AN1620: Speed Up The VR11.1 Design Process With Help From iSim:PE

Application Note 1620
Author: Jason Houston
Speed Up The VR11.1 Design Process With Help From
iSim:PE
VR11.1 Voltage Regulator
Design
Intersil’s iSim Simulation Tool
Intersil offers a family of controllers that can be used to
implement voltage regulators (VRs) that are fully compliant
with Intel’s VR11.1 specification. Table 1 lists the available
controllers and distinguishing functionality.
VR11.1 microprocessors from Intel require a tightly regulated
output voltage over a wide range of line and load variations.
The design and verification process to ensure a regulator can
pass the Intel specification, thus can be tedious and time
consuming.
To help speed up the design and verification process a simple
yet powerful model can be implemented using Intersil’s iSim
simulation tool. The model can be used to test load transient
response, loop stability and dynamic VID transitions very
quickly to get immediate feedback on component selection.
This application note will focus on generating the VR11.1
simulation model using iSim:PE and comparing dynamic
performance of the simulation model and the ISL6336EVAL1Z
evaluation board.
TABLE 1. VR11.1 CONTROLLERS AND FUNCTIONALITY
PART
NUMBER
MAX
NUMBER
OF
PHASES
DIODE
EMULATION
GVOT
ISL6333
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
ISL6333A
3
No
No
Yes
No
ISL6333B
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
ISL6333C
3
No
No
Yes
Yes
ISL6334
4
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
ISL6334A
4
No
No
Yes
No
ISL6334B
4
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
ISL6334C
4
No
No
Yes
Yes
ISL6334D
4
No
No
No
No
ISL6336
6
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
ISL6336A
6
No
No
Yes
No
ISL6336B
6
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
CPURST
DELAY
DROOP FUNCTION
Intersil offers an interactive web-based simulation tool called
iSim for helping engineers select devices and components
from Intersil’s broad portfolio of high performance analog
products.
For power management products many reference designs are
available. These reference designs can be modified to fit
custom design requirements. Reference designs for each of
Intersil’s VR11.1 compliant controllers are available. iSim uses
the full controller and driver switching model to allow the user
to characterize the transient response, loop stability, output
voltage ripple, and other performance characteristics of a
VR11.1 regulator design.
The full switching model provides great insight into VR
performance and behavior and the simulation results can
expose areas of the design that may not meet specifications
and need improvement. However, the simulation time of the
full switching model can be time consuming.
To reduce simulation time an averaged model of the switching
devices can be implemented along with simplified behavioral
models of the key controller devices that determine dynamic
performance characteristics. Intersil offers a downloadable
personal edition of iSim called iSim:PE. iSim:PE is a
standalone simulation tool that uses the same simulation
engines as the web-based iSim tool. A simplified VR11.1
model can be generated using iSim:PE.
For more information about iSim and iSim:PE please visit the
iSim section of the Intersil website www.intersil.com/iSim.
Getting Started
Installing iSim:PE
iSim:PE can be downloaded from the Intersil website. Go to
www.intersil.com/iSim. There will be a link on the screen to
download the software. This link is typically on the bottom-left
of the screen. Figure 1 shows a screen shot of the link.
FIGURE 1. DOWNLOAD iSim:PE LINK
After clicking on the link to download iSim:PE save the
executable install file to your computer hard drive (see
Figure 2). When the download has completed double click on
the executable file. Follow the instructions to complete the
installation.
February 3, 2011
AN1620.0
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2011. All Rights Reserved
Intersil (and design) is a trademark owned by Intersil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Application Note 1620
VIN
L1
C2
R2 C1
VREF
VOUT
R1
+
_E/A
PWM
Control
PWM
1
IL*Ki
Q1
Q2
VOUT
Driver
ISEN1
L2
COMP
IL*Ki
COUT
ILOAD
Q3
C3 R3
PWM PWM2
Control
Q4
Driver
ISEN2
FIGURE 2. SAVE THE FILE TO COMPUTER
Once the installation has completed start the program. Select
File --> New Schematic as shown in Figure 3.
Dual Ramp
Generator
And Phase
Shift Control
IDROOP
1
2
+
+
ISEN1
ISEN2
FIGURE 5. SIMPLIFIED 2-PHASE VR11.1 BUCK REGULATOR
Output Filter and Load Generator
FIGURE 3. CREATE A NEW SCHEMATIC
For this model the SIMPLIS simulator engine will be used. Select
File --> Select Simulator and choose SIMPLIS as shown in
Figure 4.
