Data Sheet

MFRC631
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
1. General description
MFRC631, the cost efficient NFC frontend for payment.
The MFRC631 multi-protocol NFC frontend IC supports the following operating modes:
• Read/write mode supporting ISO/IEC 14443A/MIFARE
• Read/write mode supporting ISO/IEC 14443B
The MFRC631’s internal transmitter is able to drive a reader/writer antenna designed to
communicate with ISO/IEC 14443A/MIFARE cards and transponders without additional
active circuitry. The digital module manages the complete ISO/IEC 14443A framing and
error detection functionality (parity and CRC).
The MFRC631 supports MIFARE Classic 1K, MIFARE Classic 4K, MIFARE Ultralight,
MIFARE Ultralight C, MIFARE Plus and MIFARE DESFire products. The MFRC631
supports MIFARE higher transfer speeds of up to 848 kbit/s in both directions.
The MFRC631 supports layer 2 and 3 of the ISO/IEC 14443B reader/writer
communication scheme except anticollision. The anticollision needs to be implemented in
the firmware of the host controller as well as in the upper layers.
The following host interfaces are supported:
• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
• Serial UART (similar to RS232 with voltage levels dependent on pin voltage supply)
• I2C-bus interface (two versions are implemented: I2C and I2CL)
The MFRC631 supports the connection of a secure access module (SAM). A dedicated
separate I2C interface is implemented for a connection of the SAM. The SAM can be used
for high secure key storage and acts as a very performant crypto coprocessor. A
dedicated SAM is available for connection to the MFRC631.
2. Features and benefits
 Includes NXP ISO/IEC14443-A, Innovatron ISO/IEC14443-B and NXP MIFARE
Crypto 1 intellectual property licensing rights
 High-performance multi-protocol NFC frontend for transfer speed up to 848 kbit/s
 Supports ISO/IEC 14443 A/MIFARE, ISO/IEC 14443 B
 Supports MIFARE Classic encryption by hardware in read/write mode
Allows to read MIFARE Ultralight, MIFARE Classic 1K, MIFARE Classic 4K, MIFARE
DESFire EV1, MIFARE DESFire EV2 and MIFARE Plus cards
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
 Low-power card detection
 Compliance to “EMV contactless protocol specification V2.3.1” on RF level can be
achieved
 Antenna connection with minimum number of external components
 Supported host interfaces:
 SPI up to 10 Mbit/s
 I2C-bus interfaces up to 400 kBd in Fast mode, up to 1000 kBd in Fast mode plus
 RS232 Serial UART up to 1228.8 kBd, with voltage levels dependent on pin
voltage supply
 Separate I2C-bus interface for connection of a secure access module (SAM)
 FIFO buffer with size of 512 byte for highest transaction performance
 Flexible and efficient power saving modes including hard power down, standby and
low-power card detection
 Cost saving by integrated PLL to derive system clock from 27.12 MHz RF quartz
crystal
 3 V to 5.5 V power supply
 Up to 8 free programmable input/output pins
 Typical operating distance in read/write mode for communication to a
ISO/IEC 14443A/MIFARE Card up to 12 cm, depending on the antenna size and
tuning
3. Quick reference data
Table 1.
Quick reference data
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
supply voltage
VDD(PVDD)
PVDD supply voltage
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
3
5
5.5
V
[1]
3
5
VDD
V
3
5
5.5
V
[2]
-
8
40
nA
VDD(TVDD)
TVDD supply voltage
Ipd
power-down current
IDD
supply current
-
17
20
mA
IDD(TVDD)
TVDD supply current
-
100
250
mA
Tamb
ambient temperature
25
+25
+85
C
Tstg
storage temperature
40
+25
+100
C
PDOWN pin pulled HIGH
no supply voltage applied
[1]
VDD(PVDD) must always be the same or lower voltage than VDD.
[2]
Ipd is the sum of all supply currents
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High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
4. Ordering information
Table 2.
Ordering information
Type number
Package
MFRC63102HN/TRAYB[1]
Name
Description
HVQFN32
plastic thermal enhanced very thin quad flat package; no SOT617-1
leads; MSL1, 32 terminals + 1 central ground; body 5  5
 0.85 mm
MFRC63102HN/TRAYBM[2]
MFRC63102HN/T/R[3]
[1]
Version
Delivered in one tray
[2]
Delivered in five trays
[3]
Delivered on reel with 6000 pieces
5. Block diagram
The analog interface handles the modulation and demodulation of the antenna signals for
the contactless interface.
The contactless UART manages the protocol dependency of the contactless interface
settings managed by the host.
The FIFO buffer ensures fast and convenient data transfer between host and the
contactless UART.
The register bank contains the settings for the analog and digital functionality.
REGISTER BANK
ANTENNA
ANALOG
INTERFACE
CONTACTLESS
UART
FIFO
BUFFER
SERIAL UART
SPI
I2C-BUS
HOST
001aaj627
Fig 1.
MFRC631
Product data sheet
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Simplified block diagram of the MFRC631
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MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
25 PVDD
26 IFSEL0
27 IFSEL1
28 IF0
29 IF1
30 IF2
terminal 1
index area
31 IF3
32 IRQ
6. Pinning information
TDO
1
TDI
2
24 SDA
TMS
3
TCK
4
SIGIN
5
SIGOUT
6
19 XTAL1
DVDD
7
18 TVDD
VDD
8
17 TX1
(1)
23 SCL
22 CLKOUT
21 PDOWN
TVSS 16
20 XTAL2
TX2 15
VMID 14
RXN 13
RXP 12
AUX2 11
9
AVDD
AUX1 10
heatsink
001aam004
Transparent top view
(1) Pin 33 VSS - heatsink connection
Fig 2.
Pinning configuration HVQFN32 (SOT617-1)
6.1 Pin description
Table 3.
Pin description
Pin
Symbol
Type
Description
1
TDO
O
test data output for boundary scan interface
2
TDI
I
test data input boundary scan interface
3
TMS
I
test mode select boundary scan interface
4
TCK
I
test clock boundary scan interface
5
SIGIN
I
Contactless communication interface output.
6
SIGOUT
O
Contactless communication interface input.
7
DVDD
PWR
digital power supply buffer [1]
8
VDD
PWR
power supply
9
AVDD
PWR
analog power supply buffer [1]
10
AUX1
O
auxiliary outputs: Pin is used for analog test signal
11
AUX2
O
auxiliary outputs: Pin is used for analog test signal
12
RXP
I
receiver input pin for the received RF signal.
13
RXN
I
receiver input pin for the received RF signal.
14
VMID
PWR
internal receiver reference voltage [1]
15
TX2
O
transmitter 2: delivers the modulated 13.56 MHz carrier
16
TVSS
PWR
transmitter ground, supplies the output stage of TX1, TX2
17
TX1
O
transmitter 1: delivers the modulated 13.56 MHz carrier
18
TVDD
PWR
transmitter voltage supply
19
XTAL1
I
crystal oscillator input: Input to the inverting amplifier of the oscillator. This is pin is also the
input for an externally generated clock (fosc = 27,12 MHz)
MFRC631
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High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
Table 3.
Pin description …continued
Pin
Symbol
Type
Description
20
XTAL2
O
crystal oscillator output: output of the inverting amplifier of the oscillator
21
PDOWN
I
Power Down
22
CLKOUT
O
clock output
23
SCL
O
Serial Clock line
24
SDA
I/O
Serial Data Line
25
PVDD
PWR
pad power supply
26
IFSEL0
I
host interface selection 0
27
IFSEL1
I
host interface selection 1
28
IF0
I/O
interface pin, multifunction pin: Can be assigned to host interface RS232, SPI, I2C, I2C-L
29
IF1
I/O
interface pin, multifunction pin: Can be assigned to host interface SPI, I2C, I2C-L
30
IF2
I/O
interface pin, multifunction pin: Can be assigned to host interface RS232, SPI, I2C, I2C-L
31
IF3
I/O
interface pin, multifunction pin: Can be assigned to host interface RS232, SPI, I2C, I2C-L
32
IRQ
O
interrupt request: output to signal an interrupt event
33
VSS
PWR
ground and heatsink connection
[1]
This pin is used for connection of a buffer capacitor. Connection of a supply voltage might damage the device.
MFRC631
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MFRC631
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7. Functional description
SAM interface
SDA
SCL
I2C,
LOGICAL
FIFO
512 Bytes
EEPROM
8 kByte
SPI
host interfaces
RESET
LOGIC
IFSEL0
PDOWN
I2C
IF0
REGISTERS
IF1
RS232
IF2
STATEMACHINES
IF3
SPI
ANALOGUE FRONT-END
VDD
TCK
TDI
TMS
TDO
BOUNDARY
SCAN
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
3/5 V =>
1.8 V
DVDD
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
3/5 V =>
1.8 V
AVDD
POR
RNG
VSS
PVDD
TVDD
TVSS
AVDD
DVDD
TIMER0..3
CRC
IRQ
Fig 3.
Detailed block diagram of the MFRC631
TX
CODEC
SIGIN/
SIGOUT
CONTROL
SIGIN
SIGOUT
RX
DECOD
ADC
LFO
PLL
CLCOPRO
SIGPRO
CLKOUT
AUX1
RX
TX
RXP
VMID RXN
TX2
TX1
OSC
XTAL2
XTAL1
AUX2
001aam005
MFRC631
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INTERRUPT
CONTROLLER
TIMER4
(WAKE-UP
TIMER)
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
IFSEL1
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
7.1 Interrupt controller
The interrupt controller handles the enabling/disabling of interrupt requests. All of the
interrupts can be configured by firmware. Additionally, the firmware has possibilities to
trigger interrupts or clear pending interrupt requests. Two 8-bit interrupt registers IRQ0
and IRQ1 are implemented, accompanied by two 8-bit interrupt enable registers IRQ0En
and IRQ1En. A dedicated functionality of bit 7 to set and clear bits 0 to 6 in this interrupt
controller registers is implemented.
The MFRC631 indicates certain events by setting bit IRQ in the register Status1Reg and
additionally, if activated, by pin IRQ. The signal on pin IRQ may be used to interrupt the
host using its interrupt handling capabilities. This allows the implementation of efficient
host software.
Table 4. shows the available interrupt bits, the corresponding source and the condition for
its activation. The interrupt bits Timer0IRQ, Timer1IRQ, Timer2IRQ, Timer3OIRQ, in
register IRQ1 indicate an interrupt set by the timer unit. The setting is done if the timer
underflows.
The TxIRQ bit in register IRQ0 indicates that the transmission is finished. If the state
changes from sending data to transmitting the end of the frame pattern, the transmitter
unit sets the interrupt bit automatically.
The bit RxIRQ in register IRQ0 indicates an interrupt when the end of the received data is
detected.
The bit IdleIRQ in register IRQ0 is set if a command finishes and the content of the
command register changes to idle.
The register WaterLevel defines both - minimum and maximum warning levels - counting
from top and from bottom of the FIFO by a single value.
The bit HiAlertIRQ in register IRQ0 is set to logic 1 if the HiAlert bit is set to logic 1, that
means the FIFO data number has reached the top level as configured by the register
WaterLevel and bit WaterLevelExtBit.
The bit LoAlertIRQ in register IRQ0 is set to logic 1 if the LoAlert bit is set to logic 1, that
means the FIFO data number has reached the bottom level as configured by the register
WaterLevel.
The bit ErrIRQ in register IRQ0 indicates an error detected by the contactless UART
during receive. This is indicated by any bit set to logic 1 in register Error.
The bit LPCDIRQ in register IRQ0 indicates a card detected.
The bit RxSOFIRQ in register IRQ0 indicates a detection of a SOF or a subcarrier by the
contactless UART during receiving.
The bit GlobalIRQ in register IRQ1 indicates an interrupt occurring at any other interrupt
source when enabled.
MFRC631
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Table 4.
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
Interrupt sources
Interrupt bit
Interrupt source
Is set automatically, when
Timer0IRQ
Timer Unit
the timer register T0 CounterVal underflows
Timer1IRQ
Timer Unit
the timer register T1 CounterVal underflows
Timer2IRQ
Timer Unit
the timer register T2 CounterVal underflows
Timer3IRQ
Timer Unit
the timer register T3 CounterVal underflows
TxIRQ
Transmitter
a transmitted data stream ends
RxIRQ
Receiver
a received data stream ends
IdleIRQ
Command Register
a command execution finishes
HiAlertIRQ
FIFO-buffer pointer
the FIFO data number has reached the top level as
configured by the register WaterLevel
LoAlertIRQ
FIFO-buffer pointer
the FIFO data number has reached the bottom level as
configured by the register WaterLevel
ErrIRQ
contactless UART
a communication error had been detected
LPCDIRQ
LPCD
a card was detected when in low-power card detection
mode
RxSOFIRQ
Receiver
detection of a SOF or a subcarrier
GlobalIRQ
all interrupt sources
will be set if another interrupt request source is set
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7.2 Timer module
Timer module overview
The MFRC631 implements five timers. Four timers -Timer0 to Timer3 - have an input
clock that can be configured by register T(x)Control to be 13.56 MHz, 212 kHz, (derived
from the 27.12 MHz quartz) or to be the underflow event of the fifth Timer (Timer4). Each
timer implements a counter register which is 16 bit wide. A reload value for the counter is
defined in a range of 0000h to FFFFh in the registers TxReloadHi and TxReloadLo. The
fifth timer Timer4 is intended to be used as a wakeup timer and is connected to the
internal LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator) as input clock source.
The TControl register allows the global start and stop of each of the four timers Timer0 to
Timer3. Additionally, this register indicates if one of the timers is running or stopped. Each
of the five timers implements an individual configuration register set defining timer reload
value (e.g. T0ReloadHi,T0ReloadLo), the timer value (e.g. T0CounterValHi,
T0CounterValLo) and the conditions which define start, stop and clockfrequency (e.g.
T0Control).
The external host may use these timers to manage timing relevant tasks. The timer unit
may be used in one of the following configurations:
•
•
•
•
•
Time-out counter
Watch-dog counter
Stop watch
Programmable one-shot timer
Periodical trigger
The timer unit can be used to measure the time interval between two events or to indicate
that a specific event has occurred after an elapsed time. The timer register content is
modified by the timer unit, which can be used to generate an interrupt to allow an host to
react on this event.
The counter value of the timer is available in the registers T(x)CounterValHi,
T(x)CounterValLo. The content of these registers is decremented at each timer clock.
If the counter value has reached a value of 0000h and the interrupts are enabled for this
specific timer, an interrupt will be generated as soon as the next clock is received.
If enabled, the timer event can be indicated on the pin IRQ (interrupt request). The bit
Timer(x)IRQ can be set and reset by the host controller. Depending on the configuration,
the timer will stop counting at 0000h or restart with the value loaded from registers
T(x)ReloadHi, T(x)ReloadLo.
The counting of the timer is indicated by bit TControl.T(x)Running.
The timer can be started by setting bits TControl.T(x)Running and
TControl.T(x)StartStopNow or stopped by setting the bits TControl.T(x)StartStopNow and
clearing TControl.T(x)Running.
Another possibility to start the timer is to set the bit T(x)Mode.T(x)Start, this can be useful
if dedicated protocol requirements need to be fulfilled.
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High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
7.2.1 Timer modes
7.2.1.1
Time-Out- and Watch-Dog-Counter
Having configured the timer by setting register T(x)ReloadValue and starting the counting
of Timer(x) by setting bit TControl.T(x)StartStop and TControl.T(x)Running, the timer unit
decrements the T(x)CounterValue Register beginning with the configured start event. If
the configured stop event occurs before the Timer(x) underflows (e.g. a bit is received
from the card), the timer unit stops (no interrupt is generated).
If no stop event occurs, the timer unit continues to decrement the counter registers until
the content is zero and generates a timer interrupt request at the next clock cycle. This
allows to indicate to a host that the event did not occur during the configured time interval.
7.2.1.2
Wake-up timer
The wake-up Timer4 allows to wakeup the system from standby after a predefined time.
The system can be configured in such a way that it is entering the standby mode again in
case no card had been detected.
This functionality can be used to implement a low-power card detection (LPCD). For the
low-power card detection it is recommended to set T4Control.T4AutoWakeUp and
T4Control.T4AutoRestart, to activate the Timer4 and automatically set the system in
standby. The internal low frequency oscillator (LFO) is then used as input clock for this
Timer4. If a card is detected the host-communication can be started. If bit
T4Control.T4AutoWakeUp is not set, the MFRC631 will not enter the standby mode again
in case no card is detected but stays fully powered.
7.2.1.3
Stop watch
The elapsed time between a configured start- and stop event may be measured by the
MFRC631 timer unit. By setting the registers T(x)ReloadValueHi, T(x)reloadValueLo the
timer starts to decrement as soon as activated. If the configured stop event occurs, the
timers stops decrementing. The elapsed time between start and stop event can then be
calculated by the host dependent on the timer interval TTimer:
 T  Treload
value
 Timer
value
 * T Timer
(1)
If an underflow occurred which can be identified by evaluating the corresponding IRQ bit,
the performed time measurement according to the formula above is not correct.
7.2.1.4
Programmable one-shot timer
The host configures the interrupt and the timer, starts the timer and waits for the interrupt
event on pin IRQ. After the configured time the interrupt request will be raised.
7.2.1.5
Periodical trigger
If the bit T(x)Control.T(x)AutoRestart is set and the interrupt is activated, an interrupt
request will be indicated periodically after every elapsed timer period.
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High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
7.3 Contactless interface unit
The contactless interface unit of the MFRC631 supports the following read/write operating
modes:
• ISO/IEC14443A/MIFARE
• ISO/IEC14443B
BATTERY/POWER SUPPLY
READER IC
ISO/IEC 14443 A CARD
MICROCONTROLLER
reader/writer
Fig 4.
001aal996
Read/write mode
A typical system using the MFRC631 is using a microcontroller to implement the higher
levels of the contactless communication protocol and a power supply (battery or external
supply).
7.3.1 ISO/IEC14443A/MIFARE functionality
The physical level of the communication is shown in Figure 5.
(1)
ISO/IEC 14443 A
READER
ISO/IEC 14443 A CARD
(2)
001aam268
(1) Reader to Card 100 % ASK, Miller Coded, Transfer speed 106 kbit/s to 848 kbit/s
(2) Card to Reader, Subcarrier Load Modulation Manchester Coded or BPSK, transfer speed
106 kbit/s to 848 kbit/s
Fig 5.
ISO/IEC 14443 A/MIFARE read/write mode communication diagram
The physical parameters are described in Table 5.
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Table 5.
Communication overview for ISO/IEC 14443 A/MIFARE reader/writer
Communication
direction
Signal type
Reader to card (send
data from the
MFRC631 to a card)
fc = 13.56 MHz
Card to reader
(MFRC631 receives
data from a card)
Transfer speed
106 kbit/s
212 kbit/s
424 kbit/s
848 kbit/s
reader side
modulation
100 % ASK
100% ASK
100% ASK
100% ASK
bit encoding
modified Miller
encoding
modified Miller
encoding
modified Miller
encoding
modified Miller
encoding
bit rate [kbit/s]
fc / 128
fc / 64
fc / 32
fc / 16
card side
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier
frequency
fc / 16
fc / 16
fc / 16
fc / 16
bit encoding
Manchester
encoding
BPSK
BPSK
BPSK
The MFRC631 connection to a host is required to manage the complete
ISO/IEC 14443 A/MIFARE protocol. Figure 6 shows the data coding and framing
according to ISO/IEC 14443A /MIFARE.
ISO/IEC 14443 A framing at 106 kBd
start
8-bit data
8-bit data
odd
parity
start bit is 1
8-bit data
odd
parity
odd
parity
ISO/IEC 14443 A framing at 212 kBd, 424 kBd and 848 kBd
start
8-bit data
start bit is 0
even
parity
8-bit data
odd
parity
burst of 32
subcarrier clocks
8-bit data
odd
parity
even parity at the
end of the frame
001aak585
Fig 6.
Data coding and framing according to ISO/IEC 14443 A
The internal CRC coprocessor calculates the CRC value based on ISO/IEC 14443 A
part 3 and handles parity generation internally according to the transfer speed.
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High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
7.3.2 ISO/IEC14443B functionality
The physical level of the communication is shown in Figure 7.
(1)
ISO/IEC 14443 B
READER
ISO/IEC 14443 B CARD
(2)
001aal997
(1) Reader to Card NRZ, Miller coded, transfer speed 106 kbit/s to 848 kbit/s
(2) Card to reader, Subcarrier Load Modulation Manchester Coded or BPSK, transfer speed 106 kbit/s
to 848 kbit/s
Fig 7.
ISO/IEC 14443 A/MIFARE read/write mode communication diagram
The physical parameters are described in Table 6.
Table 6.
Communication overview for ISO/IEC 14443 B reader/writer
Communication
direction
Signal type
Reader to card (send
data from the
MFRC631 to a card)
fc = 13.56 MHz
reader side
modulation
Card to reader
(MFRC631 receives
data from a card)
Transfer speed
106 kbit/s
212 kbit/s
424 kbit/s
848 kbit/s
10 % ASK
10 % ASK
10 % ASK
10 % ASK
bit encoding
NRZ
NRZ
NRZ
NRZ
bit rate [kbit/s]
128 / fc
64 / fc
32 / fc
16 / fc
card side
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier load
modulation
subcarrier
frequency
fc / 16
fc / 16
fc / 16
fc / 16
bit encoding
BPSK
BPSK
BPSK
BPSK
The MFRC631 connected to a host is required to manage the complete ISO/IEC 14443 B
protocol. The following Figure 8 “SOF and EOF according to ISO/IEC 14443 B” shows the
ISO/IEC 14443B SOF and EOF.
Start of Frame (SOF)
sequence
9.44 μs
UNMODULATED (SUB)
CARRIER
''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0''
''1'' ''1''
DATA
End of Frame (EOF)
sequence
9.44 μs
LAST CHARACTER
''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0'' ''0''
UNMODULATED (SUB)
CARRIER
001aam270
Fig 8.
MFRC631
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SOF and EOF according to ISO/IEC 14443 B
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7.4 Host interfaces
7.4.1 Host interface configuration
The MFRC631 supports direct interfacing of various hosts as the SPI, I2C, I2CL and serial
UART interface type. The MFRC631 resets its interface and checks the current host
interface type automatically having performed a power-up or resuming from power down.
The MFRC631 identifies the host interface by the means of the logic levels on the control
pins after the Cold Reset Phase. This is done by a combination of fixed pin
connections.The following table shows the possible configurations defined by
IFSEL1,IFSEL0:
Table 7.
Connection scheme for detecting the different interface types
Pin
Pin Symbol
UART
SPI
I2C
I2C-L
28
IF0
RX
MOSI
ADR1
ADR1
29
IF1
n.c.
SCK
SCL
SCL
30
IF2
TX
MISO
ADR2
SDA
31
IF3
PAD_VDD
NSS
SDA
ADR2
26
IFSEL0
VSS
VSS
PAD_VDD
PAD_VDD
27
IFSEL1
VSS
PAD_VDD
VSS
PAD_VDD
7.4.2 SPI interface
7.4.2.1
General
READER IC
SCK
MOSI
MISO
NSS
IF1
IF0
IF2
IF3
001aal998
Fig 9.
Connection to host with SPI
The MFRC631 acts as a slave during the SPI communication. The SPI clock SCK has to
be generated by the master. Data communication from the master to the slave uses the
Line MOSI. Line MISO is used to send data back from the MFRC631 to the master.
A serial peripheral interface (SPI compatible) is supported to enable high speed
communication to a host. The implemented SPI compatible interface is according to a
standard SPI interface. The SPI compatible interface can handle data speed of up to 10
Mbit/s. In the communication with a host MFRC631 acts as a slave receiving data from the
external host for register settings and to send and receive data relevant for the
communication on the RF interface.
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NSS (Not Slave Select) enables or disables the SPI interface. When NSS is logical high,
the interface is disabled and reset. Between every SPI command the NSS must go to
logical high to be able to start the next command read or write.
