AN377 - BGT70 Single-Chip SiGe Transceiver Chipset for E-band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz

Singl e - Ch ip Si G e T r ans c ei ve r
Chips et fo r E -ba nd Bac k h aul
Applic atio ns fr o m 7 1 to 76 G Hz
Applic atio n N ote A N 377
Revision: Rev. 1.0
2014-06-10
RF and P r otecti on D evic es
Edition 2014-06-10
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
© 2014 Infineon Technologies AG
All Rights Reserved.
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BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Application Note
Revision History: 2014-06-10
Previous Revision:
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Subjects (major changes since last revision)
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Other Trademarks
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is licensed by AUTOSAR development partnership. Bluetooth™ of Bluetooth SIG Inc. CAT-iq™ of DECT
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HYPERTERMINAL™ of Hilgraeve Incorporated. IEC™ of Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. IrDA™
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STANDARDIZATION. MATLAB™ of MathWorks, Inc. MAXIM™ of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
MICROTEC™, NUCLEUS™ of Mentor Graphics Corporation. Mifare™ of NXP. MIPI™ of MIPI Alliance, Inc.
MIPS™ of MIPS Technologies, Inc., USA. muRata™ of MURATA MANUFACTURING CO. OmniVision™ of
OmniVision Technologies, Inc. Openwave™ Openwave Systems Inc. RED HAT™ Red Hat, Inc. RFMD™ RF
Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUS™ of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. SOLARIS™ of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SPANSION™
of Spansion LLC Ltd. Symbian™ of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO YUDEN™ of Taiyo Yuden Co.
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of Texas Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKS™, WIND RIVER™ of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEX™
of Diodes Zetex Limited.
Last Trademarks Update 2009-10-19
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
3 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
List of Content, Figures and Tables
Table of Content
1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 7
2
About E-Band Backhaul Application................................................................................................ 8
3
3.1
3.2
Infineon E-Band BGT70 RF Front-End Transceiver Chipset ......................................................... 9
Key Features ........................................................................................................................................ 9
Description of BGT70 ......................................................................................................................... 10
4
Typical Measurement Results ......................................................................................................... 11
5
5.1
5.2
Package ............................................................................................................................................. 13
BGT70 in PG-WFWLB-119-1 Package ............................................................................................. 13
Pin Definition and Function ................................................................................................................ 14
6
6.1
BGT70 Evaluation Board ................................................................................................................. 16
Overview of BGT70 Evaluation Board ............................................................................................... 16
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter ............................................................................................... 18
rd
Measurement Results of 3 -Order Intermodulation Products ........................................................... 21
Measurement Results of VGA and Buffer Amplifier ........................................................................... 22
PPD Power Amplifier – MUX out........................................................................................................ 23
8
8.1
Performance of BGT70 Receiver .................................................................................................... 24
Intercept Point Measurement of Receiver .......................................................................................... 26
9
VCO Signal Generation .................................................................................................................... 27
10
10.1.1
10.1.2
Getting Started with Evaluation Board .......................................................................................... 29
Configuring as Transmitter ................................................................................................................. 29
Configuring as Receiver ..................................................................................................................... 31
11
Authors .............................................................................................................................................. 32
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
4 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
List of Content, Figures and Tables
List of Figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Figure 23
Figure 24
Figure 25
