Data Sheet

Freescale Semiconductor
Technical Data
Document Number: MC34700
Rev. 5.0, 10/2009
9.0 to 18 V, Quad Output,
Integrated MOSFET Power
Supply
MC34700
POWER SUPPLY
The 34700 is a compact, high-efficiency power supply with on-chip
power MOSFETs that features three step-down switching regulators
and one low dropout linear regulator. The switching regulators utilize
voltage mode control with external compensation, allowing flexibility in
optimizing the performance of the 34700 for a given application.
The 34700 is ideal for space constrained applications where
multiple power rails are required and simplicity of design and
implementation of the power supply is necessary. Over-voltage,
under-voltage, over-current, and over-temperature protection
features ensure robust and reliable operation. Fixed switching
frequency, internal soft-start, and internal power MOSFETs enable
rapid power supply design and development.
The 34700 is well suited for power supply designs in wide variety
of applications, including set top boxes, cable modems, laser
printers, fax machines, point-of-sale terminals, small appliances,
telecom line cards, and DVD players.
Typical Applications:
• Set Top Boxes and Receivers
• Cable Modems
• Networking Cards
• Telecom Line Cards
98ASA10800D
32-Pin QFN, 5 x 5mm
ORDERING INFORMATION
Device
Temperature
Range (TA)
Package
MC34700EP/R2
-40°C to 85°C
32 QFN
Features
• Three switching regulators: 2 synchronous and 1 nonsynchronous
• One low dropout linear regulator
• Output current capability:
• 1.5 A continuous on channel 1
• 1.25 A continuous on channels 2 and 3
• 400 mA continuous on channel 4
• Internal power MOSFETs on all channels
• Voltage feed-forward on channel 1
• ±1.5% Output voltage accuracy on all channels
• Cycle-by-cycle current limit and short-circuit protection
• Fixed 800 kHz switching frequency
• Internal soft-start
• Over-voltage, under-voltage and over-temperature
protection
• Open-drain power-good output signal
• Separate active-high enable input for each channel
• Pb-free packaging designated by suffix code EP
MC34700
VIN1
9 V - 18 V
VIN
VIN1
VOUT1 VIN2 VIN3 BST1
SW1
VDDI
COMP1
VGREG
PGOOD
FB1
BST2
SW2
COMP2
Enable 1
Enable 2
Enable 3
Enable 4
EN1
EN1
EN1
EN_LDO
VOUT1
2.0 - 5.25 V, 1.5 A
VOUT2
0.7 - 3.6 V, 1.25 A
FB2
BST3
SW3
COMP3
AGND
FB3
GND2
LDO_VIN
LDO
GND3
LDO_FB
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. reserves the right to change the detail specifications,
as may be required, to permit improvements in the design of its products.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2009. All rights reserved.
VOUT3
0.7 - 3.6 V, 1.25 A
VOUT4
0.7 - 3.6 V, 0.4 A
INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
VOUT1
Ramp
Generator
Feed
Forward
Bootstrap
Circuit
PGOOD
BST1
VIN1
Supervisory
Logic
Channel 1
Regulator
Control
Gate
Drive
SW1
Main
System
Control
EN1
EN2
COMP1
FB1
EN3
Thermal Monitoring
EN4
EN_LDO
Bootstrap
Circuit
Current Monitoring
Ramp
Generator
System Reset
Bandgap
Reference
BST2
VIN2
Channel 2
Regulator
Control
SW2
Gate
Drive
0.7V Internal
Reference
GND2
COMP2
VDDI
FB2
POR
VDDI
Internal
Regulator
VGREG
Bootstrap
Circuit
Ramp
Generator
Oscillator
VIN
VG
Regulator
BST3
VIN3
Channel 3
Regulator
Control
Gate
Drive
LDO_VIN
SW3
GND3
COMP3
LDO
FB3
LDO_FB
AGND
Figure 2. 34700 Simplified Internal Block Diagram
34700
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 1. Maximum Ratings
All voltages are with respect to ground unless otherwise noted. Exceeding these ratings may cause a malfunction or
permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation at these or any other conditions above those indicated
in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
Ratings
Symbol
Value
Unit
Input Voltage
VIN
-0.3 to 20
Input DC/DC1 Voltage, IVIN = 0
VIN1
-0.3 to 20
VIN2, VIN3,
VINLDO
-0.3 to 7
VSW1
-0.3 to 20
VSW2, VSW3
-0.3 to 7
VBST1
-0.3 to 25
VBST2, VBST3
-0.3 to 14
VBST - VSW
-0.3 to 7
Compensation (COMP1, 2, and 3), Feedback (FB1, FB2, FB3, LDO_FB), VDDI
-
-0.3 to 3
V
All Other Pins (EN1, 2, 3, EN_LDO, PGOOD, VGREG, LDO, VOUT1)
-
-0.3 to 7
V
ELECTRICAL RATINGS
Input Voltages
V
Input DC/DC2, 3, and LDO Voltage
Switch Node Voltages
V
Switch Node DC/DC1
Switch Node DC/DC2, DC/DC3
Bootstrap Voltages
V
Bootstrap DC/DC1
Bootstrap DC/DC2, DC/DC3
Bootstrap Voltage Referenced to Switch Node Voltage
ESD Voltage
(1)
VESD
Human Body Model (HBM) All Pins
V
+ 2000
THERMAL RATINGS
Operating Temperature
°C
Ambient
Junction
Peak Package Temperature During Reflow
Storage Temperature
(2), (3)
TA
-40 to +85
TJ
-40 to +125
TPPRT
300
°C
TSTRG
-40 to +150
°C
TΘJC
6.7
TΘJA
37
THERMAL RESISTANCE
Thermal Resistance (2)
Junction-to-Case
Junction-to-Ambient
Power Dissipation
°C/W
PD
W
TA = 25°C
2.5
TA = 70°C
1.3
TA = 85°C
1.0
Notes
1. ESD testing is performed in accordance with the Human Body Model (HBM) (CZAP = 100 pF, RZAP = 1500 Ω).
2.
3.
Pin soldering temperature limit is for 10 seconds maximum duration. Not designed for immersion soldering. Exceeding these limits may
cause malfunction or permanent damage to the device.
Freescale’s Package Reflow capability meets Pb-free requirements for JEDEC standard J-STD-020C. For Peak Package Reflow
Temperature and Moisture Sensitivity Levels (MSL), Go to www.freescale.com, search by part number [e.g. remove prefixes/suffixes
and enter the core ID to view all orderable parts. (i.e. MC33xxxD enter 33xxx), and review parametrics.
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
3
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 2. Electrical Characteristics
Characteristics noted under conditions 9.0 V ≤ VIN ≤ 18 V, - 40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C, GND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Typical
values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at TA = 25°C under nominal conditions, unless otherwise noted.
