200W SMPS EVA Board

Application Note, V1.3, 03 July 2013
Application Note
EVALHS-ICE1HS01G
200W SMPS Evaluation Board using LLC
Half Bridge Resonant Controller
ICE1HS01G/ICE1HS01G-1
Power Management & Supply
N e v e r
s t o p
t h i n k i n g .
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
© 2007 Infineon Technologies AG
All Rights Reserved.
Legal Disclaimer
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conditions or characteristics. With respect to any examples or hints given herein, any typical
values stated herein and/or any information regarding the application of the device,
Infineon Technologies hereby disclaims any and all warranties and liabilities of any kind,
including without limitation, warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights
of any third party.
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For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices, please
contact the nearest Infineon Technologies Office (www.infineon.com).
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on the types in question, please contact the nearest Infineon Technologies Office.
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200W 2 outpus Demoboard using ICE1HS01G/-1 on board
Revision History:
Previous Version:
Page
3 July 2013
V1.2
Subjects (major changes since last revision)
Add alternative IC ICE1HS01G-1
V1.3
200W SMPS Evaluation Board using LLC Half Bridge Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
License to Infineon Technologies Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
Eric Kok
Mao Mingping
He Yi
Jeoh Meng kiat
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AN-PS0038
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 5 2 Evaluation Board ............................................................................................... 5 3 ICE1HS01G Features ......................................................................................... 5 4 Technical Specification ..................................................................................... 6 5 Circuit Description............................................................................................. 6 6 Circuit Operation ............................................................................................... 7 6.1 Startup Operation.......................................................................................................................... 7 6.2 Output Voltage Regulation ........................................................................................................... 8 7 Protection Features ........................................................................................... 9 7.1 Vcc Under Voltage Protection ..................................................................................................... 9 7.2 Over Current Protection ............................................................................................................... 9 7.3 Over Load Protection.................................................................................................................... 9 7.4 Mains Under Voltage Protection ................................................................................................ 11 7.5 Open Load Protection................................................................................................................. 11 8 Circuit Diagram and Components List .......................................................... 12 8.1 Schematics .................................................................................................................................. 12 8.2 PCB Layout .................................................................................................................................. 13 8.3 Components List ......................................................................................................................... 14 9 Electrical Test Results .................................................................................... 16 9.1 Efficiency Measurements ........................................................................................................... 16 9.2 Zero Voltage Switching .............................................................................................................. 17 9.3 Soft Start ...................................................................................................................................... 18 9.4 Mains Under Voltage Protection ................................................................................................ 18 9.5 Output Short Circuit Protection ................................................................................................. 19 9.6 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.7 Over Load Protection.................................................................................................................. 20 Adjustable blanking time ............................................................................................................... 20 Adjustable restart time .................................................................................................................. 20 Burst Mode Operation at No Load............................................................................................. 21 9.8 Dynamic Load Response ........................................................................................................... 21 10 Transformer Constructure .............................................................................. 22 10.1 Mains Transformer ...................................................................................................................... 22 10.2 Pulse Transformer ...................................................................................................................... 23 11 References ....................................................................................................... 24 Application Note
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200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
1
Introduction
The demoboard described in this paper is a 200W half bridge LLC resonant converter using LLC controller
ICE1HS01G/-1, which is a 8-pin LLC controller developed by Infineon Technologies. ICE1HS01G/-1 is
specially designed for applications of switch mode power supplies used in LCD / PDP TV, AC/DC adapter
and Audio system.
ICE1HS01G/-1 is a 8-pin controller IC in DSO package and it is very flexible to implement in the PCB.
Furthermore, it includes all the necessary control strategies for HB LLC resonant converter. ICE1HS01G/-1
allows the designer to select suitable operation frequency range by programming the oscillator with an
external resistor. The built-in soft-start function is available to limit both the inrush current and the overshoot
of output voltage. In addition, ICE1HS01G/-1 can perform all the necessary protection functions in HB LLC
resonant converters. All those functions make ICE1HS01G/-1 an outstanding product for HB LLC resonant
converter in the market.
2
Evaluation Board
Figure 1. 200W half bridge LLC resonant converter demoboard using ICE1HS01G/-1
The 200W half bridge LLC resonant converter demoboard with ICE1HS01G/-1 is implemented as shown in
Figure 1. The LLC stage’s full load efficiency reaches 94.8%.