Top View (left), Bottom View (right) and Side View of BGT70 in eWLB Package ............................. 13
Dimension of eWLB Package PG-WFWLB-119-1 for BGT70 (left: top view; center: side view; right:
bottom view) ....................................................................................................................................... 14
Pin Number Assignment of BGT70 package eWLB PG-WFWLB-119-1 (Top View) ........................ 14
Evaluation Board for BGT70 – Top View ........................................................................................... 16
Evaluation Board for BGT70 – Bottom View ...................................................................................... 17
Output Spectrum of BGT70 at TX Waveguide Port on the evaluation board @ fTX=73.22 GHz (DAC
VGA=27)............................................................................................................................................. 18
Measurement Setup used to measure TX Output Spectrum of BGT70 @ fTX=73.22 GHz ............... 19
Linear (PIF/TX=-27 dBm) and Saturated Power variation over Frequency of BGT70 (DAC VGA=63) 19
Linear Gain (PIF/TX=-27 dBm) over Frequency @ DAC VGA=63 ....................................................... 20
Output P1dB over Frequency @ DAC VGA=63 ................................................................................ 20
OIP3 versus Frequency at IF Input Power Level=-27 dBm ............................................................... 21
DAC VGA Setting versus Output Power at different IF Input Power levels (f TX = 73.22 GHz) ........... 22
PPD PA Output Voltage versus Output Power @ fTX=73.22 GHz ..................................................... 23
Receiver Gain over Frequency for BGT70 ......................................................................................... 24
Input P1dB of Receiver @ fRX=73 GHz .............................................................................................. 24
Input P1dB over Frequency of BGT70 Receiver ................................................................................ 25
Noise Figure variation over Frequency for BGT70 ............................................................................ 25
Input IP2 of Receiver over Frequency at PRX-RF=-28 dBm ................................................................. 26
Input IP3 of Receiver over Frequency at PRX-RF = -31 dBm ............................................................... 26
VCO Frequency over Tuning Voltage ................................................................................................ 27
Tuning Sensitivity (Kvco) versus Tuning Voltage ............................................................................... 28
BGT70 Phase Noise Performance over Frequency........................................................................... 28
E-Band V-Band SPI-Programmer Main Window and PLL Window ................................................... 29
Typical Transmitter Settings for the BGT70 ....................................................................................... 30
Typical Receiver Settings for BGT70 ................................................................................................. 31
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
5 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
List of Content, Figures and Tables
List of Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Measurement Results - DC Parameters ............................................................................................ 11
IF Port Features and Sensor Characteristics ..................................................................................... 11
Measurement Results - Transmitter ................................................................................................... 12
Measurement Results – LO Generation............................................................................................. 12
Measurement Results - Receiver ....................................................................................................... 12
Pin Definition and Function ................................................................................................................ 15
Interface Description of BGT70 Application Board ............................................................................ 17
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
6 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Introduction
1
Introduction
The smartphone revolution has led to a growing demand in mobile data traffic which subsequently has resulted
in increased throughput per user. The high mobile data requirements has led to the deployment of advanced 4G
services like Long Term Evolution (LTE) by the mobile network operators and this is expected to grow further in
the coming years. LTE and LTE Advanced will provide users with higher data rates which will increase data
traffic drastically. The increasing data rate puts an enormous burden on the network operator’s backhaul
networks. The bulk of today’s basestation infrastructure is not ready to support the required high data
throughput using the existing microwave backhaul techniques. The connection between the basestations is
usually planned for lower data rates up to 100 MBit/s which has to be increased significantly to meet the
demands for LTE systems. Though optical fiber based backhaul networks can handle a huge data throughput,