Characteristic
Test Conditions
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Maximum
-
18
-
Minimum
-
9.0
-
Unit
POWER SUPPLY
VIN Voltage
Standby Current
VIN
V
VEN1 = VEN2 = VEN3 = VEN_LDO = 0 V
ISDB
-
8.95
15
mA
VEN1 = VEN2 = VEN3 = VEN_LDO = 5.0 V,
VVIN = 9.0 V, Load = 0 A
IIN
-
15.4
-
mA
VDDI
2.3
2.5
2.7
V
VGREG Rising Threshold Voltage
VVGREG_RISING
3.5
4.0
4.5
V
VGREG Falling Threshold Voltage
VVGREG_FALLING
3.0
3.4
4.0
V
VVGREG_HYS
0.2
0.55
1.0
V
RVGREGIN
-
30
-
Ω
VVGREG
4.75
5.25
5.5
V
VIN_dV/dT
-
10
-
V/μs
CVGREG
-
1.0
-
μF
CVDDI
-
1.0
-
μF
VEN_LDO
0.78
-
-
VEN1,2,3
-
-
0.61
V
Operating Current
Internal Supply Voltage
POWER-ON RESET
VGREG Hysteresis Voltage
VGREG LINEAR REGULATOR
On Resistance
IVGREG = 80 mA
Output Voltage
Maximum Input dV/dT
VIN1 = VIN
BIAS VOLTAGES
VGREG Decoupling
VGREG = 5.0 V
VDDI Decoupling
VDDI = 2.5 V
ENABLE
Output Enable Logic High Threshold
Voltage
Output Enable Logic Low Threshold
Voltage
VEN1,2,3
V
VEN_LDO
EN Input Resistance to Ground
REN_IN
-
1.5
-
MΩ
Delay from Enable to Soft Start DC1
tDELAY1
-
1.0
-
ms
tDELAY2,3
-
160
-
ms
DC/DC 1, 2, 3 Reference Voltage
VREF1,2,3
0.690
0.700
0.710
V
LDO Reference Voltage
VREF_LDO
0.690
0.700
0.710
V
fSW
760
800
840
kHz
tSS_BUCKREG
2.5
3.5
4.5
ms
tSS_LDO
0.3
0.5
0.7
ms
Delay from Enable to Soft Start DC2, DC3
REFERENCE
OSCILLATOR
Switching Frequency
SOFT-START
Soft-start Duration DC1, 2, 3
Soft-start Duration LDO
34700
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 2. Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Characteristics noted under conditions 9.0 V ≤ VIN ≤ 18 V, - 40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C, GND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Typical
values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at TA = 25°C under nominal conditions, unless otherwise noted.
Characteristic
Test Conditions
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
VFF_GAIN1 x PVIN1, PVIN1 = 18 V
VRAMP_AMP1
-
1.0
-
VP-P
VFF_GAIN1
-
0.055
VRAMP_AMP2,3
-
1.25
VFF_GAIN2,3
-
0.208
VRAMP_OFFSET
-
0.2
-
V
RAMP GENERATORS
Ramp Amplitude (DC/DC1)
VFF Gain (DC/DC1)
Ramp Amplitude (DC/DC2,3)
VFF_GAIN2 x PVIN2, PVIN2 = 6.0 V
VFF Gain (DC/DC2,3)
Ramp Bottom (DC/DC1,2,3)
V/V
-
VP-P
V/V
Min Duty Cycle (DC/DC1)
ILOAD1 = 0 A
D1
-
-
16
%
Max Duty Cycle (DC/DC1)
ILOAD1 = 0 A
D1
68.4
-
-
%
Min Duty Cycle (DC/DC2,3)
ILOAD1 = 0 A
D2,3
-
0
0
%
Max Duty Cycle (DC/DC2,3)
ILOAD1 = 0 A
D2,3
83.6
-
-
%
O V Threshold, all regulators
Percentage of setpoint
ΔOV_TH
-
-
108
%
UV Threshold, all regulators
Percentage of setpoint
ΔUV_TH
92
-
-
%
ISINK = 6.0 mA
VOL_PGOOD
-
0.4
-
V
POWER-GOOD
PGOOD Output Low Level
PGOOD Reset Delay
tPG-RESET
100
μs
PGOOD Glitch Rejection
tPG-FILTER
10
μs
BUCK CONVERTER 1
Maximum VIN1 Input Voltage
VIN1_MAX
-
18
-
V
Minimum VIN1 Input Voltage
VIN1_MIN
-
9.0
-
V
Maximum Output Voltage
VIN = 9.0V
VDC1VOUTMAX
-
5.25
-
V
Minimum Output Voltage
VIN = 9.0V
VDC1VOUTMIN
-
2.0
-
V
IOUTDC1MAX
-
1.5
-
A
Total System Accuracy
ΔVOUT1
-1.5
-
1.5
%
Peak Short-circuit Current Limit
ISHORT1
2.5
-
4.5
A
RDS(ON)_HS
-
150
-
mΩ
RDO
-
183
-
mΩ
AEA
-
110
-
dB
GBW
-
4.0
-
MHz
SR
-
1.8
-
V/μs
tLIM1
-
10
-
ms
tTIMEOUT1
-
100
-
ms
Maximum Output Current
High Side On Resistance
Equivalent Dropout Resistance
Error Amplifier DC Gain
Error Amplifier Unity-gain Bandwidth
Error Amplifier Slew Rate @ 15 pF
Current Limit Timer
Current Limit Retry Timeout Period
VIN1 = 5.5 V, VOUT = 3.3 V, ILOAD = 2.0 A
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
5
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 2. Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Characteristics noted under conditions 9.0 V ≤ VIN ≤ 18 V, - 40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C, GND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Typical
values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at TA = 25°C under nominal conditions, unless otherwise noted.
Characteristic
Test Conditions
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Maximum VIN2 Input Voltage
VIN2_MAX
-
6.0
-
V
Minimum VIN2 Input Voltage
VIN2_MIN
-
1.5
-
V
BUCK CONVERTER 2
Maximum Output Voltage
VIN = 9.0 V
VDC2VOUTMAX
-
3.6
-
V
Minimum Output Voltage
VIN = 9.0 V
VDC2VOUTMIN
-
0.7
-
V
IOUTDC2MAX
-
1.25
-
A
Total System Accuracy
ΔVOUT2
-1.5
-
1.5
%
Peak Short-circuit Current Limit
ISHORT2
2.0
-
4.5
A
High Side On Resistance
RDS(ON)_HS
-
175
-
mΩ
Low Side On Resistance
RDS(ON)_LS
-
150
-
mΩ
RDO
-
150
-
mΩ
ISW2
-
400
-
μA
AEA
-
110
-
dB
GBW
-
4.0
-
MHz
SR
-
1.8
-
V/μs
tLIM2
-
10
-
ms
tTIMEOUT2
-
100
-
ms
Maximum VIN3 Input Voltage
VIN3_MAX
-
6.0
-
V
Minimum VIN3 Input Voltage
Maximum Output Current
Equivalent Dropout Resistance
VIN2 = 1.7 V, VOUT = 1.25 V,
ILOAD = 1.25 A
SW2 Leakage Current
VIN = 12 V, VIN2 = 0 V, EN2 = 0 V
Error Amplifier DC Gain
Error Amplifier Unity Gain Bandwidth
Error Amplifier Slew Rate
Current Limit Timer
Current Limit Retry Timeout Period
BUCK CONVERTER 3
VIN3_MIN
-
1.5
-
V
Maximum Output Voltage
VDC3VOUTMAX
-
3.6
-
V
Minimum Output Voltage
VDC2VOUTMIN
-
0.7
-
V
Maximum Output Current
IOUTDC3MAX
-
1.25
-
A
Total System Accuracy
ΔVOUT3
-1.5
-
1.5
%
Peak Short-circuit Current Limit
ISHORT3
2.0
-
4.5
A
High Side On Resistance
RDS(ON)_HS
-
160
-
mΩ
Low Side On Resistance
RDS(ON)_LS
-
140
-
mΩ
RDO
-
150
-
mΩ
ISW3
-
400
-
μA
AEA
-
110
-
dB
GBW
-
4.0
-
MHz
SR
-
1.8
-
V/μs
tLIM3
-
10
-
ms
tTIMEOUT3
-
100
-
ms
Equivalent Dropout Resistance
VIN2 = 1.7 V, VOUT = 1.25 V,
ILOAD = 1.25 A
SW3 Leakage Current
Error Amplifier DC Gain
Error Amplifier Unity Gain Bandwidth
Error Amplifier Slew Rate
Current Limit Timer
Current Limit Retry Timeout Period
VIN = 12 V, VIN3 = 0 V, EN3 = 0 V
34700
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 2. Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Characteristics noted under conditions 9.0 V ≤ VIN ≤ 18 V, - 40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C, GND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Typical
values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at TA = 25°C under nominal conditions, unless otherwise noted.
