DATASHEET

SIGNS
NEW DE RT
R
O
F
D
A
NDE
ME N T P
C O MME
EPL ACE 7 A
R
N OT R E
D
E
D
M EN
ISL627
R E C OM
IL PART
INTERS
DATASHEET
Multiphase PWM Regulator for AMD Fusion™ Mobile
CPUs Using SVI 2.0
ISL6277
Features
The ISL6277 is fully compliant with AMD Fusion™ SVI 2.0 and
provides a complete solution for microprocessor and graphics
processor core power. The ISL6277 controller supports two
Voltage Regulators (VRs) with three integrated gate drivers and
two optional external drivers for maximum flexibility. The Core VR
can be configured for 3-, 2-, or 1-phase operation while the
Northbridge VR supports 2- or 1-phase configurations. The two
VRs share a serial control bus to communicate with the AMD CPU
and achieve lower cost and smaller board area compared with
two-chip solutions.
• Supports AMD SVI 2.0 Serial Data Bus Interface
The PWM modulator is based on Intersil’s Robust Ripple
Regulator R3 Technology™. Compared to traditional modulators,
the R3 modulator can automatically change switching frequency
for faster transient settling time during load transients and
improved light load efficiency.
• Supports Multiple Current Sensing Methods
- Lossless Inductor DCR Current Sensing
- Precision Resistor Current Sensing
The ISL6277 has several other key features. Both outputs
support DCR current sensing with single NTC thermistor for
DCR temperature compensation or accurate resistor current
sensing. Both outputs utilize remote voltage sense, adjustable
switching frequency, OC protection and power good.
Applications
• Dual Output Controller with Integrated Drivers
- Two Dedicated Core Drivers
- One Programmable Driver for Either Core or Northbridge
• Precision Voltage Regulation
- 0.5% System Accuracy Over-Temperature
- 0.5V to 1.55V in 6.25mV Steps
- Enhanced Load Line Accuracy
• Programmable 1-, 2- or 3-Phase for the Core Output and
1- or 2-Phase for the Northbridge Output
• Adaptive Body Diode Conduction Time Reduction
• Superior Noise Immunity and Transient Response
• Output Current Monitor and Thermal Monitor
• Differential Remote Voltage Sensing
• High Efficiency Across Entire Load Range
• AMD Fusion CPU/GPU Core Power
• Programmable Slew Rate
• Notebook Computers
• Programmable VID Offset and Droop on Both Outputs
• Programmable Switching Frequency for Both Outputs
• Excellent Dynamic Current Balance Between Phases
• OCP/WOC, OVP, PGOOD, and Thermal Monitor
• Small Footprint 48 Ld 6x6 QFN Package
- Pb-Free (RoHS Compliant)
Core Performance
100
1.12
90
1.10
VIN = 8V
70
1.08
VIN = 12V
60
VOUT (A)
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
VIN = 19V
50
40
30
10
VIN = 12V
1.02
5
10
15
20
25 30 35
IOUT (A)
40
1
45
50
VIN = 19V
0.98
VOUT CORE = 1.1V
FIGURE 1. EFFICIENCY vs LOAD
March 8, 2012
FN8270.1
VIN = 8V
1.04
1.00
20
0
0
1.06
55
0.96
VOUT CORE = 1.1V
