### AN1786: Reducing the Switching Frequency of the ISL8200M and ISL8200AM Power Modules

```Application Note 1786
Authors: Paul Traynham and Nattorn Pongratananukul
Reducing the Switching Frequency of the ISL8200M
and ISL8200AM Power Modules
The ISL8200M and ISL8200AM power modules have a default
nominal switching frequency of 700kHz. The datasheet
describes two methods to increase the frequency up to
1.5MHz: 1) by tying a resistor (RFS) from the FSYNC_IN pin to
PGND, and 2) synchronizing to an external clock. There are
also similar methods by which the switching frequency can be
reduced.
Figure 1 shows the change in switching frequency at various
RPULL-UP values for VIN of 12V and 5V. CFS = 150pF for these
measurements. VOUT = 3.3V, however, switching frequency is
independent of output voltage.
800
750
Methods for Reducing the
Switching Frequency
700
VIN = 5V
FOSC (kHz)
650
One option is to tie a resistor, RPULL-UP, from FSYNC_IN to a
voltage supply higher than 1.2V and less than or equal to VCC,
and a small capacitor, CFS, (in the 120pF to 150pF range)
from FSYNC_IN to ground (Figure 2). The concept is to “reduce”
the resistor that the controller sees on the FSYNC_IN pin by
injecting a small amount of current into it with the capacitor
acting as a small filter of the supply disturbance. Any variation
in the supply will result in frequency variation. Figure 2 shows
VCC as the supply to RPULLUP because it is readily available
from the module and is regulated.
600
550
VIN = 12V
500
450
400
350
300
100
1000
10000
RPULL-UP (kΩ)
FIGURE 1. R PULL-UP vs SWITCHING FREQUENCY
Another method to reduce the switching frequency is to
synchronize to an external clock. While the datasheet states
that the synchronization frequency is limited from FOSC to
1.5MHz, where FOSC is the nominal switching frequency of the
internal oscillator, or 700kHz, the ISL8200M and ISL8200AM
will actually synchronize to frequencies below FOSC. The
modules will synchronize to any external clock, including the
clock from the ISL8225 power module (510kHz).
The controller continuously senses the resistor value by
measuring the internal current required to maintain the
FSYNC_IN pin voltage at 1.2V. The lower the resistor value, the
higher the internal current needed, which results in higher
switching frequency. Because additional current is injected
from the external resistor tied to the external supply, the
internal current becomes smaller. The controller acts as
though a lower value resistor is connected to it, thereby
reducing the switching frequency.
VOUT
U201
GND
VIN
VOUT
PVIN
R2
4.12k
CEN
1nF
COUT
VIN
2.2k
RSET
FF
ISL8200M
EN
VCC
RPULLUP CFS
800k
150pF
VOUT_SET
VSEN_REM-
FSYNC_IN
CLKOUT
PGOOD
ISHARE_BUS
PH_CNTRL
RISHARE
5k
PGND
PHASE
OCSET
ISET
ISHARE
ISFETDRV
VCC
VCC
PVCC
CIN(CER)
PGND1
GND
R1
16.5k
CPVCC
10µF
FIGURE 2. APPLICATIONS CIRCUIT FOR REDUCING F SW
September 18, 2012
AN1786.0
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All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Application Note 1786
Reasons for Reducing the
Switching Frequency
Noise/EMI Reduction
There may be several reasons why a designer might want to
reduce the switching frequency of switching regulator and
specifically the ISL8200M or ISL8200AM power module;
increase efficiency, improve EMI, or to improve VIN limitations.
We will explore each of these to better understand the trade-offs.
Increase Efficiency
Reducing the switching frequency is a common practice used to
increase overall efficiency by reducing switching losses in the
MOSFETs, reducing bias current to the IC and other components.
However, at the same time doing so will increase inductor current
ripple and consequently increase inductor core loss. For a given
set of power stage components (MOSFETs, inductor), the optimal
switching frequency for efficiency varies with input and output
voltage conditions. In a power module, most of the components
are internal to the module and fixed and it is possible that
reducing the switching frequency will actually make efficiency
worse depending on the conditions of the application.
Figures 3 and 4 show typical efficiency curves for VOUT = 1.2V
and 3.3V, respectively, at VIN = 5V and 12V at both 500kHz and
700kHz switching frequencies. Under these conditions, it can be
seen that efficiencies are generally improved at 500kHz, but not
under all conditions.
90
EFFICIENCY (%)
5.0VIN 1.2V 700kHz
85
12.0VIN 1.2V 500kHz
There is also a side benefit in that the overall input capacitance
can be reduced. This is because the phase shifted clocks will
reduce the RMS input ripple current.