they are faced with the challenge of easy and cost-effective deployment. The concept of small cells make the
deployment of fiber optic based solution even complex and expensive and sometimes even not feasible. This is
where the wireless backhaul technology comes into place. A new solution using millimeter wave backhaul
opens upto 10 GHz bandwidth in the E-band (71-76 and 81-86 GHz) and 7 GHz bandwidth in the V-band (57–
64 GHz). The high bandwidth and channel spacing offered at these frequencies enables data rates higher than
1 Gbps for video and data service even with simple modulation schemes.
Infineon has developed a complete family of packaged RF Transceivers for mobile backhaul applications –
supporting both the V-band and E-band frequencies with its BGT60, BGT70 and BGT80 ICs. The modular
approach followed by Infineon provides same package dimensions and RF footprint for all the three chipsets
which enable customers to quickly setup a radio system at any of the above allowed frequency bands. The
highly integrated ICs help to eliminate discrete components, thereby simplifying the customer’s system design
and time-to-market. This also helps to reduce the total cost of the mmWave backhaul solutions.
The ICs are designed in Infineon´s advanced SiGe:C (Silicon Germanium) technology with device transit
frequency of 200 GHz, that enable integration of several mmWave building blocks such as Power Amplifier
(PA), Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), Up- and Down-Convertor, Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA), Voltage
Controlled Oscillator (VCO) and more with high performance into a single chip. This technology is proven and
fully qualified for other Infineon millimeter- and microwave chipsets already. Furthermore, Infineon is the leading
company to house these single chipsets into a plastic Embedded Wafer Level Ball Grid Array (eWLB) package
which can be processed in standard SMT flow.
In this application note, the performance of Infineon’s fully integrated E-Band Transceiver BGT70 for 71 to 76
GHz on its evaluation board is described in detail.
All the measurements presented in this application note are done port-to-port on Infineon’s EVB i.e.
Board losses (~2dB) are not dembedded. The measurements are done at backside chip temperature of
45°C. This leads to an additional loss of 1dB. For the specifications of BGT70 transceiver IC, please
refer the datasheet of BGT70.
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
7 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
About E-Band Backhaul Application
2
About E-Band Backhaul Application
Solutions using millimeter wave backhaul in the E-band of 71-76 and 81-86 GHz open up 10 GHz bandwidth for
a full-duplex wireless radio link. It allows gigabit data rates with the simplest modulation scheme which minimize
linearity requirements of the transmitter power amplifier (PA). With more spectrally efficient modulations, data
rates even higher than 10 Gbps can be achieved. Antennas at high frequencies become compact and can
provide higher gain than their contemporaries at lower microwave frequencies which can improve the link
condition.
The technical specifications for the E-band communication was specified by ETSI within the document
ETSI TS 102 524 “Fixed Radio Systems; Point-to-Point equipment; Radio equipment and antennas for use in
Point-to-Point Millimeter wave applications in the Fixed Services (mmwFS) frequency bands 71 GHz to 76 GHz
and 81 GHz to 86 GHz” in 2006. The approach for E-band backhaul is to allow site-by-site coordination through
the so-called “pencil beam” concept of operation, in which strict requirements are placed on the antenna
radiation pattern requiring at least 43 dBi antenna gain with a half-power beamwidth of about only 2 degree. To
ensure a high data rate communication, 19 channels of bandwidth 250 MHz each and 125 MHz spacing at the
band edge are defined within each of the 5 GHz bandwidth. Aggregation of any of the 19 channels is allowed.
Minimum radio interface capacity (RIC) of 150 Mbps with the simplest two-state binary modulation and up to
19 Gbps with high level modulation scheme like 128-QAM is specified. Maximum equivalent isotropically
radiated power (EIRP) is specified to 45 dBW which is equivalent to about +30 dBm output power at the
antenna port.
A large channel bandwidth with a higher modulation scheme demands higher carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), which
imposes stringent requirements on the high frequency transmitter and receiver design. For example, a typical
receiver with 12 dB noise figure at the antenna port in an E-band radio system using 500 MHz channel
bandwidth and 16-QAM modulation would need about the same minimum receiver signal power level as a
system using 1250 MHz BW and FSK to ensure the bit error rate (BER) of 1E-6. This also limits the maximum
distance of an E-band radio link to 2 to 3 km.
The radio link can be either in full-duplex (FDD) or half-duplex (TDD) system configuration. In FDD E-Band
systems, one of the two frequencies sub-bands 71 – 76 GHz or 81 - 86 GHz is used for transmission and the
other for reception. In a TDD system, the same frequency band is used for transmit or receive mode.
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
8 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Infineon E-Band BGT70 RF Front-End Transceiver Chipset
3
Infineon E-Band BGT70 RF Front-End Transceiver Chipset
3.1
Key Features

