Data Sheet

PCA8546
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
Product data sheet
1. General description
The PCA8546 is a peripheral device which generates the drive signals for any multiplexed
LCD containing up to four backplanes, and up to 176 elements. The PCA8546 is
compatible with most microcontrollers and communicates via the two-line bidirectional
I2C-bus (PCA8546A) or a three line unidirectional SPI-bus (PCA8546B). Communication
overheads are minimized using a display RAM with auto-incremented addressing.
For a selection of NXP LCD segment drivers, see Table 38 on page 53.
2. Features and benefits











AEC-Q100 grade 3 compliant for automotive applications
Single-chip 176 elements LCD controller and driver
Wide range for digital power supply: from 1.8 V to 5.5 V
LCD supply range from 2.5 V up to 9 V
LCD and logic supplies may be separated
Low power consumption
Four backplanes and selectable display bias configuration
On-chip RAM for display data storage
400 kHz I2C-bus interface (PCA8546A)
5 MHz SPI-bus interface (PCA8546B)
Programmable frame frequency in the range of 60 Hz to 300 Hz in steps of about
10 Hz; factory calibrated
 176 segments driven allowing:
 up to 22 7-segment alphanumeric characters
 up to 11 14-segment alphanumeric characters
 any graphics of up to 176 elements
 Manufactured in silicon gate CMOS process
 Extended operating temperature range up to 95 C
3. Applications
 Climate control
 Car radio
 Dashboard display
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
4. Ordering information
Table 1.
Ordering information
Type number
Interface Package
type
Name
PCA8546ATT
I2C-bus
TSSOP56 plastic thin shrink small outline
SOT364-1
package; 56 leads; body width 6.1 mm
PCA8546BTT
SPI-bus
TSSOP56 plastic thin shrink small outline
SOT364-1
package; 56 leads; body width 6.1 mm
Description
Version
4.1 Ordering options
Table 2.
Ordering options
Product type number
Sales item (12NC)
Orderable part
number
IC
revision
Delivery form
PCA8546ATT/A
935302989118
PCA8546ATT/AJ
1
tape and reel, 13 inch
PCA8546BTT/A
935302991118
PCA8546BTT/AJ
1
tape and reel, 13 inch
5. Marking
Table 3.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Marking codes
Type number
Marking code
PCA8546ATT/A
PCA8546ATT
PCA8546BTT/A
PCA8546BTT
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
6. Block diagram
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Block diagram of PCA8546A
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
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Fig 2.
Block diagram of PCA8546B
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
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4 of 63
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NXP Semiconductors
PCA8546
Product data sheet
7. Pinning information
7.1 Pinning
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
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Top view. For mechanical details, see Figure 39.
Top view. For mechanical details, see Figure 39.
Fig 4.
Pin configuration for TSSOP56 (PCA8546BTT)
PCA8546
DDD
Pin configuration for TSSOP56 (PCA8546ATT)
9''
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5 of 63
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
9''
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6 PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
7.2 Pin description
Table 4.
Pin description of PCA8546ATT and PCA8546BTT
Input or input/output pins must always be at a defined level (VSS or VDD) unless otherwise specified.
Pin
Symbol
Type
Description
1 to 11
S9 to S19
output
LCD segment
20 to 31
S20 to S31
output
LCD segment
43
RESET
input
active LOW reset input
44
VSS
supply
ground supply voltage
45
VDD
supply
supply voltage
46
OSCCLK
input/output
external clock input/internal oscillator
output
47
VLCD[1]
supply
LCD supply voltage
48 to 56
S0 to S8
output
LCD segment
Pin layout depending on backplane swap configuration[2]
BPS = 0[3]
BPS = 1
12
BP0
S32
13
BP1
S33
14
BP2
S34
15
BP3
S35
16
S43
S36
17
S42
S37
18
S41
S38
19
S40
S39
32
S32
S40
33
S33
S41
34
S34
S42
35
S35
S43
36
S36
BP3
37
S37
BP2
38
S38
BP1
39
S39
BP0
output
LCD backplane/LCD segment
Pin layout depending on product and bus type
PCA8546ATT PCA8546BT
T
40
A0
41
SCL
input
CE
SCL
42
SDA
SDI
PCA8546
Product data sheet
I2C-bus slave address selection
input
SPI-bus chip enable - active LOW
input
I2C-bus serial clock
input
SPI-bus serial clock
input/output
I2C-bus serial data
input
SPI-bus data input
[1]
VLCD must be equal to or greater than VDD.
[2]
Effect of backplane swapping is illustrated in Figure 5 on page 9.
[3]
Bit BPS is explained in Section 8.1.3 on page 8.
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
8. Functional description
The PCA8546 is a versatile peripheral device designed to interface any microcontroller to
a wide variety of LCDs. It can directly drive any multiplexed LCD containing four
backplanes and up to 44 segments.
8.1 Commands of PCA8546
The PCA8546 is controlled by 8 commands, which are defined in Table 5. Any other
combinations of operation code bits that are not mentioned in this document may lead to
undesired operation modes of PCA8546.
Table 5.
Commands of PCA8546
Command name
Register
selection
RS[1:0][1]
Bits
Reference
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
initialize-MSB
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
initialize-LSB
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
Section 8.1.2
initialize
Section 8.1.1
OTP-refresh
mode-settings
0
0
0
1
0
1
BPS
INV
PD
E
Section 8.1.3
oscillator-control
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
EFR
COE
OSC
Section 8.1.4
set-bias-mode
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
B[1:0]
frame-frequency
0
0
0
0
1
FD[4:0]
0
DP[5:0]
load-data-pointer
0
0
1
write-RAM-data
0
1
D[7:0]
[1]
Section 8.1.5
Section 8.1.6
Section 8.1.7
Section 8.1.8
Information about control byte and register selection see Section 9.1 on page 29.
8.1.1 Command: initialize
This command generates a chip-wide reset. It consists of two bytes which have to be sent
both to the device.
Table 6.
Bit
Initialize - initialize command bit description
Symbol
Value
Description
00010110
fixed value
00000011
fixed value
Initialize-MSB
7 to 0
-
Initialize-LSB
7 to 0
-
8.1.2 Command: OTP-refresh
During production of the device, each IC is calibrated to achieve the specified accuracy of
the frame frequency. This calibration is performed on EPROM cells called One Time
Programmable (OTP) cells. The device reads these cells every time the OTP-refresh
command is sent. The OTP-refresh command has to be sent after a reset has been made
and before the display is enabled.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
This command will be completed after a maximum of 30 ms and requires either the
internal or external clock to run. If the internal oscillator is not used, then a clock must be
supplied to the OSCCLK pin. If the OTP-refresh instruction is sent and no clock is present,
then the request is stored until a clock is available.
Remark: It is recommended not to enter power-down mode during the OTP refresh cycle.
Table 7.
OTP-refresh - OTP-refresh command bit description
Bit
Symbol
Value
Description
7 to 0
-
11110000
fixed value
8.1.3 Command: mode-settings
Table 8.
Bit
Symbol
Value
7 to 4
-
0101
3
BPS
2
1
0
8.1.3.1
Mode-settings - mode settings command bit description
Description
fixed value
backplane swapping
0[1]
backplane configuration 0
1
backplane configuration 1
INV
set inversion mode
0[1][2]
Driving scheme A: LCD line inversion mode
1
Driving scheme B: LCD frame inversion mode
PD
set power mode
1
power-down mode; backplane and segment
outputs are connected to VSS and the internal
oscillator is switched off
0[1]
power-up mode
E
display switch
[1]
Default value.
[2]
See Section 8.1.3.2.
0[1]
display disabled; backplane and segment
outputs are connected to VSS
1
display enabled
Backplane swapping
Backplane swapping can be configured with the BPS bit (see Table 8). It moves the
location of the backplane and the associated segment outputs from one side of the
PCA8546 to the other. Backplane swapping is sometimes desirable to aid with the routing
of PCBs that do not use multiple layers.
The BPS bit has to be set to the required value before enabling the display. Failure to do
so does not damage the PCA8546 or the display, however unexpected display content
may appear.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
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Fig 5.
Effect of backplane swapping
8.1.3.2
Line inversion (driving scheme A) and frame inversion (driving scheme B)
The DC offset of the voltage across the LCD is compensated over a certain period:
line-wise in line inversion mode (driving scheme A) or frame-wise in frame inversion mode
(driving scheme B). With the INV bit (see Table 8), the compensation mode can be
switched.
In frame inversion mode, the DC value is compensated across two frames and not within
one frame. Changing the inversion mode to frame inversion reduces the power
consumption; therefore it is useful when power consumption is a key point in the
application.
Frame inversion may not be suitable for all applications. The RMS voltage across a
segment is better defined; however, since the switching frequency is reduced, there is
possibility for flicker to occur.
The waveforms of Figure 14 shows the line inversion mode. Figure 15 shows the frame
inversion mode.
8.1.3.3
Power-down mode
The power-down bit (PD) allows the PCA8546 to be put in a minimum power
configuration. To avoid display artifacts, enter power-down only after the display has been
switched off by setting bit E to logic 0. During power-down, the internal oscillator is
switched off.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
Table 9.