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
IOUT (A)
FIGURE 2. VOUT vs LOAD
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2012. All Rights Reserved
Intersil (and design) and R3 Technology are trademarks owned by Intersil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
ISL6277
NB_PH1
ISEN1_NB
NB_PH2
ISEN2_NB
VDDP
VDD
ENABLE
VIN
Simplified Application Circuit for High Power CPU Core
UGATEX
PHASEX
Ri
VNB1
LGATEX
ISUMN_NB
Cn
VNB2
VIN
BOOTX
NTC
NB_PH1
VNB1
VNB
FCCM_NB
ISUMP_NB
VIN
PWM2_NB
ISL6208
NB_PH1
NB_PH2
NB_PH2
VNB2
COMP_NB
IMON_NB
FB_NB
NTC_NB
VR_HOT_L
VSEN_NB
VNB_SENSE
THERMAL INDICATOR
IMON
PWROK
NTC
VIN
SVT
µP
SVD
VDDIO
PWM_Y
ISL6208
SVC
PH3
ISL6277
COMP
FB2
BOOT2
FB
VO3
VIN
UGATE2
VSEN
RTN
LGATE2
PH1
ISEN1
PH2
ISEN2
PH3
ISEN3
BOOT1
VIN
LGATE1
PH1
VO1
PH3
ISUMP
PH1
PH2
VO2
PHASE1
PGOOD
VO3
NTC
GND PAD
ISUMN
Cn
PH2
UGATE1
Ri
VO1
VO2
VCORE
PHASE2
VCORE_SENSE
FIGURE 3. TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT USING INDUCTOR DCR SENSING
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FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Simplified Application Circuit with 3 Internal Drivers Used for Core
NB_PH1
ISEN1_NB
NB_PH2
ISEN2_NB
Ri
VNB1
VNB2
Cn
PWM_Y
ISL6208
VDDP
ENABLE
VIN
VDD
VIN
VNB
NB_PH1
ISUMN_NB
VNB1
FCCM_NB
NTC
VIN
PWM2_NB
ISL6208
ISUMP_NB
NB_PH1
NB_PH2
NB_PH2
VNB2
COMP_NB
IMON_NB
FB_NB
NTC_NB
VR_HOT_L
VSEN_NB
VNB_SENSE
THERMAL INDICATOR
IMON
PWROK
NTC
SVT
µP
SVD
BOOTX
SVC
VIN
UGATEX
VDDIO
PHASEX
LGATEX
COMP
PH3
V03
ISL6277
FB2
FB
BOOT2
VIN
VSEN
UGATE2
VCORE_SENSE
RTN
VCORE
PHASE2
PH1
ISEN1
PH2
ISEN2
PH3
ISEN3
LGATE2
BOOT1
Ri
VO1
ISUMN
VO3
VIN
PHASE1
LGATE1
PH1
VO1
PH3
PH1
PH2
ISUMP
VO2
UGATE1
NTC
PGOOD
Cn
GND PAD
VO2
PH2
FIGURE 4. TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT USING INDUCTOR DCR SENSING
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FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Simplified Application Circuit for Mid-Power CPUs [2+1 Configuration]
PWM_Y
ISEN1_NB
VNB
ISL6208
10kΩ*
VDDP
VDD
VIN
* Resistor required or ISEN1_NB
will pull HIGH if left open and
disable Channel 1.
ENABLE
VIN
ISEN2_NB
+5V
Ri
NBN
NBP
ISUMN_NB
NBN
FCCM_NB
NTC
Cn
ISUMP_NB
NBP
PWM2_NB
OPEN
IMON_NB
COMP_NB
NTC_NB
FB_NB
VSEN_NB
BOOTX
VNB_SENSE
PWROK
SVT
µP
OPEN
UGATEX
OPEN
PHASEX
OPEN
LGATEX
OPEN
SVD
SVC
VR_HOT_L
Thermal Indicator
VDDIO
IMON
ISL6277
COMP
FB2
NTC
BOOT2
FB
VIN
UGATE2
VSEN
PHASE2
VCORE_SENSE
RTN
LGATE2
VP1
ISEN1
VP2
ISEN2
+5V
BOOT1
LGATE1
VP1
VN1
VP1
VP2
ISUMP
PHASE1
PGOOD
NTC
GND PAD
ISUMN
Cn
VIN
UGATE1
Ri
VN2
VN2
VCORE
ISEN3
VN1
VP2
FIGURE 5. TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT USING RESISTOR SENSING
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FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
10kΩ*
VDDP
ENABLE
VIN
* Resistor required or ISEN1_NB
will pull HIGH if left open and
disable Channel 1.
