MCP3425 16-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter with I2C Interface and On-Board Reference Features Description • 16-bit ΔΣ ADC in a SOT-23-6 package • Differential Input Operation • Self Calibration of Internal Offset and Gain per each conversion • On-Board Voltage Reference: - Accuracy: 2.048V ± 0.05% • On-Board Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA): - Gains of 1, 2, 4 or 8 • On-Board Oscillator • INL: 10 ppm of FSR (FSR = 4.096V/PGA) • Programmable Data Rate Options: - 15 SPS (16 bits) - 60 SPS (14 bits) - 240 SPS (12 bits) • One-Shot or Continuous Conversion Options • Low Current Consumption: - 145 µA typical (VDD= 3V, Continuous Conversion) • One-Shot Conversion (1 SPS) with VDD = 3V: - 9.7 µA typical with 16 bit mode - 2.4 µA typical with 14 bit mode - 0.6 µA typical with 12 bit mode • Supports I2C Serial Interface: - Standard, Fast and High-Speed Modes • Single Supply Operation: 2.7V to 5.5V • Extended Temperature Range: -40°C to 125°C The MCP3425 is a single channel low-noise, high accuracy ΔΣ A/D converter with differential inputs and up to 16 bits of resolution in a small SOT-23-6 package. The on-board precision 2.048V reference voltage enables an input range of ±2.048V differentially (Δ voltage = 4.096V). The device uses a two-wire I2C compatible serial interface and operates from a single 2.7V to 5.5V power supply. The MCP3425 device performs conversion at rates of 15, 60, or 240 samples per second (SPS) depending on the user controllable configuration bit settings using the two-wire I2C serial interface. This device has an on-board programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The user can select the PGA gain of x1, x2, x4, or x8 before the analog-to-digital conversion takes place. This allows the MCP3425 device to convert a smaller input signal with high resolution. The device has two conversion modes: (a) Continuous mode and (b) One-Shot mode. In One-Shot mode, the device enters a low current standby mode automatically after one conversion. This reduces current consumption greatly during idle periods. The MCP3425 device can be used for various high accuracy analog-to-digital data conversion applications where design simplicity, low power, and small footprint are major considerations. Block Diagram VSS VDD Typical Applications • Portable Instrumentation • Weigh Scales and Fuel Gauges • Temperature Sensing with RTD, Thermistor, and Thermocouple • Bridge Sensing for Pressure, Strain, and Force. Voltage Reference (2.048V) Gain = 1, 2, 4, or 8 VIN+ PGA Package Types VIN+ 1 6 VSS 2 5 SCL 3 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. ΔΣ ADC Converter Clock Oscillator VIN- MCP3425 SOT-23-6 VREF VINVDD SDA I2C Interface SCL SDA DS22072B-page 1 MCP3425 NOTES: DS22072B-page 2 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings† †Notice: Stresses above those listed under “Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. VDD...................................................................................7.0V All inputs and outputs w.r.t VSS ............... –0.3V to VDD+0.3V Differential Input Voltage ...................................... |VDD - VSS| Output Short Circuit Current ................................ Continuous Current at Input Pins ....................................................±2 mA Current at Output and Supply Pins ............................±10 mA Storage Temperature ....................................-65°C to +150°C Ambient Temp. with power applied ...............-55°C to +125°C ESD protection on all pins ................ ≥ 6 kV HBM, ≥ 400V MM Maximum Junction Temperature (TJ). .........................+150°C ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise specified, all parameters apply for TA = -40°C to +85°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, VIN+ = VIN- = VREF/2. All ppm units use 2*VREF as full-scale range. Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions Analog Inputs Differential Input Range Common-Mode Voltage Range (absolute) (Note 1) — ±2.048/PGA — V VSS-0.3 — VDD+0.3 V VIN = VIN+ - VIN- Differential Input Impedance (Note 2) ZIND (f) — 2.25/PGA — MΩ During normal mode operation Common Mode input Impedance ZINC (f) — 25 — MΩ PGA = 1, 2, 4, 8 12 — — Bits DR = 240 SPS 14 — — Bits DR = 60 SPS 16 — — Bits DR = 15 SPS 176 240 328 SPS S1,S0 = ‘00’, (12 bits mode) 44 60 82 SPS S1,S0 = ‘01’, (14 bits mode) 11 15 20.5 SPS S1,S0 = ‘10’, (16 bits mode) — 2.5 — µVRMS TA = +25°C, DR = 15 SPS, PGA = 1, VIN = 0 INL — 10 — ppm of FSR DR = 15 SPS (Note 6) VREF — 2.048 — V Gain Error (Note 5) — 0.1 — % PGA = 1, DR = 15 SPS PGA Gain Error Match (Note 5) — 0.1 — % Between any 2 PGA gains Gain Error Drift (Note 5) — 15 — ppm/°C System Performance Resolution and No Missing Codes (Note 8) Data Rate (Note 3) DR Output Noise Integral Nonlinearity (Note 4) Internal Reference Voltage Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: PGA=1, DR = 15 SPS Any input voltage below or greater than this voltage causes leakage current through the ESD diodes at the input pins. This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. This input impedance is due to 3.2 pF internal input sampling capacitor. The total conversion speed includes auto-calibration of offset and gain. INL is the difference between the endpoints line and the measured code at the center of the quantization band. Includes all errors from on-board PGA and VREF. Full Scale Range (FSR) = 2 x 2.048/PGA = 4.096/PGA. This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. This parameter is ensured by design and not 100% tested. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 3 MCP3425 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise specified, all parameters apply for TA = -40°C to +85°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, VIN+ = VIN- = VREF/2. All ppm units use 2*VREF as full-scale range. Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units VOS — 30 — µV Offset Drift vs. Temperature — 300 — nV/°C Common-Mode Rejection — 100 — dB at DC and PGA =1, — 105 — dB at DC and PGA =8, TA = +25°C Gain vs. VDD — 5 — ppm/V TA = +25°C, VDD = 2.7V to 5.5V, PGA = 1 Power Supply Rejection at DC — 95 — dB TA = +25°C, VDD = 2.7V to 5.5V, PGA = 1 V Offset Error Conditions Tested at PGA = 1 VDD = 5.0V and DR = 15 SPS VDD = 5.0V Power Requirements Voltage Range VDD 2.7 — 5.5 Supply Current during Conversion IDDA — 155 190 µA VDD = 5.0V — 145 — µA VDD = 3.0V Supply Current during Standby Mode IDDS — 0.1 0.5 µA I2C Digital Inputs and Digital Outputs High level input voltage VIH 0.7 VDD — VDD V Low level input voltage VIL — — 0.3VDD V VOL — — 0.4 V IOL = 3 mA, VDD = +5.0V Hysteresis of Schmitt Trigger for inputs (Note 7) VHYST 0.05VDD — — V fSCL = 100 kHz Supply Current when I2C bus line is active IDDB — — 10 µA Input Leakage Current IILH — — 1 µA VIH = 5.5V IILL -1 — — µA VIL = GND CPIN — — 10 pF Cb — — 400 pF Low level output voltage Pin Capacitance and I2C Bus Capacitance Pin capacitance I2C Bus Capacitance Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: Any input voltage below or greater than this voltage causes leakage current through the ESD diodes at the input pins. This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. This input impedance is due to 3.2 pF internal input sampling capacitor. The total conversion speed includes auto-calibration of offset and gain. INL is the difference between the endpoints line and the measured code at the center of the quantization band. Includes all errors from on-board PGA and VREF. Full Scale Range (FSR) = 2 x 2.048/PGA = 4.096/PGA. This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. This parameter is ensured by design and not 100% tested. TEMPERATURE SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = -40°C to +85°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V. Parameters Sym Min Specified Temperature Range TA -40 Operating Temperature Range TA -40 Storage Temperature Range TA -65 θJA — Typ Max Units — +85 °C — +125 °C — +150 °C 190.5 — °C/W Conditions Temperature Ranges Thermal Package Resistances Thermal Resistance, 6L SOT-23 DS22072B-page 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. 