On both data lines (MOSI, MISO) each data byte is sent by MSB first. Data on MOSI line
shall be stable on rising edge of the clock line (SCK) and is allowed to change on falling
edge. The same is valid for the MISO line. Data is provided by the MFRC631 on the falling
edge and is stable on the rising edge.The polarity of the clock is low at SPI idle.
7.4.2.2
Read data
To read out data from the MFRC631 by using the SPI compatible interface the following
byte order has to be used.
The first byte that is sent defines the mode (LSB bit) and the address.
Table 8.
Byte Order for MOSI and MISO
byte 0
byte 1
byte 2
byte 3 to n-1 byte n
byte n+1
MOSI
address 0
address 1
address 2
……..
address n
00h
MISO
X
data 0
data 1
……..
data n  1
data n
Remark: The Most Significant Bit (MSB) has to be sent first.
7.4.2.3
Write data
To write data to the MFRC631 using the SPI interface the following byte order has to be
used. It is possible to write more than one byte by sending a single address byte
(see.8.5.2.4).
The first send byte defines both, the mode itself and the address byte.
Table 9.
Byte Order for MOSI and MISO
byte 0
byte 1
byte 2
3 to n-1
byte n
byte n + 1
MOSI
address 0
data 0
data 1
……..
data n 1
data n
MISO
X
X
X
……..
X
X
Remark: The Most Significant Bit (MSB) has to be sent first.
7.4.2.4
Address byte
The address byte has to fulfil the following format:
The LSB bit of the first byte defines the used mode. To read data from the MFRC631 the
LSB bit is set to logic 1. To write data to the MFRC631 the LSB bit has to be cleared. The
bits 6 to 0 define the address byte.
NOTE: When writing the sequence [address byte][data0][data1][data2]..., [data0] is written
to address [address byte], [data1] is written to address [address byte + 1] and [data2] is
written to [address byte + 2].
Exception: This auto increment of the address byte is not performed if data is written to
the FIFO address
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Table 10.
Address byte 0 register; address MOSI
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
address 6
address 5
address 4
address 3
address 2
address 1
address 0
1 (read)
0 (write)
MSB
7.4.2.5
LSB
Timing Specification SPI
The timing condition for SPI interface is as follows:
Table 11.
Timing conditions SPI
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
tSCKL
SCK LOW time
50
-
-
ns
tSCKH
SCK HIGH time
50
-
-
ns
th(SCKH-D)
SCK HIGH to data input hold time
25
-
-
ns
tsu(D-SCKH)
data input to SCK HIGH set-up time
25
-
-
ns
th(SCKL-Q)
SCK LOW to data output hold time
-
-
25
ns
t(SCKL-NSSH)
SCK LOW to NSS HIGH time
0
-
-
ns
tNSSH
NSS HIGH time
50
-
-
ns
tNSSH
tSCKL
tSCKH
tSCKL
SCK
th(SCKL-Q)
tsu(D-SCKH)
th(SCKH-D)
MOSI
MSB
LSB
MISO
MSB
LSB
t(SCKL-NSSH)
NSS
aaa-016093
Fig 10. Connection to host with SPI
Remark: To send more bytes in one data stream the NSS signal must be LOW during the
send process. To send more than one data stream the NSS signal must be HIGH between
each data stream.
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7.4.3 RS232 interface
7.4.3.1
Selection of the transfer speeds
The internal UART interface is compatible to a RS232 serial interface. The levels supplied
to the pins are between VSS and PVDD. To achieve full compatibility of the voltage levels
to the RS232 specification, a RS232 level shifter is required.
Table 13 “Selectable transfer speeds” describes examples for different transfer speeds
and relevant register settings. The resulting transfer speed error is less than 1.5 % for all
described transfer speeds. The default transfer speed is 115.2 kbit/s.
To change the transfer speed, the host controller has to write a value for the new transfer
speed to the register SerialSpeedReg. The bits BR_T0 and BR_T1 define factors to set
the transfer speed in the SerialSpeedReg.
Table 12 “Settings of BR_T0 and BR_T1” describes the settings of BR_T0 and BR_T1.
Table 12.
Settings of BR_T0 and BR_T1
BR_T0
0
factor BR_T0
range BR_T1
Table 13.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
1 to 32
33 to 64 33 to 64 33 to 64 33 to 64 33 to 64 33 to 64 33 to 64
Selectable transfer speeds
Transfer speed (kbit/s)
Serial SpeedReg
Transfer speed accuracy (%)
(Hex.)
7.2
FA
0.25
9.6
EB
0.32
14.4
DA
0.25
19.2
CB
0.32
38.4
AB
0.32
57.6
9A
0.25
115.2
7A
0.25
128
74
0.06
230.4
5A
0.25
460.8
3A
0.25
921.6
1C
1.45
1228.8
15
0.32
The selectable transfer speeds as shown are calculated according to the following
formulas:
if BR_T0 = 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 1)
if BR_T0 > 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 33)/2(BR_T0  1)
Remark: Transfer speeds above 1228.8 kBits/s are not supported.
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7.4.3.2
Framing
Table 14.
UART framing
Bit
Length
Value
Start bit (Sa)
1 bit
0
Data bits
8 bit
Data
Stop bit (So)
1 bit
1
Remark: For data and address bytes the LSB bit has to be sent first. No parity bit is used
during transmission.
Read data: To read out data using the UART interface the flow described below has to be
used. The first send byte defines both the mode itself and the address.The Trigger on pin
IF3 has to be set, otherwise no read of data is possible.
Table 15.
Byte Order to Read Data
Mode
byte 0
byte 1
RX
address
-
TX
-
data 0
ADDRESS
RX
Sa
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
RD/
NWR
So
DATA
TX
Sa
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
So
001aam298
Fig 11. Example for UART Read
Write data:
To write data to the MFRC631 using the UART interface the following sequence has to be
used.
The first send byte defines both, the mode itself and the address.
Table 16.
Byte Order to Write Data
Mode
byte 0
byte 1
RX
address 0
data 0
TX
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address 0
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DATA
ADDRESS
RX
Sa
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
RD/
NWR
So
Sa
D0
RD/
NWR
So
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
So
ADDRESS
TX
Sa
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
001aam299
Fig 12. Example diagram for a UART write
Remark: Data can be sent before address is received.
7.4.4 I2C-bus interface
7.4.4.1
General
An Inter IC (I2C) bus interface is supported to enable a low cost, low pin count serial bus
interface to the host. The implemented I2C interface is mainly implemented according the
NXP Semiconductors I2C interface specification, rev. 3.0, June 2007. The MFRC631 can
act as a slave receiver or slave transmitter in standard mode, fast mode and fast mode
plus.
The following features defined by the NXP Semiconductors I2C interface specification,
rev. 3.0, June 2007 are not supported:
• The MFRC631 I2C interface does not stretch the clock
• The MFRC631 I2C interface does not support the general call. This means that the
MFRC631 does not support a software reset
• The MFRC631 does not support the I2C device ID
• The implemented interface can only act in slave mode. Therefore no clock generation
and access arbitration is implemented in the MFRC631.
• High speed mode is not supported by the MFRC631
PULL-UP
NETWORK
PULL-UP
NETWORK
MICROCONTROLLER
READER IC
SDA
SCL
001aam000
Fig 13. I2C-bus interface
The voltage level on the I2C pins is not allowed to be higher than PVDD.
SDA is a bidirectional line, connected to a positive supply voltage via a pull-up resistor.
Both lines SDA and SCL are set to HIGH level if no data is transmitted. Data on the
I2C-bus can be transferred at data rates of up to 400 kbit/s in fast mode, up to 1 Mbit/s in
the fast mode+.
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If the I2C interface is selected, a spike suppression according to the I2C interface
specification on SCL and SDA is automatically activated.
For timing requirements refer to Table 197 “I2C-bus timing in fast mode and fast mode
plus”
7.4.4.2
I2C Data validity
Data on the SDA line shall be stable during the HIGH period of the clock. The HIGH state
or LOW state of the data line shall only change when the clock signal on SCL is LOW.
SDA
SCL
data line stable;
data valid
change
of data
allowed
001aam300
Fig 14. Bit transfer on the I2C-bus.
7.4.4.3
I2C START and STOP conditions
To handle the data transfer on the I2C-bus, unique START (S) and STOP (P) conditions
are defined.
A START condition is defined with a HIGH-to-LOW transition on the SDA line while SCL is
HIGH.
A STOP condition is defined with a LOW-to-HIGH transition on the SDA line while SCL is
HIGH.
The master always generates the START and STOP conditions. The bus is considered to
be busy after the START condition. The bus is considered to be free again a certain time
after the STOP condition.
The bus stays busy if a repeated START (Sr) is generated instead of a STOP condition. In
this respect, the START (S) and repeated START (Sr) conditions are functionally identical.
Therefore, the S symbol will be used as a generic term to represent both the START and
repeated START (Sr) conditions.
SDA
SDA
SCL
SCL
S
P
START condition
STOP condition
001aam301
Fig 15. START and STOP conditions
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7.4.4.4
I2C byte format
Each byte has to be followed by an acknowledge bit. Data is transferred with the MSB
first, see Figure 15 “START and STOP conditions”. The number of transmitted bytes
during one data transfer is unrestricted but shall fulfil the read/write cycle format.
7.4.4.5
I2C Acknowledge
An acknowledge at the end of one data byte is mandatory. The acknowledge-related clock
pulse is generated by the master. The transmitter of data, either master or slave, releases
the SDA line (HIGH) during the acknowledge clock pulse. The receiver shall pull down the
SDA line during the acknowledge clock pulse so that it remains stable LOW during the
HIGH period of this clock pulse.
The master can then generate either a STOP (P) condition to stop the transfer, or a
repeated START (Sr) condition to start a new transfer.
A master-receiver shall indicate the end of data to the slave- transmitter by not generating
an acknowledge on the last byte that was clocked out by the slave. The slave-transmitter
shall release the data line to allow the master to generate a STOP (P) or repeated START
(Sr) condition.
DATA OUTPUT
BY TRANSMITTER
not acknowledge
DATA OUTPUT
BY RECEIVERER
acknowledge
SCL FROM
MASTER
2
1
8
9
S
clock pulse for
acknowledgement
START
condition
001aam302
Fig 16. Acknowledge on the I2C- bus
P
MSB
acknowledgement
signal from slave
acknowledgement
signal from receiver
Sr
byte complete,
interrupt within slave
clock line held low while
interrupts are serviced
S
or
Sr
1
2
7
8
9
ACK
1
2
3-8
9
ACK
Sr
or
P
001aam303
Fig 17. Data transfer on the I2C- bus
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7.4.4.6
I2C 7-bit addressing
During the I2C-bus addressing procedure, the first byte after the START condition is used
to determine which slave will be selected by the master.
Alternatively the I2C address can be configured in the EEPROM. Several address
numbers are reserved for this purpose. During device configuration, the designer has to
ensure, that no collision with these reserved addresses in the system is possible. Check
the corresponding I2C specification for a complete list of reserved addresses.
For all MFRC631 devices the upper 5 bits of the device bus address are reserved by NXP
and set to 01010(bin). The remaining 2 bits (ADR_2, ADR_1) of the slave address can be
freely configured by the customer in order to prevent collisions with other I2C devices by
using the interface pins (refer to Table 7) or the value of the I2C address EEPROM register
(refer to Table 29).
MSB
Bit 6
LSB
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
slave address
Bit 1
Bit 0
R/W
001aam304
Fig 18. First byte following the START procedure
7.4.4.7
I2C-register write access
To write data from the host controller via I2C to a specific register of the MFRC631 the
following frame format shall be used.
The read/write bit shall be set to logic 0.
The first byte of a frame indicates the device address according to the I2C rules. The
second byte indicates the register address followed by up to n-data bytes. In case the
address indicates the FIFO, in one frame all n-data bytes are written to the FIFO register
address. This enables for example a fast FIFO access.
7.4.4.8
I2C-register read access
To read out data from a specific register address of the MFRC631 the host controller shall
use the procedure:
First a write access to the specific register address has to be performed as indicated in the
following frame:
The first byte of a frame indicates the device address according to the I2C rules. The
second byte indicates the register address. No data bytes are added.
The read/write bit shall be logic 0.
Having performed this write access, the read access starts. The host sends the device
address of the MFRC631. As an answer to this device address the MFRC631 responds
with the content of the addressed register. In one frame n-data bytes could be read using
the same register address. The address pointing to the register is incremented
automatically (exception: FIFO register address is not incremented automatically). This
enables a fast transfer of register content. The address pointer is incremented
automatically and data is read from the locations [address], [address+1], [address+2]...
[address+(n-1)]
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In order to support a fast FIFO data transfer, the address pointer is not incremented
automatically in case the address is pointing to the FIFO.
The read/write bit shall be set to logic 1.
Write Cycle
I2C slave address
A7-A0
SA
0
(W)
Ack
Frontend IC register
address A6-A0
0
DATA
[7..0]
[0..n]
Ack
Ack
SO
Read Cycle
I2C slave address
A7-A0
SA
0
(W)
Ack
0
Frontend IC register
address A6-A0
Ack
SO
Optional, if the previous access was on the same register address
0..n
1
(R)
I2C slave address
A7-A0
SA
Ack
[0..n]
sent by master
DATA
[7..0]
Ack
DATA
[7..0]
Nack
SO
sent by slave
001aam305
Fig 19. Register read and write access
7.4.4.9
I2CL-bus interface
The MFRC631 provides an additional interface option for connection of a SAM. This
logical interface fulfills the I2C specification, but the rise/fall timings will not be compliant to
the I2C standard. The I2CL interface uses standard I/O pads, and the communication
speed is limited to 5 MBaud. The protocol itself is equivalent to the fast mode protocol of
I2C. The SCL levels are generated by the host in push/pull mode. The RC631 does not
stretch the clock. During the high period of SCL the status of the line is maintained by a
bus keeper.
The address is 01010xxb, where the last two bits of the address can be defined by the
application. The definition of this bits can be done by two options. With a pin, where the
higher bit is fixed to 0 or the configuration can be defined via EEPROM. Refer to the
EEPROM configuration in Section 7.7.
Table 17.
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Timing parameter I2CL
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
fSCL
0
5
MHz
tHD;STA
80
-
ns
tLOW
100
-
ns
tHIGH
100
-
ns
tSU;SDA
80
-
ns
tHD;DAT
0
50
ns
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Table 17.
Timing parameter I2CL
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
tSU;DAT
0
20
ns
tSU;STO
80
-
ns
tBUF
200
-
ns
The pull-up resistor is not required for the I2CL interface. Instead, a on chip buskeeper is
implemented in the MFRC631 for SDA of the I2CL interface. This protocol is intended to
be used for a point to point connection of devices over a short distance and does not
support a bus capability.The driver of the pin must force the line to the desired logic
voltage. To avoid that two drivers are pushing the line at the same time following
regulations must be fulfilled:
SCL: As there is no clock stretching, the SCL is always under control of the Master.
SDA: The SDA line is shared between master and slave. Therefore the master and the
slave must have the control over the own driver enable line of the SDA pin. The following
rules must be followed:
• In the idle phase the SDA line is driven high by the master
• In the time between start and stop condition the SDA line is driven by master or slave
when SCL is low. If SCL is high the SDA line is not driven by any device
• To keep the value on the SDA line a on chip buskeeper structure is implemented for
the line
7.4.5 SAM interface
7.4.5.1
SAM functionality
The MFRC631 implements a dedicated I2C or SPI interface to integrate a MIFARE SAM
(Secure Access Module) in a very convenient way into applications (e.g. a proximity
reader).
The SAM can be connected to the microcontroller to operate like a cryptographic
co-processor. For any cryptographic task, the microcontroller requests a operation from
the SAM, receives the answer and sends it over a host interface (e.g. I2C, SPI) interface
to the connected reader IC.
The MIFARE SAM supports a optimized method to integrate the SAM in a very efficient
way to reduce the protocol overhead. In this system configuration, the SAM is integrated
between the microprocessor and the reader IC, connected by one interface to the reader
IC and by another interface to the microcontroller. In this application the microcontroller
accesses the SAM using the T=1 protocol and the SAM accesses the reader IC using an
I2C interface. The I2C SAM address is always defined by EEPROM register. Default value
is 0101100. As the SAM is directly communicating with reader IC, the communication
overhead is reduced. In this configuration, a performance boost of up to 40% can be
achieved for a transaction time.
The MIFARE SAM supports applications using MIFARE cards. For multi application
purposes an architecture connecting the microcontroller additionally directly to the reader
IC is recommended. This is possible by connecting the MFRC631 on one interface (SAM
Interface SDA, SCL) with the MIFARE SAM AV2.6 (P5DF081XX/T1AR1070) and by
connecting the microcontroller to the S2C or SPI interface.
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T=1
μC
SAM
AV2.6
I2C
READER
IC
I2C
Reader
aaa-002963
Fig 20. I2C interface enables convenient MIFARE SAM integration
7.4.5.2
SAM connection
The MFRC631 provides an interface to connect a SAM dedicated to the MFRC631. Both
interface options of the MFRC631, I2C, I2CL or SPI can be used for this purpose. The
interface option of the SAM itself is configured by a host command sent from the host to
the SAM.
The I2CL interface is intended to be used as connection between two IC’s over a short
distance. The protocol fulfills the I2C specification, but does support a single device
connected to the bus only.
The SPI block for SAM connection is identical with the SPI host interface block.
The pins used for the SAM SPI are described in Table 18.
Table 18.
SPI SAM connection
SPI functionality
PIN
MISO
SDA2
SCL
SCL2
MOSI
IFSEL1
NSS
IFSEL0
7.4.6 Boundary scan interface
The MFRC631 provides a boundary scan interface according to the IEEE 1149.1. This
interface allows to test interconnections without using physical test probes. This is done
by test cells, assigned to each pin, which override the functionality of this pin.
To be able to program the test cells, the following commands are supported:
Table 19.
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
Boundary scan command
Value
(decimal)
Command
Parameter in
Parameter out
0
bypass
-
-
1
preload
data (24)
-
1
sample
-
data (24)
2
ID code (default)
-
data (32)
3
USER code
-
data (32)
4
Clamp
-
-
5
HIGH Z
-
-
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Table 19.
Boundary scan command
Value
(decimal)
Command
Parameter in
Parameter out
7
extest
data (24)
data (24)
8
interface on/off
interface (1)
-
9
register access read
address (7)
data (8)
10
register access write
address (7) - data (8)
-
The Standard IEEE 1149.1 describes the four basic blocks necessary to use this interface:
Test Access Port (TAP), TAP controller, TAP instruction register, TAP data register;
7.4.6.1
Interface signals
The boundary scan interface implements a four line interface between the chip and the
environment. There are three Inputs: Test Clock (TCK); Test Mode Select (TMS); Test
Data Input (TDI) and one output Test Data Output (TDO). TCK and TMS are broadcast
signals, TDI to TDO generate a serial line called Scan path.
Advantage of this technique is that independent of the numbers of boundary scan devices
the complete path can be handled with four signal lines.
The signals TCK, TMS are directly connected with the boundary scan controller. Because
these signals are responsible for the mode of the chip, all boundary scan devices in one
scan path will be in the same boundary scan mode.
7.4.6.2
Test Clock (TCK)
The TCK pin is the input clock for the module. If this clock is provided, the test logic is able
to operate independent of any other system clocks. In addition, it ensures that multiple
boundary scan controllers that are daisy-chained together can synchronously
communicate serial test data between components. During normal operation, TCK is
driven by a free-running clock. When necessary, TCK can be stopped at 0 or 1 for
extended periods of time. While TCK is stopped at 0 or 1, the state of the boundary scan
controller does not change and data in the Instruction and Data Registers is not lost.
The internal pull-up resistor on the TCK pin is enabled. This assures that no clocking
occurs if the pin is not driven from an external source.
7.4.6.3
Test Mode Select (TMS)
The TMS pin selects the next state of the boundary scan controller. TMS is sampled on
the rising edge of TCK. Depending on the current boundary scan state and the sampled
value of TMS, the next state is entered. Because the TMS pin is sampled on the rising
edge of TCK, the IEEE Standard 1149.1 expects the value on TMS to change on the
falling edge of TCK.
Holding TMS high for five consecutive TCK cycles drives the boundary scan controller
state machine to the Test-Logic-Reset state. When the boundary scan controller enters
the Test-Logic-Reset state, the Instruction Register (IR) resets to the default instruction,
IDCODE. Therefore, this sequence can be used as a reset mechanism.
The internal pull-up resistor on the TMS pin is enabled.
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7.4.6.4
Test Data Input (TDI)
The TDI pin provides a stream of serial information to the IR chain and the DR chains. TDI
is sampled on the rising edge of TCK and, depending on the current TAP state and the
current instruction, presents this data to the proper shift register chain. Because the TDI
pin is sampled on the rising edge of TCK, the IEEE Standard 1149.1 expects the value on
TDI to change on the falling edge of TCK.
The internal pull-up resistor on the TDI pin is enabled.
7.4.6.5
Test Data Output (TDO)
The TDO pin provides an output stream of serial information from the IR chain or the DR
chains. The value of TDO depends on the current TAP state, the current instruction, and
the data in the chain being accessed. In order to save power when the port is not being
used, the TDO pin is placed in an inactive drive state when not actively shifting out data.
Because TDO can be connected to the TDI of another controller in a daisy-chain
configuration, the IEEE Standard 1149.1 expects the value on TDO to change on the
falling edge of TCK.
7.4.6.6
Data register
According to the IEEE1149.1 standard there are two types of data register defined:
bypass and boundary scan
The bypass register enable the possibility to bypass a device when part of the scan
path.Serial data is allowed to be transferred through a device from the TDI pin to the TDO
pin without affecting the operation of the device.
The boundary scan register is the scan-chain of the boundary cells. The size of this
register is dependent on the command.
7.4.6.7
Boundary scan cell
The boundary scan cell opens the possibility to control a hardware pin independent of its
normal use case. Basically the cell can only do one of the following: control, output and
input.
TDI
TAP
TCK
IC2
LOGIC
Boundary scan cell
LOGIC
IC1
TDO
TDI
TMS
TAP
TCK
TDO
TMS
001aam306
Fig 21. Boundary scan cell path structure
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7.4.6.8
Boundary scan path
This chapter shows the boundary scan path of the MFRC631.
Table 20.
Boundary scan path of the MFRC631
Number (decimal)
Cell
Port
Function
23
BC_1
-
Control
22
BC_8
CLKOUT
Bidir
21
BC_1
-
Control
20
BC_8
SCL2
Bidir
19
BC_1
-
Control
18
BC_8
SDA2
Bidir
17
BC_1
-
Control
16
BC_8
IFSEL0
Bidir
15
BC_1
-
Control
14
BC_8
IFSEL1
Bidir
13
BC_1
-
Control
12
BC_8
IF0
Bidir
11
BC_1
-
Control
10
BC_8
IF1
Bidir
9
BC_1
-
Control
8
BC_8
IF2
Bidir
7
BC_1
IF2
Output2
6
BC_4
IF3
Bidir
5
BC_1
-
Control
4
BC_8
IRQ
Bidir
3
BC_1
-
Control
2
BC_8
SIGIN
Bidir
1
BC_1
-
Control
0
BC_8
SIGOUT
Bidir
Refer to the MFRC631 BSDL file.
7.4.6.9
Boundary Scan Description Language (BSDL)
All of the boundary scan devices have a unique boundary structure which is necessary to
know for operating the device. Important components of this language are:
•
•
•
•
•
available test bus signal
compliance pins
command register
data register
boundary scan structure (number and types of the cells, their function and the
connection to the pins.)
The MFRC631 is using the cell BC_8 for the IO-Lines. The I2C Pin is using a BC_4 cell.
For all pad enable lines the cell BC1 is used.
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The manufacturer's identification is 02Bh.