VDD
Simplified Application Circuit for Low Power CPUs [1+1 Configuration]
ISEN1_NB
UGATEX
ISEN2_NB
+5V
Ri
VNB1
VNB
PHASEX
ISUMN_NB
LGATEX
NTC
Cn
VIN
BOOTX
NB_PH1
VNB1
ISUMP_NB
NB_PH1
FCCM_NB
PWM2_NB
OPEN
COMP_NB
IMON_NB
FB_NB
NTC_NB
VSEN_NB
VNB_SENSE
VR_HOT
NTC
PWROK
SVT
µP
THERMAL INDICATOR
IMON
SVD
SVC
VDDIO
* Resistor required or ISEN1_NB
will pull HIGH if left open and
disable Channel 1.
10kΩ*
ISEN1
+5V
ISEN2
+5V
ISEN3
ISL6277
PWM_Y
OPEN
BOOT2
OPEN
UGATE2
OPEN
PHASE2
OPEN
LGATE2
OPEN
COMP
OPEN
FB2
BOOT1
VIN
FB
UGATE1
VSEN
VCORE_SENSE
VCORE
PHASE1
RTN
LGATE1
ISUMP
PGOOD
Cn
PH1
VO1
ISUMN
NTC
GND PAD
Ri
VO1
PH1
FIGURE 6. TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT USING INDUCTOR DCR SENSING
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March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Block Diagram
VSEN
CORE_I
COMP_NB
NB_I
+
RTN

IMON_NB
+
+
_
FB_NB
E/A
+
ISUMN_NB
_
PWM2_NB
VR2
MODULATOR
IDROOP_NB
ISUMP_NB
IMON
CURRENT
A/D
CURRENT
SENSE
VDD
PGOOD_NB
OC FAULT
ISEN1_NB
CURRENT
BALANCING
ISEN2_NB
IBAL FAULT
OV FAULT
NB_V
NTC_NB
T_MONITOR
TEMP
MONITOR
NTC
VOLTAGE
A/D
FLOATING
DRIVER &
PWM
CONFIG
LOGIC
VR_HOT_L
OFFSET
FREQ
SLEWRATE
CONFIG
BOOTX
DRIVER
UGATEX
PHASEX
PROG
DRIVER
LGATEX
IDROOP_NB
ENABLE
A/D
IDROOP
D/A
DAC2
DAC1
PWROK
DIGITAL
INTERFACE
SVC
PWM_Y
VCCP
CORE_I
SVD
BOOT2
NB_I
TELEMETRY
SVT
CORE_V
NB_V
DRIVER
VDDIO
UGATE2
PHASE2
COMP
VSEN
+
RTN
FB
ISUMN
_
E/A
DRIVER
LGATE2
BOOT1
IDROOP
FB2
+
VR1
MODULATOR
+
_
FB2
CIRCUIT
ISUMP

+
CURRENT
SENSE
DRIVER
VOLTAGE
A/D
UGATE1
PHASE1
CORE_V
ISEN3
ISEN2
DRIVER
CURRENT
BALANCING
OC FAULT
ISEN1
LGATE1
PGOOD
IBAL FAULT
OV FAULT
GND
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March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Pin Configuration
UGATEX
LGATEX
PHASEX
PWM2_NB
FCCM_NB
PGOOD_NB
COMP_NB
ISUMN_NB
VSEN_NB
FB_NB
ISEN1_NB
ISUMP_NB
ISL6277
(48 LD QFN)
TOP VIEW
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37
ISEN2_NB
1
36 BOOTX
NTC_NB
2
35 VIN
IMON_NB
3
34 BOOT2
SVC
4
33 UGATE2
VR_HOT_L
5
SVD
6
GND PAD
31 LGATE2
VDDIO
7
(BOTTOM)
30 VDDP
SVT
8
29 VDD
ENABLE
9
28 PWM_Y
PWROK 10
27 LGATE1
IMON 11
26 PHASE1
NTC 12
25 UGATE1
BOOT1 24
RTN 19
FB2 20
FB 21
COMP 22
PGOOD 23
ISUMN 17
VSEN 18
ISEN1 15
ISUMP 16
ISEN2 14
37
ISEN3 13
32 PHASE2
Pin Descriptions
PIN NUMBER
SYMBOL
1
ISEN2_NB
2
NTC_NB
3
IMON_NB
4
SVC
5
VR_HOT_L
6
SVD
7
VDDIO
VDDIO is the processor memory interface power rail and this pin serves as the reference to the controller
IC for this processor I/O signal level.