The output filter consists of the inductors and capacitors. The
capacitors are usually a combination of bulk electrolytic or
polymer capacitors and multilayer ceramic capacitors. The bulk
capacitors are generally placed further away from the load than
the ceramic capacitors. The output inductor can be modeled as
the parallel combination of each inductor in the multiphase
configuration. The load can be modeled with a current source or
a resistor.
To make the design modification process easier variables can be
defined for various parameters of the design. Start by placing an
inductor and DCR on the schematic page. Double click on the
inductor and specify the inductance value as {Lo/NA}. This will
set the equivalent inductance value of the regulator to Lo
(inductance per phase) divided by NA (the active number of
operational phases). Place a resistor for the DCR of the inductor
and set the value to {DCR/NA}.
To specify the values of the inductor variables press the F11
button on your keyboard. This brings up the iSim:PE command
line window. Enter on the command line the text as shown in
Figure 6.
FIGURE 4. SPECIFY THE SIMULATOR ENGINE
Generating the Model
Multiphase Buck Regulator
Figure 5 shows a simplified 2-Phase Buck Regulator
implemented with Intersil’s VR11.1 control scheme. The
schematic shows an error amplifier with resistor and capacitor
networks for feedback compensation, two independent dual
edge modulators, two power stages in parallel consisting of
MOSFET drivers and synchronous buck switches, an output filter
consisting of inductors and capacitors, current feedback for
generating phase current and droop current information and a
load modeled as an ideal current source.
The devices and components shown in Figure 5 are the key
components that contribute to the dynamic response of the
multiphase regulator. Each section can be simplified and
modeled in iSim:PE and combined to complete the model. The
following sections outline the development of the averaged
model by implementing each block in Figure 5 in iSim:PE.
2
FIGURE 6. INDUCTOR MODEL
Typically there is more than one capacitor type in the output filter
of a voltage regulator. Electrolytic or polymer bulk capacitors are
used to supply a large amount of charge carrying capacity but
are typically slower to respond to fast transients. Ceramic
capacitors are used primarily to provide high speed transient
support to the output voltage. Two types of capacitors can be
placed in the schematic to provide design flexibility. Place two
sets of capacitor models including a capacitor, inductor and
resistor. You will need a variable for the number of caps per type
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
and the C, ESR and ESL per capacitor. Figure 7 shows an
example implementation in the command line window showing
the variable definitions for the bulk capacitor.
Error Amplifier and Feedback Compensation
The error amplifier of the ISL6336 has a gain of 96dB and
80MHz bandwidth. The high performance error amplifier used on
the VR11.1 controllers rarely limits the dynamic performance of
the regulator. The amplifier can be modeled as an ideal amplifier
with a gain of 50k. A voltage controlled voltage source with
output voltage limits can be used.
The feedback compensation components can be placed in a
typical configuration. Add a voltage source in series with the
output of the amplifier and set it to 1.5V. Set the minimum
output voltage of the amplifier to 1.3V and the maximum output
voltage to 4.5V. Place a voltage source waveform generator at
the positive input terminal of the amplifier. This voltage source is
the reference voltage of the converter and can be used with a
fixed voltage setting or a dynamic voltage to test dynamic VID
transitions.
FIGURE 7. OUTPUT CAPACITOR MODEL
The load can be modeled with a current waveform generator.
Place a current source waveform generator. Double click on the
current source and select a pulse waveform with a 10kHz
frequency and 50% duty cycle. The rise and fall time should
match the slew rate specified for the application. Enter 300ns
rise and fall time as a starting point. Specify a load step from
10A to 110A. Figure 8 shows the current source parameters.
The error amplifier and feedback compensation implementation
is shown in Figure 10.
FIGURE 10. ERROR AMPLIFIER AND COMPENSATION MODEL
Dual Edge Modulator
The VR11.1 controllers use Intersil’s proprietary Active Pulse
Positioning (APP) dual edge modulation scheme to improve
transient performance. Both edges of the PWM output can be
moved independently to provide the best response to load
transients.
