AN765 Using Microchip’s Micropower LDOs Author: Paul Paglia, Microchip Technology Inc. EQUATION 1: V OUT = V REF [ ( R 1 ⁄ R 2 ) + 1 ] VREF INTRODUCTION Microchip Technology, Inc.’s family of micropower LDOs utilizes low-voltage CMOS process technology. These LDOs provide similar ripple rejection and dropout characteristics as their bipolar equivalents, but are significantly more efficient. A typical bipolar regulator has base current equal to 1-2% of the output load, whereas Microchip’s LDOs have approximately 60 µA resulting in total operating current orders of magnitude lower than their bipolar counterparts. In addition, Microchip’s LDOs can be placed in a shutdown mode, further enhancing their effectiveness in low-power applications. This low-power operation makes Microchip’s family of LDOs ideal for upgrading the LP2980 and MIC5205 bipolar LDOs in cellular phones, pagers, PDAs, laptops, hand-held meters, and other portable applications. Microchip’s micropower LDOs are available with fixed and adjustable outputs, supporting load currents up to 50 mA, 100 mA, 150 mA and 300 mA. SOT-23-5, SOT23-6, SOT-223, and MSOP-8 packaging require minimal board space. Shutdown capability, thermal protection, and current limiting are standard in every device. Adjustable output, error flag, and noise bypass capability are provided on select devices (see Table 3). APPLICATIONS Optimizing Output Voltage Accuracy of TC1070/TC1071 Adjustable LDOs = VIN CIN + 1 µF – SHDN 1.20V VOUT VIN TC1070 GND TC1071 (SOT-23-5) SHDN VOUT + – R1 COUT 1 µF ADJ R2 FIGURE 1: Circuit. Adjustable LDO Feedback The ADJ pin is a high impedance CMOS input. Consequently, resistor values can be between 300 kΩ and 1 MΩ to minimize the current through R1 and R2. Inspection of Equation 1 reveals the following: 1. 2. When VOUT is made equal to VREF (i.e., R1 is zero), the tolerance of VOUT will be approximately that of VREF. The tolerance of VOUT is a function of both the tolerance of VREF and the tolerance of the R1/R2 ratio when VOUT is greater than VREF (i.e., when R1/R2 > 0). For the purposes of worst case analysis, the tolerances of R1 and R2 are additive. For example, if R1 and R2 are both 1% resistors, the maximum tolerance of the R1/R2 ratio is 2%. Microchip’s LDOs are available in both adjustable and fixed output voltage options. The accuracy of the output depends on the initial accuracy, stability, and temperature coefficient of the internal bandgap reference and the feedback resistors. Re-examining the effect of tolerances on Equation 1 reveals that the tolerance of VOUT worsens proportionally as the VOUT setting departs the value of VREF. Stated another way: Rather than specifying VOUT accuracy on adjustable regulators, the initial accuracy and temperature coefficient of the internal reference is specified. VOUT accuracy is not specified because it depends on the external feedback resistors. Figure 1 shows a typical adjustable LDO feedback circuit in which resistors R1 and R2 set the output voltage per the following formula: EQUATION 2: © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. ERROR VOUT α ( V OUT – V REF ) Table 1 shows that percentage of total output voltage error contributed by the tolerances of VREF and R1/R2 for various values of VOUT. DS00765B-page 1 AN765 TABLE 1: Power-Saving Shutdown Mode OUTPUT ERROR CONTRIBUTORS VOUT (V) Reference Tolerance (%) Resistor Tolerance (%) Resistor Error (%) Total Output Error (%) 1.23 2 1 0 2 1.23 2 2 0 2 2.0 2 1 0.77 2.77 2.0 2 2 1.54 3.54 2.46 2 1 1.0 3.0 2.46 2 2 2.0 4.0 3.0 2 1 1.2 3.2 3.0 2 2 2.4 4.2 4.0 2 1 1.38 3.38 4.0 2 2 2.76 4.76 5.0 2 1 1.50 3.5 5.0 2 2 3.0 5.0 The output voltage accuracy of the adjustable regulator improves with tighter tolerance resistors. However, accuracy will be limited to ±2% due to the accuracy of the reference. Table 2 shows output voltage accuracy for the adjustable LDO using 1%, 0.5%, and 0.1% tolerance resistors. TABLE 2: RESISTOR TOLERANCE EFFECT ON VOUT ERROR VOUT Error VOUT 1% 0.5% 0.1% Resistor Tol. Resistor Tol. Resistor Tol. 5.0V 3.5% 2.75% 2.15% 4.0V 3.38% 2.69% 2.14% 3.0V 3.2% 2.6% 2.12% 2.46V 3.0% 2.5% 2.10% 2.0V 2.77% 2.39% 2.08% 1.23V 2.0% 2.0% 2.0% All of Microchip’s micropower LDOs have a shutdown input that allows the user to digitally disconnect the load from the power source and send the regulator into a low-power “sleep” mode. The supply current is reduced from 50 µA, during normal operation, to 0.05 µA in shutdown. The SHDN pin input current is guaranteed to be no greater than 1 µA (an order of magnitude lower than bipolar counterparts). Shutdown mode is activated when SHDN is below 0.2 x VIN. In this mode, the pass transistor is turned