8
SVT
Serial VID Telemetry (SVT) data line input to the CPU from the controller IC. Telemetry and VID-on-the-fly
complete signal provided from this pin.
9
ENABLE
Enable input. A high level logic on this pin enables both VRs.
10
PWROK
System power good input. When this pin is high, the SVI 2 interface is active and the I2C protocol is
running. While this pin is low, the SVC and SVD input states determine the pre-PWROK metal VID. This
pin must be low prior to the ISL6277 PGOOD output going high per the AMD SVI 2.0 Controller Guidelines.
11
IMON
Core output current monitor. A current proportional to the Core VR output current is sourced from this pin.
12
NTC
13
ISEN3
ISEN3 is the individual current sensing for Channel 3. When ISEN3 is pulled to +5V, the controller disables
Channel 3, and the Core VR runs in two-phase mode.
14
ISEN2
Individual current sensing for Channel 2 of the Core VR. When ISEN2 is pulled to +5V, the controller
disables Channel 2, and the Core VR runs in single-phase mode.
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DESCRIPTION
Individual current sensing for Channel 2 of the Northbridge VR. When ISEN2_NB is pulled to +5V, the
controller will disable Channel 2 and the Northbridge VR will run single-phase.
Thermistor input to VR_HOT_L circuit to monitor Northbridge VR temperature.
Northbridge output current monitor. A current proportional to the Northbridge VR output current is
sourced from this pin.
Serial VID clock input from the CPU processor master device.
Thermal indicator signal to AMD CPU. Thermal overload open drain output indicator active LOW.
Serial VID data bi-directional signal from the CPU processor master device to the VR.
Thermistor input to VR_HOT_L circuit to monitor Core VR temperature.
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March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Pin Descriptions (Continued)
PIN NUMBER
SYMBOL
DESCRIPTION
15
ISEN1
Individual current sensing for Channel 1 of the Core VR. If ISEN2 is tied to +5V, this pin cannot be left
open and must be tied to GND with a 10kΩ resistor. If ISEN1 is tied to +5V, the Core portion of the IC is
shut down.
16
ISUMP
Non-inverting input of the transconductance amplifier for current monitor and load line of Core output.
17
ISUMN
Inverting input of the transconductance amplifier for current monitor and load line of Core output.
18
VSEN
Output voltage sense pin for the Core controller. Connect to the +sense pin of the microprocessor die.
19
RTN
Output voltage sense return pin for both Core VR and Northbridge VR. Connect to the -sense pin of the
microprocessor die.
20
FB2
There is a switch between the FB2 pin and the FB pin. The switch is on in 2-phase or 3-phase mode and
is off in 1-phase mode. The components connecting to FB2 are used to adjust the compensation in
1-phase mode of the Core VR to achieve optimum performance.
21
FB
Output voltage feedback to the inverting input of the Core controller error amplifier.
22
COMP
Core controller error amplifier output. A resistor from COMP to GND sets the Core VR offset voltage.
23
PGOOD
Open-drain output to indicate the Core portion of the IC is ready to supply regulated voltage. Pull up
externally to VDD or 3.3V through a resistor.
24
BOOT1
Connect an MLCC capacitor across the BOOT1 and the PHASE1 pins. The boot capacitor is charged,
through an internal boot diode connected from the VDDP pin to the BOOT1 pin, each time the PHASE1
pin drops below VDDP minus the voltage dropped across the internal boot diode.
25
UGATE1
Output of the Phase 1 high-side MOSFET gate driver of the Core VR. Connect the UGATE1 pin to the gate
of the Phase 1 high-side MOSFET(s).
26
PHASE1
Current return path for the Phase 1 high-side MOSFET gate driver of VR1. Connect the PHASE1 pin to the
node consisting of the high-side MOSFET source, the low-side MOSFET drain, and the output inductor of
Phase 1.