Characteristic
Test Conditions
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Maximum LDO Input Voltage
VINLDO
-
6.0
-
V
Minimum LDO Input Voltage
VINLDO
-
1.5
-
V
Maximum LDO Output Voltage
VLDO
-
3.6
-
V
Minimum LDO Output Voltage
VLDO
-
0.7
-
V
Maximum LDO Output Current
ILDO
-
400
-
mA
ΔVLDO
-1.5
-
1.5
%
VDROP
-
250
-
mV
LDO Power Dissipation
PDISS_LDO
-
375
-
mW
Maximum Output Current
ISHORT_LDO
-
1100
-
mA
Minimum Output Current
ISHORT_LDO
-
500
-
mA
CLDO
-
10
-
μF
CESR
-
20
-
mΩ
tTIMEOUT_LDO
-
100
-
ms
TSD_MAX
-
160
-
°C
LINEAR REGULATOR
Total System Accuracy
Maximum Dropout Voltage
Required Output Decoupling
Current Limit Retry Timeout Period
ILDO = 400 mA
THERMAL SHUTDOWN
Maximum Thermal Shutdown Threshold
Typical Thermal Shutdown Threshold
TSD
-
140
-
°C
Minimum Thermal Shutdown Threshold
TSD_MIN
-
120
-
°C
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
TSD_HYS
-
25
-
°C
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
7
PIN CONNECTIONS
FUNCTIONAL PIN DESCRIPTIONS
VIN1
COMP1
FB1
VOUT1
AGND
PGOOD
VDDI
VGREG
PIN CONNECTIONS
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
VIN1
1
24
VIN
SW1
2
23
LDO_VIN
SW1
3
22
LDO
BST1
4
21
LDO_FB
GND2
5
20
GND3
TRANSPARENT
TOP VIEW
PIN 33
VIN3
BST2
8
17
BST3
14
15 16
COMP3
13
EN3
11 12
EN2
10
EN1
9
FB3
SW3
18
EN_LDO
19
7
FB2
6
COMP2
SW2
VIN2
Figure 3. 34700 Pin Connections
FUNCTIONAL PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Table 3. 34700 Pin Definitions
Pin
Name
Pin Description
1,32
VIN1
Buck regulator #1’s power input voltage. VIN1 is connected to the drain of the DC/DC #1’s high side MOSFET. Local
bypass capacitors are recommended.
2,3
SW1
Buck regulator #1’s switching node. SW1 is connected to the source of the high side MOSFET. Connect this pin to the
cathode of the catch diode and the output inductor.
4
BST1
Buck regulator #1’s bootstrap capacitor input. Connect a capacitor between the BST1 and SW1 pin of DC/DC #1 to
enhance the gate of the high side MOSFET during switching.
5
GND2
Buck regulator #2’s power ground. GND2 is connected to the source of DC/DC #2’s low side MOSFET. Connect this pin
to the DC/DC #2’s power return path.
6
SW2
Buck regulator #2’s switching node. SW2 is connected to source of the high side and the drain of the low side MOSFET.
Connect this pin to the output inductor.
7
VIN2
Buck regulator #2’s power input voltage. VIN2 is connected to the drain of the DC/DC #2’s high side MOSFET. Local
bypass capacitors are recommended.
8
BST2
Buck regulator #2’s bootstrap capacitor input. Connect a capacitor between the BST2 and SW2 pin of DC/DC #2 to
enhance the gate of the high side MOSFET during switching.
9
COMP2
Buck regulator #2’s compensation output. COMP2 is connected to DC/DC #2’s error amplifier’s output. Connect the
required external compensation network between the COMP2 pin and the FB2 pin.
10
FB2
DC/DC #2’s error amplifier inverting input. Connect the required compensation network and feedback network to this
terminal as appropriate.
11
EN1
This input enables buck regulator #1. Asserting EN1 high turns on DC/DC #1. The internal control logic remains active
as long as VIN is present.
12
EN2
This input enables buck regulator #2. Asserting EN2 high turns on DC/DC #2. The internal control logic remains active
as long as VIN is present.
34700
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
PIN CONNECTIONS
FUNCTIONAL PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Table 3. 34700 Pin Definitions (continued)
Pin
Name
Pin Description
13
EN3
This input enables buck regulator #3. Asserting EN3 high turns on DC/DC #3. The internal control logic remains active
as long as VIN is present.
14
EN_LDO
This input enables the LDO. Asserting EN_LDO high turns on the LDO. The internal control logic remains active as long
as VIN is present.
15
FB3
DC/DC #3’s error amplifier inverting input. Connect the required compensation network and feedback network to this
terminal as appropriate.
16
COMP3
Buck regulator #3’s compensation output. COMP3 is connected to DC/DC #3’s error amplifier’s output. Connect the
required external compensation network between the COMP3 pin and the FB3 pin.
17
BST3
Buck regulator #3’s bootstrap capacitor input. Connect a capacitor between the BST3 and SW3 pin of DC/DC #3 to
enhance the gate of the high side MOSFET during switching.
18
VIN3
Buck regulator #3’s power input voltage. VIN3 is connected to the drain of the DC/DC #3’s high side MOSFET. Local
bypass capacitors are recommended.
19
SW3
Buck regulator #3’s switching node. SW3 is connected to source of the high side and the drain of the low side MOSFET.
Connect this pin to the output inductor.
20
GND3
Buck regulator #3’s power ground. GND3 is connected to the source of DC/DC #3’s low side MOSFET. Connect this pin
to the DC/DC #3’s power return path.
21
LDO_FB
22
LDO
23
LDO_VIN
24
VIN
IC supply voltage input. This pin should be de-coupled from the buck regulator’s power input voltages (VIN1, VIN2, VIN3).
Filtering is required for proper device operation.
25
VGREG
This is the output of an internal linear regulator which is used to supply the gate drivers. The VGREG linear regulator is
driven from the input supply voltage VIN, and it’s output is also used to drive the gates of the low side MOSFETs of
regulators DC/DC #2 and DC/DC #3, as well as the LDO. Connect this pin to a low ESR, 1.0 μF bypass capacitor.
26
VDDI
Internal regulator output used to supply the internal logic and analog blocks. VDDI is driven from the gate drive supply
voltage, VGREG. Connect this pin to a 1.0 μF, low ESR decoupling filter capacitor.
27
PGOOD
Status signal used to indicate that all the regulators’ output voltages are good. Upon a fault occurrence, this output signal
goes low. PGOOD is an open drain output, and must be pulled up by an external resistor to a supply voltage suitable for
I/O.
28
AGND
Analog ground of the IC. Internal analog and logic signals are referenced to this pin.
29
VOUT1
DC/DC #1’s shunt input. VOUT1 is connected to a discharge MOSFET. This MOSFET is used to discharge the output of
DC/DC1 when there is a fault condition, such as thermal shutdown or a short circuit. It is also used to provide a pre-load
to maintain a minimum duty. Connect this pin to the output of DC/DC #1.
30
FB1
DC/DC #1’s error amplifier inverting input. Connect the required compensation network and feedback network to this
terminal as appropriate.
31
COMP1
Buck regulator #1’s compensation output. COMP1 is connected to DC/DC #1’s error amplifier’s output. Connect the
required external compensation network between the COMP1 pin and the FB1 pin.
33
AGND
LDO error amplifier inverting input. Connect the appropriate output voltage feedback resistor divider to this pin.
LDO regulator output. Connect this pin to the feedback resistor divider and output capacitor.