•
•
•
•
attribute IDCODEISTER of MFRC631: entity is "0001" and -- version
"0011110010000010b" and -- part number (3C82h)
"00000010101b" and -- manufacturer (02Bh)
"1b";
-- mandatory
The user code data is coded as followed:
• product ID (3 bytes)
• version
These four bytes are stored as the first four bytes in the EEPROM.
7.4.6.10
Non-IEEE1149.1 commands
Interface on/off: With this command the host/SAM interface can be deactivated and the
Read and Write command of the boundary scan interface is activated. (Data = 1). With
Update-DR the value is taken over.
Register Access Read: At Capture-DR the actual address is read and stored in the DR.
Shifting the DR is shifting in a new address. With Update-DR this address is taken over
into the actual address.
Register Access Write: At the Capture-DR the address and the data is taken over from
the DR. The data is copied into the internal register at the given address.
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7.5
Buffer
7.5.1 Overview
An 512  8-bit FIFO buffer is implemented in the MFRC631. It buffers the input and output
data stream between the host and the internal state machine of the MFRC631. Thus, it is
possible to handle data streams with lengths of up to 512 bytes without taking timing
constraints into account. The FIFO can also be limited to a size of 255 byte. In this case all
the parameters (FIFO length, Watermark...) require a single byte only for definition. In
case of a 512 byte FIFO length the definition of this values requires 2 bytes.
7.5.2 Accessing the FIFO buffer
When the -Controller starts a command, the MFRC631 may, while the command is in
progress, access the FIFO-buffer according to that command. Physically only one
FIFO-buffer is implemented, which can be used in input and output direction. Therefore
the -Controller has to take care, not to access the FIFO buffer in a way that corrupts the
FIFO data.
7.5.3 Controlling the FIFO buffer
Besides writing to and reading from the FIFO buffer, the FIFO-buffer pointers might be
reset by setting the bit FIFOFlush in FIFOControl to 1. Consequently, the FIFOLevel bits
are set to logic 0, the actually stored bytes are not accessible any more and the FIFO
buffer can be filled with another 512 bytes (or 255 bytes if the bit FIFOSize is set to 1)
again.
7.5.4 Status Information about the FIFO buffer
The host may obtain the following data about the FIFO-buffers status:
• Number of bytes already stored in the FIFO-buffer. Writing increments, reading
decrements the FIFO level: FIFOLength in register FIFOLength (and FIFOControl
Register in 512 byte mode)
• Warning, that the FIFO-buffer is almost full: HiAlert in register FIFOControl according
to the value of the water level in register WaterLevel (Register 02h bit [2], Register
03h bit[7:0])
• Warning, that the FIFO-buffer is almost empty: LoAlert in register FIFOControl
according to the value of the water level in register WaterLevel (Register 02h bit [2],
Register 03h bit[7:0])
• FIFOOvl bit indicates, that bytes were written to the FIFO buffer although it was
already full: ErrIRQ in register IRQ0.
WaterLevel is one single value defining both HiAlert (counting from the FIFO top) and
LoAlert (counting from the FIFO bottom). The MFRC631 can generate an interrupt signal
if:
• LoAlertIRQEn in register IRQ0En is set to logic 1 it will activate pin IRQ when LoAlert
in the register FIFOControl changes to 1.
• HiAlertIRQEN in register IRQ0En is set to logic 1 it will activate pin IRQ when HiAlert
in the register FIFOControl changes to 1.
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The bit HiAlert is set to logic 1 if maximum water level bytes (as set in register WaterLevel)
or less can be stored in the FIFO-buffer. It is generated according to the following
equation:
HiAlert =  FiFoSize – FiFoLength   WaterLevel
(2)
The bit LoAlert is set to logic 1 if water level bytes (as set in register WaterLevel) or less
are actually stored in the FIFO-buffer. It is generated according to the following equation:
LoAlert = FIFOLength  WaterLevel
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7.6 Analog interface and contactless UART
7.6.1 General
The integrated contactless UART supports the external host online with framing and error
checking of the protocol requirements up to 848 kbit/s. An external circuit can be
connected to the communication interface pins SIGIN and SIGOUT to modulate and
demodulate the data.
The contactless UART handles the protocol requirements for the communication schemes
in co-operation with the host. The protocol handling itself generates bit- and byte-oriented
framing and handles error detection like Parity and CRC according to the different
contactless communication schemes.
The size, the tuning of the antenna, and the supply voltage of the output drivers have an
impact on the achievable field strength. The operating distance between reader and card
depends additionally on the type of card used.
7.6.2 TX transmitter
The signal delivered on pin TX1 and pin TX2 is the 13.56 MHz carrier modulated by an
envelope signal for energy and data transmission. It can be used to drive an antenna
directly, using a few passive components for matching and filtering, see Section 13
“Application information”. The signal on TX1 and TX2 can be configured by the register
DrvMode, see Section 8.8.1 “TxMode”.
The modulation index can be set by the TxAmp.
Following figure shows the general relations during modulation
influenced by set_clk_mode
envelope
TX ASK100
TX ASK10
(1)
(2)
1: Defined by set_cw_amplitude.
2: Defined by set_residual_carrier.
time
001aan355
Fig 22. General dependences of modulation
Note: When changing the continuous carrier amplitude, the residual carrier amplitude also
changes, while the modulation index remains the same.
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The registers Section 8.8 and Section 8.10 control the data rate, the framing during
transmission and the setting of the antenna driver to support the requirements at the
different specified modes and transfer speeds.
Table 21.
Settings for TX1 and TX2
TxClkMode
(binary)
Tx1 and TX2 output
Remarks
000
High impedance
-
001
0
output pulled to 0 in any case
010
1
output pulled to 1 in any case
110
RF high side push
open drain, only high side (push) MOS supplied
with clock, clock parity defined by invtx; low side
MOS is off
101
RF low side pull
open drain, only low side (pull) MOS supplied
with clock, clock parity defined by invtx; high
side MOS is off
111
13.56 MHz clock derived
from 27.12 MHz quartz
divided by 2
push/pull Operation, clock polarity defined by
invtx; setting for 10% modulation
Register TXamp and the bits for set_residual_carrier define the modulation index:
Table 22.
MFRC631
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Setting residual carrier and modulation index by TXamp.set_residual_carrier
set_residual_carrier (decimal) residual carrier [%]
modulation index [%]
0
99
0.5
1
98
1.0
2
96
2.0
3
94
3.1
4
91
4.7
5
89
5.8
6
87
7.0
7
86
7.5
8
85
8.1
9
84
8.7
10
83
9.3
11
82
9.9
12
81
10.5
13
80
11.1
14
79
11.7
15
78
12.4
16
77
13.0
17
76
13.6
18
75
14.3
19
74
14.9
20
72
16.3
21
70
17.6
22
68
19.0
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Table 22.
Setting residual carrier …continuedand modulation index by
set_residual_carrier (decimal) residual carrier [%]
modulation index [%]
23
65
21.2
24
60
25.0
25
55
29.0
26
50
33.3
27
45
37.9
28
40
42.9
29
35
48.1
30
30
53.8
31
25
60.0
Note: At VDD(TVDD) <5 V and residual carrier settings <50%, the accuracy of the
modulation index may be low in dependency of the antenna tuning impedance
7.6.2.1
Overshoot protection
The MFRC631 provides an overshoot protection for 100% ASK to avoid overshoots
during a PCD communication. Therefore two timers overshoot_t1 and overshoot_t2 can
be used.
During the timer overshoot_t1 runs an amplitude defined by set_cw_amplitude bits is
provided to the output driver. Followed by an amplitude denoted by set_residual_carrier
bits with the duration of overshoot_t2.
7.0
(V)
5.0
3.0
1.0
-1.0
2.50
3.03
3.56
4.10
time (μs)
001aan356
Fig 23. Example 1: overshoot_t1 = 2d; overhoot_t2 = 5d.
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7.0
(V)
5.0
3.0
1.0
-1.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
time (μs)
001aan357
Fig 24. Example 2: overshoot_t1 = 0d; overhoot_t2 = 5d
7.6.2.2
Bit generator
The default coding of a data stream is done by using the Bit-Generator. It is activated
when the value of TxFrameCon.DCodeType is set to 0000 (bin). The Bit-Generator
encodes the data stream byte-wise and can apply the following encoding steps to each
data byte.
1. Add a start-bit of specified type at beginning of every byte
2. Add a stop-bit and EGT bits of a specified type. The maximum number of EGT bit is 6,
only full bits are supported
3. Add a parity-bit of a specified type
4. TxFirstBits (skips a given number of bits at the beginning of the first byte in a frame)
5. TxLastBits (skips a given number of bits at the end of the last byte in a frame)
6. Encrypt data-bit (MIFARE encryption)
TxFirstBits and TxLastBits can be used at the same time. If only a single data byte is sent,
it must be ensured that the range of TxFirstBits and TxLastBits do not overlap. It is not
possible to skip more than 8 bit of a single byte! ( (8 - TxFirstBits) + (8 - TxLastBits) ) < 8
By default, data bytes are always treated LSB first. To make use of a MSB first coding, the
TxMSBFirst in the register CLCON1 needs to be set.
7.6.3 Receiver circuitry
7.6.3.1
General
The MFRC631 features a versatile quadrature receiver architecture with fully differential
signal input at RXP and RXN. It can be configured to achieve optimum performance for
reception of various 13.56 MHz based protocols.
For all processing units various adjustments can be made to obtain optimum
performance.
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7.6.3.2
Block diagram
Figure 25 shows the block diagram of the receiver circuitry. The receiving process
includes several steps. First the quadrature demodulation of the carrier signal of
13.56 MHz is done. Several tuning steps in this circuit are possible.
fully/quasi-differential
rcv_hpcf<1:0>
rcv_gain<1:0>
rx_p
mixer
rx_n
mix_out_i_p
out_i_p
mix_out_i_n
out_i_n
2-stage BBA
I-clks
rx_p
rx_n
clk_27 MHz
DATA
13.56 MHz
I/O CLOCK
GENERATION
TIMING
GENERATION
ADC
clk_27 MHz
Q-clks
Adc_data_ready
2-stage BBA
rx_p
mix_out_q_p
out_q_p
rx_n
mix_out_q_n
out_q_n
DATA
mixer
rcv_gain<1:0>
fully/quasi-differential
rcv_hpcf<1:0>
001aan358
Fig 25. Block diagram of receiver circuitry
The receiver can also be operated in a single ended mode. In this case the
Rcv_RX_single bit has to be set. In the single ended mode, the two receiver pins RXP and
RXN need to be connected together and will provide a single ended signal to the receiver
circuitry.
When using the receiver in a single ended mode the receiver sensitivity is decreased and
the achievable reading distance might be reduced, compared to the fully differential mode.
Table 23.
Configuration for single or differential receiver
Mode
rcv_rx_single
pins RXP and RXN
Fully differential
0
provide differential signal from
differential antenna by separate
rx-coupling branches
Quasi differential
1
connect RXP and RXN together
and provide single ended signal
from antenna by a single
rx-coupling branch
The quadrature-demodulator uses two different clocks, Q-clock and I-clock, with a phase
shift of 90 between them. Both resulting baseband signals are amplified, filtered, digitized
and forwarded to a correlation circuitry.
The typical application is intended to implement the Fully differential mode and will deliver
maximum reader/writer distance. The Quasi differential mode can be used together with
dedicated antenna topologies that allow a reduction of matching components at the cost
of overall reading performance.
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During low power card detection the DC levels at the I- and Q-channel mixer outputs are
evaluated. This requires that mixers are directly connected to the ADC. This can be
configured by setting the bit Rx_ADCmode in register Rcv (38h).
7.6.4 Active antenna concept
Two main blocks are implemented in the MFRC631. A digital circuitry, comprising state
machines, coder and decoder logic and an analog circuitry with the modulator and
antenna drivers, receiver and amplification circuitry. For example, the interface between
these two blocks can be configured in the way, that the interfacing signals may be routed
to the pins SIGIN and SIGOUT. The most important use of this topology is the active
antenna concept where the digital and the analog blocks are separated. This opens the
possibility to connect e.g. an additional digital block of another MFRC631 device with a
single analog antenna front-end.
SIGIN
READER IC
(DIGITAL)
SIGOUT
SIGOUT
SIGIN
READER IC
(ANTENNA)
001aam307
Fig 26. Block diagram of the active Antenna concept
The Table 24 and Table 25 describe the necessary register configuration for the use case
active antenna concept.
Table 24.
Register configuration of MFRC631 active antenna concept (DIGITAL)
Register
Value (binary)
Description
SigOut.SigOutSel
0100
TxEnvelope
Rcv.SigInSel
10
11
Receive over SigIn (ISO/IEC14443A)
Receive over SigIn (Generic Code)
DrvCon.TxSel
00
Low (idle)
Table 25.
Register configuration of MFRC631 active antenna concept (Antenna)
Register
Value (binary)
Description
SigOut.SigOutSel
0110
0111
Generic Code (Manchester)
Manchester with Subcarrier (ISO/IEC14443A)
Rcv.SigInSel
01
Internal
DrvCon.TxSel
10
External (SigIn)
RxCtrl.RxMultiple
1
RxMultiple on
The interface between these two blocks can be configured in the way, that the interfacing
signals may be routed to the pins SIGIN and SIGOUT (see Figure 27 “Overview
SIGIN/SIGOUT Signal Routing”).
This topology supports, that some parts of the analog part of the MFRC631 may be
connected to the digital part of another device.
The switch SigOutSel in registerSigOut can be used to measure signals. This is especially
important during the design In phase or for test purposes to check the transmitted and
received data.
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However, the most important use of SIGIN/SIGOUT pins is the active antenna concept.
An external active antenna circuit can be connected to the digital circuit of the MFRC631.
SigOutSel has to be configured in that way that the signal of the internal Miller Coder is
sent to SIGOUT pin (SigOutSel = 4). SigInSel has to be configured to receive Manchester
signal with sub-carrier from SIGIN pin (SigInSel = 1).
It is possible, to connect a passive antenna to pins TX1, TX2 and RX (via the appropriate
filter and matching circuit) and at the same time an active antenna to the pins SIGOUT
and SIGIN. In this configuration, two RF-parts may be driven (one after another) by a
single host processor.
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SIGOUT
TX bit stream
tri-state
LOW
HIGH
TX envelope
TX active
S3C signal
RX envelope
RX active
RX bit signal
CODER
DIGITAL MODULE
DECODER
tri-state
internal analog block
SIGIN over envelope
SIGIN generic
No_nodulation
TX envelope
SIGIN
RFU
0
1
2
3 TxCon.TxSel
[1:0]
TX2
MODULATOR
DRIVER
TX1
ANALOG MODULE
SUBCARRIER
DEMODULATOR
DEMODULATOR
SIGIN
RXN
RXP
001aam001
Fig 27. Overview SIGIN/SIGOUT Signal Routing
MFRC631
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RX bit stream
0
1
2
Sigpro_in_sel 3
[1:0]
0, 1
2
SIGOUTSel[4:0]
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
MFRC631
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High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
7.6.5 Symbol generator
The symbol generator is used to create various protocol symbols. These can be e.g. SOF
or EOF symbols as they are used by the ISO14443 protocols or proprietary protocol
symbols.
Symbols are defined by means of the symbol definition registers and the mode registers.
Four different symbols can be used. Two of them, Symbol0 and Symbol1 have a
maximum pattern length of 16 bit and feature a burst length of up to 256 bits of either logic
“0” or logic “1”. The Symbol2 and Symbol3 are limited to 8 bit pattern length and do not
support a burst.
The definition of symbol patterns is done by writing the bit sequence of the pattern to the
appropriate register. The last bit of the pattern to be sent is located at the LSB of the
register. By setting the symbol length in the symbol-length register (TxSym10Len and
TxSym32Len) the definition of the symbol pattern is completed. All other bits at
bit-position higher than the symbol length in the definition register are ignored. (Example:
length of Symbol2 = 5, bit7 and bit6 are ignored, bit5 to bit0 define the symbol pattern, bit5
is sent first)
Which symbol-pattern is sent can be configured in the TxFrameCon register. Symbol0,
Symbol1 and Symbol2 can be sent before data packets, Symbol1, Symbol2 and Symbol3
can be sent after data packets. Each symbol is defined by a set of registers. Symbols are
configured by a pair of registers. Symbol0 and Symbol1 share the same configuration and
Symbol2 and Symbol3 share the same configuration. The configuration includes setting of
bit-clock- and subcarrier-frequency, as well as selection of the pulse type/length and the
envelope type.
7.7 Memory
7.7.1 Memory overview
The MFRC631 implements three different memories: EEPROM, FIFO and Registers.
At startup, the initialization of the registers which define the behavior of the IC is
performed by an automatic copy of an EEPROM area (read/write EEPROM section1 and
section2, register reset) into the registers. The behavior of the MFRC631 can be changed
by executing the command LoadProtocol, which copies a selected default protocol from
the EEPROM (read only EEPROM section4, register Set Protocol area) into the registers.
The read/write EEPROM section2 can be used to store any user data or predefined
register settings. These predefined settings can be copied with the command
"LoadRegister" into the internal registers.
The FIFO is used as Input/Out buffer and is able to improve the performance of a system
with limited interface speed.
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7.7.2 EEPROM memory organization
The MFRC631 has implemented a EEPROM non-volatile memory with a size of 8 kB.The
EEPROM is organized in pages of 64 bytes. One page of 64 bytes can be programmed at
a time. Defined purposes had been assigned to specific memory areas of the EEPROM,
which are called Sections. Five sections 0..4 with different purpose do exist.
Table 26.
EEPROM memory organization
Section
Page
Byte
addresses
Access
rights
Memory content
0
0
00 to 31
r
product information and configuration
32 to 63
r/w
product configuration
1
1 to 2
64 to 191
r/w
register reset
2
3 to 95
192 to 6143
r/w
free
3
96 to 111
6144 to 7167
w
MIFARE key
4
112 to 128
7168 to 8191
r
Register Set Protocol (RSP)
The following figure show the structure of the EEPROM:
Section 0:
Production and config
Section 1:
Register reset
Section 2:
Free
Section 3:
MIFARE key area (MKA)
Section 4_TX:
RSP-Area for TX
Section 4_RX:
RSP-Area for RX
001aan359
Fig 28. Sector arrangement of the EEPROM
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7.7.2.1
Product information and configuration - Page 0
The first EEPROM page includes production data as well as configuration information.
Table 27.
Production area (Page 0)
Address
(Hex.)
0
00
ProductID
08
Unique Identifier
10
ManufacturerData
18
ManufacturerData
1
2
3
4
5
Version
Unique Identifier
6
7
Manufacturer
Data
ProductID: Identifier for this MFRC631 product, only address 01h shall be evaluated for
identifying the Product CLRC663, address 00h and 02h shall be ignored by software.
Table 28.
Product ID overview of CLRC663 family
Address 01h
Product ID
CLRC663
01h
MFRC631
C0h
MFRC630
80h
SLRC610
20h
Version: This register indicates the version of the EEPROM initialization data during
production. (Identification of the Hardware version is available in the register 7Fh, not in
the EEPROM Version address. The hardware information in register 7Fh is hardwired and
therefore independent from any EEPROM configuration.)
Unique Identifier: Unique number code for this device
Manufacturer Data: This data is programmed during production. The content is not
intended to be used by any application and might be not the same for different devices.
Therefore this content needs to be considered to be undefined.
Table 29.
Configuration area (Page 0)
Address 0
(Hex.)
20
I2C_Address
28
RxCRCPreset
30
-
38
-
1
2
Interface
3
4
5
6
I2C SAM_Address DefaultProtRx
DefaultProtTx
-
TxCRCPreset
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
I2C-Address: Two possibilities exist to define the address of the I2C interface. This can be
done either by configuring the pins IF0, IF2 (address is then 10101xx, xx is defined by the
interface pins IF0, IF2) or by writing value into the I2C address area. The selection, which
of this 2-information pin configuration or EEPROM content - is used as I2C-address is
done at EEPROM address 21h (Interface, bit4)
Interface: This section describes the interface byte configuration.
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Table 30.
Interface byte
Bit
access rights
7
6
5
4
3
2
I2C_HSP
-
-
I2C_Address
Boundary Scan
Host
r/w
RFU
RFU
r/w
r/w
-
Table 31.
1
0
-
-
Interface bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
I2C_HSP
when cleared, the high speed mode is used
when set, the high speed+ mode is used (default)
6, 5
RFU
-
4
I2C_Address
when cleared, the pins are used (default)
when set, the EEPROM is used
3
Boundary
Scan
when cleared, the boundary scan interface is ON (default)
when set, the boundary scan is OFF
2 to 0
Host
000b - RS232
001b - I2C
010b - SPI
011b - I2CL
1xxb - pin selection
I2C_SAM_Address: The I2C SAM Address is always defined by the EEPROM content.
The Register Set Protocol (RSP) Area contains settings for the TX registers (16 bytes)
and for the RX registers (8 bytes).
Table 32.
Tx and Rx arrangements in the register set protocol area
Section
Section 4 TX
Tx0
Tx1
TX2
Tx3
Section 4 TX
Tx4
Tx5
TX6
TX7
Section 4 Rx
RX0
RX1
RX2
RX3
RX4
RX5
RX6
RX7
Section 4 Rx
RX8
RX9
RX10
RX11
RX12
RX13
RX14
RX15
TxCrcPreset: The data bits are send by the analog module and are automatically
extended by a CRC.
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7.7.3 EEPROM initialization content LoadProtocol
The MFRC631 EEPROM is initialized at production with values which are used to reset
certain registers of the MFRC631 to default settings by copying the EEprom content to the
registers. Only registers or bits with “read/write” or “dynamic” access rights are initialized
with this default values copied from the EEProm.
Note that the addresses used for copying reset values from EEprom to registers are
dependent on the configured protocol and can be changed by the user.
Table 33.
Register reset values (Hex.) (Page0)
Address
0 (8)
Function
Product ID
00
XX
Function
Unique Identifier
08
XX
XX
Function
TrimLFO
Factory trim values
10
XX
XX
Function
Factory trim values
18....
XX
1 (9)
2 (A)
see table 34 XX
XX
3 (B)
4 (C)
5 (D)
Version
Unique Identifier
XX
XX
XX
6 (E)
7 (F)
XX
XX
Factory trim
value
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
Factory trim values
....38
XX
XX
The register reset values are configuration parameters used after startup of the IC. They
can be changed to modify the default behavior of the device. In addition to this register
reset values, is the possibility to load settings for various user implemented protocols.The
load protocol command is used for this purpose.
Table 34.
Register reset values (Hex.)(Page1 and page 2)
Address
0 (8)
1 (9)
2 (A)
3 (B)
4 (C)
5 (D)
6 (E)
7 (F)
Command
HostCtrl
FiFoControl
WaterLevel
FiFoLength
FiFoData
IRQ0
IRQ1
40
40
00
80
05
00
00
00
00
IRQ0En
IRQ1En
Error
Status
RxBitCtrl
RxColl
TControl
T0Control
10
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
T0ReloadHi T0ReloadLo T0Counter
ValHi
T0Counter
ValLo
T1Control
T1ReloadHi T1ReloadLo T1Counter
ValHi
00
80
00
00
00
00
80
00
T1Counter
ValLo
T2Control
T2ReloadHi T2ReloadLo T2Counter
ValHi
T2Counter
ValLo
T3Control
T3ReloadHi
00
00
00
80
00
00
00
00
T3ReloadLo T3Counter
ValHi
T3Counter
ValHi
T4Control
T4ReloadHi T4ReloadLo T4Counter
ValHi
T4Counter
ValLo
80
00
00
00
00
48
50
58
60
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Table 34.