Effect of the power-down bit (PD)
Effect on function
Mode settings
Effect of setting PD
0
1
backplane output
E=1
normal function
VSS
segment output
E=1
normal function
VSS
internal oscillator
OSC = 0, COE = 1
on
off
OSCCLK pin
OSC = 0, COE = 1
output of internal
oscillator frequency
VDD
OSCCLK pin
OSC = 1
input clock
clock input, can be
logic 0, logic 1, or left
floating
With the following sequence, the PCA8546 can be set to a state of minimum power
consumption, called power-down mode.
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Fig 6.
Recommended power-down sequence
Remarks:
• It is necessary to run the power-down sequence before removing the supplies.
Depending on the application, care must be taken that no other signals are present at
the chip input or output pins when removing the supplies (see Section 10). Otherwise
it may cause unwanted display artifacts. If an uncontrolled removal of the supply
happens, the PCA8546 does not get damaged.
• Static voltages across the liquid crystal display can build up when the external LCD
supply voltage (VLCD) is on while the IC supply voltage is off, or the other way around.
This may cause unwanted display artifacts. To avoid such artifacts, VLCD and VDD
must be applied or removed together.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
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• A clock signal must always be supplied to the device when the display is active.
Removing the clock may freeze the LCD in a DC state, which is not suitable for the
liquid crystal. First disable the display and afterwards remove the clock signal.
8.1.3.4
Display enable
The display enable bit (E) is used to enable and disable the display. When the display is
disabled, all LCD outputs go to VSS. This function is implemented to ensure that no
voltage can be induced on the LCD outputs as it may lead to unwanted displays of
segments.
Recommended start-up sequences are found in Section 8.2.3
Remark: Display enable is not synchronized to an LCD frame boundary. Therefore using
this function to flash a display for prolonged periods is not recommended due to the
possible build-up of DC voltages on the display.
8.1.4 Command: oscillator-control
The oscillator-control command switches between internal and external oscillator and
enables or disables the pin OSCCLK. It is also defines the external frequency.
Table 10.
Oscillator-control - oscillator control command bit description
Bit
Symbol
Value
7 to 3
-
00011
2
EFR
1
0
[1]
Description
fixed value
external clock frequency applied on pin
OSCCLK
0[1]
9.6 kHz
1
230 kHz
COE
clock output enable for pin OSCCLK
0[1]
clock signal not available on pin OSCCLK;
pin OSCCLK is in 3-state
1
clock signal available on pin OSCCLK
OSC
oscillator source
0[1]
internal oscillator running
1
external oscillator used;
pin OSCCLK becomes an input;
used in combination with EFR to determine
input frequency
Default value.
The bits OSC, COE, and EFR control the source and frequency of the clock used to
generate the LCD signals (see Figure 7). Valid combinations are shown in Table 11.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
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(1) Can only be used with the internal oscillator (OSC = 0).
(2) Can only be used with an external oscillator (OSC = 1).
(3) Nominal value for divide factor q is 24; source clock is 230 kHz (see Section 8.1.6).
Fig 7.
Oscillator selection
Table 11.
OSC
COE
EFR
OSCCLK pin
Clock source
0
0
not used
inactive;
may be left floating
internal oscillator used
0
1
not used
output of internal oscillator
frequency (prescaler)
internal oscillator used
1
not used
0
9.6 kHz input
OSCCLK pin
1
not used
1
230 kHz input
OSCCLK pin
Table 12.
8.1.4.1
Valid combinations of bits OSC, EFR, and COE
Typical use of bits OSC, EFR, and COE
Usage
OSC
COE
EFR
LCD with internal oscillator
0
0
not used
LCD with external oscillator (230 kHz)
1
not used
1
LCD with external oscillator (9.6 kHz)
1
not used
0
Oscillator
The system is designed to operate from a 9.6 kHz or a 230 kHz clock. This clock can be
sourced internally or externally. The internal logic and LCD drive signals of the PCA8546
are timed either by the internal oscillator or from the clock externally supplied.
Internal clock: When the internal oscillator is used, all LCD signals are generated from it.
The oscillator runs at nominal 230 kHz. The relationship between this frequency and the
LCD frame frequency is detailed in Section 8.1.6. Control over the internal oscillator is
made with the OSC bit (see Section 8.1.4).
It is possible to make the internal oscillator signal available on pin OSCCLK by using the
oscillator-control command (see Table 10) and configuring the clock output enable (COE)
bit. If not required, the pin OSCCLK should be left open or connected to VSS. At power-on
the signal at pin OSCCLK is disabled and pin OSCCLK is in 3-state.
Clock output is only valid when using the internal oscillator. The signal appears on the
OSCCLK pin.
An intermediate clock frequency is available at the OSCCLK pin. The duty cycle of this
clock varies with the chosen divide ratio.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
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Table 13.
OSCCLK pin state depending on configuration
PD
OSC
COE
EFR
OSCCLK pin[1]
power-down
n.a.
off
n.a.
3-state[2]
power-down
n.a.
on
n.a.
VDD
power-up
internal oscillator
off
n.a.
3-state
on
n.a.
9.6 kHz output[3]
n.a.
9.6 kHz
9.6 kHz input
230 kHz
230 kHz input
external oscillator
[1]
When RESET is active, the pin OSCCLK is in 3-state.
[2]
In this state, an external clock may be applied, but it is not a requirement.
[3]
9.6 kHz is the nominal frequency with q = 24, see Table 14.
External clock: In applications where an external clock must be applied to the PCA8546,
bit OSC (see Table 10) has to be set logic 1. In this case pin OSCCLK becomes an input.
The OSCCLK signal must switch between the VSS and the VDD voltage supplied to the
chip.
The EFR bit determines the external clock frequency (230 kHz or 9.6 kHz). The clock
frequency (fclk(ext)) in turn determines the LCD frame frequency, see Table 14.
Remark: If an external clock is used, then this clock signal must always be supplied to the
device when the display is on. Removing the clock may freeze the LCD in a DC state
which damages the LCD material.
8.1.4.2
Timing and frame frequency
The timing of the PCA8546 organizes the internal data flow of the device. This includes
the transfer of display data from the display RAM to the display segment outputs. The
timing also generates the LCD frame frequency which it derives as an integer division of
the clock frequency (see Table 14). The frame frequency is a fixed division of the internal
clock or of the frequency applied to pin OSCCLK when an external clock is used.
Table 14.
LCD frame frequencies
Frame frequency
Typical external Nominal frame
frequency (Hz)
frequency (Hz)
EFR bit
Value of q[1]
f clk  ext  9600
f fr  LCD  = ----------------48
200
0
-
f clk  ext  230000
f fr  LCD  = ----------------48  q
200
1
24
[1]
Other values of the frame frequency prescaler see Table 17.
When the internal clock is used, or an external clock with EFR = 1, the LCD frame
frequency can be programmed by software in steps of approximately 10 Hz in the range of
60 Hz to 300 Hz (see Table 17). Furthermore the internal oscillator is factory calibrated,
see Table 32 on page 42.
8.1.5 Command: set-bias-mode
The set-bias-mode command allows setting the bias level.
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Table 15.
Set-bias-mode - set bias mode command bit description
Bit
Symbol
Value
7 to 2
-
000001
fixed value
B[1:0]
00[1].
1⁄
4
bias
11
1⁄
3
bias
10
1⁄
2
bias
1 to 0
[1]
01
Description
Default value.
8.1.6 Command: frame-frequency
With the frame-frequency command, the frame frequency for the display can be
configured. The clock frequency determines the frame frequency.
Table 16.
Frame-frequency - frame frequency and output clock frequency command bit
description
Bit
Symbol
Value
Description
7 to 5
-
001
fixed value
4 to 0
FD[4:0]
see Table 17
frequency prescaler
When using an external clock it can be either a 230 kHz or a 9.6 kHz clock signal. The
EFR bit (see Table 10) has to be set according to the external clock frequency.
When EFR is set to 9.6 kHz, then the LCD frame frequency is calculated with Equation 1:
f clk  ext 
f fr  LCD  = ----------------48
(1)
When EFR is set to 230 kHz, then the LCD frame frequency is calculated with Equation 2:
f clk  ext 
f fr  LCD  = ----------------48  q
(2)
where q is the frequency divide factor (see Table 17).
Remark: fclk(ext) is the external input clock frequency to pin OSCCLK.
When the internal oscillator is used, the intermediate frequency may be output on the
OSCCLK pin. Its frequency is given in Table 17.
Table 17.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Frame frequency prescaler values for 230 kHz clock operation
FD[4:0]
Nominal LCD frame
frequency (Hz)[1]
Divide factor, q
Intermediate clock
frequency (Hz)
00000
59.9
80
2875
00001
70.5
68
3382
00010
79.9
60
3833
00011
90.4
53
4340
00100
99.8
48
4792
00101
108.9
44
5227
00110
119.8
40
5750
00111
129.5
37
6216
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Table 17.
Frame frequency prescaler values for 230 kHz clock operation …continued
FD[4:0]
Nominal LCD frame
frequency (Hz)[1]
Divide factor, q
Intermediate clock
frequency (Hz)
01000
140.9
34
6765
01001
149.7
32
7188
01010
159.7
30
7667
01011
171.1
28
8214
01100
177.5
27
8519
01101
191.7
25
9200
01110[2]
199.7
24
9583
01111
208.3
23
10000
10000
217.8
22
10455
10001
228.3
21
10952
10010
239.6
20
11500
10011
252.2
19
12105
10100
266.2
18
12778
10101
281.9
17
13529
10110
299.5
16
14375
10111 to 11111
not used
[1]
Nominal frame frequency calculated for the default clock frequency of 230 kHz.
