AN5082: Application Note

Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
Document Number: AN5082
Rev. 1.0, 03/2015
MagniV in 24V Applications
Enabling MagniV for Truck Applications
by: Petr Cholasta
Roznov p/R, Czech Republic, Europe
1
Introduction
The MagniV devices are designed for automotive 12V
applications.
This application note introduces some considerations on
how to enable MagniV family devices for 24V
applications. In particular cases, the common PCB
design can be used for both 12V and 24V applications
(e.g. cars and trucks).
This consideration takes into account the device power
supply chain, I/O pins and the communication physical
layer. The key approach is to add selected external
components that extend the device’s operational voltage
range.
These considerations are based on the ISO16750-1,
ISO16750-2, ISO7637-2 and ISO7637-3 norms.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2015. All rights reserved.
Contents
1
2
3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
MagniV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Norms Pick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1 ISO16750-1 Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.2 ISO16750-2 Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.3 ISO7637-2 Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.4 ISO7637-3 Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4
Power Supply Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1 Short Circuit Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.2 Reverse Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.3 Pulses Suppression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.4 Load Dump Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.5 Energy Reservoir. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.6 Pre-Regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5
Communication Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6
HVI and VSENSE Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7
Driving Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.1 Discrete Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.2 Integrated Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
10 Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
MagniV
2
MagniV
Freescale S12 MagniV portfolio simplifies system design and reduces time to market with integrated
mixed-signal microcontrollers (MCUs) for automotive and industrial applications. Offering single-die
solutions, the S12 MagniV MCUs are complete system-in-package (SiP) solutions built on proven S12
technology, enabling software and tool compatibility across the entire portfolio.
The MagniVtechnology offers to combine in single-die solution the MCU, +5V voltage regulator, LIN or
CAN physical layer, high side driver (HSD), low side driver (LSD), gate driver unit (GDU) and high
voltage input (HVI).
The MagniV family introduces products as follows:
• S12ZVM for electrical motor applications with LIN and CAN (e.g. water, oil or fuel pumps)
• S12ZVR for DC motor relay based control with LIN (e.g. window lift)
• S12ZVH for cluster applications with LIN and CAN (e.g dashboard)
• S12ZVL for general purpose applications with LIN (e.g. switch panel, RGB LED node)
• S12ZVC for sensor based applications with CAN
More information can be found at [5].
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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Freescale Semiconductor
Norms Pick
3
Norms Pick
An essential norms pick follows in order to understand the system state of the art. The following norms
are considered:
• Power supply chain (ISO16750-1, ISO16750-2, ISO7637-2)
• Connectivity physical layer solution (ISO16750-1, ISO7637-3)
• 24V I/O solution (ISO16750-1, ISO7637-3)
A detailed study of the norms is recommended to understand the use cases and test cases.
3.1
ISO16750-1 Norm
Norm [1] pick, as follows:
•
•
3.2
Operating modes:
— mode 2.2, vehicle engine shut-off, UB = 24V
— mode 3.2, vehicle engine running, UA = 28V
Functional status classification:
— class A, all functions of the device/system operate during and after the test
— class C, some functions of the device/system do not perform during the test, but return
automatically to normal operation after the test
ISO16750-2 Norm
Norm [2] pick, as follows:
• Code E selected: power supply voltage varies from US min = 10V to US max = 32V
• Superimposed alternating voltage: sinewave 10VPP superposed, 32V max
• Discontinues in power supply: voltage drop from US min to 9V, pulse duration100ms
• Reset behavior at voltage drop: the number of successive voltage drops
• Motor starting profile: functional status class A, starting profile level I, US = 10V, pulse
duration100ms
• Reversed voltage: power supply -28V for 60s
3.3
ISO7637-2 Norm
Norm [3] pick, as follows:
• Set of test pulses from -600V to +200V, period max 1ms
• Load dump: +174V, duration 350ms
3.4
ISO7637-3 Norm
Norm [4] specifies the set of pulses injected into the harness via the coupling clamp module (galvanic
isolation).
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
Freescale Semiconductor
3
Power Supply Line
4
Power Supply Line
The power supply line topology can be seen in Figure 1. The module is powered from a 24V network,
where the positive pole is marked +B and the negative pole is marked -B. The fuse F1 protects the battery
and load from a short circuit. The reverse battery protection is managed by diode D1.