3
ICE1HS01G/-1 Features








Maximum 600kHz switching frequency
Adjustable minimum switching frequency with high accuracy
50% duty cycle
Mains input under voltage protection with adjustable hysteresis
Two levels of overcurrent protection: frequency shift and latch off
Open-loop/over load protection with extended blanking time
Built-in digital and nonlinear softstart
Adjustable restart time during fault protection period
Application Note
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200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
4
Technical Specification
The specification of this 200W LLC demoboard is listed as following table.
Normal Input AC voltage
280Vac
Normal DC bulk voltage
380Vdc
Mains under voltage protection point
285Vdc
Auxiliary power supply for IC VCC
15Vdc
Normal output full load
24V/6A, 12V/5A
Switching frequency
95kHz @ 24V/6A,12V/5A and 380Vdc input
Table 1. Demoboard technical specification
5
Circuit Description
In actual application, the LLC stage is used to connect to a front-end PFC pre-regulator. In this demoboard, in
order to simplify and speed up the feature evaluation of the LLC controller, the conventional bridge rectifier
BR100 without the PFC circuit, is employed to supply the high input DC voltage for the cascading LLC stage.
Around 280Vac input voltage is used to feed this demboard and there would have 380Vdc across the bulk
capacitor C100 accordingly.
The AC line input side comprises the input fuse FUSE100 as overcurrent protection. The X2 Capacitors
CX100, CX101 and Choke L101 and Y1 capacitors CY100 and CY101 forms a main filter to minimize the
feedback of RFI into the main supply. NTC resistor RT100 is placed in series with input to limit the initial peak
inrush current. After the bridge rectifier BR100, together with a smoothing capacitor C100, a voltage of
300Vdc to 400 Vdc is provided (depending on mains input voltage) to simulate the real operation condition
with front end PFC pre_regulator.
Also, the bulk capacitor C100 can be directly connected to an external DC power supply, thus the 380Vdc
can be obtained. This measure makes sense when the customers want to evaluate the LLC stage’s efficiency.
The second stage is a half bridge LLC resonant converter, operating in zero voltage switching mode. The
controller ICE1HS01G/-1 is a 8 pin LLC controller, which incorporates the necessary functions to drive the
half bridge’s high side and low side MOSFETs (Q100 and Q101) by a 50% duty cycle with dead time. The
switching frequency can be changed by ICE1HS01G/-1 to regulate the output voltage against the load and
input voltage variations. During operation, the primary MOSFETs Q100 and Q101 are turned-on under ZVS
condition and the secondary rectifier diodes D100~D103 are turned-on and turned-off under ZCS condition.
Hence high power conversion efficiency can be achieved.
The Driver Module can be implemented by cost-effective pulse transformer. As shown in Figure 7, Pulse
transformer TR200 is used to transmit the driver signal to MOSFETs for isolation purpose.
The mains transformer TR100 uses the magnetic integration approach, incorporating the resonant series and
shunt inductances. Thus, no additional external coils are needed for the resonance. The transformer
configuration chosen for the secondary winding is center-tapped, and the output rectifiers D100~D103 are
schottky type diodes, in order to limit the power dissipation.
In case of a short circuit, the current flowing through the primary winding is detected by the lossless circuit
(C106, C111, D104, D105, R102, and R107) and the resulting signal is fed into CS Pin.
In case of overload, the voltage on CS pin will exceed an internal threshold 0.8V that triggers a protection
mode which keeping the current flowing in the circuit at a safe level. In addition, the blanking time and the
restart time can be adjusted by external components.
Application Note
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03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
6
Circuit Operation
6.1
Startup Operation
The controller ICE1HS01G/-1 targets at applications with auxiliary power supply. In most cases, a front-end
PFC pre-regulator with a PFC controller is used in the same system.
After IC supply voltage is higher than 12V, and if the voltage on VINS pin is higher than 1.25V, IC will start
switching with soft start. The soft start function is built inside the IC with a digital manner. During softstart, the
switching frequency of the MOSFET is controlled internally by changing the current ISS instead of the
feedback signal from FB pin. The charging current ISS during soft start, which determines the switching
frequency, is reduced step by step as shown in product datasheet [1]. The maximum duration of softstart is
32ms with 1ms for each step. Figure 2 illustrates the actual switching frequency VS start time when
RFMIN=25kohm. During softstart, the frequency starts from 209 kHz, and step by step drops to normal
operation point.