Register reset values (Hex.)(Page1 and page 2) …continued
Address
0 (8)
1 (9)
2 (A)
3 (B)
4 (C)
5 (D)
6 (E)
DrvMode
TxAmp
DrvCon
Txl
TxCRC
Preset
RxCRC
Preset
TxDataNum TxModWith
86
15
11
06
18
18
08
27
TxSym10
BurstLen
TxWaitCtrl
TxWaitLo
FrameCon
RxSofD
RxCtrl
RxWait
RxThres
hold
00
C0
12
CF
00
04
90
3F
Rcv
RxAna
RFU
SerialSpeed LFO_trimm
PLL_Ctrl
PLL_Div
LPCD_QMi
n
12
0A
00
7A
80
04
20
48
LPCD_
QMax
LPCD_IMin
LPCD
_result_I
LPCD
_result_Q
PadEn
PadOut
PadIn
SigOut
12
88
00
00
00
00
00
00
TxBitMod
RFU
TxDataCon
TxDataMod
TxSymFreq
TxSym0H
TySym0L
TxSym1H
20
xx
04
50
40
00
00
00
TxSym1L
TxSym2
TxSym3
TxSym10Le TxSym32Le TxSym32Bu TxSym10M
ngth
ngth
rstCtrl
od
TxSym32M
od
90
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x50
RxBitMod
RxEOFSym RxSyncValH RxSyncValL RxSyncMod RxMod
RXCorr
FabCal
98
0x02
0x00
0x08
0xB2
68
70
78
80
88
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0x01
0x00
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0x08
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7.8 Clock generation
7.8.1 Crystal oscillator
The clock applied to the MFRC631 acts as time basis for generation of the carrier sent out
at TX and for the quadrature mixer I and Q clock generation as well as for the coder and
decoder of the synchronous system. Therefore stability of the clock frequency is an
important factor for proper performance. To obtain highest performance, clock jitter has to
be as small as possible. This is best achieved by using the internal oscillator buffer with
the recommended circuitry.
READER IC
XTAL1
XTAL2
27.12 MHz
001aam308
Fig 29. Quartz connection
Table 35.
Crystal requirements recommendations
Symbol
Parameter
fxtal
Conditions
Min
Typ
max
Unit
crystal frequency
-
27.12
-
MHz
fxtal/fxtal
relative crystal
frequency variation
250
-
+250
ppm
ESR
equivalent series
resistance
-
50
100

CL
load capacitance
-
10
-
pF
Pxtal
crystal power
dissipation
-
50
100
W
7.8.2 IntegerN PLL clock line
The MFRC631 is able to provide a clock with configurable frequency at CLKOUT from
1 MHz to 24 MHz (PLL_Ctrl and PLL_DIV). There it can serve as a clock source to a
microcontroller which avoids the need of a second crystal oscillator in the reader system.
Clock source for the IntegerN-PLL is the 27.12 MHz crystal oscillator.
Two dividers are determining the output frequency. First a feedback integer-N divider
configures the VCO frequency to be N  fin/2 (control signal pll_set_divfb). As supported
Feedback Divider Ratios are 23, 27 and 28, VCO frequencies can be
23  fin / 2 (312 MHz), 27  fin / 2 (366 MHz) and 28  fin / 2 (380 MHz).
The VCO frequency is divided by a factor which is defined by the output divider
(pll_set_divout). Table 36 “Divider values for selected frequencies using the integerN PLL”
shows the accuracy achieved for various frequencies (integer multiples of 1 MHz and
some typical RS232 frequencies) and the divider ratios to be used. The register bit
ClkOutEn enables the clock at CLKOUT pin.
The following formula can be used to calculate the output frequency:
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fout = 13.56 MHz  PLLDiv_FB /PLLDiv_Out
Table 36.
Divider values for selected frequencies using the integerN PLL
Frequency [MHz]
4
6
8
10
12
20
24
1.8432
3.6864
PLLDiv_FB
23
27
23
28
23
28
23
28
28
PLLDiv_Out
78
61
39
38
26
19
16
206
103
accuracy [%]
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.08
0.04
0.08
0.04
0.01
0.01
7.8.3 Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO)
The Low-Frequency (LFO) is implemented to drive a wake-up counter (WUC). This wakes
up the system in regular time intervals and eases the design of a reader that is regularly
polling for card presence or implements a low-power card detection.
The LFO is trimmed during production to run at 16 kHz. Unless a high accuracy of the
LFO is required by the application and the device is operated in an environment with
changing ambient temperatures, trimming of the LFO is not required. For a typical
application making use of the LFO for wake up from power down, the trim value set during
production can be used. Optional trimming to achieve a higher accuracy of the 16 kHz
LFO clock is supported by a digital state machine which compares LFO-clock to a
reference clock. As reference clockfrequency the 13.56 MHz crystal clock is available.
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7.9 Power management
7.9.1 Supply concept
The MFRC631 is supplied by VDD (Supply Voltage), PVDD (Pad Supply) and TVDD
(Transmitter Power Supply). These three voltages are independent from each other.
To connect the MFRC631 to a Microcontroller supplied by 3.3 V, PVDD and VDD shall be
at a level of 3.3 V, TVDD can be in a range from 3.3 V to 5.0 V. A higher supply voltage at
TVDD will result in a higher field strength.
Independent of the voltage it is recommended to buffer these supplies with blocking
capacitances close to the terminals of the package. VDD and PVDD are recommended to
be blocked with a capacitor of 100 nF min, TVDD is recommended to be blocked with 2
capacitors, 100 nF parallel to 1.0 F
AVDD and DVDD are not supply input pins. They are output pins and shall be connected
to blocking capacitors 470 nF each.
7.9.2 Power reduction mode
7.9.2.1
Power-down
A hard power-down is enabled with HIGH level on pin PDOWN. This turns off the internal
1.8 V voltage regulators for the analog and digital core supply as well as the oscillator. All
digital input buffers are separated from the input pads and clamped internally (except pin
PDOWN itself). The output pins are switched to high impedance. HardPowerDown is
performing a reset of the IC. All registers will be reset, the Fifo will be cleared.
To leave the power-down mode the level at the pin PDOWN as to be set to LOW. This will
start the internal start-up sequence.
7.9.2.2
Standby mode
The standby mode is entered immediately after setting the bit PowerDown in the register
Command. All internal current sinks are switched off. Voltage references and voltage
regulators will be set into stand-by mode.
In opposition to the power-down mode, the digital input buffers are not separated by the
input pads and keep their functionality. The digital output pins do not change their state.
During standby mode, all registers values, the FIFO’s content and the configuration itself
will keep its current content.
To leave the standby mode the bit PowerDown in the register Command is cleared. This
will trigger the internal start-up sequence. The reader IC is in full operation mode again
when the internal start-up sequence is finalized (the typical duration is 15 us).
A value of 55h must be sent to the MFRC631 using the RS232 interface to leave the
standby mode. This is must at RS232, but cannot be used for the I2C/SPI interface. Then
read accesses shall be performed at address 00h until the device returns the content of
this address. The return of the content of address 00h indicates that the device is ready to
receive further commands and the internal start-up sequence is finalized.
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7.9.2.3
Modem off mode
When the ModemOff bit in the register Control is set the antenna transmitter and the
receiver are switched off.
To leave the modem off mode clears the ModemOff bit in the register Control.
7.9.3 Low-Power Card Detection (LPCD)
The low-power card detection is an energy saving mode in which the MFRC631 is not fully
powered permanently.
The LPCD works in two phases. First the standby phase is controlled by the wake-up
counter (WUC), which defines the duration of the standby of the MFRC631. Second
phase is the detection-phase. In this phase the values of the I and Q channel are detected
and stored in the register map. (LPCD_I_Result, LPCD_Q_Result).This time period can
be handled with Timer3. The value is compared with the min/max values in the registers
(LPCD_IMin, LPCD_IMax; LPCD_QMin, LPCD_QMax). If it exceeds the limits, a
LPCDIRQ is raised.
After the command LPCD the standby of the MFRC631 is activated, if selected. The
wake-up Timer4 can activate the system after a given time. For the LPCD it is
recommended to set T4AutoWakeUp and T4AutoRestart, to start the timer and then go to
standby. If a card is detected the communication can be started. If T4AutoWakeUp is not
set, the IC will not enter Standby mode in case no card is detected.
7.9.4 Reset and start-up time
A 10 s constant high level at the PDOWN pin starts the internal reset procedure.
The following figure shows the internal voltage regulator:
VDD
PVDD
1.8 V
GLITCH
FILTER
PDown
AVDD
INTERNAL VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
1.8 V
VSS
DVDD
VSS
001aan360
Fig 30. Internal PDown to voltage regulator logic
When the MFRC631 has finished the reset phase and the oscillator has entered a stable
working condition the IC is ready to be used. A typical duration before the IC is ready to
receive commands after the reset had been released is 2.5ms.
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7.10 Command set
7.10.1 General
The behavior is determined by a state machine capable to perform a certain set of
commands. By writing a command-code to the command register the command is
executed.
Arguments and/or data necessary to process a command, are exchanged via the FIFO
buffer.
• Each command that needs a certain number of arguments will start processing only
when it has received the correct number of arguments via the FIFO buffer.
• The FIFO buffer is not cleared automatically at command start. It is recommended to
write the command arguments and/or the data bytes into the FIFO buffer and start the
command afterwards.
• Each command may be stopped by the host by writing a new command code into the
command register e.g.: the Idle-Command.
7.10.2 Command set overview
Table 37.
Command set
Command
No.
Parameter (bytes)
Short description
Idle
00h
-
no action, cancels current command execution
LPCD
01h
-
low-power card detection
LoadKey
02h
(keybyte1),(keybyte2), (keybyte3),
(keybyte4), (keybyte5),(keybyte6);
reads a MIFARE key (size of 6 bytes) from FIFO buffer
ant puts it into Key buffer
MFAuthent
03h
60h or 61h, (block address), (card
serial number byte0),(card serial
number byte1), (card serial number
byte2),(card serial number byte3);
performs the MIFARE standard authentication
Receive
05h
-
activates the receive circuit
Transmit
06h
bytes to send: byte1, byte2,....
transmits data from the FIFO buffer
Transceive
07h
bytes to send: byte1, byte2,....
transmits data from the FIFO buffer and automatically
activates the receiver after transmission finished
WriteE2
08h
addressH, addressL, data;
gets one byte from FIFO buffer and writes it to the
internal EEPROM
WriteE2Page
09h
(page Address), data0, [data1
..data63];
gets up to 64 bytes (one EEPROM page) from the FIFO
buffer and writes it to the EEPROM
ReadE2
0Ah
addressH, address L, length;
reads data from the EEPROM and copies it into the
FIFO buffer
LoadReg
0Ch
(EEPROM addressH), (EEPROM
addressL), RegAdr, (number of
Register to be copied);
reads data from the internal EEPROM and initializes the
MFRC631 registers. EEPROM address needs to be
within EEPROM sector 2
LoadProtocol
0Dh
(Protocol number RX), (Protocol
number TX);
reads data from the internal EEPROM and initializes the
MFRC631 registers needed for a Protocol change
LoadKeyE2
0Eh
KeyNr;
copies a key from the EEPROM into the key buffer
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Table 37.
Command set …continued
Command
No.
Parameter (bytes)
Short description
StoreKeyE2
0Fh
KeyNr, byte1,byte2, byte3, byte4,
byte5,byte6;
stores a MIFARE key (size of 6 bytes) into the EEPROM
ReadRNR
1Ch
-
Copies bytes from the Random Number generator into
the FIFO until the FiFo is full
Soft Reset
1Fh
-
resets the MFRC631
7.10.3 Command functionality
7.10.3.1
Idle command
Command (00h);
This command indicates that the MFRC631 is in idle mode. This command is also used to
terminate the actual command.
7.10.3.2
LPCD command
Command (01h);
This command performs a low-power card detection and/or an automatic trimming of the
LFO. After wakeup from standby, the values of the sampled I and Q channels are
compared with the min/max threshold values in the registers. If it exceeds the limits, an
LPCD_IRQ will be raised. After the LPCD command the standby is activated, if selected.
7.10.3.3
Load key command
Command (02h), Parameter1 (key byte1),..., Parameter6 (key byte6);
Loads a MIFARE Key (6 bytes) for Authentication from the FIFO into the crypto unit.
Abort condition: Less than 6 bytes written to the FIFO.
7.10.3.4
MFAuthent command
Command (03h), Parameter1 (Authentication command code 60h or 61h), Parameter2
(block address), Parameter3 (card serial number byte0), Parameter4 (card serial number
byte1), Parameter5 (card serial number byte2), Parameter6 (card serial number byte3);
This command handles the MIFARE authentication in Reader/Writer mode to ensure a
secure communication to any MIFARE classic card.
When the MFAuthent command is active, any FIFO access is blocked. Anyhow if there is
an access to the FIFO, the bit WrErr in the Error register is set.
This command terminates automatically when the MIFARE card is authenticated and the
bit MFCrypto1On is set to logic 1.
This command does not terminate automatically, when the card does not answer,
therefore the timer should be initialized to automatic mode. In this case, beside the bit
IdleIRQ the bit TimerIRQ can be used as termination criteria. During authentication
processing the bits RxIRQ and TxIRQ are blocked. The Crypto1On shows if the
authentication was successful. The Crypto1On is always valid.
In case there is an error during authentication, the bit ProtocolErr in the Error register is
set to logic 1 and the bit Crypto1On in register Status2Reg is set to logic 0.
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7.10.3.5
Receive command
Command (05h);
The MFRC631 activates the receiver path and waits for any data stream to be received,
according to its register settings. The registers must be set before starting this command
according to the used protocol and antenna configuration. The correct settings have to be
chosen before starting the command.
This command terminates automatically when the received data stream ends. This is
indicated either by the end of frame pattern or by the length byte depending on the
selected framing and speed.
Remark: If the bit RxMultiple in the RxModeReg register is set to logic 1, the Receive
command does not terminate automatically. It has to be terminated by activating any other
command in the CommandReg register (see Section 0.2.6 “RxMod”).
7.10.3.6
Transmit command
Command (06h); data to transmit
The content of the FIFO is transmitted immediately after starting the command. Before
transmitting the FIFO all relevant registers have to be set to transmit data.
This command terminates automatically when the FIFO gets empty. It can be terminated
by any other command written to the command register.
7.10.3.7
Transceive command
Command (07h); data to transmit
This command transmits data from FIFO buffer and automatically activates the receiver
after a transmission is finished.
Each transmission process starts by writing the command into CommandReg.
Remark: If the bit RxMultiple in register RxModeReg is set to logic 1, this command will
never leave the receiving state, because the receiving will not be cancelled automatically.
7.10.3.8
WriteE2 command
Command (08h), Parameter1 (addressH), Parameter2 (addressL), Parameter3 (data);
This command writes one byte into the EEPROM. If the FIFO contains no data, the
command will wait until the data is available.
Abort condition: Address-parameter outside of allowed range 0x00 – 0x7F.
7.10.3.9
WriteE2PAGE command
Command (09h), Parameter1 (page address), Parameter2..63 (data0, data1...data63);
This command writes up to 64 bytes into the EEPROM. The addresses are not allowed to
wrap over a page border. If this is the case, this additional data be ignored and stays in the
fifo. The programming starts after 64 bytes are read from the FIFO or the FIFO is empty.
Abort condition: Insufficient parameters in FIFO; Page address parameter outside of
range 0x00 – 0x7F.
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7.10.3.10
ReadE2 command
Command (0Ah), Parameter1 (addressH), Parameter2 (addressL), Parameter3 (length);
Reads up to 256 bytes from the EEPROM to the FIFO. If a read operation exceeds the
address 1FFFh, the read operation continues from address 0000h.
Abort condition: Insufficient parameter in FIFO; Address parameter outside of range.
7.10.3.11
LoadReg command
Command (0Ch), Parameter1 (EEPROM addressH),Parameter2 (EEPROM addressL),
Parameter3 (RegAdr), Parameter4 (number);
Read a defined number of bytes from the EEPROM and copies the value into the Register
set, beginning at the given address RegAdr.
Abort condition: Insufficient parameter in FIFO; Address parameter outside of range.
7.10.3.12
LoadProtocol command
Command (0Dh), Parameter1 (Protocol number RX), Parameter2 (Protocol number TX);
Reads out the EEPROM Register Set Protocol Area and overwrites the content of the Rxand Tx- related registers. These registers are important for a Protocol selection.
Abort condition: Insufficient parameter in FIFO
Table 38.
Protocol
Number
(decimal)
Protocol
Receiver speed
[kbits/s]
Receiver Coding
00
ISO/IEC14443 A
106
Manchester SubC
01
ISO/IEC14443 A
212
BPSK
02
ISO/IEC14443 A
424
BPSK
03
ISO/IEC14443 A
848
BPSK
04
ISO/IEC14443 B
106
BPSK
05
ISO/IEC14443 B
212
BPSK
06
ISO/IEC14443 B
424
BPSK
07
ISO/IEC14443 B
848
BPSK
[1]
For more protocol details please refer to Section 7 “Functional description”.
Table 39.
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Predefined protocol overview RX[1]
Predefined protocol overview TX[1]
Protocol
Number
(decimal)
Protocol
Transmitter speed
[kbits/s]
Transmitter Coding
00
ISO/IEC14443 A
106
Miller
01
ISO/IEC14443 A
212
Miller
02
ISO/IEC14443 A
424
Miller
03
ISO/IEC14443 A
848
Miller
04
ISO/IEC14443 B
106
NRZ
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Table 39.
Protocol
Number
(decimal)
Protocol
Transmitter speed
[kbits/s]
Transmitter Coding
05
ISO/IEC14443 B
212
NRZ
06
ISO/IEC14443 B
424
NRZ
07
ISO/IEC14443 B
848
NRZ
[1]
7.10.3.13
Predefined protocol overview TX[1]
For more protocol details please refer to Section 7 “Functional description”.
LoadKeyE2 command
Command (0Eh), Parameter1 (key number);
Loads a MIFARE key for authentication from the EEPROM into the crypto 1 unit.
Abort condition: Insufficient parameter in FIFO; KeyNr is outside the Mifare key area.
7.10.3.14
StoreKeyE2 command
Command (0Fh), Parameter1 (KeyNr), Parameter2(keybyte1), Parameter3(keybyte2),
Parameter4(keybyte3), Parameter5(keybyte4), Parameter6(keybyte5), Parameter7
(keybyte6);
Stores MIFARE Keys into the EEPROM. The key number parameter indicates the first key
(n) in the MKA that will be written. If more than one MIFARE Key is available in the FIFO
then the next key (n+1) will be written until the FIFO is empty. If an incomplete key (less
than 6 bytes) is written into the FIFO, this key will be ignored and will remain in the FIFO.
Abort condition: Insufficient parameter in FIFO; KeyNr is outside the MKA;
7.10.3.15
GetRNR command
Command (1Ch);
This command is reading Random Numbers from the random number generator of the
MFRC631. The Random Numbers are copied to the FIFO until the FIFO is full.
7.10.3.16
SoftReset command
Command (1Fh);
This command is performing a soft reset. Triggered by this command all the default values
for the register setting will be read from the EEPROM and copied into the register set.
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8. MFRC631 registers
8.1 Register bit behavior
Depending on the functionality of a register, the access conditions to the register can vary.
In principle, bits with same behavior are grouped in common registers. The access
conditions are described in Table 40.
Table 40.
Behavior of register bits and their designation
Abbreviation Behavior
Table 41.
Address
Description
r/w
read and write These bits can be written and read via the host interface. Since
they are used only for control purposes, the content is not
influenced by the state machines but can be read by internal state
machines.
dy
dynamic
These bits can be written and read via the host interface. They
can also be written automatically by internal state machines, for
example Command register changes its value automatically after
the execution of the command.
r
read only
These register bits indicates hold values which are determined by
internal states only.
w
write only
Reading these register bits always returns zero.
RFU
-
These bits are reserved for future use and must not be changed.
In case of a required write access, it is recommended to write a
logic 0.
MFRC631 registers overview
Register name
Function
00h
Command
Starts and stops command execution
01h
HostCtrl
Host control register
02h
FIFOControl
Control register of the FIFO
03h
WaterLevel
Level of the FIFO underflow and overflow warning
04h
FIFOLength
Length of the FIFO
05h
FIFOData
Data In/Out exchange register of FIFO buffer
06h
IRQ0
Interrupt register 0
07h
IRQ1
Interrupt register 1
08h
IRQ0En
Interrupt enable register 0
09h
IRQ1En
Interrupt enable register 1
0Ah
Error
Error bits showing the error status of the last command execution
0Bh
Status
Contains status of the communication
0Ch
RxBitCtrl
Control register for anticollision adjustments for bit oriented protocols
0Dh
RxColl
Collision position register
0Eh
TControl
Control of Timer 0..3
0Fh
T0Control
Control of Timer0
10h
T0ReloadHi
High register of the reload value of Timer0
11h
T0ReloadLo
Low register of the reload value of Timer0
12h
T0CounterValHi
Counter value high register of Timer0
13h
T0CounterValLo
Counter value low register of Timer0
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Table 41.
MFRC631 registers overview …continued
Address
Register name
Function
14h
T1Control
Control of Timer1
15h
T1ReloadHi
High register of the reload value of Timer1
16h
T1ReloadLo
Low register of the reload value of Timer1
17h
T1CounterValHi
Counter value high register of Timer1
18h
T1CounterValLo
Counter value low register of Timer1
19h
T2Control
Control of Timer2
1Ah
T2ReloadHi
High byte of the reload value of Timer2
1Bh
T2ReloadLo
Low byte of the reload value of Timer2
1Ch
T2CounterValHi
Counter value high byte of Timer2
1Dh
T2CounterValLo
Counter value low byte of Timer2
1Eh
T3Control
Control of Timer3
1Fh
T3ReloadHi
High byte of the reload value of Timer3
20h
T3ReloadLo
Low byte of the reload value of Timer3
21h
T3CounterValHi
Counter value high byte of Timer3
22h
T3CounterValLo
Counter value low byte of Timer3
23h
T4Control
Control of Timer4
24h
T4ReloadHi
High byte of the reload value of Timer4
25h
T4ReloadLo
Low byte of the reload value of Timer4
26h
T4CounterValHi
Counter value high byte of Timer4
27h
T4CounterValLo
Counter value low byte of Timer4
28h
DrvMod
Driver mode register
29h
TxAmp
Transmitter amplifier register
2Ah
DrvCon
Driver configuration register
2Bh
Txl
Transmitter register
2Ch
TxCrcPreset
Transmitter CRC control register, preset value
2Dh
RxCrcPreset
Receiver CRC control register, preset value
2Eh
TxDataNum
Transmitter data number register
2Fh
TxModWidth
Transmitter modulation width register
30h
TxSym10BurstLen
Transmitter symbol 1 + symbol 0 burst length register
31h
TXWaitCtrl
Transmitter wait control
32h
TxWaitLo
Transmitter wait low
33h
FrameCon
Transmitter frame control
34h
RxSofD
Receiver start of frame detection
35h
RxCtrl
Receiver control register
36h
RxWait
Receiver wait register
37h
RxThreshold
Receiver threshold register
38h
Rcv
Receiver register
39h
RxAna
Receiver analog register
3Ah
RFU
-
3Bh
SerialSpeed
Serial speed register
3Ch
LFO_Trimm
Low-power oscillator trimming register
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Table 41.
MFRC631 registers overview …continued
Address
Register name
Function
3Dh
PLL_Ctrl
IntegerN PLL control register, for microcontroller clock output adjustment
3Eh
PLL_DivOut
IntegerN PLL control register, for microcontroller clock output adjustment
3Fh
LPCD_QMin
Low-power card detection Q channel minimum threshold
40h
LPCD_QMax
Low-power card detection Q channel maximum threshold
41h
LPCD_IMin
Low-power card detection I channel minimum threshold
42h
LPCD_I_Result
Low-power card detection I channel result register
43h
LPCD_Q_Result
Low-power card detection Q channel result register
44h
PadEn
PIN enable register
45h
PadOut
PIN out register
46h
PadIn
PIN in register
47h
SigOut
Enables and controls the SIGOUT Pin
48h-5Fh
RFU
-
7Fh
Version
Version and subversion register
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8.2 Command configuration
8.2.1 Command
Starts and stops command execution.
Table 42.