[2]
Default value.
8.1.7 Command: load-data-pointer
The load-data-pointer command defines the start address of the display RAM, see
Table 18. The data pointer is auto incremented after each RAM write.
Table 18.
Load-data-pointer - load data pointer command bit description
Bit
Symbol
Value
Description
7 to 6
-
10
fixed value
DP[5:0]
000000[1]
5 to 0
to
6-bit binary value of 0 to 43
101011
[1]
Default value.
Remark: Data pointer values outside of the valid range are ignored and no RAM content
is transferred until a valid data pointer value is set.
Filling of the display RAM is described in Section 8.9.
8.1.8 Command: write-RAM-data
This command initiates the transfer of data to the display RAM. Data is written into the
address defined by the load-data-pointer command. RAM filling is described in
Section 8.9.
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Table 19. Write-RAM-data - write RAM data command bit description
For this command to be effective bit RS[1:0] of the control byte has to be set logic 01, see Table 23
on page 29.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Bit
Symbol
Value
Description
7 to 0
D[7:0]
00000000 to
11111111
writing data byte-wise to RAM
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8.2 Start-up and shut-down
8.2.1 Reset and Power-On Reset (POR)
After power-on the PCA8546 has to be initialized by sending the two bytes of the initialize
command (see Section 8.1.1 and Table 6).
After a reset and the initialization the starting conditions of the PCA8546 are as follows:
1. The display is disabled.
2. All backplane and segment outputs are set to VSS.
3. The data pointers are cleared (set logic 0).
4. RAM data is not initialized. Its content can be considered to be random.
5. The internal oscillator is running; no clock signal is available on pin OSCCLK; pin
OSCCLK is in 3-state.
The state after a reset and the initialization is shown in Table 20.
Table 20.
Starting conditions
Associated command
Bits
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
mode-settings
-
-
-
-
BPS = 0
INV = 0
PD = 0
E=0
oscillator-control
-
-
-
-
-
EFR = 0
COE = 0
OSC = 0
-
-
B[1:0] = 00
set-bias-mode
-
-
-
-
frame-frequency
-
-
-
FD[4:0] = 01110
load-data-pointer
-
-
DP[5:0] = 000000
After Power-On Reset (POR) and the initialize command and before enabling the display,
the RAM content should be brought to a defined state by writing meaningful content (for
example, a graphic) otherwise unwanted display artifacts may appear on the display.
8.2.2 RESET pin function
The RESET pin sets the PCA8546 in a defined mode. The RAM content remains
unchanged. After the reset signal is removed, the initialize command (see Section 8.1.1
and Table 6) has to be sent to the PCA8546. See Section 8.2.1 for details.
8.2.3 Recommended start-up sequences
This chapter describes how to proceed with the initialization of the chip in different
application modes.
In general, the sequence should always be:
1. Power-on or reset the device,
2. send the initialize command,
3. set the display and functional modes,
4. fill the display memory and then
5. turn on the display.
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PCA8546
Product data sheet
Recommended start-up sequence when using an external clock signal
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Fig 9.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Recommended start-up sequence when using the internal oscillator
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8.3 Possible display configurations
The PCA8546 is a versatile peripheral device designed to interface between any
microcontroller to a wide variety of LCD segment or dot matrix displays (see Figure 10). It
can drive multiplexed LCD with 4 backplanes and up to 44 segments.
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Fig 10. Example of displays suitable for PCA8546
Table 21.
Display configuration
Number of
Backplanes
Segments
Icons
7 segment[1]
Digits/Characters
Dot matrix/
14 segment[2] Elements
4
44
176
22
11
[1]
7 segment display has 8 elements including the decimal point.
[2]
14 segment display has 16 elements including decimal point and accent dot.
176
The display configuration in Table 21 can be implemented in the typical systems shown in
Figure 11 and Figure 12.
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Fig 11. Typical system configuration for the I2C-bus
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Fig 12. Typical system configuration for the SPI-bus
The host microcontroller maintains the two line I2C-bus or a three line SPI-bus
communication channel with the PCA8546. The appropriate biasing voltages for the
multiplexed LCD waveforms are generated internally. The only other connections required
to complete the system are the power supplies (VDD, VSS, VLCD) and the LCD panel
selected for the application.
The minimum recommended values for external capacitors on VDD and VLCD are 100 nF
respectively. Decoupling of VLCD helps to reduce display artifacts. The decoupling
capacitors should be placed close to the IC with short connections to the respective
supply pin and VSS.
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8.4 LCD voltage selector
The LCD voltage selector coordinates the multiplexing of the LCD in accordance with the
selected LCD drive configuration. The operation of the voltage selector is controlled by the
set-bias-mode command (see Table 15).
Fractional LCD biasing voltages are obtained from an internal voltage divider. The biasing
configurations, the biasing characteristics as functions of VLCD and the resulting
discrimination ratios (D), are given in Table 22.
Discrimination is a term which is defined as the ratio of the on and off RMS voltage across
a segment. It can be thought of as a measurement of contrast.
Table 22.
Preferred LCD drive modes: summary of characteristics
LCD bias
configuration
V off  RMS 
----------------------V LCD
V on  RMS 
---------------------V LCD
VLCD[2]
V on  RMS 
D = ----------------------- [1]
V off  RMS 
3
1⁄
2
0.433
0.661
1.527
2.309Voff(RMS)
4
1⁄
3
0.333
0.577
1.732
3.0Voff(RMS)
5
1⁄
4
0.331
0.545
1.646
3.024Voff(RMS)
LCD multiplex
drive mode
Number of:
Backplanes
Levels
1:4 [3]
4
1:4
4
1:4
[3]
4
[1]
Determined from Equation 5.
[2]
Determined from Equation 4.
[3]
In these examples, the discrimination factor and hence the contrast ratios are smaller. The advantage of
these LCD drive modes is a reduction of the LCD voltage VLCD.
A practical value for VLCD is determined by equating Voff(RMS) with a defined LCD
threshold voltage (Vth(off)), typically when the LCD exhibits approximately 10 % contrast.
1
Bias is calculated by ------------- , where the values for a are
1+a
a = 1 for 1⁄2 bias
a = 2 for 1⁄3 bias
a = 3 for 1⁄4 bias
The RMS on-state voltage (Von(RMS)) for the LCD is calculated with Equation 3
V on  RMS  =
V LCD
a 2 + 2a + n
-----------------------------2
n  1 + a
(3)
where VLCD is the resultant voltage at the LCD segment and where the value for n is
n = 4 for 1:4 multiplex drive
The RMS off-state voltage (Voff(RMS)) for the LCD is calculated with Equation 4:
V off  RMS  =
V LCD
a 2 – 2a + n
-----------------------------2
n  1 + a
(4)
Discrimination is the ratio of Von(RMS) to Voff(RMS) and is determined from Equation 5:
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V on  RMS 
D = ----------------------- =
V off  RMS 
2
a + 2a + n
--------------------------2
a – 2a + n
(5)
VLCD is sometimes referred to as the LCD operating voltage.
8.4.1 Electro-optical performance
Suitable values for Von(RMS) and Voff(RMS) are dependent on the LCD liquid used. The
RMS voltage, at which a pixel gets switched on or off, determine the transmissibility of the
pixel.
For any given liquid, there are two threshold values defined. One point is at 10 % relative
transmission (at Vth(off)) and the other at 90 % relative transmission (at Vth(on)), see
Figure 13. For a good contrast performance, the following rules should be followed:
V on  RMS   V th  on 
(6)
V off  RMS   V th  off 
(7)
Von(RMS) and Voff(RMS) are properties of the display driver and are affected by the selection
of a, n (see Equation 3 to Equation 5) and the VLCD voltage.
Vth(off) and Vth(on) are properties of the LCD liquid and can be provided by the module
manufacturer. Vth(off) is sometimes named Vth. Vth(on) is sometimes named saturation
voltage Vsat.
It is important to match the module properties to those of the driver in order to achieve
optimum performance.
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Fig 13. Electro-optical characteristic: relative transmission curve of the liquid
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8.5 LCD drive mode waveforms
8.5.1
1⁄
3
bias and line inversion
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Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t). Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = 0.577VLCD. Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.333VLCD.
Fig 14. Waveforms for the 1:4 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄3 bias and line inversion
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8.5.2
1⁄
3
bias and frame inversion
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Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t). Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = 0.577VLCD. Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.333VLCD.
Fig 15. Waveforms for 1:4 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄3 bias and frame inversion
8.6 Display register
The display register holds the display data while the corresponding multiplex signals are
generated.
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8.7 Backplane outputs
The LCD drive section includes four backplane outputs: BP0 to BP3 which must be
connected directly to the LCD.
8.8 Segment outputs
The LCD drive section includes up to 44 segment outputs (S0 to S43) which must be
connected directly to the LCD. The segment output signals are generated based on the
data resident in the display register. When less segment outputs are required, the unused
segment outputs must be left open-circuit.
8.9 Display RAM
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The display RAM bitmap shows the direct relationship between the display RAM column and the segment outputs and between
the bits in a RAM row and the backplane outputs.
Fig 16. Display RAM bitmap
Logic 1 in the RAM bit map indicates the on-state (Von(RMS)) of the corresponding LCD
element; similarly, logic 0 indicates the off-state (Voff(RMS)). For more information on
Von(RMS) and Voff(RMS), see Section 8.4.