The power line pulses are suppressed by the combination of decoupling capacitors C1, C2 and C3. The
load dump protection is realized by a method of disconnecting from the power supply. To keep the module
running in the case of a load dump, the energy reservoir is added.
The pre-regulator drops the power supply voltage down to a level acceptable by the MagniV family
devices.
The blocks are discussed in detail in following sections.
Short Circuit and
Reverse Battery Protection
F1
+B
1
Load Dump Protection
Energy Reservoir
Pre-regulator
D1
2
A
C
2
3
,1
287
+VSUP
Q1
C
1
C
*1'
R1
1
C3
D3
A
C2
A
R3
C1
R2
2
D2
3
C
Q2
+ C4
D4
A
R4
-B
GND
Pulses Suppression
Figure 1. Power supply line topology
4.1
Short Circuit Protection
In the case of a power supply line short circuit condition, the automotive blade fuse F1 opens and protects
the battery, wiring and on-board electronics against burn-out. Use the fuse time-current characteristic
curves and select the fuse value based on the module continuous current and the desired fuse turn-OFF
time.
4.2
Reverse Battery
The ISO16750-2 norm, see Section 3.2, “ISO16750-2 Norm”, specifies the reverse battery voltage -28V
for 60s. The ISO7637-2 norm, see Section 3.3, “ISO7637-2 Norm”, specifies pulses down to -600V,
duration 1ms.
The diode D1 protects the on-board electronics from negative voltages. The diode has to have a low
leakage current and reverse voltage higher than 600V (e.g. GS1M).
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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Power Supply Line
4.3
Pulses Suppression
The ISO7637-2 norm, see Section 3.3, “ISO7637-2 Norm”, specifies the test pulses. The capacitors C1,
C2 and C3 suppress the pulses voltage by accumulating the pulse energy. The typical values of the C1 and
C2 capacitors are hundreds of nF. The C3 value is around 100pF.
The capacitor value selection is an object of investigation for each particular case. The PCB design
influences the design compliance with the norm.
4.4
Load Dump Protection
The ISO7637-2 norm, see Section 3.3, “ISO7637-2 Norm”, specifies the load dump test pulse 5: +174V,
duration 350ms.
In the case of a load dump condition, the Q1 P-MOSFET turns OFF and disconnects the power supply line.
Whenever the C3 voltage rises above 32V, the zener diode D4 opens and the Q2 turns OFF the Q1. If the
C3 voltage drops down below 32V, the Q2 turns ON the Q1.
The diode D2 limits the Q1 gate-to-source voltage.
4.5
Energy Reservoir
The C4 capacitor value is related to the module functional status classification, see Section 3.1,
“ISO16750-1 Norm”.
In the case of class C, the C4 capacitor is used for decoupling only and the R2 and D3 components are
removed.
In the case of class A, the energy reservoir C4 delivers energy where there is a load dump, motor start,
temporary loss of battery voltage, etc. The resistor R2 reduces the capacitor C4 charging current pulse. The
R2 typical value equals 100Ohms. The diode D3 bypasses the resistor R2, when C4 supplies the current.
Calculate the C4 value using Eqn. 1:
T
C4 = ---------------------------------------------------dU
R × abs  ln  1 – ------- 
 
U 
Eqn. 1
where:
•
•
•
•
•
T— period when C4 delivers energy [s]
R— load resistance [Ohm]
U— nominal power supply voltage [V]
dU— voltage drop during period T [V]
abs(x)— absolute value of variable x
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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5
Power Supply Line
4.6
Pre-Regulator
The MagniV devices can operate from 5.5V to 18V. The MagniV devices include a +5V regulator, so there
is no need to regulate the voltage precisely.
Considering the minimal operating voltage of 10V (see Section 3.2, “ISO16750-2 Norm”), and keeping
the pre-regulator and MagniV on-chip regulator power dissipation at a reasonable level, the pre-regulator
output voltage is regulated to 8V.
The discrete or integrated linear pre-regulator is recommended to use for power supply currents below
50mA. The higher currents are managed by a switch mode pre-regulator, see Figure 2.