BGT70 covers the E-Band frequency range from 71 to 76 GHz

Fabricated with Infineon’s advanced Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) technology

Housed in Infineon’s Embedded Wafer Level Ball-Grid Array (eWLB) Package

BGT70 can be programmed via SPI interface to work either in transmit (TX) or/and receive (RX) mode

Zero IF – differential I/Q interface – direct conversion architecture

Differential RF transmit output signaling

Differential RF receive input signaling

Differential intermediate frequency I/Q signaling

Peak detector at VGA input at transmit path

Peak detector at PA output at transmit path

Built-in temperature sensor

SPI interface

ESD protected device

BITE (Built-In-Test Equipment) for self-test and calibration in production at Infineon to verify RF performance

Can support TDD or FDD systems
Applications:
- E-Band from 71 to 76 GHz FDD or TDD systems for telecommunication applications
Product Name
BGT70
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
Package
PG-WFWLB-119-1
9 / 33
Marking
BGT70TR11
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
3.2
Description of BGT70
Currently, different mmWave system implementations based on III/V-compound semiconductor, silicon bipolar
or silicon CMOS technologies have been reported. The advancements in SiGe based technologies in the last
years have resulted in their increased use for applications in the mmWave regime with their successful
deployment in several existing commercial mmWave applications. Infineon has a long history of research &
development with SiGe based technologies and the BGT70 transceiver IC is designed with one of Infineons inhouse advanced SiGe bipolar process.
The single-chip transceiver chipset BGT70 is manufactured with Infineon’s 200 GHz-fT SiGe-technology and
applicable for telecommunication applications in the microwave and mmWave range. Infineon’s 200 GHz Silicon
Germanium (SiGe) technology is proven and qualified for Millimeter (e.g. 77 GHz automotive radar) and
Microwave chipsets (e.g. 24 GHz automotive/industrial radar). BGT70 uses fully-differential direct conversion
architecture for the transmitter and receiver. A Fully-differential (balanced) architecture helps to mitigate the
effects of common-mode interference and RF grounding issues, which become extremely critical at higher
operating frequencies. Also a differential architecture offers the advantage of reduced even-order harmonics.
The direct conversion architecture simplifies the frequency up/down-conversion process and can reduce bulky
and expensive off-chip filtering components. Through the direct conversion architecture of the transceiver, the
interface between RF and baseband is simplified significantly compared to currently available discrete millimeter
wave solutions. Furthermore, the offering of the single chip solution in a eWLB plastic package makes a major
difference to the market. With the packaged chipset, customers can save cost and reduce the time-to-market
significantly.
The outstanding RF performance of SiGe technology – such as deliverable saturated output power of up to
14.5 dBm, a low receiver noise figure of 8 dB and excellent VCO phase noise performance better than -83
dBc/Hz at 100kHz offset – allow designers to implement systems with high modulation schemes up to QAM64
with a sample rate of more than 1 Giga Samples per second (GS/s) or simple systems with QPSK with large
bandwidth through channel aggregation. ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) performance of more than 1 kV
increases robustness. The low power consumption of less than 2 W for this backhaul transceiver family also
allows network operators to reduce related fixed expenses.
In general, Infineon’s single-chip E-Band transceiver offers customers the following advantages:
- lower production cost
- broadband high data rate telecommunication which enable Gbps radio link
- compact single chip integration leading to much smaller form factor
- excellent device performance
- individual VCO centering taking into account process and temperature variation
- robust design & insensitive to interference through direct conversion architecture and fully differential
topology
- standard plastic package allows industrial assembly and cleaning tool can be used
- product family approach with the same foot print i.e. same PCB layout possible for E-Band radios
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
10 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Typical Measurement Results
4
Typical Measurement Results
In Chapter 4, typical measurement results of the E-Band 71 to 76 GHz transceiver BGT70, are summarized.
Please note that these measurements are performed on the Infineon evaluation board at room temperature.
Table 1
Measurement Results - DC Parameters
Parameter
Symbol
Unit
Value
Voltage Supply
Vcc
V
3.300
Condition
Current Consumption
- IC powered on, TX off, RX off
ICoff
323
- TX on, RX off
ICTX
mA
561
@ max power