0.005 12 0.004 10 Noise (µV, rms) Integral Nonlinearity (% FSR) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = -40°C to +85°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, VIN+ = VIN- = VREF/2. 0.003 PGA = 1 PGA = 4 0.002 PGA = 8 0.001 PGA = 2 6 4 PGA = 4 PGA = 8 0 3 8 2 PGA = 2 2.5 PGA = 1 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 -100% 5.5 -50% VDD (V) INL vs. Supply Voltage FIGURE 2-4: Voltage. 0.005 3.0 0.004 2.0 Total Error (mV) INL (FSR %) FIGURE 2-1: (VDD). 0.003 2.7V 0.002 0% 50% 100% Input Voltage (% of Full Scale) 0.001 Output Noise vs. Input PGA = 1 PGA = 2 PGA = 4 PGA = 8 1.0 0.0 -1.0 -2.0 5V 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 -3.0 -100 80 100 120 140 -75 Temperature (oC) FIGURE 2-2: INL vs. Temperature. -25 FIGURE 2-5: 60 0 25 50 75 100 Total Error vs. Input Voltage. 0.4 40 20 PGA = 8 PGA = 4 PGA = 2 0 PGA = 1 Gain Error (% of FSR) Offset Error (µV) -50 Input Voltage (% of Full Scale) -20 -40 -60 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 VDD = 5.0V 0.3 0.2 PGA = 1 PGA = 2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 PGA = 4 -0.3 PGA = 8 -0.4 -60 -40 -20 Temperature (°C ) FIGURE 2-3: Temperature. Offset Error vs. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-6: Gain Error vs. Temperature. DS22072B-page 5 MCP3425 Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = -40°C to +85°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, VIN+ = VIN- = VREF/2. 220 5 VDD = 5V 180 160 140 VDD = 2.7V 120 Oscillator Drift (%) IDDA (µA) 200 100 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 4 3 2 VDD = 2.7V 1 0 VDD = 5.0V -1 80 100 120 140 -60 -40 -20 0 Temperature ( C) FIGURE 2-7: IDDA vs. Temperature. FIGURE 2-10: 600 Magnitude (dB) IDDS (nA) 500 400 300 200 VDD = 5V 100 VDD = 2.7V 0 -60 -40 -20 0 IDDB (µA) 60 80 100 120 140 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Data Rate = 15 SPS 0.1 Temperature ( C) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 40 IDDS vs. Temperature. OSC Drift vs. Temperature. 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 -120 o FIGURE 2-8: 20 Temperature (°C) o 1 10 100 1k 1000 10k 10000 Input Signal Frequency (Hz) FIGURE 2-11: Frequency Response. VDD = 5V VDD = 4.5V VDD = 3.3V VDD = 2.7V -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Temperature (oC) FIGURE 2-9: DS22072B-page 6 IDDB vs. Temperature. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 3.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE MCP3425 Symbol Definition SOT-23-6 3.1 1 VIN+ Positive Differential Analog Input Pin 2 VSS Ground Pin 3 SCL Serial Clock Input Pin of the I2C Interface 4 SDA Bidirectional Serial Data Pin of the I2C Interface 5 VDD Positive Supply Voltage Pin 6 VIN- Negative Differential Analog Input Pin Analog Inputs (VIN+, VIN-) VIN+ and VIN- are differential signal input pins. The MCP3425 device accepts a fully differential analog input signal which is connected on the VIN+ and VINinput pins. The differential voltage that is converted is defined by VIN = (VIN+ - VIN-) where VIN+ is the voltage applied at the VIN+ pin and VIN- is the voltage applied at the VIN- pin. The input signal level is amplified by the programmable gain amplifier (PGA) before the conversion. The differential input voltage should not exceed an absolute of (VREF/PGA) for accurate measurement, where VREF is the internal reference voltage (2.048V) and PGA is the PGA gain setting. The converter output code will saturate if the input range exceeds (VREF/PGA). The absolute voltage range on each of the differential input pins is from VSS-0.3V to VDD+0.3V. Any voltage above or below this range will cause leakage currents through the Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) diodes at the input pins. This ESD current can cause unexpected performance of the device. The common mode of the analog inputs should be chosen such that both the differential analog input range and the absolute voltage range on each pin are within the specified operating range defined in Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” and Section 4.0 “Description of Device Operation”. 3.2 Supply Voltage (VDD, VSS) VDD is the power supply pin for the device. This pin requires an appropriate bypass capacitor of about 0.1 µF (ceramic) to ground. An additional 10 µF capacitor (tantalum) in parallel is also recommended to further attenuate high frequency noise present in some application boards. The supply voltage (VDD) must be maintained in the 2.7V to 5.5V range for specified operation. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. VSS is the ground pin and the current return path of the device. The user must connect the VSS pin to a ground plane through a low impedance connection. If an analog ground path is available in the application PCB (printed circuit board), it is highly recommended that the VSS pin be tied to the analog ground path or isolated within an analog ground plane of the circuit board. 3.3 Serial Clock Pin (SCL) SCL is the serial clock pin of the I2C interface. The MCP3425 acts only as a slave and the SCL pin accepts only external serial clocks. The input data from the Master device is shifted into the SDA pin on the rising edges of the SCL clock and output from the MCP3425 occurs at the falling edges of the SCL clock. The SCL pin is an open-drain N-channel driver. Therefore, it needs a pull-up resistor from the VDD line to the SCL pin. Refer to Section 5.3 “I2C Serial Communications” for more details of I2C Serial Interface communication. 3.4 Serial Data Pin (SDA) SDA is the serial data pin of the I2C interface. The SDA pin is used for input and output data. In read mode, the conversion result is read from the SDA pin (output). In write mode, the device configuration bits are written (input) though the SDA pin. The SDA pin is an opendrain N-channel driver. Therefore, it needs a pull-up resistor from the VDD line to the SDA pin. Except for start and stop conditions, the data on the SDA pin must be stable during the high period of the clock. The high or low state of the SDA pin can only change when the clock signal on the SCL pin is low. Refer to Section 5.3 “I2C Serial Communications” for more details of I2C Serial Interface communication. DS22072B-page 7 MCP3425 NOTES: DS22072B-page 8 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 4.0 DESCRIPTION OF DEVICE OPERATION 4.1 General Overview The MCP3425 is a low-power, 16-Bit Delta-Sigma A/D converter with an I2C serial interface. The device contains an on-board voltage reference (2.048V), programmable gain amplifier (PGA), and internal oscillator. The user can select 12, 14, or 16 bit conversion by setting the configuration register bits. The device can be operated in Continuous Conversion or One-Shot Conversion mode. In the Continuous Conversion mode, the device converts the inputs continuously. While in the One-Shot Conversion mode, the device converts the input one time and stays in the low-power standby mode until it receives another command for a new conversion. During the standby mode, the device consumes less than 0.1 µA typical. When the device powers up (POR is set), it automatically resets the configuration bits to default settings. Device default settings are: • Conversion bit resolution: 12 bits (240 sps) • PGA gain setting: x1 • Continuous conversion Once the device is powered-up, the user can reprogram the configuration bits using I2C serial interface any time. The configuration bits are stored in volatile memory. User selectable options are: • Conversion bit resolution: 12, 14, or 16 bits • PGA Gain selection: x1, x2, x4, or x8 • Continuous or one-shot conversion In the Continuous Conversion mode, the device converts the inputs continuously. While in the One-Shot Conversion mode, the device converts the input one time and stays in the low-power standby mode until it receives another command for a new conversion. During the standby mode, the device consumes less than 1 µA maximum. 