There is a one-to-one correspondence between
• the bits in the RAM bitmap and the LCD elements,
• the RAM columns and the segment outputs,
• the RAM rows and the backplane outputs.
The display RAM bit map, Figure 16, shows row 0 to row 3 and column 0 to column 43.
Row 0 to row 3 correspond with the backplane outputs BP0 to BP3. Column 0 to column
43 correspond with the segment outputs S0 to S43. In multiplexed LCD applications, the
data of each row of the display RAM is time-multiplexed with the corresponding backplane
(row 0 with BP0, row 1 with BP1, and so on).
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8.9.1 Data pointer
The addressing mechanism for the display RAM is realized using the data pointer. This
allows the loading of an individual display data byte, or a series of display data bytes, into
any location of the display RAM. The sequence commences with the initialization of the
data pointer by the load-data-pointer command (see Table 18).
Following this command, an arriving data byte is stored starting at the display RAM
address indicated by the data pointer.
The data pointer is automatically incremented. That is, after each byte is stored, the
contents of the data pointer are incremented by two.
When the address counter reaches the end of the RAM, it stops incrementing after the last
byte is transmitted. Redundant bits of the last byte and subsequent bytes transmitted are
discarded until the pointer is reset. To send new RAM data, the data pointer must be reset.
If an I2C-bus or SPI-bus data access is terminated early, then the state of the data pointer
is unknown. The data pointer must then be rewritten before further RAM accesses.
8.9.2 RAM filling
The RAM is organized in four rows and 44 columns. The eight transmitted data bits are
placed in two successive display RAM columns of four rows (see Figure 17). In order to fill
the whole four RAM rows, 22 bytes need to be sent to the PCA8546. After the last byte
sent, the data pointer must be reset before the next RAM content update. Additional data
bytes sent and any data bits that spill over the RAM are discarded.
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Fig 17. Display RAM filling order in 1:4 multiplex drive mode
Depending on the start address of the data pointer, there is the possibility for a boundary
condition. This occurs when more data bits are sent than fit into the remaining RAM. The
additional data bits are discarded. See Figure 18.
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Fig 18. Boundary condition in 1:4 multiplex drive mode
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9. Bus interfaces
9.1 Control byte and register selection
After initiating the communication over the bus and sending the slave address (I2C-bus,
see Section 9.2) or subaddress (SPI-bus, see Section 9.3), a control byte follows. The
purpose of this byte is to indicate both, the content for the following data bytes (RAM, or
command) and to indicate that more control bytes will follow.
Typical sequences could be:
• Slave address/subaddress - control byte - command byte - command byte - command
byte - end
• Slave address/subaddress - control byte - RAM byte - RAM byte - RAM byte - end
• Slave address/subaddress - control byte - command byte - control byte - RAM byte end
In this way, it is possible to send a mixture of RAM and command data in one access or
alternatively, to send just one type of data in one access.
Table 23.
Control byte description
Bit
Symbol
7
CO
6 to 5
4 to 0
Value
Description
continue bit
0
last control byte
1
control bytes continue
RS[1:0]
register selection
-
00
command register
01
RAM data
10, 11
unused
-
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Fig 19. Control byte format
9.2 I2C-bus interface
The I2C-bus is for bidirectional, two-line communication between different ICs or modules.
The two lines are a Serial DAta line (SDA) and a Serial CLock line (SCL). Both lines must
be connected to a positive supply via a pull-up resistor when connected to the output
stages of a device. Data transfer may be initiated only when the bus is not busy.
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9.2.1 Bit transfer
One data bit is transferred during each clock pulse. The data on the SDA line must remain
stable during the HIGH period of the clock pulse as changes in the data line at this time is
interpreted as a control signal (see Figure 20).
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Fig 20. Bit transfer
9.2.2 START and STOP conditions
Both data and clock lines remain HIGH when the bus is not busy.
A HIGH-to-LOW change of the data line, while the clock is HIGH, is defined as the START
condition (S).
A LOW-to-HIGH change of the data line, while the clock is HIGH, is defined as the STOP
condition (P).
The START and STOP conditions are shown in Figure 21.
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Fig 21. Definition of START and STOP conditions
9.2.3 System configuration
A device generating a message is a transmitter, a device receiving a message is the
receiver. The device that controls the message is the master and the devices which are
controlled by the master are the slaves. The system configuration is shown in Figure 22.
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Fig 22. System configuration
PCA8546
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PCA8546
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9.2.4 Acknowledge
The number of data bytes transferred between the START and STOP conditions from
transmitter to receiver is unlimited. Each byte of 8 bits is followed by an acknowledge
cycle.
• A slave receiver which is addressed must generate an acknowledge after the
reception of each byte.
• Also a master receiver must generate an acknowledge after the reception of each
byte that has been clocked out of the slave transmitter.
• The device that acknowledges must pull-down the SDA line during the acknowledge
clock pulse, so that the SDA line is stable LOW during the HIGH period of the
acknowledge related clock pulse (set-up and hold times must be considered).
• A master receiver must signal an end of data to the transmitter by not generating an
acknowledge on the last byte that has been clocked out of the slave. In this event, the
transmitter must leave the data line HIGH to enable the master to generate a STOP
condition.
Acknowledgement on the I2C-bus is shown in Figure 23.
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Fig 23. Acknowledgement on the I2C-bus
9.2.5 I2C-bus controller
The PCA8546 acts as an I2C-bus slave receiver. It does not initiate I2C-bus transfers or
transmit data to an I2C-bus master receiver. Device selection depends on the I2C-bus
slave address.
9.2.6 Input filters
To enhance noise immunity in electrically adverse environments, RC low-pass filters are
provided on the SDA and SCL lines.
9.2.7 I2C-bus slave address
Device selection depends on the I2C-bus slave address. Two different I2C-bus slave
addresses can be used to address the PCA8546 (see Table 24).
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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Table 24.
I2C slave address byte
Slave address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
A0
R/W
MSB
0
LSB
The least significant bit of the slave address byte is bit R/W (see Table 25).
Table 25.
R/W-bit description
R/W
Description
0
write data
1
read data
Bit 1 of the slave address is defined by connecting the input A0 to either VSS (logic 0) or
VDD (logic 1). Therefore, two instances of PCA8546 can be distinguished on the same
I2C-bus.
9.2.8 I2C-bus protocol
The I2C-bus protocol is shown in Figure 24. The sequence is initiated with a START
condition (S) from the I2C-bus master which is followed by one of the two PCA8546 slave
addresses available. All PCA8546 with the corresponding A0 level acknowledge in
parallel to the slave address. But any PCA8546 with the alternative A0 level ignore the
whole I2C-bus transfer.
After acknowledgement, a control byte follows (see Section 9.1 on page 29).
The display bytes are stored in the display RAM at the address specified by the RAM data
pointer.
The acknowledgement after each byte is made only by the addressed PCA8546. After the
last data byte, the I2C-bus master issues a STOP condition (P). Alternatively a START
may be issued to RESTART an I2C-bus access.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
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Fig 24. I2C-bus protocol write mode
9.2.8.1
Status read out
Status read out for I2C-bus operation only. This command initiates the read-out of a fixed
value plus the slave address bit A0 from the PCA8546. The read-out function allows the
I2C master to confirm the existence of the device on the I2C-bus.
Table 26.
Status read out value
Bit
Symbol
Value
Description
7 to 1
-
0101010
fixed value
0
A0
0
read back value is 01010100
1
read back value is 01010101
If a readout is made, the R/W bit must be logic 1 and then the next data byte following is
provided by the PCA8546 as shown in Figure 25.
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(1) From PCA8546.
Fig 25. I2C-bus protocol read mode
In the unlikely case that the chip has entered the internal test mode, detection of this state
is possible by using the modified status read-out detailed in Table 27. The read out value
is modified to indicate that the chip has entered an internal test mode.
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Table 27.
Modified status read out value
Bit
Symbol
Value
Description
7 to 1
-
1111000
fixed value
0
A0
0
read back value is 1111 0000
1
read back value is 1111 0001
EMC detection: The PCA8546 is ruggedized against EMC susceptibility; however it is not
possible to cover all cases. To detect if a severe EMC event has occurred, it is possible to
check the responsiveness of the device by reading its register.
9.3 SPI-bus interface
Data transfer to the device is made via a 3 line SPI-bus (see Table 28). There is no output
data line. The SPI-bus is initialized whenever the chip enable line pin CE is inactive.
Table 28.
Serial interface
Symbol
Function
Description
chip enable
CE
input[1];
active LOW
when HIGH, the interface is reset
SCL
serial clock input
input may be higher than VDD
SDI
serial data input
input may be higher than VDD; input data is
sampled on the rising edge of SCL
[1]
The chip enable must not be wired permanently LOW.
9.3.1 Data transmission
The chip enable signal is used to identify the transmitted data. Each data transfer is a byte
with the Most Significant Bit (MSB) sent first.
The transmission is controlled by the active LOW chip enable signal CE. The first byte
transmitted is the subaddress byte.
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Fig 26. Data transfer overview
The subaddress byte opens the communication with a read/write bit and a subaddress.
The subaddress is used to identify multiple devices on one SPI-bus.
Table 29.
Subaddress byte definition
Bit
Symbol
7
R/W
Value
Description
data read or write selection
0
write data
1
PCA8546
Product data sheet
6 to 5
SA[1:0]
4 to 0
-
01
read data
subaddress; other codes cause the device to
ignore data transfer
unused
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After the subaddress byte, a control byte follows (see Section 9.1 on page 29).