27
LGATE1
Output of the Phase 1 low-side MOSFET gate driver of the Core VR. Connect the LGATE1 pin to the gate
of the Phase 1 low-side MOSFET(s).
28
PWM_Y
Floating PWM output used for either Channel 3 of the Core VR or Channel 1 of the Northbridge VR
depending on the FCCM_NB resistor connected between FCCM_NB and GND.
29
VDD
30
VDDP
Input voltage bias for the internal gate drivers. Connect +5V to the VDDP pin. Decouple with at least 1µF
of capacitance to GND. A high quality, X7R dielectric MLCC capacitor is recommended.
31
LGATE2
Output of the Phase 2 low-side MOSFET gate driver of the Core VR. Connect the LGATE2 pin to the gate
of the Phase 2 low-side MOSFET(s).
32
PHASE2
Current return path for the Phase 2 high-side MOSFET gate driver of the Core VR. Connect the PHASE2
pin to the node consisting of the high-side MOSFET source, the low-side MOSFET drain, and the output
inductor of Phase 2.
33
UGATE2
Output of the Phase 2 high-side MOSFET gate driver of the Core VR. Connect the UGATE2 pin to the gate
of the Phase 2 high-side MOSFET(s).
34
BOOT2
Connect an MLCC capacitor across the BOOT2 and PHASE2 pins. The boot capacitor is charged, through
an internal boot diode connected from the VDDP pin to the BOOT2 pin, each time the PHASE2 pin drops
below VDDP minus the voltage dropped across the internal boot diode.
35
VIN
36
BOOTX
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5V bias power. A resistor [2Ω] and a decoupling capacitor should be used from the +5V supply. A high
quality, X7R dielectric MLCC capacitor is recommended.
Battery supply voltage, used for feed-forward.
8
Boot connection of the programmable internal driver used for either Channel 3 of the Core VR or
Channel 1 of the Northbridge VR based on the configuration state selected by the FCCM_NB resistor.
Connect an MLCC capacitor across the BOOT1X and the PHASEX pins. The boot capacitor is charged,
through an internal boot diode connected from the VDDP pin to the BOOTX pin, each time the PHASEX
pin drops below VDDP minus the voltage dropped across the internal boot diode.
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Pin Descriptions (Continued)
PIN NUMBER
SYMBOL
DESCRIPTION
37
UGATEX
High-side MOSFET gate driver portion of the programmable internal driver used for either Channel 3 of
the Core VR or Channel 1 of the Northbridge VR based on the configuration state selected by the
FCCM_NB resistor. Connect the UGATEX pin to the gate of the high-side MOSFET(s) for either Phase 3 of
the Core VR or Phase 1 of the Northbridge VR based on the configuration state selected.
38
PHASEX
Phase connection of the programmable internal driver used for either Channel 3 of the Core VR or
Channel 1 of the Northbridge VR based on the configuration state selected by the FCCM_NB resistor.
Current return path for the high-side MOSFET gate driver of the floating internal driver. Connect the
PHASEX pin to the node consisting of the high-side MOSFET source, the low-side MOSFET drain, and the
output inductor of either Phase 3 of the Core VR or Phase 1 of the Northbridge VR based on the
configuration state selected.
39
LGATEX
Low-side MOSFET gate driver portion of floating internal driver used for either Channel 3 of the Core VR
or Channel 1 of the Northbridge VR based on the configuration state selected by the FCCM_NB resistor.
Connect the LGATEX pin to the gate of the low-side MOSFET(s) for either Phase 3 of the Core VR or Phase
1 of the Northbridge VR based on the configuration state selected.
40
PWM2_NB
PWM output for Channel 2 of the Northbridge VR. Disabled when ISEN2_NB is tied to +5V.
41
FCCM_NB
Diode emulation control signal for Intersil MOSFET Drivers. When FCCM_NB is LOW, diode emulation at
the driver this pin connects to is allowed. A resistor from FCCM_NB pin to GND configures the PWM_Y
and floating internal gate driver [BOOTX, UGATEX, PHASEX, LGATEX pins] to support Phase 3 of the Core
VR and Phase 1 of the Northbridge VR. The FCCM_NB resistor value also is used to set the slew rate for
the Core VR and Northbridge VR.