4.2 Power-On-Reset (POR) The device contains an internal Power-On-Reset (POR) circuit that monitors power supply voltage (VDD) during operation. This circuit ensures correct device start-up at system power-up and power-down events. The POR has built-in hysteresis and a timer to give a high degree of immunity to potential ripples and noises on the power supply. A 0.1 µF decoupling capacitor should be mounted as close as possible to the VDD pin for additional transient immunity. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. The threshold voltage is set at 2.2V with a tolerance of approximately ±5%. If the supply voltage falls below this threshold, the device will be held in a reset condition. The typical hysteresis value is approximately 200 mV. The POR circuit is shut-down during the low-power standby mode. Once a power-up event has occurred, the device requires additional delay time (approximately 300 µs) before a conversion can take place. During this time, all internal analog circuitries are settled before the first conversion occurs. Figure 4-1 illustrates the conditions for power-up and power-down events under typical start-up conditions. When the device powers up, it automatically resets and sets the configuration bits to default settings. The default configuration bit conditions are a PGA gain of 1 V/V and a conversion speed of 240 SPS in Continuous Conversion mode. When the device receives an I2C General Call Reset command, it performs an internal reset similar to a Power-On-Reset event. VDD 2.2V 2.0V 300 µS Reset Start-up FIGURE 4-1: 4.3 Normal Operation Reset Time POR Operation. Internal Voltage Reference The device contains an on-board 2.048V voltage reference. This reference voltage is for internal use only and not directly measurable. The specifications of the reference voltage are part of the device’s gain and drift specifications. Therefore, there is no separate specification for the on-board reference. 4.4 Analog Input Channel The differential analog input channel has a switched capacitor structure. The internal sampling capacitor (3.2 pF for PGA = 1) is charged and discharged to process a conversion. The charging and discharging of the input sampling capacitor creates dynamic input currents at each input pin. The current is a function of the differential input voltages, and inversely proportional to the internal sampling capacitance, sampling frequency, and PGA setting. DS22072B-page 9 MCP3425 4.5 Input Voltage Range The differential (VIN) and common mode voltage (VINCOM) at the input pins without considering PGA setting are defined by: V IN = V IN + – V IN V IN + + V IN V INCOM = -----------------------------2 The input signal levels are amplified by the internal programmable gain amplifier (PGA) at the front end of the ΔΣ modulator. The user needs to consider two conditions for the input voltage range: (a) Differential input voltage range and (b) Absolute maximum input voltage range. 4.5.1 DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE The device performs conversions using its internal reference voltage (VREF = 2.048V). Therefore, the absolute value of the differential input voltage (VIN), with PGA setting is included, needs to be less than the internal reference voltage. The device will output saturated output codes (all 0s or all 1s except sign bit) if the absolute value of the input voltage (VIN), with PGA setting is included, is greater than the internal reference voltage (VREF = 2.048V). The input full-scale voltage range is given by: EQUATION 4-1: VIN = VIN+ - VIN- VREF = 2.048V If the input voltage level is greater than the above limit, the user can use a voltage divider and bring down the input level within the full-scale range. See Figure 6-7 for more details of the input voltage divider circuit. ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE The input voltage at each input pin must be less than the following absolute maximum input voltage limits: • Input voltage < VDD+0.3V • Input voltage > VSS-0.3V Any input voltage outside this range can turn on the input ESD protection diodes, and result in input leakage current, causing conversion errors, or permanently damage the device. Care must be taken in setting the input voltage ranges so that the input voltage does not exceed the absolute maximum input voltage range. DS22072B-page 10 Input Impedance The device uses a switched-capacitor input stage using a 3.2 pF sampling capacitor. This capacitor is switched (charged and discharged) at a rate of the sampling frequency that is generated by on-board clock. The differential input impedance varies with the PGA settings. The typical differential input impedance during a normal mode operation is given by: ZIN(f) = 2.25 MΩ/PGA Since the sampling capacitor is only switching to the input pins during a conversion process, the above input impedance is only valid during conversion periods. In a low power standby mode, the above impedance is not presented at the input pins. Therefore, only a leakage current due to ESD diode is presented at the input pins. The conversion accuracy can be affected by the input signal source impedance when any external circuit is connected to the input pins. The source impedance adds to the internal impedance and directly affects the time required to charge the internal sampling capacitor. Therefore, a large input source impedance connected to the input pins can degrade the system performance, such as offset, gain, and Integral Non-Linearity (INL) errors. Ideally, the input source impedance should be zero. This can be achievable by using an operational amplifier with a closed-loop output impedance of tens of ohms. 4.7 – V REF ≤ ( V IN • PGA ) ≤ ( V REF – 1LSB ) Where: 4.5.2 4.6 Aliasing and Anti-aliasing Filter Aliasing occurs when the input signal contains time-varying signal components with frequency greater than half the sample rate. In the aliasing conditions, the device can output unexpected output codes. For applications that are operating in electrical noise environments, the time-varying signal noise or high frequency interference components can be easily added to the input signals and cause aliasing. Although the device has an internal first order sinc filter, the filter response (Figure 2-11) may not give enough attenuation to all aliasing signal components. To avoid the aliasing, an external anti-aliasing filter, which can be accomplished with a simple RC low-pass filter, is typically used at the input pins. The low-pass filter cuts off the high frequency noise components and provides a band-limited input signal to the input pins. 4.8 Self-Calibration The device performs a self-calibration of offset and gain for each conversion. This provides reliable conversion results from conversion-to-conversion over variations in temperature as well as power supply fluctuations. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 4.9 Digital Output Codes and Conversion to Real Values 4.9.1 DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE FROM DEVICE The digital output code is proportional to the input voltage and PGA settings. The output data format is a binary two’s complement. With this code scheme, the MSB can be considered a sign indicator. When the MSB is a logic ‘0’, the input is positive. When the MSB is a logic ‘1’, the input is negative. The following is an example of the output code: a. b. c. for a negative full scale input voltage: 100...000 Example: (VIN+ - VIN-) •PGA = -2.048V for a zero differential input voltage: 000...000 Example: (VIN+ - VIN-) = 0 for a positive full-scale input voltage: 011...111 Example: (VIN+ - VIN-) • PGA = 2.048V The MSB (sign bit) is always transmitted first through the I2C serial data line. The resolution for each conversion is 16, 14, or 12 bits depending on the conversion rate selection bit settings by the user. The output codes will not roll-over even if the input voltage exceeds the maximum input range. In this case, the code will be locked at 0111...11 for all voltages greater than (VREF - 1 LSB)/PGA and 1000...00 for voltages less than -VREF/PGA. Table 4-2 shows an example of output codes of various input levels for 16 bit conversion mode. Table 4-3 shows an example of minimum and maximum output codes