Command register (address 00h)
Bit
7
6
5
Symbol
Standby
Modem
Off
RFU
4
3
Command
2
Access
rights
dy
r/w
-
dy
1
0
Table 43.
Command bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
Standby
Set to 1, the IC is entering power-down mode.
6
ModemOff
Set to logic 1, the receiver and the transmitter circuit is powering down.
5
RFU
-
4 to 0
Command
Defines the actual command for the MFRC631.
8.3 SAM configuration register
8.3.1 HostCtrl
Via the HostCtrl Register the interface access right can be controlled
Table 44.
Bit
HostCtrl register (address 01h);
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
RegEn
BusHost
BusSAM
RFU
SAMInterface
SAMInterface
RFU
RFU
Access
rights
dy
r/w
r/w
-
r/w
r/w
-
-
Table 45.
HostCtrl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
RegEn
If this bit is set to logic 1, the register HostCtrl_reg can be changed at
the next register access. The next write access clears this bit
automatically.
6
BusHost
Set to logic 1, the bus is controlled by the host. This bit cannot be set
together with the bit BusSAM. This bit can only be set if the bit RegEn
is previously set.
5
BusSAM
Set to logic 1, the bus is controlled by the SAM. This bit cannot be set
together with BusHost. This bit can only be set if the bit RegEn is
previously set.
4
RFU
-
3 to 2
SAMInterface
0h:SAM Interface switched off
1h:SAM Interface SPI active
2h:SAM Interface I2CL active
3h:SAM Interface I2C active
1 to 0
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8.4 FIFO configuration register
8.4.1 FIFOControl
FIFOControl defines the characteristics of the FIFO
Table 46.
FIFOControl register (address 02h);
7
6
5
4
3
2
Symbol
Bit
FIFOSize
HiAlert
LoAlert
FIFOFlush
RFU
WaterLevel
ExtBit
FIFOLengthExtBits
1
0
Access
rights
r/w
r
r
w
-
r/w
r
Table 47.
FIFOControl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
FIFOSize
Set to logic 1, FIFO size is 255 bytes;
Set to logic 0, FIFO size is 512 bytes.
It is recommended to change the FIFO size only, when the FIFO
content had been cleared.
6
HiAlert
Set to logic 1, when the number of bytes stored in the FIFO
buffer fulfils the following equation:
HiAlert = (FIFOSize - FIFOLength) <= WaterLevel
5
LoAlert
Set to logic 1, when the number of bytes stored in the FIFO
buffer fulfils the following conditions:
LoAlert =1 if FIFOLength <= WaterLevel
4
FIFOFlush
Set to logic 1 clears the FIFO buffer. Reading this bit will always
return 0
3
RFU
-
2
WaterLevelExtBit
Defines the bit 8 (MSB) for the waterlevel (extension of register
WaterLevel). This bit is only evaluated in the 512-byte FIFO
mode. Bits 7..0 are defined in register WaterLevel.
1 to 0
FIFOLengthExtBits
Defines the bit9 (MSB) and bit8 for the FIFO length (extension of
FIFOLength). These two bits are only evaluated in the 512-byte
FIFO mode, The bits 7..0 are defined in register FIFOLength.
8.4.2 WaterLevel
Defines the level for FIFO under- and overflow warning levels.This register is extended by
1 bit in FIFOControl in case the 512-byte FIFO mode is activated by setting bit
FIFOControl.FIFOSize.
Table 48.
WaterLevel register (address 03h);
Bit
7
6
5
4
r/w
r/w
r/w
r/w
Symbol
Access
rights
3
2
1
0
r/w
r/w
r/w
WaterLevelBits
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Table 49.
WaterLevel bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
WaterLevelBits
Sets a level to indicate a FIFO-buffer state which can be read from
bits HighAlert and LowAlert in the FifoControl. In 512-byte FIFO
mode, the register is extended by bit WaterLevelExtBit in the
FIFOControl. This functionality can be used to avoid a FIFO buffer
overflow or underflow:
The bit HiAlert bit in FIFO Control is read logic 1, if the number of
bytes in the FIFO-buffer is equal or less than the number defined by
the waterlevel configuration.
The bit LoAlert bit in FIFO control is read logic 1, if the number of
bytes in the FIFO buffer is equal or less than the number defined by
the waterlevel configuration.
Note: For the calculation of HiAlert and LoAlert see register
description of these bits (Section 8.4.1 “FIFOControl”).
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8.4.3 FIFOLength
Number of bytes in the FIFO buffer. In 512-byte mode this register is extended by
FIFOControl.FifoLength.
Table 50.
FIFOLength register (address 04h); reset value: 00h
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
FIFOLength
Access
rights
dy
Table 51.
2
1
0
FIFOLength bits
Bit
7 to 0
Symbol
Description
FIFOLength
Indicates the number of bytes in the FIFO buffer. In 512-byte mode this
register is extended by the bits FIFOLength in the FIFOControl
register. Writing to the FIFOData register increments, reading
decrements the number of available bytes in the FIFO.
8.4.4 FIFOData
In- and output of FIFO buffer. Contrary to any read/write access to other addresses,
reading or writing to the FIFO address does not increment the address pointer. Writing to
the FIFOData register increments, reading decrements the number of bytes present in the
FIFO.
Table 52.
FIFOData register (address 05h);
Bit
7
6
5
4
Symbol
Access
rights
3
2
1
0
dy
dy
dy
dy
FIFOData
dy
dy
dy
dy
Table 53.
FIFOData bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
FIFOData
Data input and output port for the internal FIFO buffer. Refer to Section
7.5 “Buffer”.
8.5 Interrupt configuration registers
The Registers IRQ0 register and IRQ1 register implement a special functionality to avoid
the unintended modification of bits.
The mechanism of changing register contents requires the following consideration:
IRQ(x).Set indicates, if a set bit on position 0 to 6 shall be cleared or set. Depending on
the content of IRQ(x).Set, a write of a 1 to positions 0 to 6 either clears or sets the
corresponding bit. With this register the application can modify the interrupt status which
is maintained by the MFRC631.
Bit 7 indicates, if the intended modification is a setting or clearance of a bit. Any 1 written
to a bit position 6...0 will trigger the setting or clearance of this bit as defined by bit 7.
Example: writing FFh sets all bits 6..0, writing 7Fh clears all bits 6..0 of the interrupt
request register
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8.5.1 IRQ0 register
Interrupt request register 0.
Table 54.
IRQ0 register (address 06h); reset value: 00h
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Set
Hi AlertIRQ
Lo
AlertIRQ
IdleIRQ
TxIRQ
RxIRQ
ErrIRQ
RxSOF
IRQ
Access
rights
w
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
Table 55.
IRQ0 bits
Bit
Symbol
7
Set
Description
1: writing a 1 to a bit position 6..0 sets the interrupt request
0: Writing a 1 to a bit position 6..0 clears the interrupt request
6
HiAlerIRQ
Set, when bit HiAlert in register Status1Reg is set. In opposition to HiAlert,
HiAlertIRQ stores this event.
5
LoAlertIRQ Set, when bit LoAlert in register Status1 is set. In opposition to LoAlert,
LoAlertIRQ stores this event.
4
IdleIRQ
Set, when a command terminates by itself e.g. when the Command changes
its value from any command to the Idle command. If an unknown command
is started, the Command changes its content to the idle state and the bit
IdleIRQ is set. Starting the Idle command by the Controller does not set bit
IdleIRQ. .
3
TxIRQ
Set, when data transmission is completed, which is immediately after the last
bit is sent.
2
RxIRQ
Set, when the receiver detects the end of a data stream.
Note: This flag is no indication that the received data stream is correct. The
error flags have to be evaluated to get the status of the reception.
1
ErrIRQ
Set, when the one of the following errors is set:
FifoWrErr, FiFoOvl, ProtErr, NoDataErr, IntegErr.
0
RxSOFlrq
Set, when a SOF or a subcarrier is detected.
8.5.2 IRQ1 register
Interrupt request register 1.
Table 56.
IRQ1 register (address 07h)
Bit
7
Symbol
Set
Access
rights
w
6
5
4
GlobalIRQ LPCD_IRQ Timer4IRQ
dy
dy
Table 57.
dy
3
2
1
0
Timer3IRQ
Timer2IRQ
Timer1IRQ
Timer0IRQ
dy
dy
dy
dy
IRQ1 bits
Bit
Symbol
7
Set
Description
1: writing a 1 to a bit position 5..0 sets the interrupt request
0: Writing a 1 to a bit position 5..0 clears the interrupt request
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6
GlobalIRQ
Set, if an enabled IRQ occurs.
5
LPCD_IRQ Set if a card is detected in Low-power card detection sequence.
4
Timer4IRQ Set to logic 1 when Timer4 has an underflow.
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Table 57.
IRQ1 bits
Bit
Symbol
3
Timer3IRQ Set to logic 1 when Timer3 has an underflow.
Description
2
Timer2IRQ Set to logic 1 when Timer2 has an underflow.
1
Timer1IRQ Set to logic 1 when Timer1 has an underflow.
0
Timer0IRQ Set to logic 1 when Timer0 has an underflow.
8.5.3 IRQ0En register
Interrupt request enable register for IRQ0. This register allows to define if an interrupt
request is processed by the MFRC631.
Table 58.
Bit
IRQ0En register (address 08h)
7
6
5
Symbol
IRQ_Inv
Hi AlertIRQEn
Access
rights
r/w
r/w
MFRC631
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LoAlertIRQEn IdleIRQEn
r/w
Table 59.
4
3
2
TxIRQEn
RxIRQEn
r/w
r/w
r/w
1
0
ErrIRQEn RxSOFIRQE
n
r/w
r/w
IRQ0En bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
IRQ_Inv
Set to one the signal of the IRQ pin is inverted
6
Hi AlerIRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the High Alert interrupt Request (indicated by the
bit HiAlertIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
5
Lo AlertIRQEn Set to logic 1, it allows the Low Alert Interrupt Request (indicated by the
bit LoAlertIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
4
IdleIRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the Idle interrupt request (indicated by the bit
IdleIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
3
TxIRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the transmitter interrupt request (indicated by the
bit TxtIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
2
RxIRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the receiver interrupt request (indicated by the bit
RxIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
1
ErrIRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the Error interrupt request (indicated by the bit
ErrorIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
0
RxSOFIRQEn Set to logic 1, it allows the RxSOF interrupt request (indicated by the bit
RxSOFIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
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8.5.4 IRQ1En
Interrupt request enable register for IRQ1.
Table 60.
Bit
Symbol
Access
rights
IRQ1EN register (address 09h);
7
6
5
IRQPushPul IRQPinEn LPCD_IRQE
l
n
r/w
MFRC631
Product data sheet
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r/w
r/w
Table 61.
IRQ1EN bits
4
Timer4IRQE
n
r/w
3
2
1
0
Timer3IRQE Timer2IRQE Timer1IRQE Timer0IRQE
n
n
n
n
r/w
r/w
r/w
r/w
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
IRQPushPull
Set to 1 the IRQ-pin acts as PushPull pin, otherwise it acts as
OpenDrain pin
6
IRQPinEN
Set to logic 1, it allows the global interrupt request (indicated by the bit
GlobalIRQ) to be propagated to the interrupt pin
5
LPCD_IRQEN
Set to logic 1, it allows the LPCDinterrupt request (indicated by the bit
LPCDIRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
4
Timer4IRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the Timer4 interrupt request (indicated by the bit
Timer4IRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
3
Timer3IRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the Timer3 interrupt request (indicated by the bit
Timer3IRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
2
Timer2IRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the Timer2 interrupt request (indicated by the bit
Timer2IRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
1
Timer1IRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the Timer1 interrupt request (indicated by the bit
Timer1IRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
0
Timer0IRQEn
Set to logic 1, it allows the Timer0 interrupt request (indicated by the bit
Timer0IRQ) to be propagated to the GlobalIRQ
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8.6 Contactless interface configuration registers
8.6.1 Error
Error register.
Table 62.
Error register (address 0Ah)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
EE_Err
FiFoWrErr
FIFOOvl
MinFrameErr
NoDataErr
CollDet
ProtErr
IntegErr
Access
rights
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
Table 63.
Error bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
EE_Err
An error appeared during the last EEPROM command. For
6
FIFOWrErr Data was written into the FIFO, during a transmission of a possible CRC,
during "RxWait", "Wait for data" or "Receiving" state, or during an
authentication command. The Flag is cleared when a new CL command is
started. If RxMultiple is active, the flag is cleared after the error flags have
been written to the FIFO.
5
FIFOOvl
Data is written into the FIFO when it is already full. The data that is already in
the FIFO will remain untouched. All data that is written to the FIFO after this
Flag is set to 1 will be ignored.
4
Min
FrameErr
A valid SOF was received, but afterwards less then 4 bits of data were
received.
details see the descriptions of the EEPROM commands
Note: Frames with less than 4 bits of data are automatically discarded and the
RxDecoder stays enabled. Furthermore no RxIRQ is set. The same is valid for
less than 3 Bytes if the EMD suppression is activated
Note: MinFrameErr is automatically cleared at the start of a receive or
transceive command. In case of a transceive command, it is cleared at the
start of the receiving phase ("Wait for data" state)
3
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NoDataErr Data should be sent, but no data is in FIFO
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Table 63.
Error bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
2
CollDet
A collision has occurred. The position of the first collision is shown in the
register RxColl.
Note: CollDet is automatically cleared at the start of a receive or transceive
command. In case of a transceive command, it is cleared at the start of the
receiving phase (“Wait for data” state).
Note: If a collision is part of the defined EOF symbol, CollDet is not set to 1.
1
ProtErr
A protocol error has occurred. A protocol error can be a wrong stop bit, a
missing or wrong ISO/IEC14443B EOF or SOF or a wrong number of
received data bytes. When a protocol error is detected, data reception is
stopped.
Note: ProtErr is automatically cleared at start of a receive or transceive
command. In case of a transceive command, it is cleared at the start of the
receiving phase (“Wait for data” state).
Note: When a protocol error occurs the last received data byte is not written
into the FIFO.
0
IntegErr
A data integrity error has been detected. Possible cause can be a wrong
parity or a wrong CRC. In case of a data integrity error the reception is
continued.
Note: IntegErr is automatically cleared at start of a Receive or Transceive
command. In case of a Transceive command, it is cleared at the start of the
receiving phase (“Wait for data” state).
Note: If the NoColl bit is set, also a collision is setting the IntegErr.
8.6.2 Status
Status register.
Table 64.
Status register (address 0Bh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
-
-
Crypto1On
-
-
ComState
Access
rights
RFU
RFU
dy
RFU
RFU
r
Table 65.
2
1
0
Status bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 6
-
RFU
5
Crypto1On Indicates if the MIFARE Crypto is on. Clearing this bit is switching the
MIFARE Crypto off. The bit can only be set by the MFAuthent command.
4 to 3
-
RFU
2 to 0
ComState
ComState shows the status of the transmitter and receiver state machine:
000b ... Idle
001b ... TxWait
011b ... Transmitting
101b ... RxWait
110b ... Wait for data
111b ... Receiving
100b ... not used
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8.6.3 RxBitCtrl
Receiver control register.
Table 66.
RxBitCtrl register (address 0Ch);
Bit
7
6
Symbol
ValuesAfterColl
Access
rights
r/w
5
RxAlign
r/w
Table 67.
4
r/w
3
2
NoColl
r/w
r/w
1
0
RxLastBits
w
w
w
RxBitCtrl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
ValuesAfter
Coll
If cleared, every received bit after a collision is replaced by a zero. This
function is needed for ISO/IEC14443 anticollision
6 to 4
RxAlign
Used for reception of bit oriented frames: RxAlign defines the bit position
length for the first bit received to be stored. Further received bits are
stored at the following bit positions.
Example:
RxAlign = 0h - the LSB of the received bit is stored at bit 0, the second
received bit is stored at bit position 1.
RxAlign = 1h - the LSB of the received bit is stored at bit 1, the second
received bit is stored at bit position 2.
RxAlign = 7h - the LSB of the received bit is stored at bit 7, the second
received bit is stored in the following byte at position 0.
Note: If RxAlign = 0, data is received byte-oriented, otherwise
bit-oriented.
3
NoColl
If this bit is set, a collision will result in an IntegErr
2 to 0
RxLastBits
Defines the number of valid bits of the last data byte received in
bit-oriented communications. If zero the whole byte is valid.
Note: These bits are set by the RxDecoder in a bit-oriented
communication at the end of the communication. They are reset at start
of reception.
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8.6.4 RxColl
Receiver collision register.
Table 68.
RxColl register (address 0Dh);
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
Symbol
CollPosValid
CollPos
Access
rights
r
r
Table 69.
1
0
RxColl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
CollPos
Valid
If set to 1, the value of CollPos is valid. Otherwise no collision is detected or
the position of the collision is out of the range of bits CollPos.
6 to 0
CollPos
These bits show the bit position of the first detected collision in a received
frame (only data bits are interpreted). CollPos can only be displayed for the
first 8 bytes of a data stream.
Example:
00h indicates a bit collision in the 1st bit
01h indicates a bit collision in the 2nd bit
08h indicates a bit collision in the 9th bit (1st bit of 2nd byte)
3Fh indicates a bit collision in the 64th bit (8th bit of the 8th byte)
These bits shall only be interpreted in Passive communication mode at 106
kbit/s or ISO/IEC 14443A/MIFARE reader /writer mode if bit CollPosValid is
set.
Note: If RxBitCtrl.RxAlign is set to a value different to 0, this value is included
in the CollPos.
Example: RxAlign = 4h, a collision occurs in the 4th received bit (which is the
last bit of that UID byte). The CollPos = 7h in this case.
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8.7 Timer configuration registers
8.7.1 TControl
Control register of the timer section.
The TControl implements a special functionality to avoid the not intended modification of
bits.
Bit 3..0 indicates, which bits in the positions 7..4 are intended to be modified.
Example: writing FFh sets all bits 7..4, writing F0h does not change any of the bits 7..4
Table 70.
TControl register (address 0Eh)
Bit
Symbol
Access
rights
7
6
T3Running T2Running
dy
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dy
5
4
3
2
1
0
T1Running
T0Running
T3Start
StopNow
T2Start
StopNow
T1Start
StopNow
T0Start
StopNow
dy
dy
w
w
w
w
Table 71.
TControl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
T3Running
Indicates Timer3 is running.If the bit T3startStopNow is set/reset, this
bit and the timer can be started/stopped
6
T2Running
Indicates Timer2 is running. If the bit T2startStopNow is set/reset, this
bit and the timer can be started/stopped
5
T1Running
Indicates tTmer1 is running. If the bit T1startStopNow is set/reset, this
bit and the timer can be started/stopped
4
T0Running
Indicates Timer0 is running. If the bit T0startStopNow is set/reset, this
bit and the timer can be started/stopped
3
T3StartStop
Now
The bit 7 of TControl T3Running can be modified if set
2
T2StartStop
Now
The bit 6of TControl T2Running can be modified if set
1
T1StartStop
Now
The bit 5of TControl T1Running can be modified if set
0
T0StartStop
Now
The bit 4 of TControl T0Running can be modified if set
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8.7.2 T0Control
Control register of the Timer0.
Table 72.
T0Control register (address 0Fh);
Bit
7
6
Symbol
T0StopRx
-
Access
rights
r/w
RFU
5
4
3
2
1
0
T0Start
T0AutoRestart
-
T0Clk
r/w
r/w
RFU
r/w
Table 73.
T0Control bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
T0StopRx
If set, the timer stops immediately after receiving the first 4 bits. If
cleared the timer does not stop automatically.
Note: If LFO Trimming is selected by T0Start, this bit has no effect.
6
-
RFU
5 to 4
T0Start
00b: The timer is not started automatically
01b: The timer starts automatically at the end of the transmission
10b: Timer is used for LFO trimming without underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge)
11b: Timer is used for LFO trimming with underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge)
3
T0AutoRestart 1: the timer automatically restarts its count-down from T0ReloadValue,
after the counter value has reached the value zero.
0: the timer decrements to zero and stops.
The bit Timer1IRQ is set to logic 1 when the timer underflows.
2
-
RFU
1 to 0
T0Clk
00b: The timer input clock is 13.56 MHz.
01b: The timer input clock is 211,875 kHz.
10b: The timer input clock is an underflow of Timer2.
11b: The timer input clock is an underflow of Timer1.
8.7.2.1
T0ReloadHi
High byte reload value of the Timer0.
Table 74.
T0ReloadHi register (address 10h);
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T0Reload Hi
Access
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r/w
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2
1
0
Table 75.
T0ReloadHi bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T0ReloadHi
Defines the high byte of the reload value of the timer. With the start
event the timer loads the value of the registers T0ReloadValHi,
T0ReloadValLo. Changing this register affects the timer only at the
next start event.
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8.7.2.2
T0ReloadLo
Low byte reload value of the Timer0.
Table 76.
Bit
T0ReloadLo register (address 11h);
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T0ReloadLo
Access
rights
r/w
8.7.2.3
2
1
0
Table 77.
T0ReloadLo bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to0
T0ReloadLo
Defines the low byte of the reload value of the timer. With the start
event the timer loads the value of the T0ReloadValHi, T0ReloadValLo.
Changing this register affects the timer only at the next start event.
T0CounterValHi
High byte of the counter value of Timer0.
Table 78.
T0CounterValHi register (address 12h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T0CounterValHi
Access
rights
dy
8.7.2.4
2
Table 79.
T0CounterValHi bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7to0
T0Counter
ValHi
High byte value of the Timer0.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
1
0
1
0
T0CounterValLo
Low byte of the counter value of Timer0.
Table 80.
T0CounterValLo register (address 13h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T0CounterValLo
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2
Table 81.
T0CounterValLo bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T0CounterValLo
Low byte value of the Timer0.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
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8.7.2.5
T1Control
Control register of the Timer1.
Table 82.
Bit
T1Control register (address 14h);
7
6
Symbol
T1StopRx
-
Access
rights
r/w
RFU
5
4
3
2
1
0
T1Start
T1AutoRestart
-
T1Clk
r/w
r/w
RFU
r/w
Table 83.
T1Control bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
T1StopRx
If set, the timer stops after receiving the first 4 bits. If cleared, the timer
is not stopped automatically.
Note: If LFO trimming is selected by T1start, this bit has no effect.
6
-
RFU
5 to 4
T1Start
00b: The timer is not started automatically
01b: The timer starts automatically at the end of the transmission
10b: Timer is used for LFO trimming without underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge)
11b: Timer is used for LFO trimming with underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge)
3
T1AutoRestart Set to logic 1, the timer automatically restarts its countdown from
T1ReloadValue, after the counter value has reached the value zero.
Set to logic 0 the timer decrements to zero and stops.
The bit Timer1IRQ is set to logic 1 when the timer underflows.
2
-
RFU
1 to 0
T1Clk
00b: The timer input clock is 13.56 MHz
01b: The timer input clock is 211,875 kHz.
10b: The timer input clock is an underflow of Timer0
11b: The timer input clock is an underflow of Timer2
8.7.2.6
T1ReloadHi
High byte (MSB) reload value of the Timer1.
Table 84.
T0ReloadHi register (address 15h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T1ReloadHi
Access
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2
1
0
Table 85.
T1ReloadHi bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T1ReloadHi
Defines the high byte reload value of the Timer 1. With the start event
the timer loads the value of the T1ReloadValHi and T1ReloadValLo.
Changing this register affects the Timer only at the next start event.
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8.7.2.7
T1ReloadLo
Low byte (LSB) reload value of the Timer1.
Table 86.
T1ReloadLo register (address 16h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T1ReloadLo
Access
rights
r/w
8.7.2.8
2
1
0
Table 87.
T1ReloadValLo bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T1ReloadLo
Defines the low byte of the reload value of the Timer1. Changing this
register affects the timer only at the next start event.
T1CounterValHi
High byte (MSB) of the counter value of byte Timer1.
Table 88.
T1CounterValHi register (address 17h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T1CounterValHi
Access
rights
dy
8.7.2.9
2
Table 89.