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Data transfers are terminated by de-asserting CE (set CE to logic 1).
Fig 27. SPI-bus write example
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In this example, the bias system is set to 1⁄3. The transfer is terminated by CE returning to logic 1. After the last bit is
transmitted, the state of the SDI line is not important.
Fig 28. SPI-bus example
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
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10. Internal circuitry
9''
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966
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Fig 29. Device protection diagram for PCA8546A
9''
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Fig 30. Device protection diagram for PCA8546B
11. Safety notes
CAUTION
This device is sensitive to ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD). Observe precautions for handling
electrostatic sensitive devices.
Such precautions are described in the ANSI/ESD S20.20, IEC/ST 61340-5, JESD625-A or
equivalent standards.
CAUTION
Static voltages across the liquid crystal display can build up when the LCD supply voltage
(VLCD) is on while the IC supply voltage (VDD) is off, or vice versa. This may cause unwanted
display artifacts. To avoid such artifacts, VLCD and VDD must be applied or removed together.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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12. Limiting values
Table 30. Limiting values
In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 60134).
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
Conditions
Min
Max
Unit
supply voltage
0.5
+6.5
V
IDD
supply current
50
+50
mA
VLCD
LCD supply voltage
0.5
+10
V
IDD(LCD)
LCD supply current
50
+50
mA
VI
input voltage
0.5
+6.5
V
0.5
+6.5
V
10
+10
mA
on pins S0 to S43,
BP0 to BP3
0.5
+10
V
on pin SDA
0.5
+6.5
V
10
+10
mA
PCA8546ATT
on pins SDA,
OSCCLK, SCL, A0,
RESET
PCA8546BTT
on pins CE,
OSCCLK, SCL,
SDI, RESET
II
input current
VO
output voltage
IO
output current
ISS
ground supply current
50
+50
mA
Ptot
total power dissipation
-
400
mW
P/out
power dissipation per output
VESD
electrostatic discharge voltage
-
100
mW
HBM
[1]
-
3500
V
CDM
[2]
-
1250
V
Ilu
latch-up current
[3]
-
200
mA
Tstg
storage temperature
[4]
65
+150
C
Tamb
ambient temperature
40
+95
C
operating device
[1]
Pass level; Human Body Model (HBM), according to Ref. 6 “JESD22-A114”.
[2]
Pass level; Charge Device Model (CDM), according to Ref. 7 “JESD22-C101”.
[3]
Pass level; latch-up testing according to Ref. 8 “JESD78” at maximum ambient temperature (Tamb(max)).
[4]
According to the store and transport requirements (see Ref. 12 “UM10569”) the devices have to be stored at a temperature of +8 C to
+45 C and a humidity of 25 % to 75 %.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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13. Static characteristics
Table 31. Static characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; VLCD = 2.5 V to 9 V; Tamb = 40 C to +95 C; unless otherwise specified.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1.8
2.5
-
5.5
V
-
9
[1]
V
-
0.5
2
A
external 9.6 kHz clock
[2]
-
10
25
A
internal oscillator
[2]
-
30
60
A
power-down, see
Figure 32
[1][3]
-
7
15
A
[4]
-
55
140
A
VSS  0.5
-
VDD + 0.5
V
Supplies
VDD
supply voltage
VLCD
LCD supply voltage
VLCD  VDD
IDD(pd)
power-down mode supply current
IDD
supply current
IDD(LCD)
see Figure 31
LCD supply current
display active, see
Figure 33
Logic
VI
input voltage
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
on pins OSCCLK,
A0 and RESET
-
-
0.3VDD
V
VIH
HIGH-level input voltage
on pins OSCCLK,
A0 and RESET
0.7VDD
-
-
V
VO
output voltage
0.5
-
VDD + 0.5
V
VOH
HIGH-level output voltage
driving load of 50 A
on pins OSCCLK
0.8VDD
-
-
V
VOL
LOW-level output voltage
driving load of 50 A
on pins OSCCLK
-
-
0.2VDD
V
IOH
HIGH-level output current
output source current;
VOH = VDD  0.4 V
VDD = 1.8 V
0.7
1.6
-
mA
VDD  3.3 V
1.5
4.0
-
mA
VDD = 1.8 V
3
4
-
mA
VDD  3.3 V
5
10
-
mA
1
-
+1
A
on pin OSCCLK
IOL
LOW-level output current
output sink current;
VOL = 0.4 V
on pin OSCCLK
IL
leakage current
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Vi = VDD or VSS; on
pin OSCCLK
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Table 31. Static characteristics …continued
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; VLCD = 2.5 V to 9 V; Tamb = 40 C to +95 C; unless otherwise specified.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
I2C-bus[5]
On pins SCL and SDA
VI
input voltage
VSS  0.5
-
5.5
V
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
-
-
0.3VDD
V
VIH
HIGH-level input voltage
0.7VDD
-
-
V
VO
output voltage
0.5
-
+5.5
V
IL
leakage current
VI = VDD or VSS
1
-
+1
A
LOW-level output current
output sink current
VDD = 1.8 V
3
5.5
-
mA
VDD = 3.3 V
5
9
-
mA
on pin SCL
VSS  0.5
-
5.5
V
on pins CE and SDI
VSS  0.5
-
VDD + 0.5
V
On pin SDA
IOL
SPI-bus
input voltage
VI
On pins SCL, CE and SDI
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
-
-
0.3VDD
V
VIH
HIGH-level input voltage
0.7VDD
-
-
V
IL
leakage current
1
-
+1
A
VI = VDD or VSS
LCD outputs
VO
output voltage variation
on pins BP0 to BP3
[6]
-
2.5
+10
mV
on pins S0 to S43
[7]
-
2.5
+10
mV
VLCD = 7 V;
on pins BP0 to BP3
[8]
-
0.9
5.0
k
VLCD = 7 V;
on pins S0 to S43
[8]
-
1.5
6.0
k
output resistance
RO
[1]
Power-down mode is enabled; I2C-bus or SPI-bus inactive.
[2]
1⁄
4 bias; display enabled; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM is all written with logic 1; inputs at VSS or VDD; default display prescale
factor; I2C-bus or SPI-bus inactive.
[3]
Strongly linked to VLCD voltage. See Figure 32.
[4]
1⁄
[5]
The I2C-bus interface of PCA8546 is 5 V tolerant.
[6]
Variation between any two backplanes on a given voltage level; static measured.
[7]
Variation between any two segments on a given voltage level; static measured.
[8]
Outputs measured one at a time.
4
bias; display enabled; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM is all written with logic 1; default display prescale factor.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
DDD
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bias; internal oscillator; display enabled; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM is all written with
logic 1; inputs at VSS or VDD; default display prescale factor; I2C-bus or SPI-bus inactive. Typical is
defined at VDD = 3.3 V, 25 C.
Fig 31. Typical IDD with respect to temperature
DDD
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9/&' 9
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Power-down mode is enabled; I2C-bus or SPI-bus inactive. Typical is defined at 25 C.
Fig 32. Typical IDD(LCD) in power-down mode with respect to temperature
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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40 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
DDD
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—$
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9/&' 9
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4
bias; display enabled; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM is all written with logic 1; default
display prescale factor. Typical is defined at 25 C.
Fig 33. Typical IDD(LCD) when display is active with respect to temperature
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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14. Dynamic characteristics
Table 32. Dynamic characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; VLCD = 2.5 V to 9 V; Tamb = 40 C to +95 C; unless otherwise specified.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
[1]
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
7800
9600
11040
Hz
fclk
clock frequency
output on pin
OSCCLK; VDD = 3.3 V
fclk(ext)
external clock frequency
EFR = 0
-
-
250000
Hz
t(RESET_N)
RESET_N pulse width
LOW time
400
-
-
ns
External clock source used on pin OSCCLK
tclk(H)
clock HIGH time
33
-
-
s
tclk(L)
clock LOW time
33
-
-
s
[1]
Frequency present on OSCCLK with default display frequency division factor.
DDD
IFON
N+]
9''9
(1) 40 C.
(2) 25 C.
(3) 85 C.
Fig 34. Typical clock frequency with respect to VDD and temperature
WFON+
IFONH[W
WFON/
9''
26&&/.
9''
DDD
External clock source used on pin OSCCLK.
Fig 35. Driver timing waveforms
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
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W5(6(7/
5(6(7
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Fig 36. RESET timing
Table 33. Timing characteristics: I2C-bus
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; Tamb = 40 C to +95 C; unless otherwise specified. All timing values are valid within the
operating supply voltage and temperature range and referenced to VIL and VIH with an input voltage swing of VSS to VDD.
Timing waveforms see Figure 37.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
-
-
400
kHz
Pin SCL
[1]
fSCL
SCL clock frequency
tLOW
LOW period of the SCL clock
1.3
-
-
s
tHIGH
HIGH period of the SCL clock
0.6
-
-
s
tSU;DAT
data set-up time
100
-
-
ns
tHD;DAT
data hold time
0
-
-
ns
Pin SDA
Pins SCL and SDA
tBUF
bus free time between a STOP
and START condition
1.3
-
-
s
tSU;STO
set-up time for STOP condition
0.6
-
-
s
tHD;STA
hold time (repeated) START
condition
0.6
-
-
s
tSU;STA
set-up time for a repeated START
condition
0.6
-
-
s
tr
rise time of both SDA and SCL
signals
fSCL = 400 kHz
-
-
0.3
s
fSCL = 100 kHz
-
-
1.0
s
-
-
0.3
s
tf
fall time of both SDA and SCL
signals
tVD;ACK
data valid acknowledge time
[2]
0.6
-
-
s
tVD;DAT
data valid time
[3]
0.6
-
-
s
Cb
capacitive load for each bus line
-
-
400
pF
-
-
50
ns
[4]
pulse width of spikes that must be
suppressed by the input filter
tSP
[1]
The minimum SCL clock frequency is limited by the bus time-out feature, which resets the serial bus interface if either the SDA or SCL
is held LOW for a minimum of 25 ms. The bus time-out feature must be disabled for DC operation.