FIGURE 8. LOAD GENERATOR
The copper on the printed circuit board has some resistance and
inductance. The magnitude will vary greatly depending on board
layout, copper thickness and board manufacturing. Example
values for PCB and load parasitic Rs and Ls for a motherboard
application with a CPU socket and load are shown in Figure 9.
Figure 11 shows the output of the error amplifier (labeled COMP)
as the control input to the modulator. To model the modulator
the gain from the COMP input to the PWM output is considered.
Figure 12 shows the change in PWM output duty cycle for a given
low frequency change in COMP voltage.
V IN
L1
COMP
Q1
Q2
PWM
PWM
CONTROL
DRIVER
<PHASE>
ISEN1
FIGURE 9. OUTPUT FILTER AND PCB MODEL
3
FIGURE 11. MODULATOR MODEL
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
There are two ramps generated in the controller to determine the
pulse width. The downward sloping ramp (DRAMP) determines
the turn on edge of the PWM output and the upward sloping
ramp (URAMP) determines the turn off edge of the PWM output.
A change of 0.375V in COMP voltage leads to a 0.25 increase of
PWM duty cycle. The gain from COMP to PWM therefore is
0.25/0.375V=0.67=1/1.5V. The gain from COMP to PWM is
equal to 1/VRAMP where VRAMP is the amplitude of the ramp
input to the comparator.
Since URAMP determines the on-time of the PWM the URAMP
amplitude is sufficient for determining VRAMP. The slew rate for
URAMP is such that if the ramp continued for a full switching
cycle the peak-to-peak voltage would be equal to 1.5V. Therefore
the modulator gain from PWM to COMP is equal to 1/1.5V for
disturbance frequencies sufficiently below the PWM switching
frequency.
Current Sense Feedback
The VR11.1 controllers use current feedback sensed from the
regulator output current for maintaining current balance
between all phases in the multiphase VR, for droop control,
overcurrent protection and for loop stability.
The output current is sensed mainly by detecting the voltage drop
across the DCR of the phase inductors. The sensed current will be
used for droop control and for loop stability in the iSim:PE model.
In Figure 14 the inductor current is sensed and used for current
feedback to the controller. The sensed phase currents (ISEN1/2)
are summed and averaged to generate the droop current
(IDROOP). The phase current is applied to the 2.5k resistor in the
modulator and the average sensed current is applied to the
feedback pin to generate a droop voltage.
L1
A more rigourous analysis of the AC modulator behavior is
avoided in this application note because relatively accurate
results can be obtained with the simplified results previously
obtained without considering the sampling nature of the pulse
width modulator.
IL*Ki
VOUT
L2
IL*Ki
COUT
ILOAD
3V
DRAMP
COMP’
~0.375V
COMP
URAMP’
URAMP
IDROOP
ISEN1
1
2
+
+
ISEN2
1.5V
FIGURE 14. CURRENT SENSING
PWM
DC ~0.25
PWM’
DC ~0.5
FIGURE 12. DUAL EDGE MODULATION
To remove the switches from the model the voltage at the input
of the inductors can be averaged by multiplying the input voltage
and the gain from COMP to PWM. For a 12V input application the
gain from COMP to the input side of the inductors is
12V*1/1.5V = 8. Figure 13 shows the modulator model
implemented in iSim:PE.
There is a resistance in series with the COMP input to the
modulator that is used for current feedback. Set this resistor
value to 2.5k.
The current sense function can be implemented in iSim:PE
according to Figure 14. Place three current controlled current
sources on the schematic. The first controlled source input can
be placed in series with the output inductor. Set the gain of the
first source to Equation 1.
⎧ DCR 1 ⎫
GAIN I1 = ⎨ ------------ ⋅ ------- ⎬
⎩ RS NA ⎭
DCR is the resistance of the inductor, RS is the current sense
resistor value, NA is the active number of operational phases. For
the ISL6333 the RS resistor is internal and the value is
programmed using the RSET resistor. RS for the ISL6333 is
calculated as shown in Equation 2. Refer to the ISL6333
datasheet for more information.
3
RS = ---------- ⋅ RSET
400
FIGURE 13. MODULATOR MODEL
(EQ. 1)
(EQ. 2)
To determine NA for example, if the number of phases in the
design is 5 and all phases are active NA = 5. If PSI# goes low and
the controller drops all phases except phase 1 then NA = 1. The
second current source input can be placed in series to ground
with the output of the first current source. Set the gain to
Equation 3. NPH is the total number of phases in the regulator.