- TX off, RX on
ICRX
428
- TX on, RX on
ICTRX
640
@ max power
The current values are of complete EVB. For BGT70 current consumption only please refer Datasheet.
Table 2
IF Port Features and Sensor Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Unit
Output Power Vs PA Peak Detector
Readout Relation
Pout
dBm
* PPD_PA selected via MUXout
* This provides the output power level at
the landing pad
PPD_PA V
(MUX out)
Value
Condition
Pout  t1  ln(
PPD _ PA  y0
)
A1
y0  0.92899
A1  0.14084
t1  6.04829
Temperature Sensor Sensitivity
Tsense
mV/K
5
Load Impedance for Tsense Output
IF Input Interface at TX
Rsensload
MΩ
1
IF Load Impedance
IFload
Ω
100
IF Bandwidth
IFBW
MHz
500
IF Lower Cutoff Frequency
IFlow
kHz
3
IF Higher Cutoff Frequency
IFhigh
MHz
500
Signaling
differential
IF Coupling on Board
AC
I/Q Amplitude Imbalance
IQAI
dB
0.5
I/Q Phase Imbalance
IF Output Interface at RX
IQPI
deg
8
Signaling
differential
external Capacitance > 1µF required
value to be specified
differential
IF Load Impedance
IF Bandwidth
IFload
IFBW
Ω
MHz
IF Lower Cutoff Frequency
IFlow
kHz
3
IF Higher Cutoff Frequency
IFhigh
MHz
500
IF Coupling on Board
400
500
AC
I/Q Amplitude Imbalance
IQAI
dB
1
I/Q Phase Imbalance
IQPI
deg
7
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
single-ended
11 / 33
Differential, minimum value
external Capacitance > 1µF required
value to be specified
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Typical Measurement Results
Table 3
Measurement Results - Transmitter
Parameter
Symbol
Frequency
TX Output
Unit
Freq
GHz
Value
71
Output Signaling
73
Condition
76
differential
TX-Port Load Impedance
TX load
Ω
TX Chain Gain
GTX
dB
Output Referred P-1dB
100
differential
24.4
29.4
31.6
OP-1dBTX dBm
8.8
12
12
differential 100 Ω load
Saturated Power
Psat
dBm
11.6
14.6
14.6
differential 100 Ω load
Output Referred IP3
OIP3TX
dBm
16.9
17.7
15.7
differential 100 Ω load
PA Control Dynamic Range
P_ctrld
dB
17.7
LO feed-through Suppression
LOs
dBc
-57
PA Control Step
P_ctrls
dB
1
6 bits
Image Rejection
IMR
dB
30
w/o feedback loop
Table 4
From one IF port to
Waveguide port
before LO calibration
Measurement Results – LO Generation
Voltage Control Sensitivity
Kvco
GHz/V
2.4
1.6
0.9
@TX output
@100kHz Offset
PNssb100k
dBc/Hz
-83
@1MHz Offset
PNssb1M
dBc/Hz
-104
-84
-85
SSB
-105
-106
SSB
@10MHz Offset
PNssb10M
dBc/Hz
-125
-125
-125
SSB
Divider Output Power
PDIVout
dBm
VCO Tuning Voltage
Vtune
V
Phase Noise
Table 5
differential 100 Ω load
-9
0
5.5
single tuning port
Measurement Results - Receiver
Parameter
Symbol
Unit
Frequency
RX Chain
Freq
GHz
Value
71
73
Condition
76
Input Signaling
Conversion Gain
CGdiff
dB
Double-Side-Band Noise Figure
NFdsb
dB
9.9
8.3
9.1
Input Referred P-1dB
IP-1dBRX dBm
-12.5
-13.5
-12
Input Referred IP3
IIP3RX
dBm
-5.3
-5.1
-6.3
LO Residual Power at the RX Input
LOres
dBm
-59
RF-Port Load Impedance
RFload
Ω
100
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
12 / 33
16.3
19.5
19.3
differential
differential in 400Ω
load at IF Ports
differential
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Package
5
Package
5.1
BGT70 in PG-WFWLB-119-1 Package
The BGT70 chipset is in eWLB type package PG-WFWLB-119-1 with bump balls of 300µm diameter and
150µm height as shown in Figure 1. The physical dimension of 6.0 x 6.0 mm² with a bump pitch of 500 µm is
shown in Figure 2. The maximum height of the package is 0.8 mm with 0.1 mm planarity variation. The
maximum variation of bump coplanarity is 80 µm. On top of the package, Pin 1 is marked by a laser marking.
The product name and its production date code are also described there.
Package Dimension: 6.0 mm x 6.0 mm x 0.8 mm
Figure 1
Top View (left), Bottom View (right) and Side View of BGT70 in eWLB Package
For mmWave applications, eWLB offers excellent electrical and thermal characteristics. With a well-engineered
design, it offers a comparable loss like a bonding wire package version but has large bandwidth which is
required for broadband mmW applications. Furthermore, its outstanding thermal resistance of 15 K/W ensures
its proper working even under critical environment. The BGA-like package form enables customers to use
industrial standard reflow process to solder it.
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
13 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Package
Figure 2
Dimension of eWLB Package PG-WFWLB-119-1 for BGT70 (left: top view; center: side view;
right: bottom view)
5.2
Pin Definition and Function
Figure 3 shows the top view of BGT70 package eWLB PG-WFWLB-119-1 with the pin number assignment.
The function of each pin is described in Table 6 below.
The ground pins (in black color) are used not only for RF and DC but also as a heat sinker for the BGT70
chipset on the PCB.
It has to be noted that the four edge ground pins A1, A12, M1 and M12 are in fact not used in the transceiver IC
but it is recommended to connect them to the RF ground for mechanical stability reason.
Top View
VCC
IF_I_TX
VCC
IFx_I_TX
VCC