LDO’s power input voltage. LDO_VIN is connected to the drain of the linear regulator’s pass device. Local bypass
capacitors are recommended.
Thermal pad for heat transfer. Connect the thermal pad to the analog ground.
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
9
PIN CONNECTIONS
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
LDO Efficiency (0.89VOUT)
CH1 Efficiency (3.36VOUT)
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.65
9VIN
11VIN
0.6
13VIN
15VIN
0.5
17VIN
18VIN
0.6
LDO Efficiency
CH1 Efficiency
0.7
1.5VIN
1.6VIN
0.55
1.7VIN
1.8VIN
0.5
0.4
0.45
0.3
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0
0.1
0.2
CH1 Iout (A)
0.3
0.4
Figure 4. Typical LDO Efficiency
Figure 1. Typical CH1 Efficiency
CH2 Efficiency (2.49VOUT)
CH1 Loop Response
0.96
60
180
0.94
135
40
0.92
Phase
0.9
90
20
3.5VIN
4.5VIN
0.86
5.5VIN
6VIN
0.84
45
0
0
Phase (deg)
0.88
Magnitude (dB)
CH2 Efficiency
0.5
LDO Iout (A)
-45
-20
0.82
-90
0.8
-40
-135
0.78
0.76
-60
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
100.0E+0
-180
1.0E+3
CH2 Iout (A)
10.0E+3
100.0E+3
Figure 2. Typical CH2 Efficiency
Figure 5. CH1 Loop Response - Application Example
CH3 Efficiency (1.28VOUT)
CH2 Loop Response
0.96
60
180
0.94
Phase
135
40
0.92
90
0.9
20
3VIN
4VIN
0.86
5VIN
6VIN
0.84
45
0
0
Phase (deg)
0.88
Magnitude (dB)
CH3 Efficiency
1.0E+6
Frequency (Hz)
-45
-20
0.82
-90
0.8
-40
0.78
-135
0.76
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
CH3 Iout (A)
Figure 3. Typical CH3 Efficiency
-60
100.0E+0
-180
1.0E+3
10.0E+3
100.0E+3
1.0E+6
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 6. CH2 Loop Response - Application Example
34700
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
PIN CONNECTIONS
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
CH3 Loop Response
60
180
Phase
135
40
EN3
90
Magnitude (dB)
20
45
0
0
COMP3
-45
VOUT3
-20
-90
SW3
-40
-135
-60
100.0E+0
-180
1.0E+3
10.0E+3
100.0E+3
1.0E+6
Frequency (Hz)
3.4 VIN3, 1.28 VOUT1@ 1.25 A
Figure 7. CH3 Loop Response - Application Example
EN1
Figure 10. EN CH3 Start-up
EN_LDO
COMP1
VOUT3
VOUT1
VOUT_LDO
SW1
SW3
12 VIN1, 3.4 VOUT1@ 1.5 A
1.28 VIN_LDO, 0.9 VOUT_LDO@ 0.4 A
Figure 8. EN CH1 Start-up
Figure 11. EN LDO Start-up
VOUT1
EN2
VIN
COMP2
VOUT2
SW2
SW1
3.4 VIN2, 2.5 VOUT1@ 1.25 A
12 VIN1, 3.4 VOUT1@ 0 A
Figure 9. EN CH2 Start-up
Figure 12. CH1 Short-circuit Response
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
11
PIN CONNECTIONS
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
VIN2
IOUT2-1.0A/div
VOUT2
VOUT2
COMP2
SW2
SW2
5 VIN2, 2.47 VOUT2@ 0 A
5 VIN2, 2.47 VOUT2@ 0 A, 0 to 1.25 A transient
Figure 13. CH2 Short-circuit Response
Figure 16. CH2 Transient Response
VIN3
IOUT3-1.0A/div
VOUT3
VOUT3
COMP3
SW3
SW3
5 VIN3, 1.28 VOUT3@ 0 A
5 VIN3, 1.28 VOUT3@ 0 A, 0 to 1.25 A transient
Figure 14. CH3 Short-circuit Response
Figure 17. CH3 Transient Response
IOUT_LDO3-250mA/div
VOUT1
IOUT1
1.0 A/div
VOUT_LDO
COMP1
VIN_LDO
SW1
12 VIN1, 3.38 VOUT1@ 0 A, 0 to 2 A transient
Figure 15. CH1 Transient Response
1.5 VIN_LDO, 0.9 VOUT_LDO@ 0 A, 0 to 400mA transient
Figure 18. LDO Transient Response
34700
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
INITIALIZATION
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
INITIALIZATION
When power is first applied to the 34700, the internal
regulators and bias circuits need to be up and stable before
the power on reset (POR) signal is released. The POR waits
until the gate drive regulator’s voltage, VGREG, has reached
about 4.0 V before it allows the rest of the internal blocks to
be enabled.
Each regulator has an independent enable pin. This allows
the user to program the power up sequence to suit the
application. As each regulator is turned on, it will execute a
soft start ramp of the output voltage. This is done to prevent
the output voltage from overshooting the regulation point.
Without a soft start ramp, the output voltage will ramp up
faster than the control loop can typically respond, resulting in
overshoot. As a result, the soft start periods for the switching
regulators are longer (3.5 ms) than for the linear regulator
(0.5 ms). The soft start is active each time the regulator is
enabled, after a fault retry, or when the IC power is recycled.
After a successful start-up sequence, where all the
regulators are enabled, no faults have occurred, and the
output voltage is in regulation, the power good signal goes
open drain after a 100 μs reset delay. A power good true
indicates that all the regulators are functioning in normal
operation mode.
OPERATIONAL MODES
Each regulator of the 34700 has three basic modes of
operation.
NORMAL MODE
In normal mode, the regulator is fully operational. To be in
this mode, the 34700 input supply, VIN, needs to be present
and within its operating range. The regulator’s power input
voltage also needs to be present and in range. The ENABLE
pin for the regulator needs to be asserted, and the output
voltage needs to be in regulation. No over-current or thermal
faults are present in normal mode.
STANDBY MODE
In standby mode, the ENABLE pin for the regulator is held
low and the regulator is disabled. VIN needs to be present
and within its operating range. The regulator’s power input is
not needed in this mode, but needs to be present and stable
before transitioning to normal mode. No faults are present in
standby mode. Note that the standby mode consumes the
least amount of power.
OUTPUT OVER-VOLTAGE
An over-voltage (OV) condition occurs when the output
voltage exceeds the over-voltage threshold, ΔOV_TH. This
can occur if the regulator’s output is shorted to a supply with
a higher output voltage. In this case, the power good signal is
pulled low, alerting the host that a fault is present, but the
regulator remains active. The regulator will continue to try to
regulate the output: DC/DC1 will pulse skip; DC/DC2, 3 will
go to minimum duty; and the LDO pass device will go high
impedance.
To avoid false trips of the OV monitor, the power good
circuit has a 10 μs glitch filter. Once the output voltage falls
below the OV threshold and back into regulation, the fault is
cleared and the power good signal goes high.
OUTPUT UNDER-VOLTAGE
In fault mode, the output is no longer in regulation, or an
over-current or a thermal fault is present. To be in this mode
the 34700 input supply, VIN needs to be present and within
its operating range. The regulator’s power input voltage also
needs to be present and in range. However, if the power input
is outside the operating range, a regulation fault may occur.
The ENABLE pin for the regulator needs to be asserted.
An under-voltage (UV) condition occurs when the output
voltage falls below the under-voltage threshold, ΔUV_TH. This
can occur if the regulator’s output is shorted to ground,
overloaded, or the power input voltage has decreased. In this
case, the power good signal is pulled low, alerting the host
that a fault is present, but the regulator remains active. The
regulator will continue to try to regulate the output: DC/DC1,
2, 3 will go to maximum duty or current limit; and the LDO
pass device will go to a low resistance.