Figure 2. Switching frequency during softstart @ RFmin=25kohm
Figure 3. Soft start 1st step switching frequency VS RFmin
Application Note
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03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
The soft start 1st step switching frequency (maximum frequency during softstart) is closely related to the
minimum switching frequency fixed by external RFmin resistance. Figure 3 illustrates the relationship between
the 1st step frequency and RFmin.
During soft start, the overload protection is disabled because FB voltage is high.
6.2
Output Voltage Regulation
The minimum switching frequency is a very important factor to guarantee the output voltage regulation at low
line input and full load condition for LLC topology. ICE1HS01G/-1 allows the minimum switching frequency to
be programmed by connecting an external resistor RFMIN between FMIN pin and ground.
The FMIN pin provides a precise 1.5V reference voltage. The resistor RFMIN, connected from FMIN pin to
GND, determines the current (IFMIN) flowing out of FMIN pin. Around one-tenth of IFMIN is defined as the
minimum charging current (Ichg_min), which in turn defines the minimum switching frequency. The maximum
switching frequency during normal operation and the switching frequency variation range during soft start and
over current protection are all related to this current flowing out of FMIN pin, which is discussed in the product
datasheet [1].
Figure 4. Minimum switching frequency VS RFMIN
The output load information is fed into the controller through feedback voltage VFB. Inside the IC, the
feedback (FB) pin is connected to the 5V voltage source through a pull-up resistor RFB. Outside the IC, this
pin is connected to the collector of opto-coupler. Normally, a ceramic capacitor CFB can be put between this
pin and ground for signal smoothing purpose. The CFB at the same time is used to determine the extended
blanking time for over load protection, which will be discussed in section 7.3.
If the output load is increased and consequently VFB is higher, ICE1HS01G/-1 will reduce the switching
frequency to regulate the output voltage and vice versa. The regulation of switching frequency is achieved by
changing the charging current IFB. The relationship between IFB and VFB can be found in product datasheet [1].
The effective range of feedback voltage VFB is from 1V to 4V. Figure 5 graphs the relationship between the
actual switching frequency and feedback voltage VFB when RFMIN=25kohm.
Application Note
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03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
Figure 5. Switching frequency VS feedback @ RFmin=25kohm
7
Protection Features
7.1
Vcc Under Voltage Protection
The controller ICE1HS01G/-1 is targetting at applications with auxiliary power supply. In most cases, a frontend PFC pre-regulator with a PFC controller is used in the same system.
The controller starts to operate when the supply voltage VCC reaches the on-threshold, typically 12V. The
minimum operating voltage after turn-on, VCCoff, is typically 11V. The maximum supply voltage VCCmax is
18V. It is suggested to have the IC supplied with a regulated dc power supply for stable operation. At the
same time, a small bypass filter capacitor is recommended to be put between VCC and GND pins, as close
as possible.
7.2
Over Current Protection
Current sense pin in ICE1HS01G/-1 is only for protection purpose. ICE1HS01G/-1 has two-level over current
protection. In case of over-load condition, the 1st OCP level (0.8V) will be triggered and the switching
frequency will be increased according to the duration and power of the over load. The 2nd OCP level (1.6V)
is used to protect the converter if transformer winding is shorted. When Vcs reaches 1.6V, the IC will be
latched immediately.
If Vcs is higher than 0.8V, IC will boost up the switching frequency. If Vcs is lower than 0.75V, IC will resume to
normal operation gradually. If Vcs is always higher than 0.8V for 1.5ms, the frequency will rise to its maximum
level. And vice versa.
To sum up, ICE1HS01G/-1 will increase the switching frequency to limit the resonant current in case of
temporary over-load and will also decrease the switching frequency to its normal value after over-load
condition is removed.