IF_Q_TX
VCC
VCC
IFx_Q_TX
IF_Q_RX
11
IFx_Q_RX
GND
IF_I_RX
IFx_I_RX
12
: VCC
GND
: GND & Thermal Pads
VCC
10
: TX IF Ports
GND
VCC
GND
GND
GND
VCC
VCC
GND
GND
GND
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
9
: TX RF Ports
8
: RX IF Ports
RX Inx
GND
TX_Outx
7
: RX RF Ports
RX In
TX_ Out
6
: Sensor Output Ports
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
VCC
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
VCC
SP4
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
VCC
VCC
VCC
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
Vtune
VCC MUXout D_MOD Div
Divx
Temp
VCC
GND
SP3
SP2
SP1
Vtune
VCC MUXout D_MOD Div
Divx
Temp
GND
A
B
C
D
E
K
L
M
5
: VCO/PLL Ports
4
: SPI Ports
3
GND
2
1
Figure 3
F
G
H
J
Pin Number Assignment of BGT70 package eWLB PG-WFWLB-119-1 (Top View)
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
14 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Package
Table 6
Pin Definition and Function
Pin No.
Name
Function
A3, A4, A11, B4, B10, C3, Vcc
F10, F11, F12,
G10, G11, G12,
L10, M11
K3, L3, M2, M3
Vcc_Temp
DC supply for the transceiver chip – 3.3V
F1, F2
Vcc_VCO
Supply voltage for the VCO – 3.3V
E1, E2
Vtune
VCO tuning voltage
D1, D2
SP1
SPI Enable - chip select
C1, C2
SP2
SPI Dataout - SPI data sequence (device  control board)
B1, B2
SP3
SPI Data - SPI data sequence (control board  device)
A2, B3
SP4
SPI clock
G1, G2
MUXout
MUX output (PPD_PA or PPD_MOD DC level output)
H1, H2
D_MOD
Modulator detector output
L1, L2
Temp
Temperature sensor output – DC voltage
J1, J2
Div
Frequency divider output
K1, K2
DivX
Complementary frequency divider output
B7
RX_In
RF input of receiver
B8
RX_Inx
Complementary RF input of receiver
B11, B12
IFx_I_RX
Complementary inphase IF output of receiver
C11, C12
IF_I_RX
Inphase IF output of receiver
D11, D12
IFx_Q_RX
Complementary Quadrature IF output of receiver
E11, E12
IF_Q_RX
Quadrature IF output of receiver
L7
TX_Out
RF output of transmitter
L8
TX_OuTX
Complementary RF output of transmitter
L11, L12
IF_I_TX
Inphase IF input of transmitter
K11, K12
IFx_I_TX
Complementary inphase IF input of transmitter
J11, J12
IF_Q_TX
Quadrature IF input of transmitter
H11, H12
IFx_Q_TX
Complementary Quadrature IF input of transmitter
A5, A6, A9, A10,
B5, B6, B9,
C4, C5, C6, C9, C10,
D3, D4, D5, D6, D9, D10,
E3, E4, E5, E6, E9, E10,
F3, F8, F9, G3, G9,
H3, H4, H5, H6, H9, H10,
J3, J4, J5, J6, J9, J10,
K4, K5, K6, K9, K10,
L4, L5, L6, L9,
M4, M5, M6, M9, M10
GND
Ground and thermal pads
A1, A12, M1, M12
GND
A1, A12, M1, M12 are electrically not connected in chip but
should be connected to ground for mechanical stability.
Supply voltage for the temperature sensor – 3.3V
Note: all pins described in the same line need to be connected on the PCB.
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
15 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
BGT70 Evaluation Board
6
BGT70 Evaluation Board
6.1
Overview of BGT70 Evaluation Board
Figure 4 shows the top view of evaluation board for BGT70. In addition to the BGT70 chip, the PLL circuit with a
reference oscillator is also implemented on the evaluation board as shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4
Evaluation Board for BGT70 – Top View
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
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2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
BGT70 Evaluation Board
Figure 5
Table 7
Evaluation Board for BGT70 – Bottom View
Interface Description of BGT70 Application Board
Pin
Function
Description
SMA Connectors
DMOD
Wideband PPD MOD output
Envelop tracking detector
Muxout
Provides DC voltage corresponding to PPD PA or
PPD MOD
Inphase/Complementary I input of transmitter
PPD PA or PPD MOD selectable
through SPI control
Source impedance at input:
differential 100 Ω
Source impedance at input:
differential 100 Ω
IF_I_TX/
IF_Ix_TX
IF_Q_TX/
IF_Qx_TX
Quadrature/Complementary Q input of transmitter
IF_I_RX/
IF_Ix_RX
Inphase/Complementary I output of receiver
IF_Q_RX/
IF_Qx_RX
Quadrature/Complementary Q output of receiver
Load impedance at output:
differential 400 Ω
Load impedance at output
differential 400 Ω
RF interface
TX/RX Port
Transmitter/Receiver WR-12 waveguide
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
17 / 33
WR-12 waveguide
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter
7
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter
The output spectrum at the TX port of BGT70 is shown in Figure 6. The measurement setup is shown in Figure
7. A Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) from Analog Devices (AD9959) is used to generate the IF signals for the
transmitter. By adjusting the phase of the I and Q output signals from the DDS an image rejection greater than
50 dBc is achieved at the transmitter output. An E-band smart harmonic mixer is used to measure the output
signal. The transmitter output power level is kept low by setting the DAC VGA value to 27 in order not to drive