To avoid false trips of the UV monitor, the power good
circuit has a 10 μs glitch filter. Once the output voltage rises
above the UV threshold and back into regulation, the fault is
cleared and the power good signal goes high.
PROTECTION FUNCTIONS
CURRENT LIMIT
The 34700 monitors the regulators for several fault
conditions to protect both the system load and the IC from
overstress. The response of the 34700 to a fault condition is
described as follows.
A current limit condition for the switching regulators’
occurs when the peak current in the high side power
MOSFET exceeds the current limit threshold. The switch
current is monitored using a sense FET and a comparator.
The sense FET acts as a current detecting device by
sampling a fraction of the current in the power MOSFET. This
FAULT MODE
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
13
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
sampled current is compared to an internal reference to
determine if the regulator is exceeding the current limit or not.
If the peak switch current reaches the peak current limit
threshold (ISHORT), the regulator will start the cycle by cycle
current limit operation, the power good signal is pulled low after
the 10 μs glitch filter, and a 10 ms current limit timer (tLIM)
begins. The regulator will stay in this mode of operation until
one of the following occur:
• The current is reduced back to normal levels before the
current limit timer expires and normal operation is resumed.
• The current limit timer expires without regaining normal
operation, at which time the regulator turns off. The regulator
remains off for a 100 ms retry timeout period (tTIMEOUT),
after which the regulator will attempt a soft start cycle.
• The switch current continues to increase until it exceeds the
cycle by cycle current limit by approximately 1.0 A. At this
point the regulator shuts down immediately. The regulator
remains off for a 100 ms retry timeout period (tTIMEOUT),
after which the regulator will attempt a soft start cycle.
• The device reaches the thermal shutdown limit (TSD), the
regulator turns off.
THERMAL SHUTDOWN
A thermal limit condition occurs when a power device
reaches the thermal shutdown threshold (TSD). The
temperature of the power MOSFETs in the switching regulators
and the LDO are monitored using a thermal sensing transistor
located near the power devices.
If the temperature of a switcher or an LDO reaches the
thermal shutdown threshold, the switcher or LDO regulator will
switch off and the PGOOD output would indicate a fault by
pulling low. The regulator will stay in this mode of operation
until the temperature of the die has decreased by the
hysteresis value, and the regulator will attempt a soft start
cycle.
POWER SUPPLIES
DC/DC1
This is a non-synchronous switching buck regulator, utilizing
a feed-forward voltage mode control, with external
compensation. This is the only converter in this IC that will
regulate from a wide input supply voltage of 9.0 to 18 V. It is
capable of generating a 2.0 to 5.25 V output at 1.5 A.
DC/DC2
This is a synchronous switching buck regulator whose input
can be fed from DC/DC1, or an external 1.5 to 6.0 V source. It
utilizes voltage mode control with external compensation. It is
capable of generating a 0.7 to 3.6 V output at 1.25 A.
DC/DC3
This buck regulator is identical to DC/DC2. Note that all
three switching regulators switch at 800 kHz, and are 120° out
of phase to help reduce system noise and input surge currents.
LDO
This low drop out regulator can feed off of any of the
switching regulators or from an external 1.5 to 6.0 V source.
The dropout voltage is 250 mV at the rated load. It is capable
of generating a 0.7 to 3.6 V output at 400 mA.
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
INPUT/OUTPUT CONFIGURATION
The 34700 has independent inputs for each regulator. This
allows a high degree of flexibility as far as how the IC can be
configured.
First, consider what supplies are available in the application,
and the input voltage range for each regulator. Only Buck
Converter 1 has a 9.0 to 18 V input voltage range. All the other
regulators have a 1.5 to 6.0 V input voltage range.
Next, consider the output voltages and currents required,
and how best to match them to the 34700. Buck Converter 1 is
capable of 2.0 to 5.25 V at 1.5 A, while Buck Converters 2 and
3 are capable of 0.7 to 3.6 V at 1.25 A each. The LDO is
capable of 0.7 to 3.6 V at a 400 mA output.
Some sample configurations are show in Figures 19 thru 21.
Note that not all combinations are shown, and all the regulators
require an input voltage higher than the output voltage.
9.0 to 18 V IN
Buck
Converter 1
1.5 to 6.0 V IN
Buck
Converter 2
1.5 to 6.0 V IN
Buck
Converter 3
1.5 to- 6.0 V IN
LDO
2.0 to 5.25 V OUT
1.5 A MAX
0.7 to 3.6 V OUT
1.25 A MAX
0.7 to 3.6 V OUT
1.25 A MAX
0.7 to 3.6 V OUT
400 mA MAX
Figure 19. General Configuration
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
9.0 to 18 V IN
Buck
Converter 1
2.0 to 5.25 V OUT
1.5 to 6.0 V IN
Buck
Converter 2
0.7 to 3.6 V OUT
Buck
Converter 3
0.7 to 3.6 V OUT
When making the power calculations, be sure to include
any input currents from regulators that are connected to the
converter as part of the output current. For example, the input
currents of Buck Converters 2 and 3 should be added to the
system load current of Buck Converter 1 shown in Figure 21.
After completing the calculations for all the regulators, check
to make sure there are no violations of the power budget –
input currents exceeding supply current capabilities, or
output currents exceeding the regulator’s rating.
MINIMUM/MAXIMUM DUTY LIMIT
LDO
Figure 20. Dual Input Supply Configuration
9.0 to
18 V IN
Buck
Converter 1
2.0 to 5.25 V OUT
Buck
Converter 2
0.7 to 3.6 V OUT
Buck
Converter 3
0.7 to 3.6 V OUT
LDO
Based on the application specifications, the minimum and
maximum duty cycle of the buck converters need to be
checked against the limits. For Buck Converter 1, there is a
minimum limit of 16% and a maximum limit of 68.4%. For
Buck Converters 2 and 3 there is a maximum limit of 83.6%.
The duty cycle for a buck converter is calculated using:
D=
VOUT
×100%
VIN
This equation works for calculating the minimum duty
cycle, however, the above formula does not take into account
load currents and losses. A more accurate equation for
calculating the maximum duty under load follows:
0.7 to
3.6 V OUT
Figure 21. Single Input Supply Configuration
INPUT/OUTPUT POWER
Based on the application specifications and the regulator’s
configuration, the input and output power requirements need
to be checked. For the LDO, the input and output powers are
calculated:
POUT(LDO) = VOUT × I OUT
PIN(LDO) = VIN × I IN
D MAX =
VOUT + (R DO + R DC ) × I OUT
× 100%
VIN(MIN)
Where RDO is the equivalent dropout resistance of the
buck converter and RDC is the DC resistance of the inductor.
Check to make sure all the buck converters are within the
duty cycle limit. Converters, where the calculated maximum
duty cycle exceeds the limit, run the risk of dropping out of
regulation under load. Conversely, the maximum duty cycle
limit can be used to predict the maximum load current that
can be drawn without the output dropping out of regulation.
I IN = I OUT
For the buck converters, the input and output powers are
calculated:
POUT(BUCK) = VOUT × I OUT
PIN(BUCK) =
I IN =
POUT ( BUCK )
η
PIN(BUCK)
VIN
Where η is the estimated efficiency of the buck converters,
use 0.85 for the initial estimate.