7.3
Over Load Protection
In case of output over load or open control loop fault, the FB voltage will increase to its maximum level. If FB
voltage is higher than VFBH and this condition last longer than a fixed blanking time of TOLP (20ms), the IC will
start the extended blanking timer. The extended blanking timer is realized by charging and discharging the
Application Note
9
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
filter capacitor CFB via the internal pull up resistor RFB and switch QFB. Accordingly the voltage across CFB
varies between VFBL and VFBH.
The time needed for CFB being charged from VFBL to VFBH can be calculated as:
 V  VFBH
tchg _ olp   ln dd
 Vdd  VFBL

  RFB  CFB

The time needed for CFB being discharged from VFBH to VFBL can be calculated as:
V
t dischg _ olp  ln FBH
 VFBL

  RQFB  C FB

Thanks to an internal counter, the total extended blanking time can be calculated as:
text _ blank  512  tchg _ olp  tdischg _ olp 
where RQFB is switch QFB‘s on resitance, RQFB=900ohm, VFBH =4.5V, VFBL =0.5V.
For example, if CFB is 680pF, t chg _ olp is about 30us, t dischg _ olp is about 1.4us, text _ blank is about 16ms.
If the converter returns to normal operation during the extended blanking time, IC will reset the fault timer to
zero and returns to normal operation.
After IC enters into OLP, both switches will be stopped. However, the IC remains active and will try to start
with soft start after an adjustable period. This period is realized by charging and discharging the capacitor
CINS, connected to VINS pin, for NOLP_R times (NOLP_R=2048), accordingly the voltage across CINS varies
between VINSH and VINSL.
The charging and discharging time of CINS can be approximated as:
t ch arg ing
R

 VBUS  eq  I INST  Req  VINSH
RINS1
  Req  C INS  ln

Req
 I INST  Req  VINSL
 VBUS 
RINS1

t dich arg ing
R

 VBUS  eq 2  VINSL
RINS1
  Req 2  C INS  ln
Req 2
 VINSH
 VBUS 
RINS1













where Req is the equivalent resistance for parallelling of RINS1 and RINS2,
Req  RINS1 // RINS 2
Req2 is the equivalent resistance for parallelling of RINS1, RINS2 and RQ3 (900ohm typically).
Req 2  RINS 1 // RINS 2 // RQ 3
Application Note
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03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
IINST is an internal constant current source IINST=750uA.
VINSL and VINSH is the min. and max voltage at vins pin: VINSL=0.5V, VINSH=4.5V.
For example, if assume RINS1=5Mohm, RINS2=22kohm, CINS=22nF, VBUS =380V, then tcharging=139us,
tdischarging=44us.
IC will repeat the charging and discharging process for NOLP_R times (NOLP_R=2048). After that, IC will turn off
the switches for both charging and discharging. In addition, the current source for hysteresis will be turned on
and another blanking time of TBL_VINS (TBL_VINS=20ms) will be added so that VINS pin fully recovers and
represents the bus voltage information. IC will start with soft start after the additional blanking time in case
VVINS is higher than the VVINSon.
The total restart time can be calculated as:
trestart  2048  tch arg ing  tdisch arg ing   20ms
7.4
Mains Under Voltage Protection
The working range of mains input voltage needs to be specified for LLC resonant converter. It is important for
the controller to have input voltage sensing function and protection feature, which allows the IC to stop
switching when the input voltage drops below the specified range and restart with soft start when the input
voltage resumes to its normal level. The mains input voltage sensing circuit is shown in product datasheet [1].
Thanks to the internal current source Ihys (12uA) connected between VINS pin and Ground, an adjustable
hysteresis between the on and off threshold of mains input voltage can be created as:
Vhys  RINS1  I hys
The mains input voltage is divided by RINS1 and RINS2. If the on and off threshold for mains input voltage is
Vmainon and Vmainoff, the resistors RINS1 and RINS2 can be selected as:
RINS1 
Vmainon  Vmainoff
I hys
RINS 2  RINS 1 
,
VVINSon
Vmainoff  VVINSon
where Ihys=12uA, VVINSon=1.25V.
For example, if RINS1=5Mohm and RINS2=22kohm, the calculated Vmainon=345V, Vmainoff=285V.