OFF, disconnecting the load from the power source. Shutdown mode is disabled, allowing normal device operation, when the input is above 0.4 x VIN. This VIN is low enough to ensure that a control output from a 3.3V microcontroller, operating from four fully-charged NiCad/NiMH cells (6V), can enable the LDO. If not used, SHDN should not be left floating, but rather connected to VIN. Out-of-Regulation (ERROR) Flag The TC1070/1/2/3 and TC1054/5 each have Error Flag outputs that are asserted when the LDO falls out of regulation by approximately –5%. The ERROR pin is an N-channel open-drain output that can sink up to 1 mA. However, larger value pull-up resistors should be selected so that energy loss through ERROR is kept to a minimum. ERROR must be pulled to any supply voltage less than 7V through a pull-up resistor. ERROR output is valid for input voltages above 1V and undefined for voltages below 1V. As the output is transitioning between 0V and 1.0V during power up/ down, the Error output may float momentarily to 1.0V. If 1.0V is high enough to be interpreted as a logic ‘1’, the two-resistor network shown in Figure 2 may be used.This will ensure that ERROR never will rise above 0.5V during invalid states. Keep in mind the maximum that Error output can bein its high state is VOUT/2. VIN CIN + 1 µF– SHDN TC1054/1055 (SOT-23-5) VIN VOUT GND SHDN VOUT +C OUT – 1 µF R1 ERROR ERROR Note: R1 = R2 R2 FIGURE 2: Ensuring Valid Error Output for Low VIN Levels. DS00765B-page 2 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. AN765 By connecting an RC on ERROR output, it can be used as a power on reset. During power up, the Error comparator will go high as soon as the regulator output is within tolerance. ERROR will be delayed by the RC network before releasing the microcontroller from reset. VOUT Hysteresis (VH) VTH ERROR available in surface mount styles. Tantalums offer an ESR similar to aluminum electrolytics. They also provide a reasonable cost, high-volume efficiency solution and are usually the capacitor of choice. A 1 µF input capacitor should be installed from VCC to GND (Figures 4 and 5) if the IC is powered from a battery or if there is excessive (>1 ft) distance between the regulator and the AC filter capacitor. A larger value capacitor will provide better VCC noise rejection and improved performance when the supply has a high AC impedance. A 470 pf bypass capacitor can be tied to the bypass pin on the TC1014/1015 and TC1072/1073 or the ADJ pin on the TC1070/1071 (see Figure 5) to reduce the VREF noise. VIH Thermal Issues VOL FIGURE 3: Flag. Out-of-Regulation Error ERROR also can be used as a power quality monitor. If a low input voltage or an over-current condition causes the output to fall out of regulation, ERROR will pull low, signifying an unstable power condition. This flags the microcontroller, which now can activate proper shutdown sequencing, ensuring orderly system operation. The Error comparator has 50 mV of positive hysteresis to provide some VIN noise immunity. Input, Output and Bypass Capacitors It is recommended that input, output, and bypass capacitors be used for optimal device performance. To ensure stability in the LDO’s feedback loop, a capacitor is required from the output to ground (Figures 4 and 5). Capacitors must be chosen that meet the ESR value range and minimum capacitance identified in device data sheets. In general, a 1 µF - 2.2 µF capacitor is recommended to ensure stable operation under maximum load conditions. Larger value capacitors (4.7 µF to 10 µF) will increase transient load response and ripple rejection performance. Ceramic capacitors offer the lowest ESR followed by, in order of increasing ESR, OS-CON, film, aluminum electrolytic, and tantalum. Film capacitors provide good performance, but usually are not a viable solution due to excessive cost and size. Ceramics combine excellent ESR with relatively small size. However, the ESR of ceramic capacitors sometimes can be too low, requiring a 1Ω series resistor to ensure stability. OSCON capacitors offer an ESR only slightly higher than ceramics, but consume more volume. The OS-CON capacitors exhibit rock-solid ESR from –55°C to 125°C. Aluminum electrolytics are ideal for low-cost commercial temperature grade applications where board space is not a concern. Like OS-CON capacitors, electrolytics typically are offered in a radial lead package, but are © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. The amount of power that the LDO dissipates is a function of the bias supply current and the passthrough current. The pass-through current is the current that flows from VCC through the pass transistor of the LDO to the load. The following