Application Note 1968 Unclamped Inductive Switching (UIS) Test and Rating Methodology Abstract This application note will review the basic principles surrounding Unclamped Inductive Switching (UIS). It will examine what it is, the typical UIS ratings reflected on datasheets and how designers can properly use them. The main purpose of this application note then, is to supply designers with useful tools and information needed to appropriately deal with UIS related issues in their circuits. Table of Contents The Need for Power MOSFET Avalanche Ruggedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Avalanche Ruggedness Test Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Datasheet Avalanche Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Single Pulse Avalanche Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 EAS vs Starting Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Energy in Avalanche, Repetitive Pulse (EAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 List of Figures FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. Drain-to-Source Overvoltage Transient During Turn-Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 UIS Test Circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 UIS Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modified UIS Test Circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modified UIS Test Circuit Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Measured EAS vs IAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Avalanche Current vs Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Transient Thermal Response Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Power Pulse Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 November 9, 2015 AN1968.0 1 CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures. 1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Copyright Intersil Americas LLC 2015. All Rights Reserved Intersil (and design) is a trademark owned by Intersil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries. All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. Application Note 1968 The Need for Power MOSFET Avalanche Ruggedness VDS L Power MOSFETs inherently have extremely fast switching speeds. As a result, designers often use them in high speed switching circuits which take advantage of this capability. Using MOSFETs in high speed switching circuits can lead to device stress not normally encountered in slower switching circuits. In fact, switching speeds may be so fast that at device turn-off, small parasitic inductance in the circuit can lead to significant overvoltage transients (Figure 1). This is due to the fact that when current through an inductor is abruptly turned off, the inductors magnetic field will induce a counter Electromagnetic Force (EMF) resisting the change. If the resulting voltage transient is large enough, the MOSFET may be forced into drain-to-source avalanche, V(BR)DSS. VDD R UNCLAMPED INDUCTIVE LOAD V(BR)DSS ID VGS The operation of this test circuit is as follows: 1. At time zero, the input gate drive is turned on. 2. The MOSFET then switches on and ID current rises to the desired test current at the rate defined by Equation 2. V DD di/dt = -----------L (EQ. 2) 3. Once the desired test current is reached, the gate drive is switched off, which abruptly turns off the MOSFET. Since the inductive load current cannot change instantaneously, the EMF of the inductor drives the MOSFET into drain-to-source avalanche (Figure 3). VGS INPUT The peak overvoltage transient during turn-off can be determined by Equation 1. V SPK = L di/dt + V DD V(BR)eff (EQ. 1) IO Where: OUTPUT VSPK = Peak overvoltage transient voltage L = Load inductance di/dt = Rate of change of current at turn-off VDD = Supply voltage According to Equation 1, the faster the switching speed and/or the higher the load current the more likely a device is to experience an overvoltage transient. Currents and switching speeds may be so high in some circuits that even low parasitic inductance may be enough to force devices into avalanche and possible device destruction. Due to their inherently fast switching speeds, it is clear that power MOSFETs need to be designed and manufactured to insure that they have adequate avalanche ruggedness for today's high performance circuits. Avalanche Ruggedness Test Method The avalanche ruggedness of a device can be measured using a test circuit that performs an Unclamped Inductive Switching (UIS) function like the one shown in Figure 2. This type of circuit mimics the actual application where unclamped inductive loads are present. A device is considered rugged if it survives the test at the specified test conditions. Intersil “KGF” MOSFETs are 100% avalanche tested. Submit Document Feedback 2 VDD FIGURE 2. UIS TEST CIRCUIT L FIGURE 1. DRAIN-TO-SOURCE OVERVOLTAGE TRANSIENT DURING TURN-OFF + - RGS OVERVOLTAGE TRANSIENT VDD RGEN PULSE V(BR)DSS VDD FIGURE 3. UIS WAVEFORMS The critical equations resulting from this UIS test circuit are shown in Equations 3 through 6: V BR eff = 1.3L Rated V BR DSS (EQ. 3) IO L t av = --------------------------------------------- V BR eff – V DD (EQ. 4) EAS = 1/2 I O V BR eff t av (EQ. 5) or V BR eff 2 EAS = 1/2 L I O ---------------------------------------- V BR eff-VDD (EQ. 6) Where: V(BR)eff = Effective drain-to-source breakdown voltage at peak discharge current. Note that V(BR)eff is much higher than the device's V(BR)DSS rating found on datasheets. This is because: 1. Device manufacturers guard-band their specifications. 