The output of the this current source sets the droop current. For
enabling droop the output should be connected to the inverting
input of the error amplifier.
⎧ NA ⎫
GAIN I2 = ⎨ ----------- ⎬
⎩ N PH ⎭
(EQ. 3)
To regenerate the phase sense current and invert the polarity
connect the droop current to the input of a third current source.
4
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
Set the gain of the third current source to Equation 4. Connect
the output to the modulator side of the 2.5k resistor. Refer to
Figure 15 for the final circuit connections for the current sense
signals.
⎧ N PH ⎫
GAIN I3 = ⎨ ----------- ⎬
⎩ NA ⎭
(EQ. 4)
FIGURE 15. CURRENT FEEDBACK FOR MODULATION AND
DROOP CONTROL
Completing the Circuit
To complete the circuit all blocks can be combined as shown in Figure 16.
FIGURE 16. COMPLETE MODEL
5
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
Notes On Simulation
Load Transient Response
To set up a load transient test select Simulator --> Choose
Analysis in the menu on the schematic screen as shown in
Figure 17.
VOUT / V
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
100
I(I1-pos) / A
The completed model can be used to test dynamic functionality
of a regulator design and get immediate feedback on component
selection and help identify aspects of the design that can be
improved. The model can also be used to help get an idea about
which component values can be changed and by what
magnitude to help improve performance observed in hardware
before physically changing any devices in the lab.
1.22
80
60
40
20
0
100
200
300
400
time/uSecs
500
600
100uSecs/div
FIGURE 19. TRANSIENT RESPONSE SIMULATION
Additional simulation results can be obtained quickly and easily.
Following are some example simulation results. Refer to the
iSim:PE Help Menu and Tutorials for more information on how to
setup and run various simulations. Figure 20 shows the
command line contents for an example simulation circuit similar
to Figure 16.
FIGURE 17. SPECIFY SIMULATION PARAMETERS
This will bring up a window where you can specify the type of
simulation to run. On the right hand side under Select Analysis
check Transient. Select the transient tab at the top of the window
and set the Stop Time to 500µs. Under save options select All.
Click ok.
FIGURE 18. SPECIFY SIMULATION PARAMETERS
Figures 27 through 46 show dynamic response of the
ISL6336EVAL1Z VR11.1 evaluation board compared to
simulation results from the model generated in iSim:PE. The
results are very similar and the simulation results match the lab
test results fairly well with load frequencies approaching the
PWM switching frequency.
FIGURE 20. COMMAND LINE EXAMPLE
Double click on the load generator current source and make sure
the parameters match what is shown in Figure 18. On the main
schematic page place a current probe on the load generator
current source. Place a voltage source on the output voltage.
Click on Simulator --> Run. The simulation results should look
similar to Figure 19.
6
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
1.28
1.26
1.24
1.19
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.16
1.18
1.17
VOUT / V
VOUT / V
Additional Simulation Results
1.14
1.12
60
ILOAD / A
ILOAD / A
80
100
60
20
450
452
454
456
458
time/uSecs
460
400
2uSecs/div
VOUT / V
1.2
1.16
1.14
1.12
80
VOUT Nbulk=5
ILOAD Nbulk=5
VOUT Nbulk=6
ILOAD Nbulk=6
VOUT Nbulk=7
ILOAD Nbulk=7
406
408
2uSecs/div
1.19
1.18
1.17
1.16
1.15
1.14
1.13
1.12
1.11
1.1
100
ILOAD / A
VOUT Nbulk=2
ILOAD Nbulk=2
VOUT Nbulk=3
ILOAD Nbulk=3
VOUT Nbulk=4
ILOAD Nbulk=4
100
404
FIGURE 22. LOAD APPLY RESPONSE vs OUTPUT INDUCTOR
1.22
1.18
402
time/uSecs
FIGURE 21. LOAD RELEASE RESPONSE vs OUTPUT INDUCTOR
VOUT / V
VOUT Lo=120n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=120n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=180n (simplis_tran74)
VOUT Lo=180n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=230n (simplis_tran74)
VOUT Lo=230n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=320n (simplis_tran74)
VOUT Lo=320n (simplis_tran74)
80
40
20
ILOAD / A
1.13
1.11
40
60
VOUT C3=100p (simplis_tran77)
ILOAD C3=100p (simplis_tran77)
ILOAD C3=220p (simplis_tran77)
VOUT C3=220p (simplis_tran77)
ILOAD C3=390p (simplis_tran77)
VOUT C3=390p (simplis_tran77)
ILOAD C3=680p (simplis_tran77)
VOUT C3=680p (simplis_tran77)
80
60
40
40
20
20
450
452
454
456
458
time/uSecs
400
460
405
410
415
420
425
time/uSecs
2uSecs/div
5uSecs/div
FIGURE 24. LOAD APPLY RESPONSE vs C3 CAPACITOR
FIGURE 23. LOAD RELEASE RESPONSE vs OUTPUT CAPACITANCE
140
130
120
120
Phase /
110
Phase /
1.14