for each conversion rate option. Table 4-1 shows the LSB size of each conversion rate setting. The measured unknown input voltage is obtained by multiplying the output codes with LSB. See the following section for the input voltage calculation using the output codes. TABLE 4-1: Resolution Setting Number of Output Code ( V IN + – V IN - ) = ( Maximum Code + 1 ) × PGA × ----------------------------------2.048V Where: See Table 4-3 for Maximum Code The LSB of the data conversion is given by: Where: N 1 mV 14 bits 250 µV 16 bits 62.5 µV EXAMPLE OF OUTPUT CODE FOR 16 BITS Input Voltage: [VIN+ - VIN-] • PGA Digital Output Code ≥ VREF 0111111111111111 VREF - 1 LSB 0111111111111111 2 LSB 0000000000000010 1 LSB 0000000000000001 0 0000000000000000 -1 LSB 1111111111111111 -2 LSB 1111111111111110 - VREF 1000000000000000 < -VREF 1000000000000000 Note 1: 2: MSB is a sign indicator: 0: Positive input (VIN+ > VIN-) 1: Negative input (VIN+ > VIN-) Output data format is binary two’s complement. TABLE 4-3: MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM CODES Number of Bits Data Rate Minimum Code Maximum Code 12 240 SPS -2048 2047 14 60 SPS -8192 8191 16 15 SPS -32768 32767 Note: EQUATION 4-3: LSB 12 bits TABLE 4-2: The number of output code is given by: EQUATION 4-2: RESOLUTION SETTINGS VS. LSB 2n-1 Maximum n-bit code = -1 Minimum n-bit code = -1 x 2n-1 2 × V REF 2 × 2.048V LSB = --------------------- = -------------------------N N 2 2 = User programmable bit resolution: 12,14, or 16 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 11 MCP3425 4.9.2 CONVERTING THE DEVICE OUTPUT CODE TO INPUT SIGNAL VOLTAGE EQUATION 4-4: CONVERTING OUTPUT CODES TO INPUT VOLTAGE When the user gets the digital output codes from the device as described in Section 4.9.1 “Digital output code from device”, the next step is converting the digital output codes to a measured input voltage. Equation 4-4 shows an example of converting the output codes to its corresponding input voltage. If MSB = 0 (Positive Output Code): If the sign indicator bit (MSB) is ‘0’, the input voltage is obtained by multiplying the output code with the LSB and divided by the PGA setting. Where: If the sign indicator bit (MSB) is ‘1’, the output code needs to be converted to two’s complement before multiplied by LSB and divided by the PGA setting. Table 4-4 shows an example of converting the device output codes to input voltage. TABLE 4-4: LSB Input Voltage = (Output Code) • -----------PGA If MSB = 1 (Negative Output Code): LSB Input Voltage = (2 ′ s complement of Output Code) • -----------PGA LSB = See Table 4-1 2’s complement = 1’s complement + 1 EXAMPLE OF CONVERTING OUTPUT CODE TO VOLTAGE (WITH 16 BIT SETTING) Input Voltage [VIN+ - VIN-] • PGA] Digital Output Code ≥ VREF 0111111111111111 0 (214+213+212+211+210+29+28+27+26+25+24+23+22+21+20)x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = 2.048 (V) for PGA = 1 VREF - 1 LSB 0111111111111111 0 (214+213+212+211+210+29+28+27+26+25+24+23+22+21+20)x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = 2.048 (V) for PGA = 1 2 LSB 0000000000000010 0 (0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+21+0)x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = 125 (μV) for PGA = 1 1 LSB 0000000000000001 0 (0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+20)x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = 62.5 (μV)for PGA = 1 0 0000000000000000 0 (0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0)x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = 0 (V) for PGA = 1 -1 LSB 1111111111111111 1 -(0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+20)x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = - 62.5 (μV)for PGA = 1 -2 LSB 1111111111111110 1 -(0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+21+0)x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = - 125 (μV)for PGA = 1 - VREF 1000000000000000 1 -(215+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0) x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = - 2.048 (V) for PGA = 1 ≤ -VREF 1000000000000000 1 -(215+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0) x LSB(62.5 µV)/PGA = - 2.048 (V) for PGA = 1 DS22072B-page 12 MSB Example of Converting Output Codes to Input Voltage (sign bit) © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 5.0 USING THE MCP3425 DEVICE 5.1.2 5.1 Operating Modes Once the One-Shot Conversion (single conversion) Mode is selected, the device performs only one conversion, updates the output data register, clears the data ready flag (RDY = 0), and then enters a low power standby mode. A new One-Shot Conversion is started again when the device receives a new write command with RDY = 1. The user operates the device by setting up the device configuration register using a write command (see Figure 5-2) and reads the conversion data using a read command (see Figure 5-3). The device operates in two modes: (a) Continuous Conversion Mode or (b) OneShot Conversion Mode (single conversion). This mode selection is made by setting the O/C bit in the Configuration Register. Refer to Section 5.2 “Configuration Register” for more information. 5.1.1 CONTINUOUS CONVERSION MODE (O/C BIT = 1) The device performs a Continuous Conversion if the O/ C bit is set to logic “high”. Once the conversion is completed, RDY bit is toggled to ‘0’ and the result is placed at the output data register. The device immediately begins another conversion and overwrites the output data register with the most recent result. The device clears the data ready flag (RDY bit = 0) when the conversion is completed. The device sets the ready flag bit (RDY bit = 1), if the latest conversion result has been read by the Master. • When writing configuration register: - Setting RDY bit in continuous mode does not affect anything • When reading conversion data: - RDY bit = 0 means the latest conversion result is ready - RDY bit = 1 means the conversion result is not updated since the last reading. A new conversion is under processing and the RDY bit will be cleared when the new conversion result is ready © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. ONE-SHOT CONVERSION MODE (O/C BIT = 0) • When writing configuration register: - The RDY bit needs to be set to begin a new conversion in one-shot mode • When reading conversion data: - RDY bit = 0 means the latest conversion result is ready - RDY bit = 1 means the conversion result is not updated since the last reading. A new conversion is under processing and the RDY bit will be cleared when the new conversion is done This One-Shot Conversion Mode is recommended for low power operating applications. During the low current standby mode, the device consumes less than 1 µA typical. For example, if the device converts only one time per second with 16 bit resolution, the total current draw is only about one fourth of the draws in continuous mode. In this example, the device consumes approximately 9.7 µA (= ~145 µA/15 SPS), if the device performs only one conversion per second (1 SPS) in 16-bit conversion mode with 3V power supply. DS22072B-page 13 MCP3425 5.2 Configuration Register The MCP3425 has an 8-bit wide configuration register to select for: PGA gain, conversion rate, and conversion mode. This register allows the user to change the operating condition of the device and check the status of the device operation. The user can rewrite the configuration byte any time during the device operation. Register 5-1 shows the configuration register bits. REGISTER 5-1: CONFIGURATION REGISTER R/W-1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-1 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 RDY C1 C0 O/C S1 S0 G1 G0 1* 0* 0* 1* 0* 0* 0* 0* bit 7 bit 0 * Default Configuration after Power-On Reset Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ -n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared bit 7 x = Bit is unknown RDY: Ready Bit This bit is the data ready flag. In read mode, this bit indicates if the output register has been updated with a new conversion. In One-Shot Conversion mode, writing this bit to “1” initiates a new conversion. Reading RDY bit with the read command: 1 = Output register has not been updated. 