2. The UIS avalanche current is much higher than that specified for V(BR)DSS and V(BR)DSS increases with current. AN1968.0 November 9, 2015 Application Note 1968 3. The device heats up during UIS and V(BR)DSS increases with temperature. A value of 1.3 * V(BR)DSS has been found to be a good rule of thumb for V(BR)eff. t(av) = Time in avalanche EAS = Energy in avalanche, single pulse IO = Peak current being discharged L = Load inductance VDD = Supply voltage HSW L ID VGS RGEN + - PULSE VDD RGS FIGURE 4. MODIFIED UIS TEST CIRCUIT By switching out the supply voltage during device avalanche, two significant advantages are made available. First, the user can increase the VDD supply beyond the MOSFET’s maximum rated VDS. This speeds up the inductors initial charge ramp time leading to overall faster test times as well as less device on-state time and therefore less self heating of the device prior to avalanche. Secondly, the UIS test circuit calculations are simplified to the following in Equations 7 and 8: IO L t av = --------------------------- V BR eff EAS = 1/2 L I O MOSFET manufacturers generally provide some form of UIS avalanche ratings on their datasheets to inform the customer of a devices capability to withstand inductively induced overvoltage spikes. The UIS specifications supplied by Intersil and covered in this application note are as follows: • Energy in Avalanche, Single pulse (EAS) Another commonly used test circuit for UIS is shown in Figure 4. Its advantage over the previously described test circuit is that it switches out the VDD supply during avalanche by use of a High Speed Switch (HSW). VDS Datasheet Avalanche Ratings (EQ. 7) 2 (EQ. 8) Both test circuits shown in Figures 3 and 4 are industry recognized test circuits for UIS. They conform to both JEDEC standard No. 24-5 and MIL-STD750D method 3470.2. Due to the advantages noted, Intersil uses the test circuit shown in Figure 4. However, actual application circuits used by designers do not usually switch out the VDD supply during avalanche. Thus, the proper circuit equations to be used by designers are generally those resulting from the test circuit shown in Figure 3. • Current in Avalanche, Single pulse (IAS) • EAS vs starting junction temperature • Energy in Avalanche, Repetitive pulse (EAR) Single Pulse Avalanche Ratings UIS ratings for MOSFETs originated in the mid 1980's and have since taken the form of specifying the amount of energy or Joules a device can safely handle in avalanche resulting from an inductive load. The EAS (Energy in Avalanche, Single pulse) rating was developed and is now displayed on most manufacturers power MOSFET datasheets. Many manufactures specify EAS at the continuous current rating of the device. Since measured EAS capability of a MOSFET is inversely proportional to the avalanche current (Figure 6), the reasoning is that the continuous current rating of a device is considered the worst case condition. This would, in fact, be the case if designers always use the device at or below this value. The problem with this type of rating however, is it may not be adequate for many of today's circuits. In high performance circuits, designers routinely push devices to extreme conditions of both current and switching speed. For example, in order to achieve high currents in certain applications, designers will parallel MOSFET devices. The total switched current in this type of arrangement may be many times the continuous current rating of any one single device being paralleled. Having said that, it should be noted that MOSFETs connected in parallel do not equally share current when they are avalanched. This is different than when operating them in a conduction state. In avalanche, the device with the lowest breakdown voltage or with the faster switching time will go into avalanche first and sink most if not all of the total switched current. The resulting stress in avalanche for that particular device is therefore much higher than it would have experienced if it had been avalanched at the lower value of a continuous current rating. 10.0E+0 STARTING TJ = +25°C 1.0E+0 EAS (J) VGS INPUT 100.0E-3 V(BR)eff V(BR)DSS IO 10.0E-3 10 OUTPUT 30 50 70 90 110 130 IAS (A) FIGURE 5. MODIFIED UIS TEST CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS Submit Document Feedback 3 FIGURE 6. MEASURED EAS vs IAS AN1968.0 November 9, 2015 Application Note 1968 To provide customers with a usable high current avalanche specification, Intersil includes a high current IAS (Current In Avalanche, Single pulse) rating on datasheets in the Absolute Maximum Ratings table. The IAS value stated on the datasheet is much higher than the continuous current rating. It is the absolute highest current the device can safely handle in avalanche. To aid the designer in determining a device's EAS or IAS capability over a range of avalanche conditions, Intersil also includes an Avalanche Safe Operating Area (ASOA) curve on datasheets. This allows designers to know under a wide range of currents and inductances whether or not the device is exceeding its avalanche capability (Figure 7). The curve is constructed so as to insure that the device will never exceed its actual EAS capability nor push the device beyond its known reliable and safe mode of operation. The safe area of operation is the area under the curve. Even though actual UIS failure occurs at a silicon temperature of roughly +380°C, the devices junction temperature should always be kept at or below its rated TJMAX as shown on the device's datasheet. This insures good long term reliability. To help the designer insure this, Equation 9 is provided. This equation allows a designer to derate a devices EAS capability from starting junction temperatures of +25°C up to the devices rated TJMAX. T JMAX – T JSTART 2 EAS T JSTART = EAS +25C ------------------------------------------------------ T JMAX – 25C (EQ. 9) Using this equation, you will find that the devices EAS capability is derated to zero when the starting junction temperature reaches TJMAX. This is done to insure good reliability over time. Operating the device at higher junction temperatures may reduce the long term reliability of the device. Energy in Avalanche, Repetitive Pulse (EAR) Some power switching circuits are designed such that they avalanche the MOSFET repetitively. Therefore, device manufacturers need to be able to provide designers with a way to know if they are exceeding device capability and reliability in such cases or not. The industry term established for this capability is called Energy in Avalanche Repetitive pulse (EAR). STARTING TJ = +25°C 10 The EAR capability of a MOSFET is basically a transient thermal parameter and can be calculated using the devices own transient thermal response curve. 1 10.0E-6 100.0E-6 1.0E-3 10.0E-3 TIME IN AVALANCHE (tav) FIGURE 7. AVALANCHE CURRENT vs TIME There are several ways a designer can use the ASOA curve. 1. The designer can directly measure the current and time in avalanche and compare it to the ASOA curve shown on the datasheet. 2. Based on known load inductance, VDD supply voltage and the current being switched, the designer can use Equation 2 on page 2 and solve for time in avalanche (dt). Then simply compare the IAS and tav values to the ASOA curve provided on the device's datasheet to insure safe operation. 3. The designer can use IAS and tav points from the ASOA curve line to calculate EAS vs IAS capability using Equation 5. EAS vs Starting Junction Temperature Another critical component to a complete UIS rating is the devices starting junction temperature. Actual EAS capability is inversely proportional to a devices starting junction temperature. Measured UIS device failure has been shown to generally occur when the devices silicon has reached its intrinsic temperature, typically around +380°C. During a UIS failure, some location on the silicon has reached this intrinsic temperature and a short occurs at that location, which destroys the device. Since the power generated by UIS pulse raises the devices junction temperature, any starting junction temperature above +25°C will reduce its EAS capability. Submit Document Feedback 4 r(t), TRANSIENT THERMAL RESISTANCE (NORMALIZED) CURRENT IN AVALANCHE (IAS) 100 1.00 0.5 0.2 0.10 0.1 0.05 0.02 SINGLE PULSE 0.01 1.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 1.0E+03 t - TIME (s) FIGURE 8. TRANSIENT THERMAL RESPONSE CURVE A Transient Thermal Response curve like the one shown in Figure 8 is derived using rectangular power pulses. A UIS power pulse however, is not a rectangular power pulse, it is triangular (see Figure 9). Therefore, this difference must be dealt with in order to properly use a transient thermal response curve for EAR calculations. AN1968.0 November 9, 2015 Application Note 1968 UIS POWER PULSE For example, under the following conditions what is the devices EAR capability? EQUIVALENT RECTANGULAR POWER PULSE PPK Max TJ = +150°C Ambient Temperature = +25°C RJA = +45°C/W pw = 200µs DT = 20% 0.70 x PPK 0.71 x pw The r(t)eff would be the r(t) for a pw(rect) of 142µs (200µs•0.71) with a duty cycle of 20%. Using the Transient Thermal Response curve shown in Figure 8 for this example, r(t)eff = 0.2. pw FIGURE 9. POWER PULSE CONVERSION The well established method to convert a triangular power pulse into to a rectangular one is as follows: P rect = 0.7 P PK (EQ. 10) pw rect = pw 0.71 (EQ. 11) Where: P(rect) = Equivalent rectangular power pw(rec) = Equivalent rectangular pulse width EAR = [(150°C - 25°C)/(0.2 • 45°C/W)] • 142µs = 19.72mJ If by using Equations 5 or 6 you find that the devices single pulse avalanche energy exceeds the calculated EAR capability, then the devices junction temperature during repetitive pulsing of this pulse will exceed TJMAX as shown on the datasheet and therefore device reliability cannot be guaranteed. Conclusion PPK = Peak triangular power pw = Triangular pulse width The key to such a conversion is that the energy of the pulse in both the triangular and equivalent rectangular pulse is roughly the same. With this understanding in mind, an EAR can be determined for the MOSFET at any pulse width and duty cycle such that the device does not exceed its TJMAX as shown on the datasheet. Equation 12 is used to make this determination: T JMAX – T X EAR = ----------------------------------------- pw rect r t eff R JX Therefore, the devices EAR capability under these conditions is: (EQ. 12) This application note has covered basic UIS principles and examined typical UIS ratings reflected on Intersil datasheets. The necessary equations along with examples have been provided in order to show designers how to properly deal with UIS related issues in their circuits and to maintain good device reliability. The following conditions must be satisfied in order to insure Intersil devices are operated within their safe area for UIS. 1. The devices IAS rating must never be exceeded. 2. The MOSFET must never operate outside the bounds of the ASOA curve. 3. The devices rated TJMAX must never be exceeded. Where: TX = Reference temperature (i.e., ambient or ball) r(t)eff = Normalized transient thermal resistance at an equivalent rectangular pulse width of pw•0.71 RTHJX = thermal resistance junction to reference point (i.e., ambient or ball). Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that the document is current before proceeding. For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com Submit Document Feedback 5 AN1968.0 November 9, 2015

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