1.12
VOUT Lo=120n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=120n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=180n (simplis_tran74)
VOUT Lo=180n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=230n (simplis_tran74)
VOUT Lo=230n (simplis_tran74)
ILOAD Lo=320n (simplis_tran74)
VOUT Lo=320n (simplis_tran74)
100
100
90
80
70
100
80
60
60
50
40
30
30
Gain / dB
20
Gain / dB
1.15
10
0
-10
20
10
0
-10
-20
1k
2k
4k
10k
20k
40k
100k
200k
freq / Hertz
FIGURE 25. BODE PLOTS vs C3 CAPACITOR
7
400k
1M
1k
2k
4k
10k
20k
40k
100k
200k
400k
1M
freq / Hertz
FIGURE 26. BODE PLOTS vs OUTPUT INDUCTOR
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
Simulation Results Compared With Lab Test Data
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
time/uSecs
FIGURE 27. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 1kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
118
2uSecs/div
FIGURE 28. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 1kHz - iSim:PE MODEL
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
time/uSecs
218
2uSecs/div
FIGURE 30. 110A TO 10A, F LOAD = 1kHz - iSim:PE MODEL
FIGURE 29. 110A TO 10A, F LOAD = 1kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
time/uSecs
FIGURE 31. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 50kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
8
120
140
160
180
20uSecs/div
FIGURE 32. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 50kHz - iSim:PE
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
Simulation Results Compared With Lab Test Data (Continued)
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
120
140
160
180
time/uSecs
FIGURE 33. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 100kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
20uSecs/div
FIGURE 34. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 100kHz - iSim:PE
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
110
120
130
140
time/uSecs
10uSecs/div
FIGURE 36. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 200kHz - iSim:PE
FIGURE 35. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 200kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
time/uSecs
FIGURE 37. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 300kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
9
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
2uSecs/div
FIGURE 38. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 300kHz - iSim:PE
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
Simulation Results Compared With Lab Test Data (Continued)
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
time/uSecs
FIGURE 39. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 400kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
116
118
2uSecs/div
FIGURE 40. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 400kHz - iSim:PE
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
time/uSecs
FIGURE 41. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 500kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
116
118
2uSecs/div
FIGURE 42. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 500kHz - iSim:PE
1.26
VOUT / V
1.24
1.22
1.2
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
ILOAD / A
1.1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
100
time/uSecs
FIGURE 43. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 600kHz - ISL6336EVAL1Z
10
102
104
106
108
2uSecs/div
FIGURE 44. 10A TO 110A, F LOAD = 600kHz - iSim:PE
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
Application Note 1620
Simulation Results Compared With Lab Test Data (Continued)
1.4
VOUT / V
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
time/mSecs
FIGURE 45. DYNAMIC VID 0.8V TO 1.5V - ISL6336EVAL1Z
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
200uSecs/div
FIGURE 46. DYNAMIC VID 0.8V TO 1.5V - iSim:PE
Summary
The simulation model generated using this application note and
implemented in iSim:PE can be a useful tool to help speed up the
design and troubleshooting process when designing and testing
regulators using Intersil’s VR11.1 controllers. For more
information please visit www.intersil.com.
References
Intersil documents are available on the web at www.intersil.com.
ISL6336 Datasheet, Intersil Corporation, FN6504
ISL6333 Datasheet, Intersil Corporation, FN6520
Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is
cautioned to verify that the Application Note or Technical Brief is current before proceeding.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
11
AN1620.0
February 3, 2011
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