7.5
Open Load Protection
At very light load condition, eg. open load, the designed maximum frequency may not be high enough to
regulate the output voltage, the output voltage may lose control and cause damages. In order to avoid this
issue, the feedback signal VFB is continuously monitored. When VFB drops below VFB_off (typical 0.2V), the
switching signal will be disabled after a fixed blanking time TFB (typical 200ns). VFB will then rise as Vout starts
to decrease due to no pulse switching. Once VFB exceeds the threshold VFB_on (typical 0.3V), IC resumes to
normal operation.
Application Note
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200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
8
Circuit Diagram and Components List
Schematics
4
8.1
BR1 00
KBU8G (8 A / 4 00V)
+
C100
22 0u/45 0V
2
D101
Q100
IPA50R 29 9CP
3
MB R2 560 CT
TR 10 0
7
1
VCC
HG
LG
GND
CY1 00
QHG
QHS
QLG
QLS
3
2
SGND
8
L1 02
1.2u /7 .5 A
1
R100
2M0 C103 C 104
L101
3. 3mH /4.6A
4
CX1 01
22 0nF /2 75Vac
FMIN
HG
LG
CS
FB
GND
D104
D105
1N41 48
VINS
+
C111
CY1 022 n 2/Y1
R117
2k 2
C116
+
ZD10 0
15 V
C112
C 113
4
1
3
2
R112
13 k / 1%
R114
30 k / 1%
R111
68 0R
R113
1k 0
R 115
3k 6 / 1%
R 116
3k 6 / 1%
C 114 33 nF
R109
1k 1
R110
10 k
3
+1 5V GND
N.C.
C115
R108
5k 6
IC1 01
SF H6 17A-2
22 0nF 68 0pF /5 % 22 nF/5%
C109
47 0uF/2 5V
TR ANS-LLC-TWO
15 0
1u F/50V
R 106
24 k+1 k
+
SGND
1N41 48
R104
1M0
FU SE 100
5A /250V
+
C 107
C 108
10 00u F/25V 10 00u F/25V
R 107
75
2M0
N
D100
MBR2 035 CT
11
R102
R103
R 105
22 k
12 V/5A
D103
MB R2 035 CT
9
IC1 00
ICE1HS01 G / ICE1HS0 1G-1
S1 0k/27 5
VR1 00
10
C106
22 0pF / 630 V
10 uF/50 V10 0nF
+ C 110
47 0uF /3 5V
C105
22 nF/63 0V
CX1 00
10 0nF/2 75Vac (NC)
1
+
2n 2/Y1
RT10 0
S2 37/5
L
+
D102
MBR2 560 CT
2
IPA50R 29 9CP
VCC
1.2u /7 .5 A
24 V/6A
6
Q101
+
L1 00
C102
10 00u F/35V
3
CY1 01
2n 2/Y1
C 101
10 00u F/35V
1
IC1 02
2
TL431
Figure 6. – Schematic of 200W half bridge LLC resonant converter
R201 10R
QHG
Rx1
1uF
R200 8R5
1N4148
HG
D202
MBR160
TR200
JP13
5
1
6
4
8
Dx1
11k
QHS
R206 10R
QLG
7
R205 8R5
1N4148
LG
Dx2
D204
MBR160
GND
R207
11k
QLS
Figure 7a. – Schematic of the simplified driver module
Application Note
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03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
Dx1
R201 10R
Q200
R200 8R5
TR200
2
C200
D202
MBR160
Q202
1
1
6
4
8
1
3
3 3
N.C
D207
1
Q204
ZD202
N.C
2
Q205
N.C
C201
D204
MBR160
R207
11k
1N4148
Dx2
JP14
2
GND
QLG
D205
N.C
D203
N.C
LG
R204
N.C
QHS
R206 10R
7
2
Rx1
ZD201
N.C
N.C
N.C
R205 8R5
D206
5
N.C
N.C
Q203
ZD200
N.C
1
R203
N.C
2
Q201
N.C
JP13 (N.C)
3 3
HG
11k
3
1uF
D200
N.C
2
QHG
R202
N.C
D201
N.C
N.C
1
VCC
1N4148
1
N.C
ZD203
N.C
N.C
QLS
Figure 7b. – Schematic of a reworked driver module in the PCB
8.2
PCB Layout
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
11
1
2
1
1
10
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
2
2
2
9
2
1
1
1
2
8
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
2
4
7
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
5
6
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
8
7
6
5
1
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
4
1
2
2
3
3
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
3
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
4
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
1
1
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
2
3
2
Figure 8a. Component side – View from component side
Application Note
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03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
11
1
2
1
1
10
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
3
2
2
2
9
2
1
1
1
1
2
8
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
2
4
7
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
5
6
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
8
7
6
5
1
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
4
1
2
2
3
3
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
3
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
8
1
7
2
6
2
3
5
4
2
2
1
2
2
4
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
2
3
2
Figure 8b. Solder side copper – View from component side
8.3
Components List
Designator
Part Type
Description
BR100
KBU8G (8A / 400V)
BRIDGE RECTIFIER
C100
220u/450V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C101
1000uF/35V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C102
1000uF/35V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C103
10uF/50V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C104
100nF
CERAMIC
C105
22nF/630V
CERAMIC
C106
220pF / 630V
CERAMIC
C107
1000uF/25V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C108
1000uF/25V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C109
470uF/25V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C110
470uF/35V
Aluminum Electrolyte
C111
220nF
CERAMIC
C112
680pF/5%
CERAMIC
C113
22nF/5%
CERAMIC
C114
33nF
CERAMIC
C115
N.C.