the smart harmonic mixer in compression. The carrier feedthorugh suppression is achieved by sweeping the
values of DAC_MOD_I and DAC_MOD_Q registers. LO suppression of >50dB is achieved with this particular
setup.
Figure 8 shows the linear and saturated output power at the transmitter output between 71-76 GHz. The
transmitter gain over frequency is plotted in Figure 9. Figure 10 shows the measured output 1-dB compression
point over frequency. Figure 11 shows the measured third order intermodulation performance of the transceiver
over frequency. The transmitter output power can be varied by changing the DAC VGA and enabling/disabling
the VGA buffer. Figure 12 shows the transmitter performance vs different DAC VGA settings.
10
Fundamental
Output Power Level (dBm)
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
LO Leakage
Image
-50
-60
-70
-80
72.75
72.875
73
73.125
73.25
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 6
Output Spectrum of BGT70 at TX Waveguide Port on the evaluation board @ fTX=73.22 GHz
(DAC VGA=27)
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
18 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter
USB
3.3V
0°
IF_I_Tx
PLL and BGT 70
Control Software
Mini USB
180°
DDS (Direct Digital
Synthesizer)
Analog Devices
AD9959
IFx_I_Tx
BGT70
90°
Evaluation
Board
IF_Q_Tx
WR12
Waveguide
TX out
270°
Smart Harmonic
Mixer
M1970E Agilent
IFx_Q_Tx
5.5V
Spectrum Analyzer
PXA N9030 Agilent
Figure 7
Measurement Setup used to measure TX Output Spectrum of BGT70 @ f TX=73.22 GHz
16
14
12
Pout (dBm)
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Frequency (GHz)
Saturated Power
Figure 8
Linear Power
Linear (PIF/TX=-27 dBm) and Saturated Power variation over Frequency of BGT70 (DAC
VGA=63)
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
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2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter
32
31
TX Gain (dB)
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
76
77
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 9
Linear Gain (PIF/TX=-27 dBm) over Frequency @ DAC VGA=63
14
Output P1dB (dBm)
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
71
72
73
74
75
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 10
Output P1dB over Frequency @ DAC VGA=63
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
20 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter
Measurement Results of 3rd-Order Intermodulation Products
7.1
18
17.5
OIP3 (dBm)
17
16.5
16
15.5
15
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 11
OIP3 versus Frequency at IF Input Power Level=-27 dBm
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
21 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter
7.2
Measurement Results of VGA and Buffer Amplifier
Figure 12
DAC VGA Setting versus Output Power at different IF Input Power levels (f TX = 73.22 GHz)
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
22 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Transmitter
PPD Power Amplifier – MUX out
7.3
2.6
2.4
PPD PA Output (V)
2.2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Pout (dBm)
Figure 13
PPD PA Output Voltage versus Output Power @ fTX=73.22 GHz
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
23 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Receiver
8
Performance of BGT70 Receiver
21
20
RX Gain (dB)
19
18
17
16
15
71
72
73
74
75
76
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 14
Receiver Gain over Frequency for BGT70
20
RX Gain (dB)
19
18
17
16
15
14
-28
-25
-22
-19
-16
-13
-10
-7
RF Input Power (dBm)
Figure 15
Input P1dB of Receiver @ fRX=73 GHz
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
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2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Receiver
-8
-9
Input P1-dB (dBm)
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14
-15
-16
71
72
73
74
75
76
75
76
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 16
Input P1dB over Frequency of BGT70 Receiver
12
DSB Noise Figure (dB)
11
10
9
8
7
6
71
72
73
74
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 17
Noise Figure variation over Frequency for BGT70
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
25 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Performance of BGT70 Receiver
8.1
Intercept Point Measurement of Receiver
44
42
40
IIP2 (dBm)
38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 18
Input IP2 of Receiver over Frequency at PRX-RF=-28 dBm
-2
-3
IIP3 (dBm)
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
71
72
73
74
75
76
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 19
Input IP3 of Receiver over Frequency at PRX-RF = -31 dBm
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
26 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
VCO Signal Generation
9
VCO Signal Generation
BGT70 is designed to cover the complete tuning range of 71-76 GHz with 0-5.5 V of tuning voltage. All the chips