equation is used to calculate power dissipation: EQUATION 3: P D = ( V CC × I S ) + [ ( V CC – V OUT )I LOAD ] Maximum values of VCC and ILOAD and minimum values for VOUT should be used when calculating PD to ensure worst-case conditions are met. The amount of power that the LDO can dissipate depends on the ambient temperature (TA). A guardbanded maximum die temperature (TJMAX) of +125°C is used to account for variations in thermal conductivity of PC boards and variations in airflow. EQUATION 4: θ JA = ( T JMAX – T A ) ⁄ PD MAX θ JA = θ JC + θ CA θJC is the thermal resistance from the die surface to the package body and leads. θCA is the thermal resistance from the package body and leads to the surrounding air, PC board dielectric, and traces. The SOT-23-5 and SOT-23-6 packages have a worstcase θJA of 220°C/W when mounted on a single-layer FR4 dielectric copper-clad PC board. This θJA can be reduced by using a PC board made with a dielectric that has a better heat transfer coefficient. Additionally, adding a ground plane and large supply traces to the IC will provide better thermal conductivity. The values for θJA are for a system that uses natural convection. A significant reduction in θCA can be induced with forced airflow. DS00765B-page 3 AN765 Excessive power dissipation will result in elevated die temperatures that could activate the device’s thermal shutdown. The LDOs have an integrated thermal protection circuitry that disables the LDO when die temperatures exceed approximately +160°C. Ten degrees Celsius of hysteresis is built into the protection circuitry, such that the LDO is not released from thermal shutdown until the die temperature drops to +150°C. In addition to thermal protection, an internal sense resistor in series with the pass element providesa short-circuit limit. Given: θJA = 220°C/W ∴PDMAX = (125°C - TA)/220°C/W Ambient Temperature PDMAX +25°C 0.454W +50°C 0.341W +85°C 0.182W VIN CIN + 1 µF – SHDN VIN CIN 1 µF SHDN VIN VOUT TC1014/1015 (SOT-23-5) GND VOUT + – COUT 1 µF VOUT VIN COUT + 1 µF – TC1107 (SOIC8 & MSOP8) ERROR – CIN 1 µF GND +CBYPASS (optional) 470 pF VIN VOUT TC1054/1055 + (SOT-23-5) – GND VIN + Bypass SHDN SHDN VOUT SHDN VOUT COUT + 1 µF – VOUT COUT 1 µF VIN ERROR SHDN VOUT TC1108 (SOT-223) GND VIN + – TC1072/1073 (SOT-23-6) VIN + CIN – 1 µF SHDN FIGURE 4: DS00765B-page 4 VIN VOUT Bypass +CBYPASS (optional) 470 pF ERROR ERROR GND SHDN VOUT COUT 1 µF Typical Application Circuit (Fixed Output) © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. AN765 VOUT VIN VOUT COUT + 1 µF – VIN CIN 1 µF ADJ TC1107-ADJ (SOIC8 & MSOP8) GND +CBYPASS 0.01 µF (optional) VOUT SHDN 1 C1 + 1 µF SHDN 2 R1 VOUT VIN GND NC TC1174 3 NC VIN VIN VOUT TC1070/1071 (SOT-23-5) GND CIN + 1 µF – SHDN VOUT R1 4 R2 COUT 1 µF ADJ SHDN TABLE 3: ADJ VIN 7 NC 6 Shutdown Control (from Power Control Logic) +CBYPASS 470 pF (optional) Bypass 5 R V OUT = V REF × ⎛ -----2- + 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ 1 R2 FIGURE 5: SHDN 8 Typical Application Circuit (Adjustable Output). CMOS LDOS SELECTION GUIDE ISS Typ. (µA) X X X 50 50 85 X X X X 50 100 180 X X X X 50 50 85 X X X 50 100 180 VDROP Typ. (mV) Bypass X X IOUT Max (mA) 5.0V X X Error Flag 4.0V X X SHDN 3.6V X X ADJ 3.3V X 3.15V 3.0V X X 2.84V X X 2.8V SOT-23-5 SOT-23-5 2.7V TC1014 TC1015 Package 2.5V 2.85V Output Voltage † Part No. TC1054 SOT-23-5 X X X X X X TC1055 SOT-23-5 X X X X X X TC1070 SOT-23-5 X X 50 50 85 TC1071 SOT-23-5 X X 50 100 180 TC1072 SOT-23-6 X X X X X X X X X X 50 50 85 TC1073 SOT-23-6 X X X X X X X X X X 50 100 180 TC1107 MSOP-8, SOIC-8 X X X X X X TC1108 SOT-223 X X X X TC1173 MSOP-8, SOIC-8 X X X X TC1174 MSOP-8, SOIC-8 TC1185 SOT-23-5 X X X X X X X TC1186 SOT-23-5 X X X X X X X X 300 240 300 240 X 50 100 180 X X 50 300 240 X X X 50 150 270 X X X 50 150 270 X X X X 50 50 TC1187 SOT-23-5 50 150 270 TC1188* SOT-23-5 X X X X 50 100 55 TC1189* SOT-23-5 X X X X 50 100 55 TC1223 SOT-23-5 X X X X X X X X X 50 50 85 TC1224 SOT-23-5 X X X X X X X X X 50 100 180 * † X Pin Compatible Replacement for MAX8863/8864. Custom Output Voltages Available - Contact Microchip Technology. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00765B-page 5 AN765 NOTES: DS00765B-page 6 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. 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Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICLAB, PICtail, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, REAL ICE, rfLAB, rfPICDEM, Select Mode, Smart Serial, SmartTel, Total Endurance, UNI/O, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2007, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. 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