AN_TDA4863(G)(-2)_Supplement

A p p l i c a t i on N o t e , V 1 . 2, O c t . 20 0 3
TDA 4 863 Getting started with
TDA4863
AN-PFC-TDA 4863-2
Author: W. Frank
http://www.infineon.com/pfc
Power Management & Supply
N e v e r
s t o p
t h i n k i n g .
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Revision History:
29.10.2003
Previous Version:
1.1
Page
Subjects (major changes since last revision)
2
updated
V1.2
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Edition 29.10.2003
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Getting Started with TDA 4863
Table of Contents
Page
1
Short Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
Application Circuit Using TDA 4863 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rectifier Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boost Inductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting and Limitation of Output Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiplier Input (line regulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detector and IC Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opamp Compensation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shunt Resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
6
6
6
7
8
9
9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
Design Change from Competitors to TDA 4863 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing TDA 4862 [3] (Siemens / Infineon) by TDA 4863 . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing L6561 (STM) by TDA 4863 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing FAN7527 (Fairchild) by TDA 4863 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing MC33261 (ON Semiconductor) by TDA 4863 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing MC33262 (ON Semiconductor) by TDA 4863 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
10
10
11
11
12
4
Summary of Used Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Application Note
3
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Short Description
1
Short Description
This application note gives a brief overview of the fundamental equations which are
necessary for a basic design of a power factor correction circuit in boost topology using
a TDA 4863. They cover the input and output section as well as the inductor design.
Please refer to [1] and [2] for further information. The calculation procedure describes a
boost converter for wide input voltage range and 85 W output power. Finally, the paper
gives recommendation for design changes of existing systems using competitor part of
the TDA 4863 such as L6561, MC33262 and others.
Application Note
4
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Application Circuit Using TDA 4863
2
Application Circuit Using TDA 4863
L1
D5
VOUT
DC
R8
D6
R12
D1...D4
L2
VOLTAGE
AMPLIFIER
OUTPUT
C1
2,5V Reference
Undervoltage
Lockout 12,5V - 10V
Internal Supply
2
Restart Timer
2,2V
C6
VIN AC
R2
C2
VOLTAGE
SENSE
1
0,2 V
0,2V C4
0
&
0
&
0
0
40µA
0
0
8
S
Q
R
Q
5k
MULTIPLIER
R7
3
Multiplier
VCC
Q1
R10
0
7
DRIVE
OUTPUT
0
6
200ns
LEB
0,6V
M2
2,5V...4,3V
M1
0V...4V
&
0
0
R6
C8
5V
20V
0
C1
10k
M3
QM = M1*(M2-VFB)*K
0,3 V-1< K < 0,7V-1
VFB = 2,5V
R4
5
1,5V
1,0V
TDA
4863
C5
VOP
1,2V
C2
C3
R9
ZERO
CURRENT
DETECTOR
GROUND
C10
4
CURRENT
SENSE
1,0V
C4
R11
R5
GND
Figure 1
2.1
PFC Circuit with TDA 4863
General
The fundamental electrical data of the circuit are the input voltage range, the output
power, the output voltage, the overvoltage protection (OVP) level and the lowest
switching frequency which may occur during operation. Table 1 shows the relevant
values for the system calculated in this Application Note. The output power of the PFC
converter is estimated about 10% higher than the output power of 75 W of a possible
subsequent PWM converter.
Table 1
Data of Boost Converter
Input voltage
90 V... 265 V
Lowest switching frequency
25 kHz
Output voltage
400 V
OVP level
440 V
Output power
85 W
Application Note
5
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Application Circuit Using TDA 4863
2.2
Rectifier Bridge
In order to obtain 85 W output power at 90 V minimum input voltage, the maximum input rms
current is iinmax = Pout /(Vinmin η) = 1.05 Arms with a peak value of iinPkmax = √2 iin = 1.48 A.
For these values a rectifier bridge with an average current capability of 1.2 A or higher is a
good choice.
2.3
Boost Inductor
The inductance of L1 according to Figure 1 is calculated in order to obtain pulse
frequencies higher than 25 kHz at maximum peak input voltage and twice of nominal
output power and at minimum peak input voltage and twice of nominal output power.
That means
2
V inPkmax ⋅ ( V out – V inPkmax ) ⋅ η
L P < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
V out ⋅ f p ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2P out
( 265 V 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( 400 V – 265 V 2 ) ⋅ 0,9
= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.936 mH
400 V ⋅ 25 kHz ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 85 W
and
2
V inPkmax ⋅ ( V out – V inPkmax ) ⋅ η
L P < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
V out ⋅ f p ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2P out
90 V 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( 400 V – 90 V 2 ) ⋅ 0,9 = 1,169 mH
= (-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------400 V ⋅ 25 kHz ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 85 W
We therefore select LP < 0,936 mH, which is realised with a E36-core (gap = 2 mm,
93 turns).