T1CounterValHi bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T1Counter
ValHi
High byte of the current value of the Timer1.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
1
0
1
0
T1CounterValLo
Low byte (LSB) of the counter value of byte Timer1.
Table 90.
T1CounterValLo register (address 18h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T1CounterValLo
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Table 91.
T1CounterValLo bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T1Counter
ValLo
Low byte of the current value of the counter 1.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
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8.7.2.10
T2Control
Control register of the Timer2.
Table 92.
Bit
T2Control register (address 19h)
7
6
Symbol
T2StopRx
-
Access
rights
r/w
RFU
5
4
3
2
1
0
T2Start
T2AutoRestart
-
T2Clk
r/w
r/w
RFU
r/w
Table 93.
T2Control bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
T2StopRx
If set the timer stops immediately after receiving the first 4 bits. If
cleared indicates, that the timer is not stopped automatically.
Note: If LFO Trimming is selected by T2Start, this bit has no effect.
6
-
RFU
5 to 4
T2Start
00b: The timer is not started automatically.
01b: The timer starts automatically at the end of the transmission.
10b: Timer is used for LFO trimming without underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge).
11b: Timer is used for LFO trimming with underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge).
3
T2AutoRestart Set to logic 1, the timer automatically restarts its countdown from
T2ReloadValue, after the counter value has reached the value zero.
Set to logic 0 the timer decrements to zero and stops. The bit
Timer2IRQ is set to logic 1 when the timer underflows
2
-
RFU
1 to 0
T2Clk
00b: The timer input clock is 13.56 MHz.
01b: The timer input clock is 212 kHz.
10b: The timer input clock is an underflow of Timer0
11b: The timer input clock is an underflow of Timer1
8.7.2.11
T2ReloadHi
High byte of the reload value of Timer2.
Table 94.
T2ReloadHi register (address 1Ah)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T2ReloadHi
Access
rights
r/w
Table 95.
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2
1
0
T2Reload bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T2ReloadHi
Defines the high byte of the reload value of the Timer2. With the start
event the timer load the value of the T2ReloadValHi and
T2ReloadValLo. Changing this register affects the timer only at the
next start event.
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8.7.2.12
T2ReloadLo
Low byte of the reload value of Timer2.
Table 96.
T2ReloadLo register (address 1Bh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T2ReloadLo
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1
0
Table 97.
T2ReloadLo bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T2ReloadLo
Defines the low byte of the reload value of the Timer2. With the start
event the timer load the value of the T2ReloadValHi and
T2RelaodVaLo. Changing this register affects the timer only at the next
start event.
T2CounterValHi
High byte of the counter register of Timer2.
Table 98.
T2CounterValHi register (address 1Ch)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T2CounterValHi
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2
Table 99.
T2CounterValHi bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T2Counter
ValHi
High byte current counter value of Timer2.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
1
0
1
0
T2CounterValLoReg
Low byte of the current value of Timer 2.
Table 100. T2CounterValLo register (address 1Dh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T2CounterValLo
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Table 101. T2CounterValLo bits
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Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T2Counter
ValLo
Low byte of the current counter value of Timer1Timer2.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
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8.7.2.15
T3Control
Control register of the Timer 3.
Table 102. T3Control register (address 1Eh)
Bit
7
6
Symbol
T3StopRx
-
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5
4
3
2
1
0
T3Start
T3AutoRestart
-
T3Clk
r/w
r/w
RFU
r/w
Table 103. T3Control bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
T3StopRx
If set, the timer stops immediately after receiving the first 4 bits. If
cleared, indicates that the timer is not stopped automatically.
Note: If LFO Trimming is selected by T3Start, this bit has no effect.
6
-
RFU
5 to 4
T3Start
00b - timer is not started automatically
01b - timer starts automatically at the end of the transmission
10b - timer is used for LFO trimming without underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge)
11b - timer is used for LFO trimming with underflow (Start/Stop on
PosEdge).
3
T3AutoRestart Set to logic 1, the timer automatically restarts its countdown from
T3ReloadValue, after the counter value has reached the value zero.
Set to logic 0 the timer decrements to zero and stops.
The bit Timer1IRQ is set to logic 1 when the timer underflows.
2
-
RFU
1 to 0
T3Clk
00b - the timer input clock is 13.56 MHz.
01b - the timer input clock is 211,875 kHz.
10b - the timer input clock is an underflow of Timer0
11b - the timer input clock is an underflow of Timer1
8.7.2.16
T3ReloadHi
High byte of the reload value of Timer3.
Table 104. T3ReloadHi register (address 1Fh);
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T3ReloadHi
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Table 105. T3ReloadHi bits
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Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T3ReloadHi
Defines the high byte of the reload value of the Timer3. With the start
event the timer load the value of the T3ReloadValHi and
T3ReloadValLo. Changing this register affects the timer only at the
next start event.
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8.7.2.17
T3ReloadLo
Low byte of the reload value of Timer3.
Table 106. T3ReloadLo register (address 20h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T3ReloadLo
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Table 107. T3ReloadLo bits
8.7.2.18
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T3ReloadLo
Defines the low byte of the reload value of Timer3. With the start event
the timer load the value of the T3ReloadValHi and T3RelaodValLo.
Changing this register affects the timer only at the next start event.
T3CounterValHi
High byte of the current counter value the 16-bit Timer3.
Table 108. T3CounterValHi register (address 21h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T3CounterValHi
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0
1
0
Table 109. T3CounterValHi bits
8.7.2.19
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T3Counter
ValHi
High byte of the current counter value of Timer3.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
T3CounterValLo
Low byte of the current counter value the 16-bit Timer3.
Table 110. T3CounterValLo register (address 22h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T3CounterValLo
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Table 111. T3CounterValLo bits
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Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T3Counter
ValLo
Low byte current counter value of Timer3.
This value shall not be read out during reception.
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8.7.2.20
T4Control
The wake-up timer T4 activates the system after a given time. If enabled, it can start the
low power card detection function.
Table 112. T4Control register (address 23h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
T4Running
T4Start
StopNow
T4Auto
Trimm
T4Auto
LPCD
T4Auto
Restart
T4AutoWakeUp
T4Clk
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Table 113. T4Control bits
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Bit
Symbol
Description
7
T4Running
Shows if the timer T4 is running. If the bit T4StartStopNow is set, this
bit and the timer T4 can be started/stopped.
6
T4Start
StopNow
if set, the bit T4Running can be changed.
5
T4AutoTrimm
If set to one, the timer activates an LFO trimming procedure when it
underflows. For the T4AutoTrimm function, at least one timer (T0 to
T3) has to be configured properly for trimming (T3 is not allowed if
T4AutoLPCD is set in parallel).
4
T4AutoLPCD
If set to one, the timer activates a low-power card detection
sequence. If a card is detected an interrupt request is raised and the
system remains active if enabled. If no card is detected the
MFRC631 enters the Power down mode if enabled. The timer is
automatically restarted (no gap). Timer 3 is used to specify the time
where the RF field is enabled to check if a card is present. Therefor
you may not use Timer 3 for T4AutoTrimm in parallel.
3
T4AutoRestart
Set to logic 1, the timer automatically restarts its countdown from
T4ReloadValue, after the counter value has reached the value zero.
Set to logic 0 the timer decrements to zero and stops. The bit
Timer4IRQ is set to logic 1 at timer underflow.
2
T4AutoWakeUp If set, the MFRC631 wakes up automatically, when the timer T4 has
an underflow. This bit has to be set if the IC should enter the Power
down mode after T4AutoTrimm and/or T4AutoLPCD is finished and
no card has been detected. If the IC should stay active after one of
these procedures this bit has to be set to 0.
1 to 0
T4Clk
00b - the timer input clock is the LFO clock
01b - the timer input clock is the LFO clock/8
10b - the timer input clock is the LFO clock/16
11b - the timer input clock is the LFO clock/32
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8.7.2.21
T4ReloadHi
High byte of the reload value of the 16-bit timer 4.
Table 114. T4ReloadHi register (address 24h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T4ReloadHi
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Table 115. T4ReloadHi bits
8.7.2.22
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T4ReloadHi
Defines high byte of the for the reload value of timer 4. With the start
event the timer 4 loads the T4ReloadVal. Changing this register affects
the timer only at the next start event.
T4ReloadLo
Low byte of the reload value of the 16-bit timer 4.
Table 116. T4ReloadLo register (address 25h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T4ReloadLo
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Table 117. T4ReloadLo bits
8.7.2.23
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T4ReloadLo
Defines the low byte of the reload value of the timer 4. With the start
event the timer loads the value of the T4ReloadVal. Changing this
register affects the timer only at the next start event.
T4CounterValHi
High byte of the counter value of the 16-bit timer 4.
Table 118. T4CounterValHi register (address 26h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T4CounterValHi
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Table 119. T4CounterValHi bits
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Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T4CounterValHi
High byte of the current counter value of timer 4.
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8.7.2.24
T4CounterValLo
Low byte of the counter value of the 16-bit timer 4.
Table 120. T4CounterValLo register (address 27h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
T4CounterValLo
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Table 121. T4CounterValLo bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
T4CounterValLo
Low byte of the current counter value of the timer 4.
8.8 Transmitter configuration registers
8.8.1 TxMode
Table 122. DrvMode register (address 28h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Symbol
Tx2Inv
Tx1Inv
-
-
TxEn
TxClk Mode
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Table 123. DrvMode bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
Tx2Inv
Inverts transmitter 2 at TX2 pin
6
Tx1Inv
Inverts transmitter 1 at TX1 pin
5
RFU
4
-
RFU
3
TxEn
If set to 1 both transmitter pins are enabled
2 to 0
TxClkMode
Transmitter clock settings (see 8.6.2. Table 27). Codes 011b and
0b110 are not supported. This register defines, if the output is
operated in open drain, push-pull, at high impedance or pulled to a fix
high or low level.
8.8.2 TxAmp
With the set_cw_amplitude register output power can be traded off against power supply
rejection. Spending more headroom leads to better power supply rejection ration and
better accuracy of the modulation degree.
With CwMax set, the voltage of TX1 will be pulled to the maximum possible. This register
overrides the settings made by set_cw_amplitude.
Table 124. TxAmp register (address 29h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Symbol
set_cw_amplitude
-
set_residual_carrier
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Table 125. TxAmp bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 6
set_cw_amplitude
Allows to reduce the output amplitude of the transmitter by a fix
value.
Four different preset values that are subtracted from TVDD can
be selected:
0: TVDD -100 mV
1: TVDD -250 mV
2: TVDD -500 mV
3: TVDD -1000 mV
5
RFU
-
4 to 0
set_residual_ carrier
Set the residual carrier percentage. refer to Section 7.6.2
8.8.3 TxCon
Table 126. TxCon register (address 2Ah)
3
2
Symbol
Bit
7
6
OvershootT2
5
4
CwMax
TxInv
1
TxSel
0
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Table 127. TxCon bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 4
OvershootT2
Specifies the length (number of carrier clocks) of the additional
modulation for overshoot prevention. Refer to Section 7.6.2.1
“Overshoot protection”
3
Cwmax
Set amplitude of continuous wave carrier to the maximum.
If set, set_cw_amplitude in Register TxAmp has no influence on the
continuous amplitude.
2
TxInv
If set, the resulting modulation signal defined by TxSel is inverted
1 to 0
TxSel
Defines which signal is used as source for modulation
00b ... no modulation
01b ... TxEnvelope
10b ... SigIn
11b ... RFU
8.8.4 Txl
Table 128. Txl register (address 2Bh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Symbol
OvershootT1
tx_set_iLoad
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Table 129. Txl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 4
OvershootT1
Overshoot value for Timer1. Refer to Section 7.6.2.1 “Overshoot
protection”
3 to 0
tx_set_iLoad
Factory trim value, sets the expected Tx load current. This value is
used to control the modulation index in an optimized way dependent
on the expected TX load current.
8.9 CRC configuration registers
8.9.1 TxCrcPreset
Table 130. TXCrcPreset register (address 2Ch)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
RFU
TXPresetVal
TxCRCtype
TxCRCInvert
TxCRCEn
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Table 131. TxCrcPreset bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
RFU
-
6 to 4
TXPresetVal
Specifies the CRC preset value for transmission (see Table 132).
3 to 2
TxCRCtype
Defines which type of CRC (CRC8/CRC16/CRC5) is calculated:
•
•
•
•
00h -- CRC5
01h -- CRC8
02h -- CRC16
03h -- RFU
1
TxCRCInvert
if set, the resulting CRC is inverted and attached to the data frame
(ISO/IEC 3309)
0
TxCRCEn
if set, a CRC is appended to the data stream
Table 132. Transmitter CRC preset value configuration
TXPresetVal[6...4]
CRC16
CRC8
CRC5
0h
0000h
00h
00h
1h
6363h
12h
12h
2h
A671h
BFh
-
3h
FFFEh
FDh
-
4h
-
-
-
5h
-
-
-
6h
User defined
User defined
User defined
7h
FFFFh
FFh
1Fh
Remark: User defined CRC preset values can be configured by EEprom (see
Section 7.7.2.1, Table 29 “Configuration area (Page 0)”).
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8.9.2 RxCrcCon
Table 133. RxCrcCon register (address 2Dh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
RxForceCRCWrite
RXPresetVal
RXCRCtype
RxCRCInvert
RxCRCEn
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Table 134. RxCrcCon bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
RxForceCrc
Write
If set, the received CRC byte(s) are copied to the FIFO.
6 to 4
RXPresetVal
Defines the CRC preset value (Hex.) for transmission. (see Table 135).
3 to 2
RxCRCtype
Defines which type of CRC (CRC8/CRC16/CRC5) is calculated:
If cleared CRC Bytes are only checked, but not copied to the FIFO.
This bit has to be always set in case of a not byte aligned CRC (e.g.
ISO/IEC 18000-3 mode 3/ EPC Class-1HF)
•
•
•
•
00h -- CRC5
01h -- CRC8
02h -- CRC16
03h -- RFU
1
RxCrcInvert
If set, the CRC check is done for the inverted CRC.
0
RxCrcEn
If set, the CRC is checked and in case of a wrong CRC an error flag is
set. Otherwise the CRC is calculated but the error flag is not modified.
Table 135. Receiver CRC preset value configuration
RXPresetVal[6...4]
CRC16
CRC8
CRC5
0h
0000h
00h
00h
1h
6363h
12h
12h
2h
A671h
BFh
-
3h
FFFEh
FDh
-
4h
-
-
-
5h
-
-
-
6h
User defined
User defined
User defined
7h
FFFFh
FFh
1Fh
8.10 Transmitter configuration registers
8.10.1 TxDataNum
Table 136. TxDataNum register (address 2Eh)
Bit
Symbol
7
6
5
4
3
RFU
RFU-
RFU-
KeepBitGrid
DataEn
TxLastBits
r/w
r/w
r/w
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Table 137. TxDataNum bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 5
RFU
-
4
KeepBitGrid
If set, the time between consecutive transmissions starts is a multiple
of one ETU. If cleared, consecutive transmissions can even start
within one ETU
3
DataEn
If cleared - it is possible to send a single symbol pattern.
If set - data is sent.
2 to 0
TxLastBits
Defines how many bits of the last data byte to be sent. If set to 000b all
bits of the last data byte are sent.
Note - bits are skipped at the end of the byte.
Example - Data byte B2h (sent LSB first).
TxLastBits = 011b (3h) => 010b (LSB first) is sent
TxLastBits = 110b (6h) => 010011b (LSB first) is sent
8.10.2 TxDATAModWidth
Transmitter data modulation width register
Table 138. TxDataModWidth register (address 2Fh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
DModWidth
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Table 139. TxDataModWidth bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
DModWidth
Specifies the length of a pulse for sending data with enabled pulse
modulation. The length is given by the number of carrier clocks + 1.
A pulse can never be longer than from the start of the pulse to the end
of the bit. The starting position of a pulse is given by the setting of
TxDataMod.DPulseType. Note: This register is only used if Miller
modulation (ISO/IEC 14443A PCD) is used. The settings are also
used for the modulation width of start and/or stop symbols.
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8.10.3 TxSym10BurstLen
If a protocol requires a burst (an unmodulated subcarrier) the length can be defined with
this TxSymBurstLen, the value high or low can be defined by TxSym10BurstCtrl.
Table 140. TxSym10BurstLen register (address 30h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Symbol
RFU
Sym1Burst Len
RFU
Sym0Burst Len
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Table 141. TxSym10BurstLen bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
RFU
-
6 to 4
Sym1BurstLen Specifies the number of bits issued for symbol 1 burst. The 3 bits
encodes a range from 8 to 256 bit:
00h - 8bit
01h - 16bit
02h - 32bit
04h - 48bit
05h - 64bit
06h - 96bit
07h - 128bit
08h - 256bit
3
RFU
-
2 to 0
Sym0BurstLen Specifies the number of bits issued for symbol 1 burst. The 3 bits
encodes a range from 8 to 256 bit:
00h - 8bit
01h - 16bit
02h - 32bit
03h - 48bit
04h - 64bit
05h - 96bit
06h - 128bit
07h - 256bit
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8.10.4 TxWaitCtrl
Table 142. TxWaitCtrl register (address 31h); reset value: C0h
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Symbol
TxWaitStart
TxWaitEtu
TxWait High
TxStopBitLength
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Table 143. TXWaitCtrl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
TxWaitStart
If cleared, the TxWait time is starting at the End of the send data
(TX).
If set, the TxWait time is starting at the End of the received data
(RX).
6
If cleared, the TxWait time is TxWait  16/13.56 MHz.
TxWaitEtu
If set, the TxWait time is TxWait  0.5 / DBFreq (DBFreq is the
frequency of the bit stream as defined by TxDataCon).
5 to 3
TxWait High
Bit extension of TxWaitLo. TxWaitCtrl bit 5 is MSB.
2 to 0
TxStopBitLength
Defines stop-bits and EGT (= stop-bit + extra guard time EGT) to
be send:
0h: no stop-bit, no EGT
1h: 1 stop-bit, no EGT
2h: 1 stop-bit + 1 EGT
3h: 1 stop-bit + 2 EGT
4h: 1 stop-bit + 3 EGT
5h: 1 stop-bit + 4 EGT
6h: 1 stop-bit + 5 EGT
7h: 1 stop-bit + 6 EGT
Note: This is only valid for ISO/IEC14443 Type B
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8.10.5 TxWaitLo
Table 144. TxWaitLo register (address 32h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
TxWaitLo
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Table 145. TxWaitLo bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
TxWaitLo
Defines the minimum time between receive and send or between two
send data streams
Note: TxWait is a 11bit register (additional 3 bits are in the TxWaitCtrl
register)!
See also TxWaitEtu and TxWaitStart.
8.11 FrameCon
Table 146. FrameCon register (address 33h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
Symbol
TxParityEn
RxParityEn
-
-
3
StopSym
2
1
StartSym
0
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Table 147. FrameCon bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
TxParityEn
If set, a parity bit is calculated and appended to each byte
6
RxParityEn
If set, the parity calculation is enabled. The parity is not transferred to
the FIFO.
5 to 4
-
RFU
3 to 2
StopSym
Defines which symbol is sent as stop-symbol:
transmitted.
•
•
•
•
1 to 0
StartSym
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1h: Symbol0 is sent
2h symbol1 is sent
3h Symbol2 is sent
Defines which symbol is sent as start-symbol:
•
•
•
•
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0h: No symbol is sent
0h: No Symbol is sent
1h: Symbol0 is sent
2h: Symbol1 is sent
3h: Symbol2 is sent
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8.12 Receiver configuration registers
8.12.1 RxSofD
Table 148. RxSofD register (address 34h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
RFU
SOF_En
SOFDetected
RFU
SubC_En
SubC_Detected
SubC_Present
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Table 149. RxSofD bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 6
RFU
-
5
SOF_En
If set and a SOF is detected an RxSOFIRQ is raised.
4
SOF_Detected
Shows that a SOF is or was detected. Can be cleared by SW.
3
RFU
-
2
SubC_En
If set and a subcarrier is detected an RxSOFIRQ is raised.
1
SubC_Detected
Shows that a subcarrier is or was detected. Can be cleared by SW.
0
SubC_Present
Shows that a subcarrier is currently detected.
8.12.2 RxCtrl
Table 150. RxCtrl register (address 35h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
RxAllowBits
RxMultiple
RxEOFType
EGT_Check
EMD_Sup
2
Baudrate
1
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Table 151. RxCtrl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
RxAllowBits
If set, data is written into FIFO even if CRC is enabled, and no
complete byte has been received.
6
RxMultiple
If set, RxMultiple is activated and the receiver will not terminate
automatically (refer Section 7.10.3.5 “Receive command”).
If set to logic 1, at the end of a received data stream an error byte is
5
RxEOFType
added to the FIFO. The error byte is a copy of the Error register.
0: EOF as defined in the RxEOFSymbolReg is expected.
1: ISO/IEC14443B EOF is expected.
Note: Clearing this bit to 0 and clearing bit 0 and bit 1 in the
RxEOFSymbolReg disables the EOF check.
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Table 151. RxCtrl bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
4
EGT_Check
If set to 1, the EGT is checked and if it is too long
a protocol error is set. (This is only valid for ISO/IEC14443 Type B).
3
EMD_Sup
Enables the EMD suppression according ISO/IEC14443. If an error
occurs within the first three bytes, these three bytes are assumed to be
EMD, ignored and the FIFO is reset. A collision is treated as an error
as well If a valid SOF was received, the EMD_Sup is set and a frame
of less than 3 bytes had been received. RX_IRQ is not set in this EMD
error cases. If RxForceCRCWrite is set, the FIFO should not be read
out before three bytes are written into.
2 to 0
Baudrate
Defines the baud rate of the receiving signal.
4h: 106 kBd
5h: 212 kBd
6h: 424 kBd
7h: 847 kBd
all remaining values are RFU
8.12.3 RxWait
Selects internal receiver settings.
Table 152. RxWait register (address 36h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
RxWaitEtu
RxWait
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Table 153. RxWait bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
RXWaitEtu
If set to 0, the RxWait time is RxWait  16/13.56 MHz.
If set to 1, the RxWait time is RxWait  (0.5/DBFreq).
6 to 0
RxWait
Defines the time after sending, where every input is ignored.
8.12.4 RxThreshold
Selects minimum threshold level for the bit decoder.
Table 154. RxThreshold register (address 37h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Symbol
MinLevel
MinLevelP
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Table 155. RxThreshold bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 4
MinLevel
Defines the MinLevel of the reception.
3 to 0
MinLevelP
Defines the MinLevel of the phase shift detector unit.
Note: The MinLevel should be higher than the noise level in the system.
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8.12.5 Rcv
Table 156. Rcv register (address 38h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
Rcv_Rx_single
Rx_ADCmode
SigInSel
RFU
CollLevel
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Table 157. Rcv bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
Rcv_Rx_single
Single RXP Input Pin Mode;
0: Fully Differential
1: Quasi-Differential
6
Rx_ADCmode
Defines the operation mode of the Analog Digital Converter (ADC)
0: normal reception mode for ADC
1: LPCD mode for ADC
5 to 4
SigInSel
Defines input for the signal processing unit:
0h - idle
1h - internal analog block (RX)
2h - signal in over envelope (ISO/IEC14443A)
3h - signal in over s3c-generic
3 to 2
RFU
-
1 to 0
CollLevel
Defines the strength of a signal to be interpreted as a collision:
0h - Collision has at least 1/8 of signal strength
1h - Collision has at least 1/4 of signal strength
2h - Collision has at least 1/2 of signal strength
3h - Collision detection is switched off
8.12.6 RxAna
This register allows to set the gain (rcv_gain) and high pass corner frequencies
(rcv_hpcf).
Table 158. RxAna register (address 39h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
VMid_r_sel
RFU
rcv_hpcf
rcv_gain
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Bit
Symbol
Description
7, 6
VMid_r_sel
Factory trim value, needs to be 0.