CERAMIC
C116
1uF/50V
Aluminum Electrolyte
Application Note
14
Supplier / Part No.
EPCOS /
B43304C5227M000
EPCOS /
B41821A6106M000
EPCOS /
B32621A6223J000
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
CX100
100nF/275Vac
X-cap.
CX101
220nF/275Vac
X-cap.
CY100
2n2/Y1
Y-cap.
CY101
2n2/Y1
Y-cap.
CY102
2n2/Y1
Y-cap.
D100
MBR2035CT
SCHOTTKY DIODE
D101
MBR2560CT
SCHOTTKY DIODE
D102
MBR2560CT
SCHOTTKY DIODE
D103
MBR2035CT
SCHOTTKY DIODE
D104
1N4148
DIODE
D105
1N4148
DIODE
D202
MBR160
DIODE
D204
MBR160
DIODE
Dx1 (reworked)
1N4148
DIODE
Dx2 (reworked)
1N4148
DIODE
FUSE100
IC101
5A/250V
ICE1HS01G /
ICE1HS01G-1
SFH617A-2
FUSE
Resonant-Mode
Controller
OPTO COUPLER
IC102
TL431
2.5V voltage reference
JP3
1uF/50V
CERAMIC
L100
1.2u/7.5A
L101
3.3mH/4.6A
EPCOS / B82734R2462B30
L102
1.2u/7.5A
D-CHOKE
COMMON MODE
CHOKE
D-CHOKE
Q100
IPA50R299CP
POWER MOSFET
Infineon
Q101
IPA50R299CP
POWER MOSFET
Infineon
R100
2M0
RESISTOR
R102
150
RESISTOR
R103
2M0
RESISTOR
R104
1M0
RESISTOR
R105
22k
RESISTOR
R106
24k+1k
RESISTOR
R107
75
RESISTOR
R108
5k6
RESISTOR
R109
1k1
RESISTOR
R110
10k
RESISTOR
R111
680R
RESISTOR
R112
13k / 1%
RESISTOR
R113
1k0
RESISTOR
R114
30k / 1%
RESISTOR
R115
3k6 / 1%
RESISTOR
IC100
Application Note
15
EPCOS /
B32922C3224K000
EPCOS /
B81123C1222M000
EPCOS /
B81123C1222M000
EPCOS /
B81123C1222M000
Infineon
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
R116
3k6 / 1%
RESISTOR
R117
2k2
RESISTOR
R200
8R5
RESISTOR
R201
10R
RESISTOR
R205
8R5
RESISTOR
R206
10R
RESISTOR
R207
11k
RESISTOR
Rx1 (reworked)
11k
RESISTOR
RT100
S237/5
Thermister
TR100
TRANS-LLC-TWO
EC32 PC47 core
TR200
Pulse Transformer
E16/8/5 N87 core
VR100
S10k/275
VDR
Epcos /
B57237S509M000
Epcos
Epcos /
B72210S271K101
Table 2. Bill of Materials
9
Electrical Test Results
9.1
Efficiency Measurements
Table 3 shows the output voltage measurements at the nominal input bulk voltage 380Vdc, with different load
conditions. The bulk voltage 380Vdc is directly supplied from Chroma programmable DC power supply.