2.4
Setting and Limitation of Output Voltage
Both the output voltage as well as the overvoltage protection level are set with the same
voltage divider represented by R4 and R5 in Figure 1.
V ref V OVP – V out
2.5 V ⋅ ( 440 V – 400 V -) = 6289 Ω and
R 5 = ---------- ⋅ ------------------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------∆I V out + V ref
40 µA ⋅ ( 400 V – 2.5 V )
V OVP – V ref
440 V – 2.5 V
= ---------------------------------------------------------------- = 1000000 Ω
R 4 = -------------------------------∆I + V ref ⁄ R 5
40 µA + ( 2.5 V ⁄ 6289 Ω )
with the reference voltage Vref = 2.5 V. The value of 40 µA is the regulation current of the
overvoltage protection. The real resistor values are taken from the E96 series (1%
tolerance) which are R4 = 6.34 kΩ and R5 = 2.499 kΩ. These values lead to a resulting
output voltage and overvoltage level of 396 V and 436 V, respectively.
Application Note
6
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Application Circuit Using TDA 4863
2.5
Multiplier Input (line regulation)
The signal at pin 3 of the TDA 4863 is necessary in order to obtain a sinusoidal input
current shape. It is internally multiplied with the output of the voltage error amplifier of the
IC. The result is the reference level for the current sense comparator which defines the
turn-off level of the power switch. The input signal is generated by the resistive voltage
divider consisting of R6, R61 and R7 according to Figure 1 and must meet the range
between 0 V and 4 V (typ.). R6 and R61 are to be seen as the upper resistor of the divider
which is split into two resistors of (nearly) the same value due to high voltage stress. The
corresponding equation is
V MULTIN
R7
----------------------- = ---------------------------------V Bus
R 6 + R 61 + R 7
Usually the bottom resistor R7 is chosen freely. In respect of low dissipation power R7 is
set to 9.1 kΩ. Then the sum of the top resistors is
V Bus
R 6 + R 61 = R 7 ----------------------- – R 7
V MULTIN
It is suitable to consider a small margin of the input range of 4 V of the multiplier input.
The design value of the divider is therefore VMULTIN = 3.6 V. With the values 470 kΩ,
470 kΩ and 9.1 kΩ for R6, R61 and R7 this target is hit properly.
Application Note
7
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Application Circuit Using TDA 4863
NP
a)
NZCD
C10
R12
D6
ZCD
Vcc
b)
NP
NZCD
D7
C10
D6
R12
C13
NP
c)
NZCD
D7
R12A
D6
C13
Vcc
Figure 2
2.6
R9
ZCD
Vcc
C10
R9
L5
R9
ZCD
IC Supply Circuit Realized with Rectifier (a) and Charge Pump (b and c)
Detector and IC Supply
A second winding (detector winding) on the choke provides an image of the drain voltage
in the ratio Ndet /Nboost = VZCD /(Vout - Vinnom). The ratio is set so that VZCD is about 22 V to
24 V followed by a supply circuitry and detector resistor according to a) of Figure 2.
For a 400 V output voltage and a nominal input voltage of Vinnom = 265 V, the detector
winding contains 15 turns and requires a high ohmic resistor R9 (10 kΩ to 47 kΩ) in
series before being connected to pin 5. Clamping structures are available in the IC which
limit the voltage at the input to +6 V and +0.4 V, respectively, at ±10 mA maximum.
There are also other rectification topologies for the IC supply possible which are shown
in b) and c) of Figure 2. They are further explained in [2].
Application Note
8
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Application Circuit Using TDA 4863
2.7
Opamp Compensation Design
The design of the compensation network of PFC controller is a very sensitive topic,
because it highly influences the performance of the circuit in terms of the total harmonic
distortion (THD) of the input current. For further information please refer to [2]. Table 2
gives a recommendation of suitable values for the compensation circuit according to
Figure 1.
Table 2
Component Values for PI- or PIT1-Compensation
Compensation
C1
PI
2.2 µF
PIT1
2.2 µF
2.8
C2
R2
16 kΩ
1 µF
33 kΩ
Shunt Resistor
The maximum current sense voltage is limited to VISENSEM = 1.0 V to which the shunt
resistor R11 must be designed to at maximum inductor current. This is given in the
following equation
V ISENSEM ⋅ V inmin ⋅ η
V ⋅ 90 V ⋅ 0,9- = 0.34 Ω
R 11 = ------------------------------------------------------- = 1.0
-----------------------------------------2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ P out
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 85 W
Application Note
9
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Design Change from Competitors to TDA 4863
3
Design Change from Competitors to TDA 4863
There is a wide variety of discontinuous conduction mode PFC controllers available.