0 = Output register has been updated with the latest conversion data. Writing RDY bit with the write command: Continuous Conversion mode: No effect One-Shot Conversion mode: 1 = Initiate a new conversion. 0 = No effect. bit 6-5 C1-C0: Channel Selection Bits These are the Channel Selection bits, but not used in the MCP3425 device. bit 4 O/C: Conversion Mode Bit 1 = Continuous Conversion Mode. Once this bit is selected, the device performs data conversions continuously. 0 = One-Shot Conversion Mode. The device performs a single conversion and enters a low power standby mode until it receives another write/read command. bit 3-2 S1-S0: Sample Rate Selection Bit 00 = 240 SPS (12 bits), 01 = 60 SPS (14 bits), 10 = 15 SPS (16 bits) bit 1-0 G1-G0: PGA Gain Selector Bits 00 = 1 V/V, 01 = 2 V/V, 10 = 4 V/V, 11 = 8 V/V DS22072B-page 14 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 If the configuration byte is read repeatedly by clocking continuously after reading the data bytes (i.e., after the 4th byte in the 16-bit conversion mode), the state of the RDY bit indicates whether the device is ready with new conversion result. When the Master finds the RDY bit is cleared, it can send a not-acknowledge (NAK) bit and a stop bit to exit the current read operation and send a new read command for the latest conversion data. Once the conversion data has been read, the ready bit toggles to ‘1’ until the next new conversion data is ready. The conversion data in the output register is overwritten every time a new conversion is completed. Figure 5-3 shows an example of reading the conversion data. The user can rewrite the configuration byte any time for a new setting. Table 5-1 and Table 5-2 show the examples of the configuration bit operation. TABLE 5-1: WRITE CONFIGURATION BITS R/W O/C RDY 0 0 0 Operation No effect if all other bits remain the same - operation continues with the previous settings 0 0 1 Initiate One-Shot Conversion 0 1 0 Initiate Continuous Conversion 0 1 1 Initiate Continuous Conversion TABLE 5-2: READ CONFIGURATION BITS R/W O/C RDY 1 0 0 Operation New conversion result in OneShot conversion mode has just been read. The RDY bit remains low until set by a new write command. 1 0 1 One-Shot Conversion is in progress. The conversion result is not updated yet. The RDY bit stays high until the current conversion is completed. 1 1 0 New conversion result in Continuous Conversion mode has just been read. The RDY bit changes to high after reading the conversion data. 1 1 1 5.3 I2C Serial Communications The device communicates with Master (microcontroller) through a serial I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) interface and support standard (100 kbits/sec), fast (400 kbits/sec) and high-speed (3.4 Mbits/sec) modes. Note: The High-Speed mode is not recommended for VDD less than 2.7V. The serial I2C is a bidirectional 2-wire data bus communication protocol using open-drain SCL and SDA lines. The device can only be addressed as a slave. Once addressed, it can receive configuration bits with a write command or transmit the latest conversion results with a read command. The serial clock pin (SCL) is an input only and the serial data pin (SDA) is bidirectional. The Master starts communication by sending a START bit and terminates the communication by sending a STOP bit. In read mode, the device releases the SDA line after receiving NAK and STOP bits. An example of a hardware connection diagram is shown in Figure 6-1. More details of the I2C bus characteristic is described in Section 5.6 “I2C Bus Characteristics”. 5.3.1 I2C DEVICE ADDRESSING The first byte after the START bit is always the address byte of the device, which includes the device code (4 bits), address bits (3 bits), and R/W bit. The device code of the MCP3425 is 1101, which is programmed at the factory. The device code is followed by three address bits (A2, A1, A0) which are also programmed at the factory. The three address bits allow up to eight MCP3425 devices on the same data bus line. The (R/W) bit determines if the Master device wants to read the conversion data or write to the Configuration register. If the (R/W) bit is set (read mode), the device outputs the conversion data in the following clocks. If the (R/W) bit is cleared (write mode), the device expects a configuration byte in the following clocks. When the device receives the correct address byte, it outputs an acknowledge bit after the R/W bit. Figure 5-1 shows the address byte. Figure 5-2 through Figure 5-3 show how to write the configuration register bits and read the conversion results. The conversion result in Continuous Conversion mode was already read. The next new conversion data is not ready. The RDY bit stays high until a new conversion is completed. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 15 MCP3425 5.3.2 Acknowledge bit Start bit When the Master sends an address byte with the R/W bit low (R/W = 0), the MCP3425 expects one configuration byte following the address. Any byte sent after this second byte will be ignored. The user can change the operating mode of the device by writing the configuration register bits. Read/Write bit R/W ACK Address Address Byte If the device receives a write command with a new configuration setting, the device immediately begins a new conversion and updates the conversion data. Address Device Code Address Bits (Note 1) 1 Note 1: 1 1 0 X X WRITING A CONFIGURATION BYTE TO THE DEVICE X Specified by customer and programmed at the factory. If not specified by the customer, programmed to ‘000’. FIGURE 5-1: MCP3425 Address Byte. 1 9 1 9 SCL 1 SDA Start Bit by Master 1 0 1 A2 A1 A0 R/W 1st Byte: MCP3425 Address Byte with Write command Note: C1 C0 ACK by MCP3425 RDY O/C S1 S0 G1 G0 ACK by MCP3425 Stop Bit by Master 2nd Byte: Configuration Byte – Stop bit can be issued any time during writing. – MCP3425 device code is 1101. – Address Bits A2- A0 = 000 are programmed at factory unless customer requests different codes. FIGURE 5-2: DS22072B-page 16 Timing Diagram For Writing To The MCP3425. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 5.3.3 READING DATA FROM THE DEVICE When the Master sends a read command (R/W = 1), the MCP3425 outputs the conversion data bytes and configuration byte. Each byte consists of 8 bits with one acknowledge (ACK) bit. The ACK bit after the address byte is issued by the MCP3425 and the ACK bits after each conversion data bytes are issued by the Master. When the device receives a read command, it outputs two data bytes followed by a configuration register. In 16 bit-conversion mode, the MSB (= sign bit) of the first data byte is D15. In 14-bit conversion mode, the first two bits in the first data byte are repeated MSB bits and can be ignored, and the 3rd bit (D13) is the MSB (=sign bit) of the conversion data. In 12-bit conversion mode, the first four bits are repeated MSB bits and can be ignored. The 5th bit (D11) of the byte represents the MSB (= sign bit) of the conversion data. Table 5-3 summarizes the conversion data output of each conversion mode. The configuration byte follows the output data bytes. The device repeatedly outputs the configuration byte only if the Master sends clocks repeatedly after the data bytes. The device terminates the current outputs when it receives a Not-Acknowledge (NAK), a repeated start or a stop bit at any time during the output bit stream. It is not required to read the configuration byte. However, the Master may read the configuration byte to check the RDY bit condition.The Master may continuously send clock (SCL) to repeatedly read the configuration byte (to check the RDY bit status). Figure 5-3 shows the timing diagrams of the reading. TABLE 5-3: OUTPUT CODES OF EACH RESOLUTION OPTION Conversion Option Digital Output Codes 16-bits D15 ~ D8 (1st data byte) - D7 ~ D0 (2nd data byte) - Configuration byte. (Note 1) 14-bits MMD13 ~ D8 (1st data byte) - D7 ~ D0 (2nd data byte) - Configuration byte. (Note 2) 12-bits MMMMD11 ~ D8 (1st data byte) - D7 ~ D0 (2nd data byte) - Configuration byte. (Note 3) Note 1: D15 is MSB (= sign bit). 