Hense, there is no current flowing through the bridge rectifier, and the measured efficiency is actually the LLC
stage’s efficiency.
24Vout
[V]
24.190
24.160
24.130
24.100
24.060
24.060
24Vout
current
[A]
5.989
4.988
3.984
2.996
1.993
0.990
12Vout
[V]
11.830
11.840
11.860
11.870
11.880
11.880
12Vout
current
[A]
4.978
3.980
2.982
1.986
0.989
0.489
Pinput_main
power [W]
214.300
175.900
137.900
100.700
63.400
32.600
Pinput_IC
and Driver
[W]
0.608
0.608
0.608
0.608
0.608
0.608
Poutput
[W]
203.761
167.625
131.505
95.785
59.707
29.632
Efficiency
[%]
94.813
94.967
94.944
94.548
93.280
89.232
Table 3. Efficiency measurements @ Vbulk=380Vdc
Application Note
16
03 July 2013
Efficiency (%)
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
Figure 9. LLC stage efficiency
The power losses due to IC and driver circuit are both included. In addition, the efficiency values were
measured after 30 minutes of warm-up at full load.
9.2
Zero Voltage Switching
From above test result, ZVS can be obtained over a very wide range of load; both Q100 and Q101 are in zero
voltage switching during turn on while the current is resonating positive and negative alternatively.
VDS_Q101
VDS_Q101
Ip_TR100
Ip_TR100
VLG
VLG
VHG
VHG
ZVS @ 380Vdc bulk voltage and 100% full load
ZVS @ 380Vdc bulk voltage and 10% full load
Figure 10. Zero Voltage switching
Application Note
17
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
9.3
Soft Start
VFB
VFB
Vout
Vout
24V
Ip
Ip
Vgate
Vgate
fswi
fswi
Soft start @ 380Vdc bulk voltage and full load
24V
Soft start @ 380Vdc bulk voltage and no load
Figure 11. Soft start at full load and no load
During startup at full load or no load, the primary resonant current is strictly limited, and the 24V output
voltage smoothly rises to its regulated value. The overshoot is less than 5%, the start up time is less than
30ms.
9.4
Mains Under Voltage Protection
Vbus
Vbus
VVINS
VVINS
Vgate
Vgate
IC starts operation when Vbus resumes to nomal
value
IC stop switching when Vbus drops to designed value
Figure 12. Mains under voltage protection
When Vbus drops lower than 282Vdc, IC stops switching; When Vbus rises up to 336V, IC starts normal
operation after a 500us blanking time. These measured results are closely equal to the calculated results
mentioned at section 7.4.
Application Note
18
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
9.5
Output Short Circuit Protection
Total : 388ms
Vo_24V
VFB
VVINS
VLG
Internally fixed
blanking time 20ms
measured : 15.5ms
Adjustable
blanking time
measured : 18ms
Adjustable
restart time
measured : 339ms
Internally fixed
restart time 20ms
measured : 15.5ms
Figure 13. Output short circuit protection
When the output load is short circuit, VFB Jumps to a higher value, when this condition lasts longer than the
internal fixed blanking time 20ms, the extended adjustable blanking time will be initiated. After this two
blanking time, IC will enter restart mode if this short circuit condition still exist, and it stops switching. After an
adjustable restart time and an internal fixed restart time 20ms, IC resumes to normal operation with soft start.
During soft start, the over load protection is disabled. When softstart process is completed and the output is
still under short circuit condition, IC will enter autorestart mode again. When the output short circuit condition
is removed, IC will resume to normal operation and the 24V output voltage is resumed again. The overall
measured blanking tiem before entering auto-restart protection is 388ms.
Application Note
19
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
9.6
9.6.1
Over Load Protection
Adjustable blanking time
Vo_24V
Vo_24V
VFB
VFB
VVINS
VVINS
VLG
VLG
VFB
VFB
CFB charging time
CFB discharging time
Figure 14. Adjustable extended blanking time in case of over load protection
Blanking time in case of over load protection can be adjusted as discussed before. The charging time tchg_olp
and discharging time tdischg_olp of CFB is 32.5us and 2.8us respectively. The measured overall adjustable
blanking time is 18ms.