[2]
tVD;ACK = time for acknowledgement signal from SCL LOW to SDA output LOW.
[3]
tVD;DAT = minimum time for valid SDA output following SCL LOW.
[4]
Input filters on the SDA and SCL inputs suppress noise spikes of less than 50 ns.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
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Fig 37. I2C-bus timing waveforms
Table 34. Timing characteristics: SPI-bus
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; Tamb = 40 C to +95 C. All timing values are valid within the operating supply voltage and
temperature range and referenced to VIL and VIH with an input voltage swing of VSS to VDD. Timing waveforms see Figure 38.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
VDD < 2.7 V
VDD  2.7 V
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
fclk(SCL)
SCL clock frequency
-
2
-
5
MHz
tSCL
SCL time
500
-
200
-
ns
tclk(H)
clock HIGH time
200
-
80
-
ns
tclk(L)
clock LOW time
200
-
80
-
ns
tr
rise time
for SCL signal
-
100
-
100
ns
tf
fall time
for SCL signal
-
100
-
100
ns
tsu(CE_N)
CE_N set-up time
150
-
80
-
ns
th(CE_N)
CE_N hold time
0
-
0
-
ns
trec(CE_N)
CE_N recovery time
100
-
100
-
ns
tsu
set-up time
set-up time for
SDI data
10
-
5
-
ns
th
hold time
hold time for SDI
data
25
-
10
-
ns
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
44 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
&(
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E
E
E
DDD
Fig 38. SPI-bus timing
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
45 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
15. Package outline
76623SODVWLFWKLQVKULQNVPDOORXWOLQHSDFNDJHOHDGVERG\ZLGWKPP
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Fig 39. Package outline SOT364-1 (TSSOP56)
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
46 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
16. Handling information
All input and output pins are protected against ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) under
normal handling. When handling Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) devices ensure that
all normal precautions are taken as described in JESD625-A, IEC 61340-5 or equivalent
standards.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
47 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
17. Packing information
17.1 Tape and reel information
7239,(:
‘'
3
:
SLQ
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3
$
‘'
.
[
GLUHFWLRQRIIHHG
2ULJLQDOGLPHQVLRQVDUHLQPP
)LJXUHQRWGUDZQWRVFDOH
DDD
Fig 40. Tape and reel details for PCA8546ATT and PCA8546BTT
Table 35.
Carrier tape dimensions of PCA8546ATT and PCA8546BTT
Symbol
Description
Value
Unit
Compartments
A0
pocket width in x direction
8.65 to 8.9
mm
B0
pocket width in y direction
14.4 to 15.8
mm
K0
pocket depth
1.5 to 1.8
mm
P1
pocket hole pitch
12
mm
D1
pocket hole diameter
1.5 to 2.05
mm
Overall dimensions
PCA8546
Product data sheet
W
tape width
24
mm
D0
sprocket hole diameter
1.5 to 1.55
mm
P0
sprocket hole pitch
4
mm
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
48 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
18. Soldering of SMD packages
This text provides a very brief insight into a complex technology. A more in-depth account
of soldering ICs can be found in Application Note AN10365 “Surface mount reflow
soldering description”.
18.1 Introduction to soldering
Soldering is one of the most common methods through which packages are attached to
Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), to form electrical circuits. The soldered joint provides both
the mechanical and the electrical connection. There is no single soldering method that is
ideal for all IC packages. Wave soldering is often preferred when through-hole and
Surface Mount Devices (SMDs) are mixed on one printed wiring board; however, it is not
suitable for fine pitch SMDs. Reflow soldering is ideal for the small pitches and high
densities that come with increased miniaturization.
18.2 Wave and reflow soldering
Wave soldering is a joining technology in which the joints are made by solder coming from
a standing wave of liquid solder. The wave soldering process is suitable for the following:
• Through-hole components
• Leaded or leadless SMDs, which are glued to the surface of the printed circuit board
Not all SMDs can be wave soldered. Packages with solder balls, and some leadless
packages which have solder lands underneath the body, cannot be wave soldered. Also,
leaded SMDs with leads having a pitch smaller than ~0.6 mm cannot be wave soldered,
due to an increased probability of bridging.
The reflow soldering process involves applying solder paste to a board, followed by
component placement and exposure to a temperature profile. Leaded packages,
packages with solder balls, and leadless packages are all reflow solderable.
Key characteristics in both wave and reflow soldering are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Board specifications, including the board finish, solder masks and vias
Package footprints, including solder thieves and orientation
The moisture sensitivity level of the packages
Package placement
Inspection and repair
Lead-free soldering versus SnPb soldering
18.3 Wave soldering
Key characteristics in wave soldering are:
• Process issues, such as application of adhesive and flux, clinching of leads, board
transport, the solder wave parameters, and the time during which components are
exposed to the wave
• Solder bath specifications, including temperature and impurities
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
49 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
18.4 Reflow soldering
Key characteristics in reflow soldering are:
• Lead-free versus SnPb soldering; note that a lead-free reflow process usually leads to
higher minimum peak temperatures (see Figure 41) than a SnPb process, thus
reducing the process window
• Solder paste printing issues including smearing, release, and adjusting the process
window for a mix of large and small components on one board
• Reflow temperature profile; this profile includes preheat, reflow (in which the board is
heated to the peak temperature) and cooling down. It is imperative that the peak
temperature is high enough for the solder to make reliable solder joints (a solder paste
characteristic). In addition, the peak temperature must be low enough that the
packages and/or boards are not damaged. The peak temperature of the package
depends on package thickness and volume and is classified in accordance with
Table 36 and 37
Table 36.
SnPb eutectic process (from J-STD-020D)
Package thickness (mm)
Package reflow temperature (C)
Volume (mm3)
< 350
 350
< 2.5
235
220
 2.5
220
220
Table 37.
Lead-free process (from J-STD-020D)
Package thickness (mm)
Package reflow temperature (C)
Volume (mm3)
< 350
350 to 2000
> 2000
< 1.6
260
260
260
1.6 to 2.5
260
250
245
> 2.5
250
245
245
Moisture sensitivity precautions, as indicated on the packing, must be respected at all
times.
Studies have shown that small packages reach higher temperatures during reflow
soldering, see Figure 41.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
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Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
50 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
temperature
maximum peak temperature
= MSL limit, damage level
minimum peak temperature
= minimum soldering temperature
peak
temperature
time
001aac844
MSL: Moisture Sensitivity Level
Fig 41. Temperature profiles for large and small components
For further information on temperature profiles, refer to Application Note AN10365
“Surface mount reflow soldering description”.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
51 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
19. Footprint information for reflow soldering
)RRWSULQWLQIRUPDWLRQIRUUHIORZVROGHULQJRI76623SDFNDJH
627
+[
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+\
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%\
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3
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VRWBIU
Fig 42. Footprint information for reflow soldering of SOT364-1 (TSSOP56) package
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
52 of 63
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx
NXP Semiconductors
PCA8546
Product data sheet
20. Appendix
20.1 LCD segment driver selection
Table 38.
Selection of LCD segment drivers
Type name
Number of elements at MUX
VDD (V)
VLCD (V)
ffr (Hz)
1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:6 1:8 1:9
VLCD (V) VLCD (V)
Tamb (C)
charge temperature
pump
compensat.