42
PGOOD_NB
Open-drain output to indicate the Northbridge portion of the IC is ready to supply regulated voltage.
Pull-up externally to VDDP or 3.3V through a resistor.
43
COMP_NB
Northbridge VR error amplifier output. A resistor from COMP_NB to GND sets the Northbridge VR offset
voltage and is used to set the switching frequency for the Core VR and Northbridge VR.
44
FB_NB
45
VSEN_NB
Output voltage sense pin for the Northbridge controller. Connect to the +sense pin of the microprocessor
die.
46
ISUMN_NB
Inverting input of the transconductance amplifier for current monitor and load line of the Northbridge VR.
47
ISUMP_NB
Non-inverting input of the transconductance amplifier for current monitor and load line of the
Northbridge VR.
48
ISEN1_NB
Individual current sensing for Channel 1 of the Northbridge VR. If ISEN2_NB is tied to +5V, this pin cannot
be left open and must be tied to GND with a 10kΩ resistor. If ISEN1_NB is tied to +5V, the Northbridge
portion of the IC is shutdown.
Output voltage feedback to the inverting input of the Northbridge controller error amplifier.
GND (Bottom Pad)
Signal common of the IC. Unless otherwise stated, signals are referenced to the GND pin.
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER
(Notes 1, 2, 3)
PART
MARKING
TEMP.
RANGE (°C)
PACKAGE
(Pb-free)
PKG.
DWG. #
ISL6277HRZ
ISL6277 HRZ
-10 to +100
48 Ld 6x6 QFN
L48.6x6B
ISL6277IRZ
ISL6277 IRZ
-40 to +85
48 Ld 6x6 QFN
L48.6x6B
NOTES:
1. Add “-T*” suffix for tape and reel. Please refer to TB347 for details on reel specifications.
2. Intersil Pb-free plus anneal products employ special Pb-free material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100% matte tin plate
termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations. Intersil Pb-free products are MSL
classified at Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
3. For Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL), please see device information page for ISL6277. For more information on MSL please see tech brief TB363.
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March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Table of Contents
Absolute Maximum Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Thermal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Recommended Operating Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Electrical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Gate Driver Timing Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Theory of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Multiphase R3™ Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diode Emulation and Period Stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Channel Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-On Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start-up Timing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage Regulation and Load Line Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential Sensing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phase Current Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FB2 Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adaptive Body Diode Conduction Time Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
15
15
15
16
16
17
17
19
20
20
20
Resistor Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
VR Offset Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floating DriverX & PWM_Y Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VID-on-the-Fly Slew Rate Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CCM Switching Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
21
21
21
AMD Serial VID Interface 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Pre-PWROK Metal VID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SVI Interface Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VID-on-the-Fly Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SVI Data Communication Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SVI Bus Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power States and Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Load Line Slope Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Offset Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
22
22
22
25
25
26
26
Protection Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Overcurrent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current-Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undervoltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overvoltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal Monitor [NTC, NTC_NB] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fault Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface Pin Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
Key Component Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Inductor DCR Current-Sensing Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistor Current-Sensing Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Line Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compensator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal Monitor Component Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
30
30
31
31
31
32
Layout Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
PCB Layout Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Package Outline Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Submit Document Feedback
10
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
Supply Voltage, VDD, VDDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to +7V
Battery Voltage, VIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +28V
Boot Voltage (BOOT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to +33V
Boot to Phase Voltage (BOOT-PHASE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to +7V(DC)
-0.3V to +9V (<10ns)
Phase Voltage (PHASE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -7V (<20ns Pulse Width, 10µJ)
UGATE Voltage (UGATE) . . . . . . . . . .PHASE - 0.3V (DC) to BOOTPHASE - 5V
(<20ns Pulse Width, 10µJ) to BOOT LGATE Voltage
-2.5V (<20ns Pulse Width, 5µJ) to VDD + 0.3V
All Other Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Open Drain Outputs, PGOOD, PGOOD_NB, VR_HOT_L. . . . . . . -0.3V to +7V
Thermal Resistance (Typical)
JA (°C/W) JC (°C/W)