Q3
3
OUT
1
2
IN
R5
C
Discrete Linear Pre-regulator
A
D5
GND
U1
IN
3
OUT
C6
4
C5
Integrated Linear Pre-regulator
OUT
GND
1
IN
GND
U2
2
IN
FB
6
VIN
C7
C8
NC
L1
SW
1
1
2
OUT
+
D6
C9
2
4
8
5
3
1
Switch Mode Pre-regulator
BOOT
EN
GND
EX_PAD
7
GND
Figure 2. Pre-regulator topology
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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Communication Physical Layer
5
Communication Physical Layer
The first option is to use communication physical layer qualified for operation in a 24V automotive
environment.
The other option is to use MagniV internal communication physical layer and design external circuitry
(using common choke, capacitors, resistors and transils) to pass the ISO7637-3 based device testing.
6
HVI and VSENSE Pins
The HVI and VSENSE pins are designed for operation in a 12V system. Additional external circuitry is
needed when the requested operation as in the 24V system.
The HVI/VSENSE pin circuity topology depicted in Figure 3 is a good starting point for further
investigation. The 24V HVI/VSENSE and 24V GND pins interface to the 24V network. The
HVI/VSENSE and GND pins are connected to the MagniV device.
R6
R7
HVI / VSENSE
C
24V HVI / VSENSE
R8
TVS1
A
C10
24V GND
GND
Figure 3. HVI and VSENSE pins
The capacitor C10 suppresses the 24V network’s shortest pulses. The C10 value equals units of nF. The
resistor divider R6, R8 divides the 24V HVI/VSENSE input voltage by two to fit the HVI/VSENSE pin
voltage range. The resistor values typically equal 10kOhm. The unidirectional transil TVS1 limits the
pulses voltage. The TVS1 reverse stand-off voltage equals 20V. The resistor R7, value 10kOhm, protects
the HVI/VSENSE pin.
7
Driving Load
The MagniV device is a 5V I/O device. The output pins can drive a voltage from 0V to 5V. Driving the
load in a 24V system requires an external buffer.
7.1
Discrete Solution
The bipolar junction or MOSFET low side driver transistor can be driven directly by MCU pin. If the high
side, push-pull output, 2-phase bridge or 3-phase bridge is required, the integrated solution might be the
best solution.
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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7
Driving Load
7.2
Integrated Solution
The example of integrated solution is in following picture. The Figure 4 displays the 3-phase bridge
solution for electrical motor applications using S12ZVM MCU and MC33937 pre-driver [6].
Figure 4. S12ZVM 3-Phase Bridge for Electrical Motor Applications
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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Summary
8
Summary
The MagniV family devices can be used in 24V applications. The key enablement are the external
components, extending the device operational voltage range.
The Table 1 sums-up typical use cases for each MagniV family member.
Table 1. MagniV Selector Guide
Device
External Pre-Regulator
External Physical Layer
Other
S12ZVL
Linear
-
-
S12ZVC
Linear
CAN
-
S12ZVH
Switch Mode
CAN
-
S12ZVR
Linear/Switch Mode
-
-
S12ZVM
Switch Mode
CAN
External MOSFET
Pre-driver MC33937
Note: The external components are rated for operation in 24V applications.
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
Freescale Semiconductor
9
References
9
References
1. ISO16750-1: Road vehicles – Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic
equipment – General, ISO16750-1:2006(E)
2. ISO16750-2: Road vehicles – Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic
equipment – Electrical Loads, ISO16750-2:2006(E)
3. ISO7637-2: Road vehicles – Electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling - Electrical
transient conducting along supply lines only, ISO7637-2:2004(E)
4. ISO7637-3: Road vehicles – Electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling - Electrical
transient transmission by capacitive and inductive coupling via lines other than power supply,
ISO7637-3:2004(E)
5. www.freescale.com/MagniV
6. www.freescale.com
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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Acronyms
10
Acronyms
DC
Direct Current
CAN
Controller Area Network
HVI
High Voltage Input
LIN
Local Interconnect Network
MCU
Microcontroller Unit
SMPS
Switch Mode Power Supply
VSUP
Voltage Supply
MagniV in 24V Applications, Rev. 1.0
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11
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Document Number: AN5082
Rev. 1.0
03/2015
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