I OUT(MAX)
D MAX × VIN
− VOUT
100%
=
(R DO + R DC )
LDO DROPOUT AND POWER DISSIPATION
The input of the LDO needs to exceed the output voltage
by a minimum of 250 mV, in order to maintain regulation. If
the input voltage falls below the dropout level, the output
voltage will also start to fall and begin to track the input
voltage down. However, choosing an input voltage that
exceeds the output voltage by a large amount is not
recommended either. This is due to increased power
dissipation. The linear regulators power dissipation is
calculated using:
34700
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15
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
PDISS = (VOUT − VIN ) × I OUT
Since the maximum power dissipation for the LDO is
375 mW, the user can determine what the limits are for the
LDO’s input voltage.
VOUT + 0.25V ≤ VIN ≤ VOUT +
0.375
I OUT
CASCADED OPERATION, SEQUENCING, AND
LEAKAGE
When the 34700 is configured for cascaded operation,
where the output of one regulator powers the input of another
regulator (see Figure 21), the startup sequence also needs to
be cascaded. The output voltage of the first regulator needs to
be up and stable before enabling the downstream regulator,
otherwise startup overshoot can occur.
ENABLE
EN1
VOUT1
R1
EN2
VOUT2
Even without being configured for cascaded operation, the
user may prefer the cascaded sequence to prevent startup
latch-up or race conditions. With the four independent enables
provided, the user can program any power up sequence that
the application requires. The enable pins can be controlled by
a host processor, a programmable logic device, or a power
supply sequencer IC. If the application requires a simpler
implementation of the cascaded sequence startup, a single
enable signal can be used to start the first regulator in the
sequence. When the first regulator is near or in regulation, its
output is used to enable the next regulator in the sequence.
See Figure 22. Note that there is a time delay from when the
enable signal is asserted, until when the soft start ramp begins.
For Buck Converter 1, the delay is typically 1.0 ms. For Buck
Converter 2 and 3, the delay is typically 160 μs.
When sequencing the regulators on, one parameter that
must be considered is the leakage specification. Buck
Converters 2 and 3 exhibit 400 μA of leakage current between
VIN and the switch node. This results in the output voltage
floating up if the load impedance is high. In cases where the
output voltage is floating, it is recommended adding a
1.0 KOhm resistor between the output and ground.
R3
R2
EN3
VOUT3
R4
R5
LDO_EN LDO
R6
EN1
PGOOD
VOUT1
VOUT2
VOUT3
LDO
1ms
3.2ms
t
3.2ms
3.2ms
0.5ms
0.1ms
Figure 22. 34700 Cascade Sequence
SHUTDOWN SEQUENCE
The shutdown sequence is controlled by the enable pins. By
pulling the ENABLE pin low or letting it float, the corresponding
regulator is disabled. If the application is being controlled by the
host processor or programmable logic device, the regulators
can be shutdown in any order. Most power supply sequencer
ICs shutdown the regulators in the reverse order of their
startup. The first regulator that is turned on is the last regulator
to be turned off. For the single ENABLE pin sequencer shown
in Figure 22, the shutdown order is the same as for startup; the
first regulator that is turned on, is the first regulator turned off.
LAYOUT GUIDELINES
The layout of any switching regulator requires careful
consideration. First, there are high di/dt signals present, and
the traces carrying these signals need to be kept as short and
as wide as possible to minimize the trace inductance, and
therefore reduce the voltage spikes they can create. To do this
an understanding of the major current carrying loops is
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Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
important. See Figure 23. These loops, and their associated
components, should be placed in such a way as to minimize
the loop size to prevent coupling to other parts of the circuit.
Also, the current carrying power traces and their associated
return traces should run adjacent to one another, to minimize
the amount of noise coupling. If sensitive traces must cross
the current carrying traces, they should be made
perpendicular to one another to reduce field interaction.
Second, small signal components which connect to
sensitive nodes need consideration. The critical small signal
components are the ones associated with the feedback
circuit. The high impedance input of the error amp is
especially sensitive to noise, and the feedback and
compensation components should be placed as far from the
switch node, and as close to the input of the error amplifier as
possible. Other critical small signal components include the
bypass capacitors for VIN, VGREG, and VDDI. Locate the
bypass capacitors as close to the pin as possible.
VIN1
VIN2 and 3
Loop Curr ent
HS ON
HS
The use of a multi-layer printed circuit board is
recommended. Dedicate one layer, usually the layer under
the top layer, as a ground plane. Make all critical component
ground connections with vias to this layer. Make sure that the
power grounds, GND2 and GND3, are connected directly to
the ground plane and not routed through the thermal pad or
analog ground. Dedicate another layer as a power plane and
split this plane into local areas for common voltage nets.
The IC input supply (VIN) should be connected through an
RC filter to the 9.0 to 18 V input supply, to prevent noise from
Buck Regulator 1’s power input (VIN1) from injecting
switching noise into the analog circuitry. If possible, further
isolation can be made by routing a dedicated trace for VIN,
and a separate trace for VIN1.
In order to effectively transfer heat from the top layer to the
ground plane and other layers of the printed circuit board,
thermal vias need to be used in the thermal pad design. It is
recommended that 5 to 9 vias be spaced evenly and have a
finished diameter of 0.3 mm.
SW1
Loop Curr ent
HS ON
HS
SW2 and 3
Loop
Current
SD ON
SD
Loop
Current
LS ON
LS
GND2 and 3
BUCK
CONVERTER 1
BUCK CONVERTER
2 and 3
Figure 23. Current Loops
COMPONENT SELECTION
Setting the Output Voltage
For all the regulators, the feedback resistor divider sets the
output voltage. See Figure 24 for the feedback and
compensation components referred to in the equations. For
the buck regulators, choose a value of about 20 K for the
upper resistor, and calculate the lower resistor using the
following equations:
RBOT =
RTOP × VREF
VOUT − VREF
⎛R
⎞
VOUT = VREF ⎜⎜ TOP + 1⎟⎟
⎝ RBOT
⎠
where, VREF = 0.7 V
For the LDO regulator choose a value of about 10 K for the
lower resistor, and calculate the upper resistor using the
following equations:
⎞
⎛V
RTOP = RBOT ⎜⎜ OUT − 1⎟⎟
⎠
⎝ VREF
⎞
⎛R
VOUT = VREF ⎜⎜ TOP + 1⎟⎟
⎠
⎝ RBOT
where, VREF = 0.7 V
Choose the closest standard resistance values, check the
output voltage by using the equations above, and adjust the
values if necessary.
Setting the Enable for Cascade Sequencing
For the cascaded startup sequence shown in Figure 22,
the resistor divider sets the output voltage level where the
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Freescale Semiconductor
17
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
next the next regulator in the sequence will start or shutdown.
For top resistors R1, R3, and R5, choose a value of 10 K, and
calculate the value for the bottom resistors R2, R4, and R6,
using the following equation:
RBOT =
0.78 × RTOP
0.95VOUT − 0.78
where, VOUT is the value calculated above using standard
value resistors.
Choose the closest standard resistance values and check
the output voltage levels that enable and disable the regulator
in sequence, using the following equations, and adjust if
necessary:
⎛ R + RBOT ⎞
⎟⎟
VOUT ( EN ) = 0.78⎜⎜ TOP
R
BOT
⎝
⎠
⎛ R + RBOT
VOUT ( DISABLE ) = 0.61⎜⎜ TOP
RBOT
⎝
⎞
⎟⎟
⎠
These equations should give an enable of ~95% of VOUT,
and a disable of ~75% of VOUT.
Catch Diode
An external catch diode is required for Buck Converter 1 to
provide a return path for the inductor current when the high side
switch is off. The catch diode should be located close to the
34700 and connected using short, wide traces. See the Layout
Guidelines for more details.
It is recommended to use a Schottky diode, due to their low
forward voltage drop and fast switching speed. This provides
the best efficiency and performance, and is especially true
when the output voltage is less than 5.0 V. Choose a Schottky
with a 2.0 to 3.0 A average output current rating and a reverse
voltage specified for 30 V.