Many of them are even pin compatible. Nevertheless, there is still some design effort
necessary if a change of the controller IC is palnned. In the following sections the most
important differences to pin- and PCB-compatible competitors are worked out and
design recommendations are given as far as possible. However, this does not free you
from a dedicated fine tuning of the PFC system which is not described in this paper.
3.1
Replacing TDA 4862 [3] (Siemens / Infineon) by TDA 4863
The first three items of Table 5 are very important for the startup behaviour of the PFC
circuit and the overall efficiency. The startup time is defined by the VCC turn-on threshold
and the value of the startup resistor R8. Even though the turn-on level is higher at
TDA 4863, the startup time is certainly in the same range, when using the same startup
resistor. The current consumption during startup is significantly lower with TDA 4863 and
therefore more current is available to charge the electrolytic capacitor of the IC supply.
Table 3
Most Important Data Deviation of TDA 4863
Part
TDA 4862
TDA 4863
VCC turn-on threshold
11 V
13 V
VCC turn-off threshold
8.5 V
9.5 V
Startup current (max.)
200 µA
100 µA
OVP regulation current
30 µA
40 µA
Max. current sense threshold (typ.)
1.25 V
1V
The startup current is usually set with a startup resistor which is effective throughout the
whole area of operation. A high startup current will therefore lower the system efficiency
significantly at low load operation. For TDA 4863 a startup resistor of 220 kΩ or even
higher is still sufficient.
TDA 4863 has a higher OVP regulation current, meaning that the output voltage divider
has to be changed according Section 2.4 and also the shunt resistor has to be
redesigned according Section 2.8.
3.2
Replacing L6561 (STM) by TDA 4863
Generally speaking, both components are very close together regarding the basic data
[4]. Nevertheless there are still some differences which cause design changes. They are
listed in Table 4.
Application Note
10
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Design Change from Competitors to TDA 4863
Table 4
Most Important Data Deviation of L6561
Part
L6561
TDA 4863
Multiplier input (typ)
0 to 3.5 V
0 to 4 V
Max. current sense threshold (typ.)
1.7 V
1V
First of all, the input range of the multiplier input is a little smaller. This effects the design
of the corresponding voltage divider R6, R61 and R7 according to Figure 1 and
Section 2.5.
Another big issue is the current limitation threshold which is set to 1.7 V at L6561. This
leads to a larger shunt resistor and therefore also to larger power losses in the shunt.
The equation for the shunt resistor is given in Section 2.8.
Since the overvoltage protection works on the same principle and with the same
thresholds, a L6561 design should work fine when considering the changes mentioned
below.
3.3
Replacing FAN7527 (Fairchild) by TDA 4863
This part is also very close to the L6561, so that the multiplier input range and the current
sense threshold have to be taken into consideration again only.
Table 5
Most Important Data Deviation of FAN7527
Part
FAN7527
TDA 4863
Multiplier input (typ)
0 to 3.8 V
0 to 4 V
Max. current sense threshold (typ.)
1.8 V
1V
The voltage range of the multiplier input is close enough to the TDA 4863 according to
the datasheet [5] so that the corresponding voltage divider (see Section 2.5) needs not
to be recalculated mandatorily. But so is the shunt resistor according to Section 2.8 with
a current sense threshold of VISENSE,th = 1.0 V
Please note, that FAN7527 has larger tolerances in respect of the current sense
threshold and the overvoltage protection limit. Hence, any system will run more reliably
with TDA 4863.
Fairchild also offers other parts (KA7524, KA7526) which are pin compatible with
TDA 4863, but they are not very wide spread and therefore not under consideration here.
3.4
Replacing MC33261 (ON Semiconductor) by TDA 4863
The first three items of Table 6 are very important for the startup behaviour of the PFC
circuit and the overall efficiency. The startup time is defined by the VCC turn-on threshold
Application Note
11
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Design Change from Competitors to TDA 4863
and the startup resistor R8. Even though the threshold is higher at TDA 4863, the startup
time is certainly shorter because the current consumption during startup is significantly
lower and more current is available to charge the electrolytic capacitor of the IC supply.
Table 6
Most Important Data Deviation of MC33261
Part
MC33261
TDA 4863
VCC turn-on threshold
10.8 V
13 V
VCC turn-off threshold
7V
9.5 V
Startup current (max.)
500 µA
100 µA
Multiplier input (typ)
0 to 3.5 V
0 to 4 V
Max. current sense threshold (typ.)