Interface
Package
AECQ100
PCA8561AHN[5]
18
36
54
72
-
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to 256[1]
N
N
40 to 105 I2C
HVQFN32 Y
PCA8561BHN[5]
18
36
54
72
-
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to 256[1]
N
N
40 to 105 SPI
HVQFN32 Y
PCF8566TS
24
48
72
96
-
-
-
2.5 to 6
N
N
40 to 85
I2C
VSO40
N
40 to 85
I2C
TSSOP48 N
I2C
TSSOP48 Y
PCF85162T
32
64
96
128 -
-
-
2.5 to 6
69
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 6.5 82
N
N
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
PCA85162T
32
64
96
128 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
110
N
N
40 to 95
PCA85262ATT
32
64
96
128 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
200
N
N
40 to 105 I2C
TSSOP48 Y
TSSOP48 N
TSSOP48 N
PCF8551ATT[5]
PCF8551BTT[5]
36
36
72
72
108 144 108 144 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to
128[1]
N
N
40 to 85
I2C
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to
128[1]
N
N
40 to 85
SPI
256[1]
I2C
TSSOP48 Y
PCA8551ATT[5]
36
72
108 144 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to
N
N
40 to 105
PCA8551BTT[5]
36
72
108 144 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to 256[1]
N
N
40 to 105 SPI
TSSOP48 Y
PCF85176T
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 6.5 82
N
N
40 to 85
I2C
TSSOP56 N
N
40 to 95
I2C
TSSOP56 Y
N
N
40 to 105
I2C
TSSOP56 Y
N
N
40 to 85
I2C
TQFP64
N
N
40 to 95
I2C
TQFP64
Y
TSSOP56 N
PCA85176T
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
110
PCA85276ATT
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
PCF85176H
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 6.5 82
PCA85176H
PCF8553ATT[5]
40
40
80
80
120 160 120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
N
200
82
N
N
N
40 to 85
I2C
128[1]
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to
N
N
40 to 85
SPI
TSSOP56 N
PCA8553ATT[5]
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to 256[1]
N
N
40 to 105 I2C
TSSOP56 Y
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to
256[1]
N
N
40 to 105 SPI
TSSOP56 Y
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to
300[1]
N
N
40 to 95
I2C
TSSOP56 Y
300[1]
N
N
40 to 95
SPI
TSSOP56 Y
Y
Y[3]
40 to 95
I2C
TQFP64
Y
Y
Y[3]
40 to 95
SPI
TQFP64
Y
N
40 to 85
I2C
LQFP80
N
N
40 to 95
I2C
LQFP80
Y
PCA8553BTT[5]
PCA8546ATT[5]
40
-
80
-
120 160 -
176 -
-
-
53 of 63
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
PCA8546BTT[5]
-
-
-
176 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to
PCA8547AHT[5]
44
88
-
176 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to 300[1]
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
300[1]
PCA8547BHT[5]
PCF85134HL
PCA85134H
44
60
60
88
-
176 -
120 180 240 120 180 240 -
-
-
60 to
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 6.5 82
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
82
N
N
PCA8546
PCF8553BTT[5]
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to
128[1]
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx
Selection of LCD segment drivers …continued
Type name
Number of elements at MUX
VDD (V)
VLCD (V)
ffr (Hz)
VLCD (V) VLCD (V)
Tamb (C)
charge temperature
pump
compensat.
60 to 300[1]
Y
Y
1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:6 1:8 1:9
40 to 105 I2C
LQFP80
Y
120 -
240 -
PCF8545ATT[5]
-
-
-
176 252 320 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 5.5 60 to 300[1]
N
N
40 to 85
I2C
TSSOP56 N
PCF8545BTT[5]
-
-
-
176 252 320 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 5.5 60 to 300[1]
N
N
40 to 85
SPI
TSSOP56 N
176 252 320 -
60 to
300[1]
N
N
40 to 85
I2C
TSSOP56 N
300[1]
-
-
2.5 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
AECQ100
60
-
-
Package
PCA8543AHL
PCF8536AT[4]
-
Interface
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
PCF8536BT[4]
-
-
-
176 252 320 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to
N
N
40 to 85
SPI
TSSOP56 N
PCA8536AT[4]
-
-
-
176 252 320 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to 300[1]
N
N
40 to 95
I2C
TSSOP56 Y
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to
300[1]
N
N
40 to 95
SPI
TSSOP56 Y
60 to
300[1]
Y
Y[3]
40 to 85
I2C
TQFP64
300[1]
PCA8536BT[4]
PCF8537AH
44
88
-
176 252 320 176 276 352 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
N
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
PCF8537BH
44
88
-
176 276 352 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to
Y
Y[3]
40 to 85
SPI
TQFP64
N
PCA8537AH
44
88
-
176 276 352 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to 300[1]
Y
Y[3]
40 to 95
I2C
TQFP64
Y
PCA8537BH
44
88
-
176 276 352 -
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to 300[1]
Y
Y[3]
40 to 95
SPI
TQFP64
Y
2.5 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
60 to
300[1]
Y
Y[3]
40 to 105
I2C
LQFP80
Y
60 to
300[1]
Y
Y[3]
40 to 105
I2C
bare die
Y
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to 128[1]
N
N
40 to 85
I2C, SPI
bare die
N
-
256[1]
N
40 to 105
I2C,
bare die
Y
N
40 to 85
I2C
bare die
N
I2C
PCA9620H
60
120 -
PCA9620U
60
120 -
PCF8552DUG[5]
36
72
PCA8552DUG[5]
PCF8576DU
36
40
72
80
240 320 480 240 320 480 -
108 144 108 144 120 160 -
-
-
2.5 to 5.5 2.5 to 9
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 5.5 32 to
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 6.5 77
N
N
SPI
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 6.5 77
N
N
40 to 85
bare die
N
PCA8576FUG[5]
40
80
120 160 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
N
N
40 to 105 I2C
bare die
Y
N
40 to 85
I2C
bare die
N
N
40 to 95
I2C
bare die
Y
I2C
PCF85133U
PCA85133U
80
80
160 240 320 160 240 320 -
PCA85233U
80
PCA8530DUG[5]
102 204 -
PCF85132U
PCA85132U
160 240 320 408 -
160 320 480 640 160 320 480 640 160 320 480 640 -
PCF8538UG[5]
102 204 -
PCA8538UG
102 204 -
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 6.5 82,
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
110[2]
82,
N
N
40 to 105
bare die
Y
Y
Y[3]
40 to 105 I2C, SPI
bare die
Y
N
40 to 85
I2C
bare die
N
N
40 to 95
I2C
bare die
Y
N
N
40 to 95
I2C
bare die
Y
Y
Y[3]
40 to 85
I2C, SPI[2] bare die
N
Y
Y[3]
40 to 105
I2C,
Y
-
1.8 to 5.5 2.5 to 8
150,
-
-
2.5 to 5.5 4 to 12
45 to 300[1]
-
-
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 8
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 8
1.8 to 5.5 1.8 to 8
60 to
90[1]
60 to
90[1]
117 to
176[1]
408 612 816 918 2.5 to 5.5 4 to 12
45 to 300[1]
408 612 816 918 2.5 to 5.5 4 to 12
300[1]
[1]
Can be selected by command.
[2]
Can be selected by pin configuration.
45 to
N
220[2]
-
N
N
N
SPI[2]
bare die
PCA8546
54 of 63
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
PCA85232U
-
110[2]
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
PCF8576EUG
200
NXP Semiconductors
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Table 38.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx
Extra feature: Temperature sensor.
[4]
Extra feature: 6 PWM channels.
[5]
In development.
NXP Semiconductors
PCA8546
Product data sheet
[3]
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
PCA8546
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
55 of 63
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
21. Abbreviations
Table 39.
Acronym
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Abbreviations
Description
CDM
Charged-Device Model
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
DC
Direct Current
EMC
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
ESD
ElectroStatic Discharge
HBM
Human Body Model
I2C
Inter-Integrated Circuit bus
IC
Integrated Circuit
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LSB
Least Significant Bit
MSB
Most Significant Bit
MSL
Moisture Sensitivity Level
MUX
Multiplexer
OTP
One Time Programmable
PCB
Printed-Circuit Board
POR
Power-On Reset
RC
Resistance-Capacitance
RAM
Random Access Memory
RGB
Red Green Blue
RMS
Root Mean Square
SCL
Serial CLock line
SDA
Serial DAta line
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
56 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
22. References
[1]
AN10365 — Surface mount reflow soldering description
[2]
AN11267 — EMC and system level ESD design guidelines for LCD drivers
[3]
IEC 60134 — Rating systems for electronic tubes and valves and analogous
semiconductor devices
[4]
IEC 61340-5 — Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena
[5]
IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D — Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for
Nonhermetic Solid State Surface-Mount Devices
[6]
JESD22-A114 — Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Sensitivity Testing Human Body
Model (HBM)
[7]
JESD22-C101 — Field-Induced Charged-Device Model Test Method for
Electrostatic-Discharge-Withstand Thresholds of Microelectronic Components
[8]
JESD78 — IC Latch-Up Test
[9]
JESD625-A — Requirements for Handling Electrostatic-Discharge-Sensitive
(ESDS) Devices
[10] SNV-FA-01-02 — Marking Formats Integrated Circuits
[11] UM10204 — I2C-bus specification and user manual
[12] UM10569 — Store and transport requirements
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
57 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
23. Revision history
Table 40.
Revision history
Document ID
Release date
Data sheet status
Change notice
Supersedes
PCA8546 v.1
20131113
Product data sheet
-
-
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
58 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
24. Legal information
24.1 Data sheet status
Document status[1][2]
Product status[3]
Definition
Objective [short] data sheet
Development
This document contains data from the objective specification for product development.
Preliminary [short] data sheet
Qualification
This document contains data from the preliminary specification.
Product [short] data sheet
Production
This document contains the product specification.
[1]
Please consult the most recently issued document before initiating or completing a design.
[2]
The term ‘short data sheet’ is explained in section “Definitions”.
[3]
The product status of device(s) described in this document may have changed since this document was published and may differ in case of multiple devices. The latest product status
information is available on the Internet at URL http://www.nxp.com.
24.2 Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of
use of such information.
Short data sheet — A short data sheet is an extract from a full data sheet
with the same product type number(s) and title. A short data sheet is intended
for quick reference only and should not be relied upon to contain detailed and
full information. For detailed and full information see the relevant full data
sheet, which is available on request via the local NXP Semiconductors sales
office. In case of any inconsistency or conflict with the short data sheet, the
full data sheet shall prevail.
Product specification — The information and data provided in a Product
data sheet shall define the specification of the product as agreed between
NXP Semiconductors and its customer, unless NXP Semiconductors and
customer have explicitly agreed otherwise in writing. In no event however,
shall an agreement be valid in which the NXP Semiconductors product is
deemed to offer functions and qualities beyond those described in the
Product data sheet.