Inductor
The output inductor is sized to meet the output voltage ripple
requirements, and to minimize the load transient response
time. For continuous conduction mode (CCM) operation, where
the inductor does not fully discharge during the switch off time,
and assuming an ideal switch and catch diode, the following
equation is used:
L = (VIN(MAX) − VOUT )×
VOUT
1
1
×
×
VIN(MAX) f SW N × I OUT ( MAX )
where, fSW is the switching frequency and N is the ripple
current to output current ratio.
A high ripple current to output current ratio gives improved
load transient response, but also increases output ripple, and
results in lower efficiency. A value of 0.3 to 0.4 for N represents
a good trade off between efficiency, ripple, and load transient
response.
After calculating a value for the inductor, choose the closest
standard value and then determine the ripple current and peak
current using the following equations:
ΔI L =
(V
IN(MAX)
− VOUT )
L
I PEAK = I OUT(MAX) +
×
VOUT
1
×
VIN(MAX) f SW
ΔI L
2
The peak inductor current determines the required
saturation current rating of the inductor. Choose an inductor
with a saturation current rating that’s large enough to
compensate for circuit tolerances. The minimum acceptable
margin for this purpose is at least 20% above the calculated
rating.
To minimize copper losses, choose an inductor with the
lowest possible DCR. As a general rule of thumb, look for a
DCR of approximately 5.0 mOhms per μH of inductance.
Output Capacitor
The output capacitor is required to minimize the voltage
overshoot and undershoot in response to load transients, and
to reduce the ripple present at the output of a buck regulator.
The same holds true for the linear regulator.
For the LDO, a 10 μF, low ESR capacitor is required as the
output capacitor. Other values may result in instability. Make
sure the capacitor has good temperature characteristics, and a
suitable voltage rating. As a general rule, choose ceramic
capacitors with a X5R, or X7R dielectric and a voltage rating of
1.5 to 2 times the output voltage, but check with the
manufacturer for detailed information.
For the buck converters, large transient load overshoots are
caused by insufficient capacitance, and large voltage ripple is
caused by insufficient capacitance, as well as high equivalent
series resistance (ESR) in the capacitor. To meet the
application requirements, the output capacitor must be
specified with ample capacitance and low ESR.
To deal with overshoot, where the output voltage overshoots
its regulated value when a full load is removed from the output,
the output capacitor must be large enough to prevent the
energy stored in the inductor from causing the voltage to spike
above the specified maximum output voltage. The amount of
capacitance required can be estimated using the following
equation:
L(I PEAK )
=
(ΔV + VOUT )2 − VOUT 2
2
C OUT
where, ΔV is the maximum output voltage overshoot.
34700
18
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
Allow a 20% capacitance tolerance and choose the closest
standard value.
The ESR of the output capacitor usually dominates the
output voltage ripple. The maximum ESR can be calculated
using the equation:
C ESR =
VRIPPLE
ΔI L
where, VRIPPLE is the specified ripple voltage allowed.
Input Capacitor
Generally, a mix of bypass capacitors is used for the input
supply. Use a small ceramic capacitor for high frequency
decoupling, and bulk capacitors to supply the surge of current
required each time the high side MOSFET turns on. Place the
small ceramic capacitor close to the power input pins.
For reliable operation, select the bulk input capacitors with
voltage and RMS ripple current ratings above the maximum
input voltage, and the largest RMS current required by the
application. As a general guideline, the capacitor’s voltage
rating should be around 1.5 times the maximum input
voltage, but the manufacturer’s de-rating information should
be followed. The RMS ripple current rating that the bulk input
capacitors require can be estimated by the following
equation:
I IN ( RMS ) = I OUT D − D 2
where D = VOUT/VIN.
The worst case occurs when VIN = 2 x VOUT, yielding a
worst case ripple current of IIN(RMS) = IOUT/2.
The bulk input capacitance required for a buck converter
depends on the impedance of the input supply. For common
laboratory supplies, 10 to 20 μF of capacitance per ampere
of input ripple current is usually sufficient. Use this general
guideline as a starting point and adjust the input capacitance
based on actual test results.
Tantalum capacitors can be used as input capacitors, but
proper de-rating must be used or they can fail “short” and
present a fire hazard. Ceramic capacitors and aluminum
electrolytic capacitors don’t have this failure mechanism,
making them a preferred choice. However, ceramic
capacitors can exhibit piezo effect and emit an audible buzz.
Polymer capacitors do not have this audible noise problem,
but they can also fail “short”. However, polymer capacitors
are much more robust than tantalums, and therefore are
suitable as input capacitors. Consult the manufacturer for
more information on the use and de-rating of capacitors.
Bootstrap Capacitor
The external bootstrap capacitor is part of a charge pump
circuit which is used to drive the gate of the high side NMOSFET. This capacitor develops a floating voltage supply
which is referenced to the switch node (SW) or the source of
the high side MOSFET. The bootstrap capacitor is charged
every cycle, when the low side MOSFET or the catch diode
conducts, to a voltage of about VGREG. To turn the high side
switch on, the bootstrap capacitor needs to be large enough
to charge the gate-source capacitance of the N-MOSFET
without a significant drop in voltage. For the 34700 the
bootstrap capacitor should be 0.1 μF.
Compensation
The voltage mode buck converters used in the 34700
require a Type III compensation network as shown in
Figure 24. The Type III network utilizes two zeroes to give a
phase boost of 180°. This phase boost is necessary to
counteract the double pole of the output LC filter.
C2
Cff
Rff
RTOP
CCOMP
RCOMP
COM P
FB
RBOT
EA
+
VREF
34700
Figure 24. Type III Compensation Network
The closed loop transfer function is comprised of the
modulator, the filter, and the compensation transfer
functions. Before we can determine the compensation we
need to first calculate the gains and break frequencies of the
modulator and filter.
G MOD =
D MAX × VIN
VRAMP
where, GMOD is the modulator gain, and DMAX and VRAMP
are given in the electrical table.
f LC =
1
2π L × C
where, fLC is the location of the LC filter double pole.
f ESR =
1
2π × C × ESR
where, fESR is the location of the ESR zero, and ESR is the
equivalent series resistance of the output capacitors.
As shown in Figure 24, the compensation network
consists of the error amplifier (internal to the 34700), and the
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
19
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
DESIGN AND COMPONENT GUIDELINES
external resistors and capacitors. If designed properly, the
compensation network will yield a closed loop transfer function
with a high cross-over (0 dB) frequency, and adequate phase
margin to be stable. Use the following steps to calculate the
compensation components.
1. Using the value for RTOP and RBOT, selected in the
Setting the Output Voltage section, calculate the value of
RCOMP for the desired converter bandwidth, f0. Typically
frequency, making the calculated value of C2 very small.
If this is the case, C2 may not be needed, saving a
component and space.
C2 =
f0 is chosen to be 1/10th of the switching frequency.
4. Calculate the value of Rff and Cff, to place a zero (fZ2) at
the LC double pole frequency, and a pole (fP2) at half the
switching frequency.
VRAMP × R TOP × f 0
D MAX × VIN × f LC
R COMP =
This will set the high frequency gain of the error amplifier
(RCOMP/RTOP), and shift the open loop gain up to give
the desired bandwidth.
2. Using the value for RCOMP, calculate the value of CCOMP,
to place a zero, to cancel one of the double poles. This
zero (fZ1) is placed at a fraction of the LC double pole
frequency.
C COMP =
C COMP
(2π × R COMP × CCOMP × f ESR ) − 1
1
2π × R COMP × K LC × f LC
where, KLC is the fraction of the LC filter
frequency = fZ1/fLC. Typical values for KLC are 0.2 to
0.7, but begin with 0.5.
