V Battery Float Voltage
Figure 1 shows a 15V to 55V input, 25.2V/6.3A buckboost battery charger, featuring a high efficiency
4-switch (M2–M5) synchronous buck-boost DC/DC
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered
trademarks and PowerPath is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
C1, 0.1µF
100V, 0603
VIN
15V TO 55V
C2
56µF
63V
63HVH56M
+
+
R38
5.1Ω
0805
R1
100k
C23
C16
4.7µF
100V
1210
C3
56µF
63V
63HVH56M
GND
PVIN
R2
510k
SENSVIN
SENSTOP
LTC4020
INTVCC
STAT2
STAT1
BST1
BST2
SHDN
VIN_REG
R4
51k
C40
0.22µF
0603
R5
OPT
C21
10µF
6.3V
0805
R9
226k
0603
1%
R10
24.9k
0.1%
R11
24.9k
1%
C12
0.033µF
SENSGND
M4
SiR664DP
RCBRB1
0.002 Ω
1W
2512
BG2
TG2
CSP
VFBMIN
VFBMAX
VFB
R19
20Ω
CSN
FBG
R14
10k
C4
100pF
0603
C5
0.22µF
0603
NTC
CSOUT
MODE
TIMER
RT
R13
100k
SGND
VBAT
VC
ITH
SGND
PGND
D3
RED
D4
GRN
C20
0.22µF
25V
0603
D6
B360A
WÜRTH 7443556560
C11
4.7µF
6.3V
0603
M3
SiR422DP
R18
100Ω
C27
10µF
35V
1210
C18
10µF
35V
1210
M5
SiR422DP
R20
100Ω
C14
10µF
35V
1210
R15
36k
0603
C6
6.8nF
0603
RCBAT1
0.008Ω
1W
2512
BAT
25.2V FLOAT
6.3A MAX
R16
47k
0603
GND
C5
47pF
0603
dn531 F01
Figure 1. 15V to 55V Input, 25.2V/6.3A Buck-Boost Battery Charger
10/14/531
+
C28
10µF
35V
1210
M1
Si7145DP
BGATE
MODE
L1
5.6µH
M2
SiR664DP
TG1
VOUT
D2
SBR0560S1
R26
3k
BG1
R8
226k
0603
0.1%
R27
3k
C19
0.22µF
25V
0603
SENSBOT
VBAT
D1
SBR0560S1
SW1
SW2
RNG/SS
ILIMIT
C39
0.22µF
0603
RCBRT1
0.002Ω
1W
2512
C15
220µF
35V
35HVH220M
C17
220µF
35V
35HVH220M
VOUT
21V TO 28V
8A MAX
+
GND
converter requiring only one inductor (L1). The proprietary average current mode architecture uses two sense
resistors (RCBRT1 and RCBRB1) to monitor the inductor
current. In this buck-boost solution, when VIN is higher
than VOUT, the converter operates in buck (step-down)
mode; when VIN is lower than VOUT, the converter works
at boost (step-up) mode. When VIN is close to VOUT,
the converter operates in 4-switch buck-boost mode.
100
90
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
70
60
15VIN, 25.2VOUT
24VIN, 25.2VOUT
55VIN, 25.2VOUT
30
0.1
1
LOAD CURRENT (A)
The LTC4020 automatically configures the PowerPath
FET as an ideal diode when the battery charger is not in
a charging cycle—namely, the buck-boost converter is
operating exclusively for the system load. This allows
the battery to remain disconnected from the converter
output in normal operation. If, however, the system load
current exceeds the buck-boost converter’s capacity,
additional power can be efficiently drawn from the
battery through this ideal diode.
Additional Features
The LTC4020 supports timer-based charging algorithms—a capacitor from the TIMER pin to ground
programs the end of the cycle time.
50
40
Figure 1) as a linear regulator, allowing the buck-boost
converter output to rise above the battery voltage,
while still providing charge current to the battery.
This function is called PowerPath instant-on, when
the PowerPath FET acts as a high impedance current
source, providing charge current to the battery.
10
dn531 F02
Figure 2. Efficiency vs Load Current IOUT (VOUT = 25.2V)
of the Converter in Figure 1
The converter operates at a programmable constant
switching frequency within the range of 50kHz to
500kHz, set with a resistor (R13 = 100k, 250kHz). The
solution shown in Figure 1 can supply up to 8A to the
system load (VOUT = 25.2V). Figure 2 shows full load
efficiency (IOUT = 8A, VIN = 24V) can reach above 98%.
The LTC4020 uses an external feedback resistor
divider from the BAT pin to program battery voltages via the VFB pin. The PowerPath™ FET (M1) is
on during normal battery charging, forming a low
impedance connection between the battery and the
buck-boost converter output when possible. Battery
charge current is monitored through a sense resistor
(RCBAT1). Maximum average battery charge current is
easily programmed by selecting the value of RCBAT1.
Dynamic current limit adjustment is possible through
the RNG/SS pin.
Instant-On and Ideal Diode Functions with
PowerPath FET
For a heavily discharged battery, the LTC4020 can
automatically configure the PowerPath FET (M1 in
Data Sheet Download
www.linear.com/LTC4020
Linear Technology Corporation
The LTC4020 features battery temperature monitoring and control. By connecting an NTC (negative
temperature coefficient) thermistor to the NTC pin,
and by placing the thermistor close to the battery pack
(or other desired monitoring location), if the NTC pin
voltage is out of range (above 1.35V or below 0.3V),
the LTC4020 triggers an NTC fault and halts battery
charging.
The LTC4020’s VIN_REG pin allows input voltage regulation. This pin can be used to program the peak power
voltage for a solar panel, or help maintain a minimum
voltage for other high impedance input supplies.
The LTC4020 has two open collector outputs, STAT1
and STAT2, to report charger status and fault conditions. These two pins are binary coded.
Conclusion
The LTC4020 is a versatile high voltage, high efficiency
buck-boost power manager and multi-chemistry battery charger, supporting input voltages above, below
or equal to the output battery or system voltages.
Its low profile (0.75mm) thermally enhanced 38-pin
5mm × 7mm QFN package is suitable for portable
industrial and medical equipment, solar-powered
systems, military communications equipment, and
12V to 24V embedded automotive systems.
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900, Ext. 3258
dn531f LT/AP 1014 111K • PRINTED IN THE USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2014
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