9.6.2
Adjustable restart time
Vo_24V
VFB
Vo_24V
VFB
V
VVINS
VVINS
VLG
VLG
VVINS
VVINS
CVINS charging time
CVINS discharging time
Figure 15. Adjustable restart time in case of over load protection
Restart time in case of over load protection can also be adjusted as discussed before. The charging time
tcharge and discharging time tdischarge of Cvins is 120us and 45us respectively. The measured overall adjustable
restart time is 339ms.
Application Note
20
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
9.7
Burst Mode Operation at No Load
Vout
24V ac
VFB
Vgate
Figure 16. Burst mode operation
Burst mode operation is implemented in ICE1HS01G/-1 to avoid possible over output voltage issue in case of
light load or no load operation. When VFB drops below VFB_off (measured value 0.185V), the switching signal
will be disabled. VFB will then rise as Vout starts to decrease due to no switching signal. Once VFB exceeds
the threshold VFB_on (measured value 0.296V), IC resumes to normal operation.
9.8
Dynamic Load Response
Vout_24V
Vout_24V
Vout_12V
Vout_12V
Iout_12V
Iout_24V
24V @ 6A, 12V @ 0.5A-5A
24V @ 0.5A-6A, 12V @ 5A
Figure 17. Dynamic load response
Figure 17 shows the dynamic behavior of this demoboard during a load variation (12V) from around 10% to
100% full load on one output, with the other output (24V) at its full load. The output voltage ripple of 24V and
12V are both less than 5%.
Application Note
21
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
10
10.1
Transformer Constructure
Mains Transformer





Bobbin: Split type EC32, Horizontal version from TDK
Core: PC47 EC32 from TDK
Primary inductance: 636μH±5%, Gapped between Pin 1 and Pin 3
Leakage inductance: 120μH±5%, measured between Pin 1 and Pin 3 by shorting (Pin 6 & 8
and Pin 9 &11) or (Pin 6 & 7 and Pin 9 & 10)
Measured at frequency of 40kHz
Figure 18. LLC resonant transformer electrical diagram
Figure 19. LLC resonant transformer winding position
Figure 20. LLC resonant transformer complete – top view
Application Note
22
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
Pins
1~3
8~6
6~7
11~9
9~10
winding
primary
Secondary 1
Secondary 2
Secondary 3
Secondary 4
turns
34
4
4
2
2
wire
13*0.20
16*0.20
16*0.20
19*0.20
19*0.20
Table 4. LLC resonant transformer winding characteristics
10.2
Pulse Transformer


Bobbin: E16/8/5, Vertical version from EPCOS
Core: E16/8/5 N87 from EPCOS
Pin 8
Vertical bobbin
Pin 1
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 4
Pin 7
Pin 5
Pin 4
Pin 8
Pin 7
Pin 6
Pin 5
Pin 6
Figure 21. Pulse Transformer electrical diagram
Figure 22. Pulse transformer complete – top view
Figure 23. Pulse transformer winding position
Application Note
23
03 July 2013
200W SMPS using LLC Resonant Controller ICE1HS01G/-1
11
References
[1]
ICE1HS01G datasheet, Infineon Technologies AG, 2009
[2]
ICE1HS01G-1 datasheet, Infineon Technologies AG, 2012
[3]
RW ERICKSON, D MAKSIMOVIC: ‘Fundamentals of power electronics’ (Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001), pp. 705–755
[4]
B Yang: ‘Topology investigation for front end DC/DC power conversion for distributed power system’,
PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2003
[5]
Mingping Mao, Dimitar Tchobanov, Dong Li, Martin Maerz, Tobias Gerber, Gerald Deboy, Leo
Lorenz.: ‘Analysis and design of a 1MHz LLC Resonant Converter with Coreless transformer driver’.
PCIM Conference, Shanghai. 2007
[6]
M Mao, D Tchobanov, D Li, M Maerz.: ‘Design optimization of a 1MHz half bridge CLL resonant
converter’. IET Power Electronics, 2008, Vol.1, pp. 100-108.
Application Note
24
03 July 2013
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