3. Using the values of RCOMP and CCOMP, calculate the
value of C2 to place a pole (fP1) at the ESR zero
frequency. Note that if ceramic capacitors are used for
the output capacitors, the ESR zero will be at a very high
R ff =
C ff =
R TOP
⎛ f SW ⎞
⎜⎜
⎟⎟ − 1
2
f
×
LC ⎠
⎝
1
π × R ff × f SW
Choose the closest standard value for the compensation
components. Although precision components are not required,
do not use poor quality components that have large tolerances
over-temperature. As a double check, it is recommended to
use a mathematical model to plot the closed loop response.
Check that the closed loop gain is within the error amplifier’s
open loop gain, and there is enough phase margin, and make
adjustments as necessary. A stable control loop has a gain
crossing with close to
-20dB/decade, and a phase margin of at least 45°. The
following equations describe the frequency response of the
modulator, feedback compensation, and the closed loop.
G MOD (f) =
D MAX × VIN
1 + s(f) ⋅ ESR ⋅ C
⋅
VRAMP
1 + s(f) ⋅ (ESR + DCR ) ⋅ C + s 2 (f) ⋅ L ⋅ C
H COMP (f) =
1 + s(f) ⋅ R COMP ⋅ C COMP
⋅
s(f) ⋅ R TOP ⋅ (C COMP + C 2 )
1 + s(f) ⋅ (R TOP + R ff ) ⋅ C ff
⎛
⎛C
⋅C ⎞⎞
1 + s(f) ⋅ R ff ⋅ C ff ⋅ ⎜⎜1 + s(f) ⋅ R COMP ⋅ ⎜⎜ COMP 2 ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟
⎝ C COMP + C 2 ⎠ ⎠
⎝
G CL (f) = G MOD (f) ⋅ H COMP (f)
where, s(f) = j ⋅ 2π ⋅ f
34700
20
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION
GAIN
(dB)
A more intuitive representation of the mathematical model,
is an asymptotic bode plot of the buck converter’s gain versus
frequency, as shown in Figure 25. Use of the previous steps
should result in a compensation gain similar to the one shown
in the bode plot. The open loop error amplifier gain bounds
the compensation gain. Check the compensation gain at fP1
or fP2, whichever is greater, against the capabilities of the
error amplifier. For reference, the equations for the
compensation break frequencies are given.
fZ1
fZ2
f Z1 =
f P1 =
fP1
1
2π × R COMP × C COMP
1
⎛C
× C2 ⎞
⎟⎟
2π × R COMP × ⎜⎜ COMP
⎝ C COMP + C 2 ⎠
f Z2 =
1
2π × (R TOP + R ff )× C ff
f P2 =
1
2π × R ff × C ff
fP2
ERROR AMP
OPEN LOOP
0
HCOMP
GCL
GMOD
fLC
fESR
f0
FREQUENCY
(LOG Hz)
Figure 25. Bode Plot of the Buck Converter
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
21
VOUT2
2.5V
VOUT1
3.3V
R17
TBD
C15 C16
10μF 10μF
C12
C11
10μF 10μF
C19
560pF
R8
15.8k
R7
680
D1
B320A
C20
22pF
C17
.1μF
C14
.1μF
4.7k
R3
C9
1μF
C18
1μF
L2
4.7μH
C13
10μF
L1
4.7μH
18k
R9
6.19k
R10
15k
C21
1000pF
BST2
VIN2
SW2
GND2
BST1
SW1
SW1
VIN1
C4
22pF
COMP1
R4
3.6k
C6
1μF
MC34700
EN1 EN2 EN3 EN4
FB2
R2
C5
2700pF
FB1
EN1
C1
22μF
C2
22μF
VOUT1
EN2
C3
560pF
AGND
EN3
VIN1
COMP2
PGOOD
EN_LDO
R1
200
VDDI
FB3
22
VIN
R6
4.7
C7
1μF
R11
5.6k
C22
1000pF
BST3
VIN3
SW3
GND3
LDO_FB
LDO
LDO_VIN
VGREG
COMP3
VIN
9 to 18V
R12
24k
C23
22pF
C26
.1μF
R15
2.87k
C8
1μF
10k
R16
L3 C27
4.7μH 10μF
R14
20k
C24
R13
1200pF 150
C25
1μF
C10
1μF
R5
10k
C28
10μF
C29
10μF
PGOOD
R18
TBD
VOUT3
1.25V
VOUT_LDO
0.9V
APPLICATION EXAMPLE
APPLICATION EXAMPLE
Figure 26. 34700 Typical Application
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
APPLICATION EXAMPLE
BILL OF MATERIAL
BILL OF MATERIAL
Table 1. MC34700 Bill of Material
Item
Qty
Part Designer
Value / Rating
R1
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
200 Ω
R2
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
18.0 kΩ
R3
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
4.70 kΩ
R4
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
3.60 kΩ
R5, R16
2
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
10.0 kΩ
R6
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
4.7 Ω
R7
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
680 Ω
R8
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
15.8 kΩ
R9
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
6.19 kΩ
R10
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
15.0 kΩ
R11
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
5.6 kΩ
R12
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
24.0 kΩ
R13
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
150 Ω
R14
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
20.0 kΩ
R15
1
201/402/603 Metal or Thin Film Resistors
2.87 kΩ
C1, C2
2
25V 1210/1206 MLCC Capacitors X5R/X7R
22 μF
C3, C19
2
50V 0402/0603 MLCC Capacitors COG
560 pF
C4, C20, C23
3
50V 0402/0603 MLCC Capacitors COG
22 pF
C5
1
50V 0402/0603 MLCC Capacitors X5R/X7R
2700 pF
C6 - C10, C18, C25
7
25V 0402/0603 MLCC Capacitors X5R/X7R
1.0 μF
C11-C13, C15, C16,
C27 - C29
8
10V 1210/1206 MLCC Capacitors X5R/X7R
10 μF
C14, C17, C26
3
25V 0402/0603 MLCC Capacitors X5R/X7R
0.1 μF
C21, C22
2
50V 0402/0603 MLCC Capacitors X5R/X7R
1000 pF
C24
2
50V 0402/0603 MLCC Capacitors X5R/X7R
1200 pF
L1, L2, L3
3
3A Shielded Inductor
4.7 μH
D1
1
2A, 30V Schottky Diode
B230A
Part Number /
Manufacturer
Note:
Freescale does not assume liability, endorse, or warrant components from external manufacturers that are referenced in circuit drawings or
tables. While Freescale offers component recommendations in this configuration, it is the customer’s responsibility to validate their application.
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
23
APPLICATION EXAMPLE
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
For the most current package revision, visit www.freescale.com and perform a “keyword” search using the 98AXXXXXXXX listed.
EP SUFFIX (Pb FREE)
32-PIN
98ASA10800D
REVISION D
34700
24
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
APPLICATION EXAMPLE
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
EP SUFFIX (Pb FREE)
32-PIN
98ASA10800D
REVISION D
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
25
APPLICATION EXAMPLE
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
EP SUFFIX (Pb FREE)
32-PIN
98ASA10800D
REVISION D
34700
26
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
INTERNAL REVISION HISTORY
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
INTERNAL REVISION HISTORY
REVISION
DATE
DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES
1.0
4/2008
•
Initial release
2.0
4/2008
•
Changed the 98A package drawing from 98ARE10566D to 98ASA10800D
3.0
5/2008
•
Corrected error on MC34700 Simplified Application Diagram on page 1
4.0
6/2008
•
Changed category from “Advance Information” to “Technical Data”
5.0
6/2009
•
•
Converted the datasheet to the PMMIC format
Added waveforms
34700
Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data
Freescale Semiconductor
27
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MC34700
Rev. 5.0
10/2009