are tested during production and VCO is centered with the help of divider output signal. Figure 20 shows the
tuning range of the VCO. The Tuning sensitivity (Kvco) is in the range of 3.4 GHz/V to 0.8 GHz/V being higher
at lower tuning voltages and lower at higher tuning voltages. The phase noise shown below is measured directly
at TX port of the EVB.
78
77
Output Frequency (GHz)
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Tuning Voltage (V)
Figure 20
VCO Frequency over Tuning Voltage
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
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2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
VCO Signal Generation
4
Tuning Sensitivity (GHz/V)
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Tuning Voltage (V)
Figure 21
Tuning Sensitivity (Kvco) versus Tuning Voltage
-70
Phase Noise (dBc/Hz)
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Tuning Voltage (V)
100 kHz Offset
Figure 22
1 MHz Offset
10 MHz Offset
BGT70 Phase Noise Performance over Frequency
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
28 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Getting Started with Evaluation Board
10
Getting Started with Evaluation Board
10.1.1
Configuring as Transmitter
To configure BGT70 as transmitter the following steps should be followed:
1) Apply Vcc=6 V to the BGT60/70/80 board and connect USB cable from PC to the Evaluation Board. The
current consumption should be in the range of 315 mA.
2) In the software folder supplied with this transceiver navigate to “E-Band V-Band SPI-Programmer.exe”
and double click on it. A window will open as shown in Figure 23 below.
Figure 23
E-Band V-Band SPI-Programmer Main Window and PLL Window
3) Click on the “PLL” button in top right corner of this window. Another window will open which looks like
as Figure 23.
4) In this PLL window one can select the appropriate chip i.e. BGT60 or BGT70 or BGT80 from the drop
down list. Then enter the required frequency in “LO frequency”.
5) In “Ref Frequency” box just enter the oscillation frequency of the reference used for PLL. In our case its
40 MHz reference. But exact frequency is also mentioned in the datalog or written on the backside of
the board.
6) In “R Counter” box one can choose between different divider values >1. It should be noted that the PLL
IC ADF4158, which is assembled on the Evaluation Board, accepts maximum PFD frequency of 32
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
29 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Getting Started with Evaluation Board
MHz. “Prescaler” should be set to 4/5 and “CP Current” can be set to 2.5 mA. “CP Current” value will
change the bandwidth of the loop filter used on the board.
7) After setting everything one should click on the “Green Arrow” in top left side of the PLL window.
8) Before you proceed to this step make sure that there is no IF signal applied to the TX IF inputs. Then
in the main window press
button. This step will automatically execute the LO leakage calibration
and set the right value to the DAC_MOD_Q and DAC_MOD_I registers. The current consumption in
this case will jump to 550mA. The typical setting for the Transmitter would look like as shown in Figure
24. After LO calibration is done, IF can be applied to TX IF inputs of BGT70.
Figure 24
Typical Transmitter Settings for the BGT70
9) Pressing the “Red Arrow” button
will update the chip temperature i.e. reading of the integrated
temperature sensor and also display DC voltage at Muxout. The DC voltage at Muxout corresponds to
the reading of PPD PA or PPD MOD. One of them can be selected at a time from the drop down list
under MUX register.
10) Pressing the “Meter” button
this button will give you the approximate power output of the device at
its landing pad, when IF is applied on the TX input. The measurement is accurate up to -5 dBm of
output power. The power at the output of the transmitter can be controlled by changing the value of
DAC_VGA register.
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
30 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Getting Started with Evaluation Board
10.1.2
Configuring as Receiver
To configure BGT70 as receiver the following steps should be followed:
1) Follow step 1 to 7 from the above Section 10.1.1
2) Then in the main window enable the registers as shown in Figure 25. The supply current will jump to
427 mA.
Figure 25
Typical Receiver Settings for BGT70
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
31 / 33
2014-06-10
BGT70
Transceiver for E-Band Backhaul Applications from 71 to 76 GHz
Authors
11
Authors
Abhiram Chakraborty, System Engineer of Application Engineering
Jagjit Singh Bal, Staff Engineer of Application Engineering
All the Authors are working in Business Unit “RF and Protection Devices” at Infineon
Technologies AG.
Application Note AN377, Rev. 1.0
32 / 33
2014-06-10
w w w . i n f i n e o n . c o m
Published by Infineon Technologies AG
AN377
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