5, 4
RFU
3, 2
rcv_hpcf
The rcv_hpcf [1:0] signals allow 4 different settings of the base band
amplifier high pass cut-off frequency from ~40 kHz to ~300 kHz.
1 to 0
rcv_gain
With rcv_gain[1:0] four different gain settings from 30 dB and 60 dB
can be configured (differential output voltage/differential input voltage).
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Table 160. Effect of gain and highpass corner register settings
rcv_gain
(Hex.)
rcv_hpcf
(Hex.)
fl (kHz)
fU (MHz)
gain (dB20)
bandwith
(MHz)
03
00
38
2,3
60
2,3
03
01
79
2,4
59
2,3
03
02
150
2,6
58
2,5
03
03
264
2,9
55
2,6
02
00
41
2,3
51
2,3
02
01
83
2,4
50
2,3
02
02
157
2,6
49
2,4
02
03
272
3,0
41
2,7
01
00
42
2,6
43
2,6
01
01
84
2,7
42
2,6
01
02
157
2,9
41
2,7
01
03
273
3,3
39
3,0
00
00
43
2,6
35
2,6
00
01
85
2,7
34
2,6
00
02
159
2,9
33
2,7
00
03
276
3,4
30
3,1
8.13 Clock configuration
8.13.1 SerialSpeed
This register allows to set speed of the RS232 interface. The default speed is set to
9,6kbit/s. The transmission speed of the interface can be changed by modifying the
entries for BR_T0 and BR_T1. The transfer speed can be calculated by using the
following formulas:
BR_T0 = 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 1)
BR_T0 > 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 33) / 2^(BR_T0  1)
The framing is implemented with 1 startbit, 8 databits and 1 stop bit. A parity bit is not
used. Transfer speeds above 1228,8 kbit/s are not supported.
Table 161. SerialSpeed register (address3Bh); reset value: 7Ah
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
Symbol
BR_T0
BR_T1
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Table 162. SerialSpeed bits
Bit
Symbol Description
7 to 5 BR_T0
BR_T0 = 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 1)
BR_T0 > 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 33) / 2^(BR_T0  1)
4 to 0 BR_T1
BR_T0 = 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 1)
BR_T0 > 0: transfer speed = 27.12 MHz / (BR_T1 + 33) / 2^(BR_T0  1)
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Table 163. RS232 speed settings
Transfer speed (kbit/s)
SerialSpeed register content (Hex.)
7,2
FA
9,6
EB
14,4
DA
19,2
CB
38,4
AB
57,6
9A
115,2
7A
128,0
74
230,4
5A
460,8
3A
921,6
1C
1228,8
15
8.13.2 LFO_Trimm
Table 164. LFO_Trim register (address 3Ch)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
LFO_trimm
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Table 165. LFO_Trim bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
LFO_trimm
Trimm value. Refer to Section 7.8.3 “Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO)”
Note: If the trimm value is increased, the frequency of the oscillator
decreases.
8.13.3 PLL_Ctrl Register
The PLL_Ctrl register implements the control register for the IntegerN PLL. Two stages
exist to create the ClkOut signal from the 27,12MHz input. In the first stage the 27,12Mhz
input signal is multiplied by the value defined in PLLDiv_FB and divided by two, and the
second stage divides this frequency by the value defined by PLLDIV_Out.
Table 166. PLL_Ctrl register (address3Dh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
ClkOutSel
ClkOut_En
PLL_PD
PLLDiv_FB
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Table 167. PLL_Ctrl register bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 4
CLkOutSel
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0h - pin CLKOUT is used as I/O
1h - pin CLKOUT shows the output of the analog PLL
2h - pin CLKOUT is hold on 0
3h - pin CLKOUT is hold on 1
4h - pin CLKOUT shows 27.12 MHz from the crystal
5h - pin CLKOUT shows 13.56 MHz derived from the crystal
6h - pin CLKOUT shows 6.78 MHz derived from the crystal
7h - pin CLKOUT shows 3.39 MHz derived from the crystal
8h - pin CLKOUT is toggled by the Timer0 overflow
9h - pin CLKOUT is toggled by the Timer1 overflow
Ah - pin CLKOUT is toggled by the Timer2 overflow
Bh - pin CLKOUT is toggled by the Timer3 overflow
Ch...Fh - RFU
3
ClkOut_En
Enables the clock at Pin CLKOUT
2
PLL_PD
PLL power down
1-0
PLLDiv_FB
PLL feedback divider (see table 174)
Table 168. Setting of feedback divider PLLDiv_FB [1:0]
Bit 1
Bit 0
Division
0
0
23 (VCO frequency 312Mhz)
0
1
27 (VCO frequency 366MHz)
1
0
28 (VCO frequency 380Mhz)
1
1
23 (VCO frequency 312Mhz)
8.13.4 PLLDiv_Out
Table 169. PLLDiv_Out register (address 3Eh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
PLLDiv_Out
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Table 170. PLLDiv_Out bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 0
PLLDiv_Out
PLL output divider factor; Refer to Section 7.8.2
Table 171. Setting for the output divider ratio PLLDiv_Out [7:0]
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0
RFU
1
RFU
2
RFU
3
RFU
4
RFU
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Table 171. Setting for the output divider ratio PLLDiv_Out [7:0]
Value
Division
5
RFU
6
RFU
7
RFU
8
8
9
9
10
10
...
...
253
253
254
254
8.14 Low-power card detection configuration registers
The LPCD registers contain the settings for the low-power card detection. The setting for
LPCD_IMax (6 bits) is done by the two highest bits (bit 7, bit 6) of the registers
LPCD_QMin, LPCD_QMax and LPCD_IMin each.
8.14.1 LPCD_QMin
Table 172. LPCD_QMin register (address 3Fh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
Symbol
LPCD_IMax.5
LPCD_IMax.4
LPCD_QMin
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Table 173. LPCD_QMin bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7, 6
LPCD_IMax
Defines the highest two bits of the higher border for the LPCD. If the
measurement value of the I channel is higher than LPCD_IMax, a
LPCD interrupt request is indicated by bit IRQ0.LPCDIRQ.
5 to 0
LPCD_QMin
Defines the lower border for the LPCD. If the measurement value of
the Q channel is higher than LPCD_QMin, a LPCDinterrupt request is
indicated by bit IRQ0.LPCDIRQ.
8.14.2 LPCD_QMax
Table 174. LPCD_QMax register (address 40h)
Bit
7
6
Symbol
LPCD_IMax.3
LPCD_IMax.2
LPCD_QMax
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Table 175. LPCD_QMax bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
LPCD_IMax.3
Defines the bit 3 of the high border for the LPCD. If the measurement
value of the I channel is higher than LPCD IMax, a LPCD IRQ is
raised.
6
LPCD_IMax.2
Defines the bit 2 of the high border for the LPCD. If the measurement
value of the I channel is higher than LPCD IMax, a LPCD IRQ is
raised.
5 to 0
LPCD_QMax
Defines the high border for the LPCD. If the measurement value of
the Q channel is higher than LPCD QMax, a LPCD IRQ is raised.
8.14.3 LPCD_IMin
Table 176. LPCD_IMin register (address 41h)
Bit
7
6
5
Symbol
LPCD_IMax.1
LPCD_IMax.0
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Table 177. LPCD_IMin bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 6
LPCD_IMax
Defines lowest two bits of the higher border for the low-power card
detection (LPCD). If the measurement value of the I channel is higher
than LPCD IMax, a LPCD IRQ is raised.
5 to 0
LPCD_IMin
Defines the lower border for the ow power card detection. If the
measurement value of the I channel is lower than LPCD IMin, a LPCD
IRQ is raised.
8.14.4 LPCD_Result_I
Table 178. LPCD_Result_I register (address 42h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
Symbol
RFU-
RFU-
LPCD_Result_I
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Table 179. LPCD_I_Result bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 6
RFU
-
5 to 0
LPCD_Result_I Shows the result of the last low-power card detection (I-Channel).
8.14.5 LPCD_Result_Q
Table 180. LPCD_Result_Q register (address 43h)
Bit
Symbol
7
6
RFU
LPCD_IRQ_C
lr
LPCD_Reslult_Q
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Table 181. LPCD_Q_Result bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
RFU
-
6
LPCD_IRQ_Clr
If set no LPCD IRQ is raised any more until the next low-power
card detection procedure. Can be used by software to clear the
interrupt source.
5 to 0
LPCD_Result_Q
Shows the result of the last ow power card detection (Q-Channel).
8.15 Pin configuration
8.15.1 PinEn
Table 182. PinEn register (address 44h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
SIGIN_EN
CLKOUT_EN
IFSEL1_EN
IFSEL0_EN
TCK_EN
TMS_EN
TDI_EN
TMDO_EN
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Table 183. PinEn bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
SIGIN_EN
Enables the output functionality on SIGIN (pin 5). The pin is then used
as I/O.
6
CLKOUT_EN
Enables the output functionality of the CLKOUT (pin 22). The pin is
then used as I/O. The CLKOUT function is switched off.
5
IFSEL1_EN
Enables the output functionality of the IFSEL1 (pin 27). The pin is then
used as I/O.
4
IFSEL0_EN
Enables the output functionality of the IFSEL0 (pin 26). The pin is then
used as I/O.
3
TCK_EN
Enables the output functionality of the TCK (pin 4) of the boundary
scan interface. The pin is then used as I/O. If the boundary scan is
activated in EEPROM, this bit has no function.
2
TMS_EN
Enables the output functionality of the TMS (pin 2) of the boundary
scan interface. The pin is then used as I/O. If the boundary scan is
activated in EEPROM, this bit has no function.
1
TDI_EN
Enables the output functionality of the TDI (pin 1) of the boundary scan
interface. The pin is then used as I/O. If the boundary scan is activated
in EEPROM, this bit has no function.
0
TDO_EN
Enables the output functionality of the TDO(pin 3) of the boundary
scan interface. The pin is then used as I/O. If the boundary scan is
activated in EEPROM, this bit has no function.
8.15.2 PinOut
Table 184. PinOut register (address 45h)
Bit
7
6
Symbol
SIGIN_OUT
CLKOUT_OUT
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3
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Table 185. PinOut bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
SIGIN_OUT
Output buffer of the SIGIN pin
6
CLKOUT_OUT
Output buffer of the CLKOUT pin
5
IFSEL1_OUT
Output buffer of the IFSEL1 pin
4
IFSEL0_OUT
Output buffer of the IFSEL0 pin
3
TCK_OUT
Output buffer of the TCK pin
2
TMS_OUT
Output buffer of the TMS pin
1
TDI_OUT
Output buffer of the TDI pin
0
TDO_OUT
Output buffer of the TDO pin
8.15.3 PinIn
Table 186. PinIn register (address 46h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Symbol
SIGIN_IN
CLKOUT_IN
IFSEL1_IN
IFSEL0_IN
TCK_IN
TMS_IN
TDI_IN
TDO_IN
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Table 187. PinIn bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
SIGIN_IN
Input buffer of the SIGIN pin
6
CLKOUT_IN
Input buffer of the CLKOUT pin
5
IFSEL1_IN
Input buffer of the IFSEL1 pin
4
IFSEL0_IN
Input buffer of the IFSEL0 pin
3
TCK_IN
Input buffer of the TCK pin
2
TMS_IN
Input buffer of the TMS pin
1
TDI_IN
Input buffer of the TDI pin
0
TDO_IN
Input buffer of the TDO pin
8.15.4 SigOut
Table 188. SigOut register (address 47h)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
Symbol
Pad
Speed
RFU
SigOutSel
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Table 189. SigOut bits
Bit
Symbol
Description
7
PadSpeed
If set, the I/O pins are supporting a fast switching mode.The fast mode
for the I/O’s will increase the peak current consumption of the device,
especially if multiple I/Os are switching at the same time. The power
supply needs to be designed to deliver this peak currents.
6 to 4
RFU
-
3 to 0
SIGOutSel
0h, 1h - The pin SIGOUT is 3-state
2h - The pin SIGOUT is 0
3h - The pin SIGOUT is 1
4h - The pin SIGOUT shows the TX-envelope
5h - The pin SIGOUT shows the TX-active signal
6h - The pin SIGOUT shows the S3C (generic) signal
7h - The pin SIGOUT shows the RX-envelope
(only valid for ISO/IEC 14443A, 106 kBd)
8h - The pin SIGOUT shows the RX-active signal
9h - The pin SIGOUT shows the RX-bit signal
8.16 Version register
8.16.1 Version
Table 190. Version register (address 7Fh)
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Symbol
Version
SubVersion
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Table 191. Version bits
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Bit
Symbol
Description
7 to 4
Version
Includes the version of the MFRC631 silicon.
3 to 0
SubVersion
Includes the subversion of the MFRC631 silicon.
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9. Limiting values
Table 192. Limiting values
In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 60134).
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
supply voltage
Conditions
Min
Max
Unit
0.5
+5.5
V
VDD(PVDD) PVDD supply voltage
0.5
+5.5
V
VDD(TVDD) TVDD supply voltage
0.5
+5.5
V
Vi(RXP)
input voltage on pin RXP
-0.5
+2.0
V
Vi(RXN)
input voltage on pin RXN
0.5
+2.0
V
Ptot
total power dissipation
-
1125
mW
VESD(HB
M)
electrostatic discharge voltage Human Body Model (HBM);
1500 , 100 pF;
JESD22-A114-B
-
2000
V
VESD(CD
M)
electrostatic discharge voltage Charge Device Model (CDM);
-
500
V
Tj(max)
maximum junction
temperature
-
150
°C
per package
10. Recommended operating conditions
Table 193. Operating conditions
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
supply voltage
VDD(TVDD)
TVDD supply voltage
VDD(PVDD)
Tamb
[1]
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
3
5
5.5
V
3
5
5.5
V
PVDD supply voltage
3
5
5.5
V
ambient temperature
25
-
+85
C
[1]
VDD(PVDD) must always be the same or lower than VDD.
11. Thermal characteristics
Table 194. Thermal characteristics
Symbol Parameter
Rth(j-a)
thermal resistance from junction to
ambient
Conditions
Package
Typ
in still air with exposed pin soldered on a
4 layer JEDEC PCB
HVQFN32 40
Unit
K/W
12. Characteristics
Table 195. Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Input characteristics I/O Pin Characteristics IF3-SDA in
Min
I2C
Typ
Max
Unit
-
2
100
nA
V
configuration
ILI
input leakage current
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
0.5
-
+0.3VDD(PVDD)
VIH
HIGH-level input voltage
0.7VDD(PVDD)
-
VDD(PVDD) + 0.5 V
VOL
LOW-level output voltage
-
-
0.3
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
output disabled
IOL = 3 mA
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Table 195. Characteristics …continued
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
IOL
LOW-level output current
VOL = 0.4 V; Standard
mode, Fast mode
4
-
-
mA
VOL = 0.6 V; Standard
mode, Fast mode
6
-
-
mA
Standard mode, Fast
mode, CL < 400 pF
-
-
250
ns
Fast mode +; CL < 550 pF
-
-
120
ns
tf(o)
output fall time
tSP
pulse width of spikes that
must be suppressed by
the input filter
0
-
50
ns
Ci
input capacitance
-
3.5
5
pF
CL
load capacitance
Standard mode
-
-
400
pF
Fast mode
-
-
550
pF
Tamb = +55 °C
10
-
-
year
EEPROM endurance
under all operating
5 x 105
-
-
cycle
(number of programming
conditions
tEER
EEPROM data retention
time
NEEC
cycles)
Analog and digital supply AVDD,DVDD
VDDA
analog supply voltage
internal generated voltage,
buffered
1.7
1.8
1.9
V
VDDD
digital supply voltage
internal generated voltage,
buffered
1.7
1.8
1.9
V
CL
load capacitance
AVDD
220
470
-
nF
CL
load capacitance
DVDD
220
470
-
nF
Current consumption
Istb
standby current
Standby bit = 1
-
3
6
A
IDD
supply current
modem on
-
17
20
mA
IDD(TVDD)
TVDD supply current
modem off
-
0.45
0.5
mA
-
100
250
mA
I/O pin characteristics SIGIN, SIGOUT, CLKOUT, IFSEL0,
IFSEL1, TCK, TMS, TDI, TDO, IRQ, IF0, IF1, IF2, SCL2, SDA2
ILI
input leakage current
-
50
500
nA
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
0.5
-
0.3VDD(PVDD)
V
VIH
HIGH-level input voltage
0.7VDD(PVDD)
-
VDD(PVDD) + 0.5 V
VOL
LOW-level output voltage
IOL = 4 mA,
VDD(PVDD) = 5.0 V
-
-
0.4
V
IOL = 4 mA,
VDD(PVDD) = 3.3 V
-
-
0.4
V
HIGH-level output voltage IOL = 4 mA,
VDD(PVDD) = 5.0 V
4.6
-
-
V
IOL = 4 mA,
VDD(PVDD) = 3.3 V
2.9
-
-
V
-
2.5
4.5
pF
VOH
Ci
output disabled
input capacitance
MFRC631
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Table 195. Characteristics …continued
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
50
72
120
K
Pull-up resistance for TCK, TMS, TDI, IF2
pull-up resistance
Rpu
Pin characteristics AUX 1, AUX 2
Vo
output voltage
0
-
1.8
V
CL
load capacitance
-
-
400
pF
0
-
1.8
V
2
3.5
5
pF
-
2.5
-
mV
-
-
1.65
V
Pin characteristics RXP, RXN
Vi
input voltage
Ci
input capacitance
Vmod(pp)
modulation voltage
Vpp
signal on RXP, RXN
Vmod(pp) = Vi(pp)(max)  Vi(pp)
(min)
Pins TX1 and TX2
Vo
output voltage
Vss(TVSS)
-
VDD(TVDD)
V
Ro
output resistance
-
1.5
-

ambient temp = 25°C
-
8
40
nA
ambient temp = 85°C
-
200
400
nA
[1]
-
3
6
A
[1]
-
3
6
A
Current consumption
power-down current
Ipd
standby current
Istby
ILPCD
LPCD sleep current
IDD
supply current
ambient temp = 25°C
modem off; transceiver off
IDD(PVDD)
PVDD supply current
no load on digital pin
[2]
-
17
20
mA
-
0.45
0.5
mA
-
-
10
A
-
27.12
-
MHz
-
50
-
%
Clock frequency Pin CLKOUT
fclk
clock frequency
clk
clock duty cycle
configured to 27.12 MHz
Crystal oscillator
Vo(p-p)
peak-to-peak output
voltage
pin XTAL1
-
1
-
V
Vi
input voltage
pin XTAL1
0
-
1.8
V
Ci
input capacitance
pin XTAL1
-
3
-
pF
Typical input requirements
fxtal
crystal frequency
-
27.12
-
MHz
ESR
equivalent series
resistance
-
50
100

CL
load capacitance
-
10
-
pF
Pxtal
crystal power dissipation
-
50
100
W
[1]
Ipd is the total current for all supplies.
[2]
IDD(PVDD) depends on the overall load at the digital pins.
MFRC631
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Vmod
Vi(p-p)(max)
Vi(p-p)(min)
VMID
13.56 MHz
carrier
0V
001aak012
Fig 31. Pin RX input voltage
12.1 Timing characteristics
Table 196. SPI timing characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
tSCKL
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max Unit
SCK LOW time
50
-
-
ns
tSCKH
SCK HIGH time
50
-
-
ns
th(SCKH-D)
SCK HIGH to data input hold SCK to changing MOSI
time
25
-
-
ns
tsu(D-SCKH)
data input to SCK HIGH
set-up time
changing MOSI to SCK
25
-
-
ns
th(SCKL-Q)
SCK LOW to data output
hold time
SCK to changing MISO
-
-
25
ns
t(SCKL-NSSH)
SCK LOW to NSS HIGH
time
0
-
-
ns
tNSSH
NSS HIGH time
50
-
-
ns
before communication
Remark: To send more bytes in one data stream the NSS signal must be LOW during the
send process. To send more than one data stream the NSS signal must be HIGH between
each data stream.
Table 197. I2C-bus timing in fast mode and fast mode plus
Symbol Parameter
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
Conditions
Fast mode
Fast mode
Plus
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
0
400
0
1000 kHz
after this period,
600
the first clock pulse
is generated
-
260
-
ns
fSCL
SCL clock frequency
tHD;STA
hold time (repeated) START
condition
tSU;STA
set-up time for a repeated
START condition
600
-
260
-
ns
tSU;STO
set-up time for STOP condition
600
-
260
-
ns
tLOW
LOW period of the SCL clock
1300 -
500
-
ns
tHIGH
HIGH period of the SCL clock
600
-
260
-
ns
tHD;DAT
data hold time
0
900
-
450
ns
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Table 197. I2C-bus timing in fast mode and fast mode plus …continued
Symbol Parameter
Conditions
Fast mode
Fast mode
Plus
Min
Max
Min
Max
100
-
-
-
Unit
tSU;DAT
data set-up time
ns
tr
rise time
SCL signal
20
300
-
120
ns
tf
fall time
SCL signal
20
300
-
120
ns
tr
rise time
SDA and SCL
signals
20
300
-
120
ns
tf
fall time
SDA and SCL
signals
20
300
-
120
ns
tBUF
bus free time between a STOP
and START condition
1.3
-
0.5
-
s
SDA
tSU;DAT
tf
tSP
tr
tHD;STA
tf
tLOW
tBUF
SCL
tr
tHD;STA
S
tHIGH
tHD;DAT
tSU;STA
tSU;STO
Sr
P
S
001aaj635
Fig 32. Timing for fast and standard mode devices on the I2C-bus
MFRC631
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13. Application information
A typical application diagram using a complementary antenna connection to the
MFRC631 is shown in Figure 33.
The antenna tuning and RF part matching is described in the application note Ref. 1 and
Ref. 2.
VDD
PVDD
TVDD
25
18
8
AVDD
9
13
14
PDOWN
MICROPROCESSOR
host
interface
21
17
16
32
15
DVDD
VMID
TX1
CRXN
R1 C
vmid
R2
C1
L0
Ra
antenna
READER IC
28-31
IRQ
RXN
C0
C2
C0
C2
Ra
TVSS
TX2
Lant
L0
C1
14
7
12
33
VSS
19
RXP
20
XTAL1
XTAL2
R3
R4
CRXP
27.12 MHz
001aam269
Fig 33. Typical application antenna circuit diagram
13.1 Antenna design description
The matching circuit for the antenna consists of an EMC low pass filter (L0 and C0), a
matching circuitry (C1 and C2), and a receiving circuits (R1 = R3, R2 = R4, C3 = C5 and
C4 = C6;), and the antenna itself. The receiving circuit component values needs to be
designed for operation with the MFRC631. A reuse of dedicated antenna designs done for
other products without adaptation of component values will result in degraded
performance.
For a more detailed information about designing and tuning the antenna, please refer to
the relevant application notes:
• MICORE reader IC family; Directly Matched Antenna Design, Ref. 1 and
• MIFARE (14443A) 13.56 MHz RFID Proximity Antennas, Ref. 2.
13.1.1 EMC low pass filter
The MIFARE system operates at a frequency of 13.56 MHz. This frequency is derived
from a quartz oscillator to clock the MFRC631 and is also the basis for driving the antenna
with the 13.56 MHz energy carrier. This will not only cause emitted power at 13.56 MHz
MFRC631
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but will also emit power at higher harmonics. The international EMC regulations define the
amplitude of the emitted power in a broad frequency range. Thus, an appropriate filtering
of the output signal is necessary to fulfil these regulations.
Remark: The PCB layout has a major influence on the overall performance of the filter.
13.1.2 Antenna matching
Due to the impedance transformation of the given low pass filter, the antenna coil has to
be matched to a certain impedance. The matching elements C1 and C2 can be estimated
and have to be fine tuned depending on the design of the antenna coil.
The correct impedance matching is important to provide the optimum performance. The
overall quality factor has to be considered to guarantee a proper ISO/IEC 14443
communication scheme. Environmental influences have to be considered as well as
common EMC design rules.