2: D13 is MSB (= sign bit), M is repeated MSB of the data byte. 3: D11 is MSB (= sign bit), M is repeated MSB of the data byte. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 17 FIGURE 5-3: DS22072B-page 18 Note: Start Bit by Master SDA SCL 1 1 R/W A2 A1 A0 1st Byte MCP3425 Address Byte 0 D 15 1 ACK by MCP3425 9 D 12 D 11 D 10 2nd Byte Upper Data Byte D D 14 13 D 9 D 8 D 7 1 1 ACK by Master 9 RDY C 1 D 6 – MCP3425 device code is 1101. – See Figure 5-1 for details in Address Byte. – Stop bit or NAK bit can be issued any time during reading. – In 14 - bit mode: D15 and D14 are repeated MSB and can be ignored. – In 12 - bit mode: D15 - D12 are repeated MSB and can be ignored. – Configuration byte repeats as long as clock is provided after the 4th byte. 1 1 D 4 D 3 D 2 O/C S 1 S 0 (Optional) G 0 D 0 9 1 RDY C 1 Stop Bit by Master ACK by Master NAK by Master D 1 G 1 Nth Repeated Byte: Configuration Byte C 0 3rd Byte Lower Data Byte D 5 9 C 0 S 0 G 1 G 0 To continue: ACK by Master To end: NAK by Master (Optional) 4th Byte Configuration Byte O/C S 1 9 MCP3425 iming Diagram For Reading From The MCP3425. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 5.4 General Call 5.5 The device acknowledges the general call address (0x00 in the first byte). The meaning of the general call address is always specified in the second byte. Refer to Figure 5-4. The device supports the following two general calls. For more information on the general call, or other I2C modes, please refer to the Phillips I2C specification. 5.4.1 GENERAL CALL RESET The general call reset occurs if the second byte is ‘00000110’ (06h). At the acknowledgement of this byte, the device will abort current conversion and perform an internal reset similar to a Power-On-Reset (POR). All configuration and data register bits are reset to default values. The I2C specification requires that a high-speed mode device must be ‘activated’ to operate in high-speed mode. This is done by sending a special address byte of “00001XXX” following the START bit. The “XXX” bits are unique to the High-Speed (HS) mode Master. This byte is referred to as the High-Speed (HS) Master Mode Code (HSMMC). The MCP3425 device does not acknowledge this byte. However, upon receiving this code, the device switches on its HS mode filters and communicates up to 3.4 MHz on SDA and SCL bus lines. The device will switch out of the HS mode on the next STOP condition. For more information on the HS mode, or other I2C modes, please refer to the Phillips I2C specification. 5.6 5.4.2 GENERAL CALL CONVERSION The general call conversion occurs if the second byte is ‘00001000’ (08h). All devices on the bus initiate a conversion simultaneously. When the device receives this command, the configuration will be set to the OneShot Conversion mode and a single conversion will be performed. The PGA and data rate settings are unchanged with this general call. START LSB STOP S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A X X X X X X X X A S High-Speed (HS) Mode I2C Bus Characteristics The I2C specification defines the following bus protocol: • Data transfer may be initiated only when the bus is not busy • During data transfer, the data line must remain stable whenever the clock line is HIGH. Changes in the data line while the clock line is HIGH will be interpreted as a START or STOP condition Accordingly, the following bus conditions have been defined using Figure 5-5. 5.6.1 BUS NOT BUSY (A) Both data and clock lines remain HIGH. ACK First Byte (General Call Address) Note: Second Byte I2C ACK The specification does not allow “00000000” (00h) in the second byte. FIGURE 5-4: Format. General Call Address 5.6.2 START DATA TRANSFER (B) A HIGH to LOW transition of the SDA line while the clock (SCL) is HIGH determines a START condition. All commands must be preceded by a START condition. 5.6.3 STOP DATA TRANSFER (C) A LOW to HIGH transition of the SDA line while the clock (SCL) is HIGH determines a STOP condition. All operations can be ended with a STOP condition. 5.6.4 DATA VALID (D) The state of the data line represents valid data when, after a START condition, the data line is stable for the duration of the HIGH period of the clock signal. The data on the line must be changed during the LOW period of the clock signal. There is one clock pulse per bit of data. Each data transfer is initiated with a START condition and terminated with a STOP condition. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 19 MCP3425 5.6.5 ACKNOWLEDGE AND NONACKNOWLEDGE The Master (microcontroller) and the slave (MCP3425) use an acknowledge pulse as a hand shake of communication for each byte. The ninth clock pulse of each byte is used for the acknowledgement. The clock pulse is always provided by the Master (microcontroller) and the acknowledgement is issued by the receiving device of the byte (Note: The transmitting device must release the SDA line during the acknowledge pulse.). The acknowledgement is achieved by pulling-down the SDA line “LOW” during the 9th clock pulse by the receiving device. (A) (B) During reads, the Master (microcontroller) can terminate the current read operation by not providing an acknowledge bit (not Acknowledge (NAK)) on the last byte. In this case, the MCP3425 device releases the SDA line to allow the Master (microcontroller) to generate a STOP or repeated START condition. The non-acknowledgement (NAK) is issued by providing the SDA line to “HIGH” during the 9th clock pulse. (D) (D) (C) (A) SCL SDA START CONDITION FIGURE 5-5: DS22072B-page 20 DATA ADDRESS OR ACKNOWLEDGE ALLOWED TO CHANGE VALID STOP CONDITION Data Transfer Sequence on I2C Serial Bus. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 TABLE 5-4: I2C SERIAL TIMING SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise specified, all limits are specified for TA = -40 to +85°C, VDD = +2.7V to +5.0V, VSS = 0V, VIN+ = VIN- = VREF/2. Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions Standard Mode (100 kHz) Clock frequency fSCL — — 100 kHz Clock high time THIGH 4000 — — ns Clock low time TLOW 4700 — — ns SDA and SCL rise time TR — — 1000 ns From VIL to VIH (Note 1) SDA and SCL fall time TF — — 300 ns From VIH to VIL (Note 1) START condition hold time THD:STA 4000 — — ns START (Repeated) condition setup time TSU:STA 4700 — — ns Data hold time TTHD:DAT 0 — 3450 ns Data input setup time TSU:DAT 250 — — ns STOP condition setup time TSU:STO 4000 — — ns (Note 3) TAA 0 — 3750 ns (Note 2, Note 3) TBUF 4700 — — ns Time between START and STOP conditions. Clock frequency TTSCL — — 400 kHz Clock high time THIGH 600 — — ns Clock low time TLOW 1300 — — ns SDA and SCL rise time TR 20 + 0.1Cb — 300 ns From VIL to VIH (Note 1) SDA and SCL fall time TF 20 + 0.1Cb — 300 ns From VIH to VIL (Note 1) Output valid from clock Bus free time Fast Mode (400 kHz) START condition hold time THD:STA 600 — — ns START (Repeated) condition setup time TSU:STA 600 — — ns Data hold time THD:DAT 0 — 900 ns Data input setup time TSU:DAT 100 — — ns STOP condition setup time TSU:STO 600 — — ns TAA 0 — 1200 ns (Note 2, Note 3) TBUF 1300 — — ns Time between START and STOP conditions. Output valid from clock Bus free time Note 1: (Note 4) This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. 2: This specification is not a part of the I2C specification. This specification is equivalent to the Data Hold Time (THD:DAT) plus SDA Fall (or rise) time: TAA = THD:DAT + TF (OR TR). 3: If this parameter is too short, it can create an unintended Start or Stop condition to other devices on the bus line. If this parameter is too long, Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. 4: For Data Input: This parameter must be longer than tSP. If this parameter is too long, the Data Input Setup (TSU:DAT) or Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. For Data Output: This parameter is characterized, and tested indirectly by testing TAA parameter. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 21 MCP3425 TABLE 5-4: I2C SERIAL TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise specified, all limits are specified for TA = -40 to +85°C, VDD = +2.7V to +5.0V, VSS = 0V, VIN+ = VIN- = VREF/2. Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions fSCL — — 3.4 MHz Cb = 100 pF — — 1.7 MHz Cb = 400 pF High Speed Mode (3.4 MHz) Clock frequency Clock high time Clock low time SCL rise time (Note 1) SCL fall time (Note 1) SDA rise time (Note 1) SDA fall time (Note 1) Data hold time (Note 4) Output valid from clock (Notes 2 and 3) THIGH TLOW TR TF TR: DAT TF: DATA THD:DAT TAA 60 — — ns Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz 120 — — ns Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz 160 — — ns Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz 320 — — ns Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz — — 40 ns From VIL to VIH, Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz — — 80 ns From VIL to VIH, Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz — — 40 ns From VIH to VIL, Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz — — 80 ns From VIH to VIL, Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz — — 80 ns From VIL to VIH, Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz — — 160 ns From VIL to VIH, Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz — — 80 ns From VIH to VIL, Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz — — 160 ns From VIH to VIL, Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz 0 — 70 ns Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz 0 — 150 ns Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz — — 150 ns Cb = 100 pF, fSCL = 3.4 MHz — — 310 ns Cb = 400 pF, fSCL = 1.7 MHz START condition hold time THD:STA 160 — — ns START (Repeated) condition setup time TSU:STA 160 — — ns Data input setup time TSU:DAT 10 — — ns STOP condition setup time TSU:STO 160 — — ns Note 1: This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. 2: This specification is not a part of the I2C specification. This specification is equivalent to the Data Hold Time (THD:DAT) plus SDA Fall (or rise) time: TAA = THD:DAT + TF (OR TR). 3: If this parameter is too short, it can create an unintended Start or Stop condition to other devices on the bus line. If this parameter is too long, Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. 4: For Data Input: This parameter must be longer than tSP. If this parameter is too long, the Data Input Setup (TSU:DAT) or Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. For Data Output: This parameter is characterized, and tested indirectly by testing TAA parameter. DS22072B-page 22 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 TF SCL TSU:STA TLOW SDA TR THIGH TSP THD:STA TSU:DAT THD:DAT TSU:STO TBUF 0.7VDD 0.3VDD TAA FIGURE 5-6: I2C Bus Timing Data. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 23 MCP3425 NOTES: DS22072B-page 24 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 6.0 BASIC APPLICATION CONFIGURATIONS AND EXAMPLES The MCP3425 can be used for various precision analog-to-digital converter applications. The device operates with very simple connections to the application circuit. The following sections discuss the examples of the device connections and applications. 6.1 6.1.1 VDD MCP3425 1 VIN+ 2 VSS 3 SCL VIN- 6 VDD 5 SDL 4 C2 C1 Rp Rp Connecting to the Application Circuits BYPASS CAPACITORS ON VDD PIN For an accurate measurement, the application circuit needs a clean supply voltage and must block any noise signal to the MCP3425 device. Figure 6-1 shows an example of using two bypass capacitors (a 10 µF tantalum capacitor and a 0.1 µF ceramic capacitor) on the VDD line of the MCP3425. These capacitors are helpful to filter out any high frequency noises on the VDD line and also provide the momentary bursts of extra currents when the device needs from the supply. These capacitors should be placed as close to the VDD pin as possible (within one inch). If the application circuit has separate digital and analog power supplies, the VDD and VSS of the MCP3425 device should reside on the analog plane. 6.1.2 VDD Input Signals CONNECTING TO I2C BUS USING PULL-UP RESISTORS The SCL and SDA pins of the MCP3425 are open-drain configurations. These pins require a pull-up resistor as shown in Figure 6-1. The value of these pull-up resistors depends on the operating speed and loading capacitance of the I2C bus line. Higher value of pull-up resistor consumes less power, but increases the signal transition time (higher RC time constant) on the bus. Therefore, it can limit the bus operating speed. The lower value of resistor, on the other hand, consumes higher power, but allows higher operating speed. If the bus line has higher capacitance due to long bus line or high number of devices connected to the bus, a smaller pull-up resistor is needed to compensate the long RC time constant. The pull-up resistor is typically chosen between 5 kΩ and 10 kΩ ranges for standard and fast modes. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. TO MCU (MASTER) RP is the pull-up resistor: 5 kΩ - 10 kΩ for fSCL = 100 kHz to 400 kHz C1: 0.1 µF, Ceramic capacitor C2: 10 µF, Tantalum capacitor FIGURE 6-1: Example. Typical Connection The number of devices connected to the bus is limited only by the maximum bus capacitance of 400 pF. The bus loading capacitance affects on the bus operating speed. Figure 6-2 shows an example of multiple device connections. SDA SCL Microcontroller (PIC16F876) MCP4725 MCP3425 Temperature Sensor (MCP9804) FIGURE 6-2: Example of Multiple Device Connection on I2C Bus. DS22072B-page 25 MCP3425 6.1.3 DEVICE COMMUNICATION TEST The user can test the communication between the Master (MCU) and the MCP3425 by simply checking an acknowledge response from the MCP3425 after sending a read or write command. Here is an example using Figure 6-3: a) b) (a) Differential Input Signal Connection: VDD Excitation C2 VIN+ Set the R/W bit “LOW” in the address byte. Check the ACK pulse after sending the address byte. Input Signal MCP3425 VIN- If the device acknowledges (ACK = 0), then the device is connected, otherwise it is not connected. c) C1 Sensor (b) Single-ended Input Signal Connection: Send a STOP bit. VDD Address Byte SCL 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 SDA 1 0 Sensor 1 A2 A1 A0 0 Start Bit ADC Section Address bits Device Code R/W 6.1.4 C2 VIN+ Input Signal R2 VIN- MCP3425 Stop Bit MCP3425 Response FIGURE 6-3: Test. C1 R1 9 ACK 1 Excitation I2C Bus Communications C1 : 0.1 µF, Ceramic Capacitor C2 : 10 µF, Tantalum Capacitor FIGURE 6-4: Differential and SingleEnded Input Connections. DIFFERENTIAL AND SINGLEENDED CONFIGURATION Figure 6-4 shows typical connection examples for differential and single-ended inputs. Differential input signals are connected to the VIN+ and VIN- input pins. For the single-ended input, the input signal is applied to one of the input pins (typically connected to the VIN+ pin) while the other input pin (typically VIN- pin) is grounded. All device characteristics hold for the single-ended configuration, but this configuration loses one bit resolution because the input can only stand in positive half scale. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics”. DS22072B-page 26 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 6.2 Application Examples 6.2.1 6.2.2 VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT The MCP3425 device can be used in a broad range of sensor and data acquisition applications. Figure 6-5 shows a circuit example measuring the battery voltage. When the input voltage is greater than the internal reference voltage (VREF = 2.048V), it needs a voltage divider circuit to prevent the output code from being saturated. In the example, R1 and R2 form a voltage divider. The R1 and R2 are set to yield VIN to be less than the internal reference voltage (VREF = 2.048V). If the input voltage range is much less than the internal reference voltage, the voltage divider at the input pin is not needed, and the user may use the internal PGA with a gain of up to 8. CURRENT MEASUREMENT Figure 6-6 shows a circuit example of current measurement. For the current measurement, the device measures the voltage across the current sensor, and converts it to current by dividing the measured voltage by a known resistance value of the current sensor. The voltage drops across the sensor is waste. Therefore, the current measurement often prefers to use a current sensor with smaller resistance value, which, in turn, requires high resolution ADC device. The high precision MCP342x devices from Microchip Technology Inc. are suitable for the current measurement with low resistive current sensors. The MSB (= sign bit) of the output code indicates the direction of the current. Discharging Current When the voltage divider or internal PGA is used for the input signal, these factor must be taken into account when the user converts the output codes to the actual input voltage. Charging Current Current Sensor To Load VDD VINMCP3425 Find the Microchip Application Note AN1156 for the input voltage and current measurement using the MCP342X device family. The MCU firmware is well documented in the reference. Battery (V) VIN+ Current Calculation from Output Code: To Load R1 VBAT VDD Battery (V) VIN+ MCP3425 R2 VIN- R2 V IN = ------------------- × V BAT R1 + R2 R1 and R2 = Voltage Divider 1 Output Code × LSB Current = ---------------------------------------------------- × ------------ ( A ) R ( Sensor ) PGA FIGURE 6-6: Measurement. 6.2.3 Battery Current PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Figure 6-7 shows an example of measuring the pressure using NPP301 (manufactured by GE NovaSensor). No external signal conditioning circuit is needed by utilizing its internal PGA. The pressure sensor output is 20 mV/V. This gives 100 mV of full scale output for VDD of 5V (sensor excitation voltage). Input Voltage Calculation from Output Code: Measured Input Voltage R1 + R2 1 = Output Code × LSB × ------------------- × ----------R2 PGA FIGURE 6-5: Measurement. Battery Voltage © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 27 MCP3425 VDD 1/2 MCP6V02 200Ω NPP301 VDD VDD VDD 1 µF VDD R R 10 nF 200Ω 20 kΩ 3 kΩ MCP3425 1 VIN+ VIN- 6 2 VSS VDD 5 3 SCL SDL 4 R R 0.1 µF 10 µF R 1 µF MCP3425 10 nF R 200Ω 3 kΩ 20 kΩ 1 µF TO MCU (MASTER) FIGURE 6-7: Measurement. 6.2.4 1/2 MCP6V02 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE TYPE SENSORS WITH SIGNAL CONDITIONING Wheatstone bridge is one of the most common configurations in the sensor applications. Strain gauges and pressure sensors are the common examples. When the sensor output signal is small and the common mode noise level is large, it needs a signal conditioning circuit between the sensor and the MCP3425. Figure 6-8 and Figure 6-9 show examples of using the MCP6V01 (high precision auto-zeroed Op Amp) for the sensor signal conditioning. Figure 6-8 shows the interface circuit with a minimum of components between the sensor and the MCP3425, but it is not symmetric, and therefore, the ADC input becomes a single ended. On the other hand, the Figure 6-9 has a symmetric and differential output, but requires more components. VDD C VDD R 200Ω Example of Pressure R 0.2R 3 kΩ 100R FIGURE 6-9: High Performance Signal Conditioning Design with Symmetric Circuit. 6.2.5 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Figure 6-10 shows an example of temperature measurement using a thermistor. This example can achieve a linear response over a 50°C temperature range. This can be implemented using a standard resistor with 1% tolerance in series with the thermistor. The value of the resistor is selected to be equal to the thermistor value at the mid-point of the desired temperature range. VDD 10 kΩ Resistor VDD 10 kΩ Thermistor VDD MCP3425 VIN- 6 1 VIN+ 2 VSS VDD 5 3 SCL SDL 4 0.1 µF 10 µF Rpull-up Rpull-up R R 0.2R MCP6V01 FIGURE 6-8: Simple Signal Conditioning Design with Asymmetric Circuit. DS22072B-page 28 TO MCU (MASTER) MCP3425 FIGURE 6-10: Measurement. Example of Temperature © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 7.0 DEVELOPMENT TOOL SUPPORT 7.1 MCP3425 Evaluation Boards The MCP3425 Evaluation Board is available from Microchip Technology Inc. This board works with Microchip’s PICkit™ Serial Analyzer. The user can simply connect any sensing voltage to the input test pads of the board and read conversion codes using the easyto-use PICkit™ Serial Analyzer. Refer to www.microchip.com for further information on this product’s capabilities and availability. Sensor Input Connection FIGURE 7-1: MCP3425 Evaluation Board. FIGURE 7-2: Setup for the MCP3425 Evaluation Board with PICkit™ Serial Analyzer. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 29 MCP3425 NOTES: DS22072B-page 30 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 8.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 8.1 Package Marking Information 6-Lead SOT-23 Example XXNN 1 Part Number Address Option Code MCP3425A0T-E/CH A0 (000) CQNN MCP3425A1T-E/CH A1 (001) CRNN MCP3425A2T-E/CH A2 (010) CSNN MCP3425A3T-E/CH A3 (011) CTNN MCP3425A4T-E/CH A4 (100) Note 1 MCP3425A5T-E/CH A5 (101) Note 1 MCP3425A6T-E/CH A6 (110) Note 1 MCP3425A7T-E/CH A7 (111) Note 1 Note 1: Legend: XX...X Y YY WW NNN e3 * Note: CQ25 1 Contact Microchip Technology for these address option devices. Customer-specific information Year code (last digit of calendar year) Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Alphanumeric traceability code Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn) This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 ) can be found on the outer packaging for this package. In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available characters for customer-specific information. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 31 MCP3425 /$ !$%$ 0".!1 !!$ 20 &$$"$ $$ ,33... 3 0 b 4 N E E1 PIN 1 ID BY LASER MARK 1 2 3 e e1 D A A2 c φ L A1 L1 4$! !5 $! 6% 9&2! 55## 6 6 67 8 2$ )*+ 7%$!"5"2$ *+ 7-:$ ; ""200!! < ; ) $"&& ; ) 7-="$ # ; ""20="$ # ; < 7-5$ ; /$5$ 5 ; /$ $ 5 ) ; < /$ > ; > 5"0!! < ; 5"="$ 9 ; ) !!"#"$%" "&! $%!!"&! $%!!!$'" !"$ #() *+, *! !$'$-%!..$%$$! !" . +<* DS22072B-page 32 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY Revision B (August 2009) The following is the list of modifications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Updated Section 4.1 “General Overview”. Added new section: Section 4.5 “Input Voltage Range”. Restructured information in Section 4.9 “Digital Output Codes and Conversion to Real Values”. Updated information in Table 5-4 in Section 5.0 “Using the MCP3425 Device”. Updated section Section 6.0 “Basic Application Configurations and Examples”. Added new Section 7.0 “Development TOOL Support”. Updated drawings in Section 8.0 “Packaging Information”. Revision A (December 2007) • Original Release of this Document. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22072B-page 33 MCP3425 NOTES: DS22072B-page 34 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP3425 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. XX Device Address Options Device: X X Tape and Temperature Reel Range MCP3425: Address Options: /XX XX Package a) A2 A1 A0 = 0 0 0 A1 = 0 0 1 A2 = 0 1 0 A3 = 0 1 1 * Default option. Contact Microchip factory for other address options Tape and Reel: T = Tape and Reel Temperature Range: E = -40°C to +125°C Package: CH = Plastic Small Outline Transistor (SOT-23-6), 6-lead MCP3425A0T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, Single Channel ΔΣ A/D Converter, b) SOT-23-6 package, Address Option = A0. MCP3425A1T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, c) SOT-23-6 package, Address Option = A1. MCP3425A2T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, d) SOT-23-6 package, Address Option = A2. MCP3425A3T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, Single Channel ΔΣ A/D Converter A0 * © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Examples: Single Channel ΔΣ A/D Converter, Single Channel ΔΣ A/D Converter, Single Channel ΔΣ A/D Converter, SOT-23-6 package, Address Option = A3. DS22072B-page 35 MCP3425 NOTES: DS22072B-page 36 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICtail, PIC32 logo, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2009, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 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