1.1 V
1V
The startup current is usually set with a startup resistor which is effective throughout the
whole area of operation. A high startup current will therefore lower the system efficiency
significantly, especially during low load operation. For TDA 4863 a startup resistor of
220 kΩ or even higher is still sufficient.
The typical multiplier input range is the same as for L6561, but it is also necessary to
consider the minimum range of 0 to 2.5 V. This effects a change of the multiplier input
voltage divider according to Section 2.5 when using TDA 4863. For a precise output
power limitation a recalculation of the shunt resistor is also recommended.
According to the datasheet [6] the MC33261 does not have an effective overvoltage
protection. Therefore the output voltage divider should be redesigned according to
Section 2.4 in order to obtain the projected pretection levels.
3.5
Replacing MC33262 (ON Semiconductor) by TDA 4863
The basics of the startup behaviour are nearly the same as for MC33261, but the VCC
turn-on threshold is even higher than with TDA 4863. Therefore, the same issues must
be considered as for MC33261.
Table 7
Most Important Data Deviation of MC33262
Part
MC33262
TDA 4863
VCC turn-on threshold
14.5 V
13 V
VCC turn-off threshold
7V
9.5 V
Startup current (max.)
400 µA
100 µA
Multiplier input (typ)
0 to 3.5 V
0 to 4 V
Max. current sense threshold (typ.)
1.5 V
1V
Application Note
12
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Design Change from Competitors to TDA 4863
However, the MC33262 contains a overvoltage protection, but it is not adjustable but
fixed to a level of 8% over rated bus voltage according to [7]. This means that in
MC33262 systems the output voltage divider does not care for the overvoltage
protection. Hence, the output voltage divider must be recalculated according
Section 2.4 for the use of TDA 4863.
Please note, that MC33262 is not PCB compatible, because its feedback of the error
amplifier is referenced to ground. For a replacement by TDA 4863 it is necessary to
reference the feedback to pin 1 (VSENSE) which means that a PCB change is necessary.
Application Note
13
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
Summary of Used Nomenclature
4
Summary of Used Nomenclature
Physics:
General identifiers:
Special identifiers:
A..........cross area
b, B......magnetic inductance
d, D .....duty cycle
f...........frequency
i, I........current
N .........number of turns
p, P......power
t, T.......time, time-intervals
v, V ......voltage
W.........energy
η..........efficiency
AL ........... inductance factor
V(BR)CES .. collector-emitter breakdown
voltage of IGBT
VF ........... forward voltage of diodes
Vrrm .......... maximum reverse voltage of diodes
K1, K2 ..ferrite core constants
big letters: constant values and time intervals
small letters: time variant values
Components:
C .........capacitance
D .........diode
IC ........integrated circuit
L..........inductance
R..........resistor
TR .......transformer
Indices:
AC.......alternating current value
DC.......direct current value
BE .......basis-emitter value
CS.......current sense value
OPTO..optocoupler value
P .........primary side value
Pk........peak value
R........... reflected from secondary to primary side
S .........secondary side value
Sh .......shunt value
UVLO ..undervoltage lockout value
Z..........zener value
Application Note
14
fmin......... value at minimum pulse frequency
i ..............running variable
in ............input value
max ........maximum value
min .........minimum value
off ...........turn-off value
on ...........turn-on value
out ..........output value
p .............pulsed
rip ...........ripple value
1, 2, 3 .....on-going designator
V1.2, 29.10.2003
Getting Started with TDA 4863
References
5
References
[1]
Infineon Technologies AG: TDA 4863 - Power factor and boost converter
controller for high power factor and low THD; Preliminary data sheet; Infineon
Technologies AG; Munich; Germany; 07/01.
[2]
M. Herfurth, W. Frank: TDA 4863 - Technical description; Application Note
AN-PFC-TDA4863-1; Infineon Technologies; Munich; Germany; 02/02.
[3]
Siemens AG: TDA4862 - Power factor controller IC for high power factor and
active harmonic filter; data sheet; Siemens / Infineon Technologies AG; Munich;
Germany; 02/1998.
[4]
ST Microelectronics: L6561 - Power factor corrector; data sheet;
ST Microelectronics; Italy; 02/01.
[5]
Fairchild Semiconductor: FAN7527 - Power factor corrector controller; data
sheet; Rev. 1.0.2; Fairchild Semiconductor corporation; USA; 12/01.
[6]
ON Semiconductor: MC33261, MC34261 - Power factor controllers; data sheet;
Rev. 2; ON Semiconductor; USA; 03/01.
[7]
ON Semiconductor: MC33262, MC34262 - Power factor controllers; data sheet;
Rev. 1; ON Semiconductor; USA; 1996.
Application Note
15
V1.2, 29.10.2003
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