24.3 Disclaimers
Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to
be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or
completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the
consequences of use of such information. NXP Semiconductors takes no
responsibility for the content in this document if provided by an information
source outside of NXP Semiconductors.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors be liable for any indirect, incidental,
punitive, special or consequential damages (including - without limitation - lost
profits, lost savings, business interruption, costs related to the removal or
replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such
damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of
contract or any other legal theory.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability towards
customer for the products described herein shall be limited in accordance
with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP Semiconductors.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
PCA8546
Product data sheet
Suitability for use in automotive applications — This NXP
Semiconductors product has been qualified for use in automotive
applications. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the product is not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in life support, life-critical or
safety-critical systems or equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected
to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental
damage. NXP Semiconductors and its suppliers accept no liability for
inclusion and/or use of NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or
applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer's own
risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications
and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP Semiconductors
accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or customer product
design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine whether the NXP
Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the customer’s applications and
products planned, as well as for the planned application and use of
customer’s third party customer(s). Customers should provide appropriate
design and operating safeguards to minimize the risks associated with their
applications and products.
NXP Semiconductors does not accept any liability related to any default,
damage, costs or problem which is based on any weakness or default in the
customer’s applications or products, or the application or use by customer’s
third party customer(s). Customer is responsible for doing all necessary
testing for the customer’s applications and products using NXP
Semiconductors products in order to avoid a default of the applications and
the products or of the application or use by customer’s third party
customer(s). NXP does not accept any liability in this respect.
Limiting values — Stress above one or more limiting values (as defined in
the Absolute Maximum Ratings System of IEC 60134) will cause permanent
damage to the device. Limiting values are stress ratings only and (proper)
operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those given in
the Recommended operating conditions section (if present) or the
Characteristics sections of this document is not warranted. Constant or
repeated exposure to limiting values will permanently and irreversibly affect
the quality and reliability of the device.
Terms and conditions of commercial sale — NXP Semiconductors
products are sold subject to the general terms and conditions of commercial
sale, as published at http://www.nxp.com/profile/terms, unless otherwise
agreed in a valid written individual agreement. In case an individual
agreement is concluded only the terms and conditions of the respective
agreement shall apply. NXP Semiconductors hereby expressly objects to
applying the customer’s general terms and conditions with regard to the
purchase of NXP Semiconductors products by customer.
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
59 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
No offer to sell or license — Nothing in this document may be interpreted or
construed as an offer to sell products that is open for acceptance or the grant,
conveyance or implication of any license under any copyrights, patents or
other industrial or intellectual property rights.
Translations — A non-English (translated) version of a document is for
reference only. The English version shall prevail in case of any discrepancy
between the translated and English versions.
Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein
may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior
authorization from competent authorities.
24.4 Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks
are the property of their respective owners.
I2C-bus — logo is a trademark of NXP B.V.
25. Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
60 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
26. Tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
Table 13.
Table 14.
Table 15.
Table 16.
Table 17.
Table 18.
Table 19.
Table 20.
Table 21.
Table 22.
Table 23.
Table 24.
Table 25.
Table 26.
Table 27.
Table 28.
Table 29.
Table 30.
Table 31.
Table 32.
Table 33.
Table 34.
Table 35.
Table 36.
Table 37.
Table 38.
Table 39.
Table 40.
Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Ordering options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Marking codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Pin description of PCA8546ATT and
PCA8546BTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Commands of PCA8546 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Initialize - initialize command bit description . . .7
OTP-refresh - OTP-refresh command bit
description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Mode-settings - mode settings command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Effect of the power-down bit (PD). . . . . . . . . . .10
Oscillator-control - oscillator control command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Valid combinations of bits OSC, EFR,
and COE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Typical use of bits OSC, EFR, and COE . . . . .12
OSCCLK pin state depending on configuration 13
LCD frame frequencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Set-bias-mode - set bias mode command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Frame-frequency - frame frequency and output
clock frequency command bit description . . . .14
Frame frequency prescaler values for 230 kHz
clock operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Load-data-pointer - load data pointer
command bit description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Write-RAM-data - write RAM data command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Starting conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Display configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Preferred LCD drive modes: summary
of characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Control byte description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
I2C slave address byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
R/W-bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Status read out value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Modified status read out value . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Serial interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Subaddress byte definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Limiting values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Static characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Timing characteristics: I2C-bus . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Timing characteristics: SPI-bus . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Carrier tape dimensions of PCA8546ATT
and PCA8546BTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
SnPb eutectic process (from J-STD-020D) . . .50
Lead-free process (from J-STD-020D) . . . . . .50
Selection of LCD segment drivers . . . . . . . . . .53
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
61 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
27. Figures
Fig 1.
Fig 2.
Fig 3.
Fig 4.
Fig 5.
Fig 6.
Fig 7.
Fig 8.
Fig 9.
Fig 10.
Fig 11.
Fig 12.
Fig 13.
Fig 14.
Fig 15.
Fig 16.
Fig 17.
Fig 18.
Fig 19.
Fig 20.
Fig 21.
Fig 22.
Fig 23.
Fig 24.
Fig 25.
Fig 26.
Fig 27.
Fig 28.
Fig 29.
Fig 30.
Fig 31.
Fig 32.
Fig 33.
Fig 34.
Fig 35.
Fig 36.
Fig 37.
Fig 38.
Fig 39.
Fig 40.
Fig 41.
Fig 42.
Block diagram of PCA8546A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Block diagram of PCA8546B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Pin configuration for TSSOP56 (PCA8546ATT) . .5
Pin configuration for TSSOP56 (PCA8546BTT) . .5
Effect of backplane swapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Recommended power-down sequence . . . . . . . .10
Oscillator selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Recommended start-up sequence when
using an external clock signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Recommended start-up sequence when
using the internal oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Example of displays suitable for PCA8546 . . . . .20
Typical system configuration for the I2C-bus . . . .20
Typical system configuration for the SPI-bus. . . .21
Electro-optical characteristic: relative
transmission curve of the liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Waveforms for the 1:4 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄3 bias and line inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Waveforms for 1:4 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄3 bias and frame inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Display RAM bitmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Display RAM filling order in 1:4 multiplex
drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Boundary condition in 1:4 multiplex drive mode .28
Control byte format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Bit transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Definition of START and STOP conditions. . . . . .30
System configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Acknowledgement on the I2C-bus . . . . . . . . . . . .31
I2C-bus protocol write mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
I2C-bus protocol read mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Data transfer overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
SPI-bus write example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
SPI-bus example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Device protection diagram for PCA8546A . . . . . .36
Device protection diagram for PCA8546B . . . . . .36
Typical IDD with respect to temperature . . . . . . . .40
Typical IDD(LCD) in power-down mode
with respect to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Typical IDD(LCD) when display is active
with respect to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Typical clock frequency with respect to VDD
and temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Driver timing waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
RESET timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
I2C-bus timing waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
SPI-bus timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Package outline SOT364-1 (TSSOP56) . . . . . . .46
Tape and reel details for PCA8546ATT
and PCA8546BTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Temperature profiles for large and small
components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Footprint information for reflow soldering of
SOT364-1 (TSSOP56) package . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
PCA8546
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 13 November 2013
© NXP B.V. 2013. All rights reserved.
62 of 63
PCA8546
NXP Semiconductors
4 x 44 automotive LCD driver
28. Contents
1
2
3
4
4.1
5
6
7
7.1
7.2
8
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.1.3.1
8.1.3.2
8.1.3.3
8.1.3.4
8.1.4
8.1.4.1
8.1.4.2
8.1.5
8.1.6
8.1.7
8.1.8
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.3
8.4
8.4.1
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.9.1
8.9.2
9
9.1
9.2
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Features and benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Ordering options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Pinning information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Pinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Commands of PCA8546 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Command: initialize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Command: OTP-refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Command: mode-settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Backplane swapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Line inversion (driving scheme A) and frame
inversion (driving scheme B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Power-down mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Display enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Command: oscillator-control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Timing and frame frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Command: set-bias-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Command: frame-frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Command: load-data-pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Command: write-RAM-data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Start-up and shut-down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Reset and Power-On Reset (POR). . . . . . . . . 17
RESET pin function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Recommended start-up sequences . . . . . . . . 17
Possible display configurations . . . . . . . . . . . 20
LCD voltage selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Electro-optical performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
LCD drive mode waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1⁄ bias and line inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3
1⁄ bias and frame inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3
Display register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Backplane outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Segment outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Display RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Data pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
RAM filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Bus interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Control byte and register selection . . . . . . . . . 29
I2C-bus interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
9.2.5
9.2.6
9.2.7
9.2.8
9.2.8.1
9.3
9.3.1
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
17.1
18
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
19
20
20.1
21
22
23
24
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
25
26
27
28
Bit transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
START and STOP conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . .
System configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I2C-bus controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I2C-bus slave address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I2C-bus protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Status read out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPI-bus interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limiting values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Static characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Package outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape and reel information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soldering of SMD packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to soldering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wave and reflow soldering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wave soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reflow soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Footprint information for reflow soldering . .
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LCD segment driver selection . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data sheet status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contact information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
30
30
31
31
31
31
32
33
34
34
36
36
37
38
42
46
47
48
48
49
49
49
49
50
51
53
53
56
57
58
59
59
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Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’.
© NXP B.V. 2013.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 13 November 2013
Document identifier: PCA8546
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