DN1035 - Measuring 18 2-Wire RTDs with the LTC2983

Measuring 18 2-Wire RTDs with the LTC2983
Design Note 1035
Tom Domanski
Introduction
A single LTC ®2983 temperature measurement device
can support up to 18 2-wire RTD probes, as shown
in Figure 1. Each RTD measurement involves simultaneous sensing of two voltages developed across
RSENSE and the RTD probe RTDx due to the current
IS. Each voltage is sensed differentially, and given
the LTC2983’s high common mode rejection ratio,
the number of RTDs in the stack does not adversely
affect the individual measurements.
The choice of the RTD probe depends on the system
accuracy and sensitivity requirements. For example,
given that 2-wire probes are used, the PT-1000 may
prove more robust in the presence of wiring’s parasitic resistance.
Once the RTDs are selected, IS and RSENSE should be
chosen so that voltage at the top of the resistor stack
(V at the CH1 input) does not exceed the input common mode limit of the LTC2983 over the operating
temperature range of the system. This requirement
is expressed as:
N
⎛
⎞
VDD − 0.3 ≥ ⎜⎜RSENSE + ∑RTDi ⎟⎟Is , N = 1,2…18
⎝
⎠
i=1
Consider the system shown in Figure 1 and assume the
following constraints: 5V supply rail, all RTD probes
are PT-100, and the maximum expected temperature
measurement is at 150°C. Table 1 shows the channel
assignment word for each one of the PT-100 probes.
Consult the “Channel Assignment Memory Map” in
the LTC2983 data sheet. Note that in this example
CH3 senses the RTD1 probe, CH4 senses RTD2, etc.
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered
trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
Table 1. CH2 Through CH20 RTD Channel Assignment Word
FUNCTION
BIT FIELD
VALUE
DESCRIPTION
Sensor Type
31:27
01100
PT-100
Sense Resistor Channel Pointer
26:22
00010
CH2
Sensor Configuration
21:18
0001
2-Wire
Excitation Current
17:14
1000
1mA
RTD Curve
13:12
01
American Curve
Address
11:6
000000
NA
Length
5:0
000000
NA
Custom RTD Data
Pointer
The sense resistor, connected to CH2, is configured as shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Sense Resistor Channel Assignment Word
FUNCTION
BIT FIELD
Sensor Type
Sense Resistor
Value
10/15/1035
VALUE
DESCRIPTION
31:27
11101
Sense Resistor (29)
Integer
26:10
000000 1111101000
1kΩ
Fraction
9:0
0000000000
1k
RTD1
C2
RTD2
C3
RTD3
C4
RTD4
C5
RTD5
C6
RTD6
C7
RTD7
C8
RTD8
C9
RTD9
C10
RTD10
C11
RTD11
C12
RTD12
C13
RTD13
C14
RTD14
C15
RTD15
C16
RTD16
C17
RTD17
C18
RTD18
C19
C20
CH1
IS
CH1
CH1
LTC2983
CH1
CH1
CH1
CH1
5V
VDD
Q1
Q2
RTD Stack Settling Time
Once the excitation current source is enabled, it takes
a finite amount of time for the R and C chain to settle.
That is, the settling time, tS. tS is dependent on the
number and value of the individual resistors (RSENSE
and RTDs) and capacitors at each input node. The
upper bound on tS can be estimated by lumping the
total RC, but that yields an overly pessimistic result.
Another method to obtain tS is to simply simulate a
circuit as shown in Figure 2:
0.1µF
CH1
CH1
VREFP
1µF
VREF_BYP
LDO
1µF
C
RTDN
C
The results of simulation are shown in Figure 3. Here
all capacitors are chosen to be 100nF, and RSENSE is
1k. Each line represents settling time tS to within 0.1%
of the final value of the voltage across last RTD in the
stack. For each graph, all RTDs are of the same type.
103
10µF
CH1
RTDN-1
Figure 2. Delay Line Model of the RTD Stack
Q3
VREFOUT
1k C
IS C
10µF
10µF
CH1
RTD1
RSENSE
PT-1000
PT-100
PT-10
102
CH1
t S (ms)
RSENSE
C1
CH1
CH1
CH1
CH1
CH1
100
RESET
INTERRUPT
10–1
CS
SDI
0
2
4
6
8 10 12 14 16
NUMBER OF RTDs IN THE STACK
18
SDO
Figure 3. Simulated Settling Time of the RTD Stack
SCK
The LTC2983, by default, inserts a delay time tDELAY
= 1ms between enabling the excitation source and
the beginning of the ADC conversion. This, however,
is insufficient for any more than two PT-100 probes
in the RTD stack (see Figure 3).
CH1
CH1
CH1
COM
101
GND
Figure 1. LTC2983 with 18 RTD Sensors
The tDELAY may be increased by setting the value in
the MUX configuration register, 0x0FF. By default the
register is cleared. Each LSB added to the register
value represents 100µs added to default tDELAY.
Consult the “Supplemental Information” section in
the data sheet for more detail on the MUX delay. For
example, writing 0x10 into 0x0FF results in:
tDELAY = 1ms + 0x10 • 100µs = 2.6ms
Note that the maximum value of programmable
delay is 26.5ms, which is sufficient for settling of at
most six PT-1000 devices, given the C = 100nF. See
Figures 3 and 4.
The tDELAY is inserted prior to each individual ADC
cycle. Each RTD measurement consists of two ADC
cycles. Therefore the total conversion time of the
stack of RTDs is approximately:
t TOTAL = (2tDELAY + t CONV ) N
Where tDELAY is programmable by the user, tCONV is
given in the “Complete System Electrical Characteristics” table in the data sheet, typically 164ms including
the default MUX delay, and N is the number of RTDs
to be measured. tTOTAL is summarized in Figure 4.
Conclusion
The LTC2983 can interface to as many as 18 2-wire
RTD probes, but be sure to take into account the settling delay incurred by RC systems. The issue may be
exacerbated by the number and type of RTD probes
used. The delay issues can be examined using the
model and simulation presented here.
INITIATE CONVERSION
COMMAND
tDELAY
1ST CYCLE
tDELAY
2ND CYCLE
(N-1)
RTD1 CONVERSION TIME
tTOTAL
Figure 4. Total Conversion Time of the RTD Stack
Data Sheet Download
www.linear.com/LTC2983
Linear Technology Corporation
For applications help,
call (408) 432-1900
dn1035f LT 1015 • PRINTED IN THE USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
●
FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● www.linear.com
 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2015
Similar pages