For details refer to the NXP application notes.
13.1.3 Receiving circuit
The internal receiving concept of the MFRC631 makes use both side-bands of the
sub-carrier load modulation of the card response via a differential receiving concept (RXP,
RXN). No external filtering is required.
It is recommended to use the internally generated VMID potential as the input potential of
pin RX. This DC voltage level of VMID has to be coupled to the Rx-pins via R2 and R4. To
provide a stable DC reference voltage capacitances C4, C6 has to be connected between
VMID and ground. Refer to Figure 33
Considering the (AC) voltage limits at the Rx-pins the AC voltage divider of R1 + C3 and
R2 as well as R3 + C5 and R4 has to be designed. Depending on the antenna coil design
and the impedance matching the voltage at the antenna coil varies from antenna design to
antenna design. Therefore the recommended way to design the receiving circuit is to use
the given values for R1(= R3), R2 (= R4), and C3 (= C5) from the above mentioned
application note, and adjust the voltage at the RX-pins by varying R1(= R3) within the
given limits.
Remark: R2 and R4 are AC-wise connected to ground (via C4 and C6).
MFRC631
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13.1.4 Antenna coil
The precise calculation of the antenna coils’ inductance is not practicable but the
inductance can be estimated using the following formula. We recommend designing an
antenna either with a circular or rectangular shape.
I1
1 8
L 1 = 2  I 1   ln  ------ – K N 1


D1
(4)
• I1 - Length in cm of one turn of the conductor loop
• D1 - Diameter of the wire or width of the PCB conductor respectively
• K - Antenna shape factor (K = 1,07 for circular antennas and K = 1,47 for square
antennas)
• L1 - Inductance in nH
• N1 - Number of turns
• Ln: Natural logarithm function
The actual values of the antenna inductance, resistance, and capacitance at
13.56 MHz depend on various parameters such as:
•
•
•
•
•
antenna construction (Type of PCB)
thickness of conductor
distance between the windings
shielding layer
metal or ferrite in the near environment
Therefore a measurement of those parameters under real life conditions, or at least a
rough measurement and a tuning procedure is highly recommended to guarantee a
reasonable performance. For details refer to the above mentioned application notes.
MFRC631
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High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
14. Package outline
HVQFN32: plastic thermal enhanced very thin quad flat package; no leads;
32 terminals; body 5 x 5 x 0.85 mm
A
B
D
SOT617-1
terminal 1
index area
A
A1
E
c
detail X
C
e1
e
1/2
e b
9
y
y1 C
v M C A B
w M C
16
L
17
8
e
e2
Eh
1/2
1
terminal 1
index area
e
24
32
25
X
Dh
0
2.5
5 mm
scale
DIMENSIONS (mm are the original dimensions)
UNIT
A(1)
max.
A1
b
c
D (1)
Dh
E (1)
Eh
e
e1
e2
L
v
w
y
y1
mm
1
0.05
0.00
0.30
0.18
0.2
5.1
4.9
3.25
2.95
5.1
4.9
3.25
2.95
0.5
3.5
3.5
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.05
0.05
0.1
Note
1. Plastic or metal protrusions of 0.075 mm maximum per side are not included.
REFERENCES
OUTLINE
VERSION
IEC
JEDEC
JEITA
SOT617-1
---
MO-220
---
EUROPEAN
PROJECTION
ISSUE DATE
01-08-08
02-10-18
Fig 34. Package outline SOT617-1 (HVQFN32)
MFRC631
Product data sheet
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Detailed package information can be found at
http://www.nxp.com/package/SOT617-1.html.
15. Handling information
Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL) evaluation has been performed according to
SNW-FQ-225B rev.04/07/07 (JEDEC J-STD-020C). MSL for this package is level 2 which
means 260 C convection reflow temperature.
For MSL2:
• Dry pack is required.
• 1 year out-of-pack floor life at maximum ambient temperature 30 C/ 85 % RH.
For MSL1:
• No dry pack is required.
• No out-of-pack floor live spec. required.
16. Packing information
The straps around the package of
stacked trays inside the plano-box
have sufficient pre-tension to avoid
loosening of the trays.
strap 46 mm from corner
tray
ESD warning preprinted
chamfer
barcode label (permanent)
PIN 1
barcode label (peel-off)
chamfer
QA seal
PIN 1
Hyatt patent preprinted
In the traystack (2 trays)
only ONE tray type* allowed
*one supplier and one revision number.
printed plano box
001aaj740
Fig 35. Packing information 1 tray
MFRC631
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xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx
NXP Semiconductors
MFRC631
Product data sheet
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strap 46 mm from the corner
PQ-label (permanent)
bag
dry-agent
relative humidity indicator
preprinted:
recycling symbol
moisture caution label
ESD warning
tray
manufacturer bag info
chamfer
PQ-label (permanent)
PIN 1
PLCC52
dry-pack ID preprinted
chamfer
strap
PIN 1
QA seal
chamfer
printed plano box
PIN 1
aaa-004952
MFRC631
109 of 119
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Fig 36. Packing information 5 tray
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
ESD warning preprinted
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx
BB
BA
BA
BD
BD
section BC-BC
scale 4:1
BB
A B C
0.50
3.00
2.50
1.55
3.32
1.10
(0.30)
A B C
vacuum cell
end lock
AJ
AJ
AR
AR
side lock
AN
AK
AL
AL
section BA-BA
scale 4:1
AK
detail AC
scale 20:1
AM
section AK-AK
scale 5:1
AN
section AN-AN
scale 4:1
section AJ-AJ
scale 2:1
section AL-AL
scale 5:1
section AM-AM
scale 4:1
section AR-AR
scale 2:1
aaa-004949
Fig 37. Tray details
MFRC631
110 of 119
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section BD-BD
scale 4:1
AM
0.35
14.20±0.08+10°/S SQ.
1.20
12.80-5°/S SQ.
0.56
(0.64)
(14.40+5°/S SQ.)
(1.45)
16.60±0.08+7°/S SQ.
13.85±0.08+12°/S SQ.
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
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BC
0.50
NXP Semiconductors
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
BC
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx
NXP Semiconductors
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
ASSY REEL + LABELS
tape
(see: HOW TO SECURE)
see: ASSY REEL + LABELS
Ø 330x12/16/24/32 (hub 7’’)
guard band
label side
embossed
ESD logo
tape
(see: HOW TO SECURE)
circular sprocket holes
opposite the label side of reel
printed plano-box
cover tape
embossed
ESD logo
Ø 330x16/24/32/44 (hub 4’’)
Ø 330x44 (hub 6’’)
carrier tape
enlongated
PIN1 has to be
in quadrant 1
circular
PIN1
PIN1
1
SO
enlongated
PLCC
PIN1
PIN1
product orientation
in carrier tape
2
3 4
BGA
bare die
QFP
unreeling direction
(HV)QFN
(HV)SON
(H)BCC
product orientation ONLY for turned
products with 12nc ending 128
PIN1
SO
PIN1
QFP
HOW TO SECURE LEADER END TO THE GUARD BAND,
HOW TO SECURE GUARD BAND
PIN1
1
2
PIN1
3 4 PIN1
for SOT765
BGA
for SOT505-2 ending 125
bare die
ending 125
(HV)QFN
(HV)SON
(H)BCC
tapeslot
label side
trailer
trailer : lenght of trailer shall be 160 mm min.
and covered with cover tape
leader : lenght of trailer shall be 400 mm min.
and covered with cover tape
circular sprocket hole side
guard band
leader
QA seal
preprinted ESD warning
PQ-label
(permanent)
dry-pack ID preprinted
lape double-backed
onto itself on both ends
guard band
aaa-004950
Fig 38. Packing information Reel
MFRC631
111 of 119
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016. All rights reserved.
tape
(with pull tabs on both ends)
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Ø 180x12/16/24
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
17. Abbreviations
Table 198. Abbreviations
Acronym
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
Description
ADC
Analog-to-Digital Converter
BPSK
Binary Phase Shift Keying
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
CW
Continuous Wave
EGT
Extra Guard Time
EMC
Electro Magnetic Compatibility
EMD
Electro Magnetic Disturbance
EOF
End Of Frame
EPC
Electronic Product Code
ETU
Elementary Time Unit
GPIO
General Purpose Input/Output
HBM
Human Body Model
I2C
Inter-Integrated Circuit
IRQ
Interrupt Request
LFO
Low Frequency Oscillator
LPCD
Low-Power Card Detection
LSB
Least Significant Bit
MISO
Master In Slave Out
MOSI
Master Out Slave In
MSB
Most Significant Bit
NRZ
Not Return to Zero
NSS
Not Slave Select
PCD
Proximity Coupling Device
PLL
Phase-Locked Loop
RZ
Return To Zero
RX
Receiver
SAM
Secure Access Module
SOF
Start Of Frame
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
SW
Software
TTimer
Timing of the clk period
TX
Transmitter
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
UID
Unique IDentification
VCO
Voltage Controlled Oscillator
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016. All rights reserved.
112 of 119
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
18. References
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
[1]
Application note — MFRC52x Reader IC Family Directly Matched Antenna
Design
[2]
Application note — MIFARE (ISO/IEC 14443 A) 13.56 MHz RFID Proximity
Antennas
[3]
BSDL File — Boundary scan description language file of the MFRC631
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016. All rights reserved.
113 of 119
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
19. Revision history
Table 199. Revision history
Document ID
Release date
Data sheet status
Change notice
Supersedes
MFRC631 v.4.2
20160427
Product data sheet
-
MFRC631 v.4.1
-
MFRC631 v.4.0
Modifications:
MFRC631 v.4.1
Modifications:
MFRC631 v.4.0
Modifications:
•
Descriptive title updated
20160211
•
•
Table 195 “Characteristics”: TVDD supply current value updated
20151029
•
Product data sheet
Table 1 “Quick reference data”: Table notes [3] and [4] removed
Product data sheet
-
MFRC631 v.3.3
Table 195 “Characteristics”
– AVDD and DVDD min and max values added
– IDD(TVDD) max value updated to 250 mA
•
•
MFRC631 v.3.3
Modifications:
MFRC631 v.3.2
Modifications:
MFRC631 v.3.1
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
Figure 10 “Connection to host with SPI”: updated
Figure 19 “Register read and write access”: updated
20140204
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
-
MFRC631 v.3.2
PVDD, TVDD data updated
Information on FIFO size corrected
Typing error corrected in description for LPCD
WaterLevel and FIFOLength updated in register overview description
WaterLevel and FIFOLength updated in register FIFOControl
Waterlevel Register updated
FIFOLength Register updated
Section 8.15.2 “PinOut”: Pin Out register description corrected
20130312
•
•
•
Product data sheet
Product data sheet
-
MFRC631 v.3.1
Update of EEPROM content
Descriptive title changed
Table 184 “PinOut register (address 45h)”: corrected
<tbd>
Product data sheet
-
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
-
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114 of 119
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
20. Legal information
20.1 Data sheet status
Document status[1][2]
Product status[3]
Definition
Objective [short] data sheet
Development
This document contains data from the objective specification for product development.
Preliminary [short] data sheet
Qualification
This document contains data from the preliminary specification.
Product [short] data sheet
Production
This document contains the product specification.
[1]
Please consult the most recently issued document before initiating or completing a design.
[2]
The term ‘short data sheet’ is explained in section “Definitions”.
[3]
The product status of device(s) described in this document may have changed since this document was published and may differ in case of multiple devices. The latest product status
information is available on the Internet at URL http://www.nxp.com.
20.2 Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of
use of such information.
Short data sheet — A short data sheet is an extract from a full data sheet
with the same product type number(s) and title. A short data sheet is intended
for quick reference only and should not be relied upon to contain detailed and
full information. For detailed and full information see the relevant full data
sheet, which is available on request via the local NXP Semiconductors sales
office. In case of any inconsistency or conflict with the short data sheet, the
full data sheet shall prevail.
Product specification — The information and data provided in a Product
data sheet shall define the specification of the product as agreed between
NXP Semiconductors and its customer, unless NXP Semiconductors and
customer have explicitly agreed otherwise in writing. In no event however,
shall an agreement be valid in which the NXP Semiconductors product is
deemed to offer functions and qualities beyond those described in the
Product data sheet.
20.3 Disclaimers
Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to
be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or
completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the
consequences of use of such information. NXP Semiconductors takes no
responsibility for the content in this document if provided by an information
source outside of NXP Semiconductors.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors be liable for any indirect, incidental,
punitive, special or consequential damages (including - without limitation - lost
profits, lost savings, business interruption, costs related to the removal or
replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such
damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of
contract or any other legal theory.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability towards
customer for the products described herein shall be limited in accordance
with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP Semiconductors.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in life support, life-critical or
safety-critical systems or equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected
to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental
damage. NXP Semiconductors and its suppliers accept no liability for
inclusion and/or use of NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or
applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own
risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications
and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP Semiconductors
accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or customer product
design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine whether the NXP
Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the customer’s applications and
products planned, as well as for the planned application and use of
customer’s third party customer(s). Customers should provide appropriate
design and operating safeguards to minimize the risks associated with their
applications and products.
NXP Semiconductors does not accept any liability related to any default,
damage, costs or problem which is based on any weakness or default in the
customer’s applications or products, or the application or use by customer’s
third party customer(s). Customer is responsible for doing all necessary
testing for the customer’s applications and products using NXP
Semiconductors products in order to avoid a default of the applications and
the products or of the application or use by customer’s third party
customer(s). NXP does not accept any liability in this respect.
Limiting values — Stress above one or more limiting values (as defined in
the Absolute Maximum Ratings System of IEC 60134) will cause permanent
damage to the device. Limiting values are stress ratings only and (proper)
operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those given in
the Recommended operating conditions section (if present) or the
Characteristics sections of this document is not warranted. Constant or
repeated exposure to limiting values will permanently and irreversibly affect
the quality and reliability of the device.
Terms and conditions of commercial sale — NXP Semiconductors
products are sold subject to the general terms and conditions of commercial
sale, as published at http://www.nxp.com/profile/terms, unless otherwise
agreed in a valid written individual agreement. In case an individual
agreement is concluded only the terms and conditions of the respective
agreement shall apply. NXP Semiconductors hereby expressly objects to
applying the customer’s general terms and conditions with regard to the
purchase of NXP Semiconductors products by customer.
No offer to sell or license — Nothing in this document may be interpreted or
construed as an offer to sell products that is open for acceptance or the grant,
conveyance or implication of any license under any copyrights, patents or
other industrial or intellectual property rights.
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016. All rights reserved.
115 of 119
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
Quick reference data — The Quick reference data is an extract of the
product data given in the Limiting values and Characteristics sections of this
document, and as such is not complete, exhaustive or legally binding.
Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein
may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior
authorization from competent authorities.
Non-automotive qualified products — Unless this data sheet expressly
states that this specific NXP Semiconductors product is automotive qualified,
the product is not suitable for automotive use. It is neither qualified nor tested
in accordance with automotive testing or application requirements. NXP
Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of
non-automotive qualified products in automotive equipment or applications.
In the event that customer uses the product for design-in and use in
automotive applications to automotive specifications and standards, customer
(a) shall use the product without NXP Semiconductors’ warranty of the
product for such automotive applications, use and specifications, and (b)
whenever customer uses the product for automotive applications beyond
NXP Semiconductors’ specifications such use shall be solely at customer’s
own risk, and (c) customer fully indemnifies NXP Semiconductors for any
liability, damages or failed product claims resulting from customer design and
use of the product for automotive applications beyond NXP Semiconductors’
standard warranty and NXP Semiconductors’ product specifications.
Translations — A non-English (translated) version of a document is for
reference only. The English version shall prevail in case of any discrepancy
between the translated and English versions.
20.4 Licenses
Purchase of NXP ICs with ISO/IEC 14443 type B functionality
This NXP Semiconductors IC is ISO/IEC 14443 Type B
software enabled and is licensed under Innovatron’s
Contactless Card patents license for ISO/IEC 14443 B.
The license includes the right to use the IC in systems
and/or end-user equipment.
RATP/Innovatron
Technology
Purchase of NXP ICs with NFC technology
Purchase of an NXP Semiconductors IC that complies with one of the Near
Field Communication (NFC) standards ISO/IEC 18092 and ISO/IEC 21481
does not convey an implied license under any patent right infringed by
implementation of any of those standards. Purchase of NXP
Semiconductors IC does not include a license to any NXP patent (or other
IP right) covering combinations of those products with other products,
whether hardware or software.
20.5 Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks
are the property of their respective owners.
I2C-bus — logo is a trademark of NXP B.V.
MIFARE — is a trademark of NXP B.V.
MIFARE Ultralight — is a trademark of NXP B.V.
DESFire — is a trademark of NXP Semiconductors N.V.
MIFARE Plus — is a trademark of NXP B.V.
ICODE and I-CODE — are trademarks of NXP B.V.
21. Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016. All rights reserved.
116 of 119
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
22. Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
6.1
7
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
7.2.1.3
7.2.1.4
7.2.1.5
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.2.1
7.4.2.2
7.4.2.3
7.4.2.4
7.4.2.5
7.4.3
7.4.3.1
7.4.3.2
7.4.4
7.4.4.1
7.4.4.2
7.4.4.3
7.4.4.4
7.4.4.5
7.4.4.6
7.4.4.7
7.4.4.8
7.4.4.9
7.4.5
7.4.5.1
7.4.5.2
7.4.6
7.4.6.1
7.4.6.2
7.4.6.3
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Features and benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Quick reference data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Pinning information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Interrupt controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Timer module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Timer modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Time-Out- and Watch-Dog-Counter . . . . . . . . 10
Wake-up timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Stop watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Programmable one-shot timer . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Periodical trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Contactless interface unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
ISO/IEC14443A/MIFARE functionality . . . . . . 11
ISO/IEC14443B functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Host interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Host interface configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
SPI interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Read data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Write data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Address byte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Timing Specification SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
RS232 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Selection of the transfer speeds . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
I2C-bus interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
I2C Data validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
I2C START and STOP conditions . . . . . . . . . . 20
I2C byte format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
I2C Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
I2C 7-bit addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
I2C-register write access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
I2C-register read access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
I2CL-bus interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
SAM interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SAM functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SAM connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Boundary scan interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Interface signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Test Clock (TCK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Test Mode Select (TMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.4.6.4
7.4.6.5
7.4.6.6
7.4.6.7
7.4.6.8
7.4.6.9
7.4.6.10
7.5
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
7.5.4
7.6
7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.2.1
7.6.2.2
7.6.3
7.6.3.1
7.6.3.2
7.6.4
7.6.5
7.7
7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.2.1
7.7.3
7.8
7.8.1
7.8.2
7.8.3
7.9
7.9.1
7.9.2
7.9.2.1
7.9.2.2
7.9.2.3
7.9.3
7.9.4
7.10
7.10.1
7.10.2
7.10.3
7.10.3.1
7.10.3.2
7.10.3.3
7.10.3.4
Test Data Input (TDI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Test Data Output (TDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Data register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Boundary scan cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Boundary scan path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Boundary Scan Description Language (BSDL) 28
Non-IEEE1149.1 commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Accessing the FIFO buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Controlling the FIFO buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Status Information about the FIFO buffer. . . . 30
Analog interface and contactless UART . . . . 32
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
TX transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Overshoot protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Bit generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Receiver circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Active antenna concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Symbol generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Memory overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
EEPROM memory organization. . . . . . . . . . . 41
Product information and configuration
- Page 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
EEPROM initialization content LoadProtocol. 44
Clock generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Crystal oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
IntegerN PLL clock line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO) . . . . . . . . . . 47
Power management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Supply concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Power reduction mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Power-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Standby mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Modem off mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Low-Power Card Detection (LPCD) . . . . . . . . 49
Reset and start-up time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Command set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Command set overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Command functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Idle command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
LPCD command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Load key command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
MFAuthent command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
continued >>
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016. All rights reserved.
117 of 119
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
7.10.3.5 Receive command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.6 Transmit command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.7 Transceive command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.8 WriteE2 command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.9 WriteE2PAGE command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.10 ReadE2 command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.11 LoadReg command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.12 LoadProtocol command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.13 LoadKeyE2 command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.14 StoreKeyE2 command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.15 GetRNR command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.16 SoftReset command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
MFRC631 registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1
Register bit behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2
Command configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1
Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3
SAM configuration register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1
HostCtrl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4
FIFO configuration register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1
FIFOControl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2
WaterLevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.3
FIFOLength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.4
FIFOData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5
Interrupt configuration registers . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1
IRQ0 register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.2
IRQ1 register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.3
IRQ0En register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.4
IRQ1En . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6
Contactless interface configuration registers .
8.6.1
Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.2
Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.3
RxBitCtrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.4
RxColl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7
Timer configuration registers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.1
TControl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2
T0Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.1
T0ReloadHi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.2
T0ReloadLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.3
T0CounterValHi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.4
T0CounterValLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.5
T1Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.6
T1ReloadHi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.7
T1ReloadLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.8
T1CounterValHi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.9
T1CounterValLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.10 T2Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.11 T2ReloadHi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.12 T2ReloadLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.13 T2CounterValHi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2.14 T2CounterValLoReg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
54
54
54
54
55
55
58
58
58
58
59
59
59
61
61
61
62
62
63
64
65
65
66
67
68
69
69
70
70
71
71
71
72
72
73
73
73
74
74
75
75
75
8.7.2.15
8.7.2.16
8.7.2.17
8.7.2.18
8.7.2.19
8.7.2.20
8.7.2.21
8.7.2.22
8.7.2.23
8.7.2.24
8.8
8.8.1
8.8.2
8.8.3
8.8.4
8.9
8.9.1
8.9.2
8.10
8.10.1
8.10.2
8.10.3
8.10.4
8.10.5
8.11
8.12
8.12.1
8.12.2
8.12.3
8.12.4
8.12.5
8.12.6
8.13
8.13.1
8.13.2
8.13.3
8.13.4
8.14
8.14.1
8.14.2
8.14.3
8.14.4
8.14.5
8.15
8.15.1
8.15.2
8.15.3
8.15.4
8.16
8.16.1
T3Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T3ReloadHi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T3ReloadLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T3CounterValHi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T3CounterValLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T4Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T4ReloadHi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T4ReloadLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T4CounterValHi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T4CounterValLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmitter configuration registers. . . . . . . . .
TxMode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxAmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxCon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Txl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRC configuration registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxCrcPreset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RxCrcCon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmitter configuration registers. . . . . . . . .
TxDataNum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxDATAModWidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxSym10BurstLen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxWaitCtrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxWaitLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FrameCon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver configuration registers . . . . . . . . . .
RxSofD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RxCtrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RxWait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RxThreshold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rcv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RxAna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clock configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SerialSpeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LFO_Trimm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PLL_Ctrl Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PLLDiv_Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-power card detection configuration
registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LPCD_QMin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LPCD_QMax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LPCD_IMin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LPCD_Result_I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LPCD_Result_Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PinEn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PinOut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PinIn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SigOut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
76
77
77
77
78
79
79
79
80
80
80
80
81
81
82
82
83
83
83
84
85
86
87
87
88
88
88
89
89
90
90
91
91
92
92
93
94
94
94
95
95
95
96
96
96
97
97
98
98
continued >>
MFRC631
Product data sheet
COMPANY PUBLIC
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 4.2 — 27 April 2016
227442
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016. All rights reserved.
118 of 119
MFRC631
NXP Semiconductors
High-performance ISO/IEC 14443 A/B frontend
9
10
11
12
12.1
13
13.1
13.1.1
13.1.2
13.1.3
13.1.4
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
21
22
Limiting values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Recommended operating conditions. . . . . . . 99
Thermal characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Timing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Application information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Antenna design description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
EMC low pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Antenna matching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Receiving circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Antenna coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Handling information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Packing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Legal information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Data sheet status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Trademarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Contact information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’.
© NXP Semiconductors N.V. 2016.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 27 April 2016
227442
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