(EQ. 1)
t SW = switching period = 1 ⁄ F SW
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
IOUT (A)
FIGURE 3. EFFICIENCY WITH VOUT = 1.2 AT VIN = 5V AND 12V AND
FSW = 700Hz AND 500kHz
5.0VIN 3.3V 700kHz
95
With VIN = 5V ±10%, we have sufficient margin operating at
510kHz.
85
12.0VIN 3.3V 700kHz
80
12.0VIN 3.3V 500kHz
75
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
IOUT (A)
If VIN = 5V ±10% or 4.5V to 5.5V, then we would not be able to
use the ISL8200M or ISL8200AM for this application.
VIN_MIN = 3.3 x 1961/(1961-410) = 4.17V
5.0VIN 3.3V 500kHz
90
Using an example of VOUT = 3.3V, tSW = 1/700kHz = 1428ns,
VIN_MIN = 3.3V x 1428/(1428-410) = 4.63V
By reducing FSW, or increasing tSW, we can effectively reduce
VIN_MIN. Using the ISL8225M output clock of 510kHz, for
example, yields:
100
EFFICIENCY (%)
For example, if three power modules are used in a design, an
optimum set up would be to have the master module output a
120° phase shifted clock to the second module. Similarly, the
second module would again phase shift its clock 120° and
output it to the third module. All three clocks are now 120°
out-of-phase with each other.
V OUT × t SW
V IN_MIN = --------------------------------------t SW – t MIN_OFF
12.0VIN 1.2V 700kHz
70
Noise can be reduced further if each power module is
synchronized to a phase shifted clock derived off the original
master clock. The ISL8225M, ISL8200M and ISL8200AM, all
have the capability of outputting clocks that are phase shifted by
a programmable amount from the internal clock.
The ISL8200M and ISL8200AM have a worse case minimum
PWM off time of 410ns. VIN is limited by this minimum off time.
Equation 1 gives the formula for VIN_ MIN.
80
70
There may also be a system or master clock available to which
the user may want to synchronize either for the reasons
mentioned above, or to avoid having all the switching regulators
free run. Free running clocks will periodically switch at the exact
same time causing beat frequencies and increased noise.
Improve VIN_MIN limitations
5.0VIN 1.2V 500kHz
75
In some applications where noise sensitivity or in-band noise
may be an issue, the system designer may want to avoid specific
clock frequencies as they may be difficult or impossible to filter.
Increasing the switching frequency is always an option, but this
also has the tendency to increase overall EMI, so reducing the
switching frequency may be desirable.
7
8
9
10
As mentioned above, reducing the switching frequency of the
ISL8200M or ISL8200AM power modules can result in system
level improvements. Some trade-off considerations have been
mentioned (possible reduction in efficiency, max off-time issues.)
but there are a few more that need to be considered.
FIGURE 4. EFFICIENCY WITH VOUT = 3.3 AT VIN = 5V AND 12V AND
FSW = 700Hz AND 500kHz
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Application Note 1786
The first consideration is that any decrease in switching
frequency will increase output ripple current and subsequently
the output ripple voltage.
Additionally, the output ripple voltage is given in Equation 4.
Since it is proportional to Δi, it too will increase. The maximum
allowable ripple voltage is really at the discretion of the designer.
The output ripple current equation is given by Equation 2. As can
be seen, any reduction in L will result in an increase in the ripple
current.
V RIPPLE = ΔV = Δi × ESR
I RIPPLE = Δi = ( V IN – V OUT ) × D ⁄ ( f SW × L )
(EQ. 2)
Where fSW = switching frequency, L = Inductor value D = duty
Cycle = VOUT/VIN.
The peak current through the inductor is show in Equation 3.
I LPEAK = I LOAD + Δi ⁄ 2
(EQ. 3)
Care should be taken when reducing FSW, so that the peak
current through the inductor does not cause an OCP (Over
Current Protection) level to trip too early for the application.
Operating with higher inductor current may enter a region of
excessive inductor saturation. It is recommended to stay below
20A peak inductor current ripple.
(EQ. 4)
Where ESR = the equivalent ESR of the output capacitance.
Another outcome of reducing the switching frequency is the
tendency toward instability. Generally, if the switching frequency
is reduced while keeping the same compensation, the loop
bandwidth will become too large relative to the switching
frequency. The ISL8200M family has integrated internal
components for compensation, therefore the compensation is
fixed. In many applications, this reduction will not be enough to
cause any issues, but for applications where low amount of
output capacitor is used or those with high ESR value, loop
stability should be verified in the lab. It is recommended to not
set the switching frequency below 500kHz.
Conclusion
There are many reasons why the system designer may want to
lower the switching frequency of the ISL8200M or ISL8200AM.
Using either one of the two methods described above will give
the desired result; however, care must be taken as there are
several consequences to consider.
Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is
cautioned to verify that the Application Note or Technical Brief is current before proceeding.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
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