48 Ld QFN Package (Notes 4, 5) . . . . . . . .
29
3.5
Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+150°C
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-65°C to +150°C
Maximum Junction Temperature (Plastic Package) . . . . . . . . . . . .+150°C
Storage Temperature Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-65°C to +150°C
Pb-Free Reflow Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see link below
http://www.intersil.com/pbfree/Pb-FreeReflow.asp
Recommended Operating Conditions
Supply Voltage, VDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +5V ±5%
Battery Voltage, VIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5V to 25V
Ambient Temperature
HRZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-10°C to +100°C
IRZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40°C to +85°C
Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-10°C to +125°C
CAUTION: Do not operate at or near the maximum ratings listed for extended periods of time. Exposure to such conditions may adversely impact product
reliability and result in failures not covered by warranty.
NOTES:
4. JA is measured in free air with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board with “direct attach” features. See Tech
Brief TB379.
5. For JC, the “case temp” location is the center of the exposed metal pad on the package underside.
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VDD = 5V, TA = -10°C to +100°C (HRZ), TA = -40°C to +85°C (IRZ), fSW = 300kHz, unless
otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range, -40°C to +100°C.
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
(Note 6)
TYP
MAX
(Note 6)
UNITS
8
11
mA
5
µA
INPUT POWER SUPPLY
+5V Supply Current
IVDD
ENABLE = 1V
ENABLE = 0V
Battery Supply Current
IVIN
ENABLE = 0V
VIN Input Resistance
RVIN
ENABLE = 1V
620
1
µA
VDD_PORr
VDD rising
4.35
VDD_PORf
VDD falling
4.00
HRZ
%Error (VOUT)
No load; closed loop, active mode range,
VID = 0.75V to 1.55V
-0.5
+0.5
%
VID = 0.25V to 0.74375V
-10
+10
mV
IRZ
%Error (VOUT)
No load; closed loop, active mode range,
VID = 0.75V to 1.55V
-0.8
+0.8
%
VID = 0.25V to 0.74375V
-12
+12
mV
kΩ
POWER-ON-RESET THRESHOLDS
VDD POR Threshold
4.5
4.15
V
V
SYSTEM AND REFERENCES
System Accuracy
Maximum Output Voltage
VOUT(max)
VID = [00000000]
1.55
V
Minimum Output Voltage
VOUT(min)
VID = [11111111]
0.0
V
CHANNEL FREQUENCY
Nominal Channel Frequency
280
fSW(nom)
Adjustment Range
300
300
320
kHz
450
kHz
AMPLIFIERS
Current-Sense Amplifier Input Offset
Error Amp DC Gain
IFB = 0A
-0.15
+0.15
mV
IRZ
IFB = 0A
-0.20
+0.20
mV
Av0
Error Amp Gain-Bandwidth Product
Submit Document Feedback
HRZ
11
GBW
CL = 20pF
119
dB
17
MHz
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VDD = 5V, TA = -10°C to +100°C (HRZ), TA = -40°C to +85°C (IRZ), fSW = 300kHz, unless
otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range, -40°C to +100°C. (Continued)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
(Note 6)
TYP
MAX
(Note 6)
UNITS
ISEN
Input Bias Current
20
nA
POWER-GOOD ( PGOOD & PGOOD_NB) AND PROTECTION MONITORS
PGOOD Low Voltage
VOL
IPGOOD = 4mA
PGOOD Leakage Current
IOH
PGOOD = 3.3V
0.4
-1
1
PWROK High Threshold
750
VR_HOT_L Pull-down
11
V
µA
mV
Ω
PWROK Leakage Current
1
µA
VR_HOT_L Leakage Current
1
µA
1.5
Ω
GATE DRIVER
UGATE Pull-Up Resistance
RUGPU
200mA Source Current
1.0
UGATE Source Current
IUGSRC
UGATE - PHASE = 2.5V
2.0
UGATE Sink Resistance
RUGPD
250mA Sink Current
1.0
UGATE Sink Current
IUGSNK
UGATE - PHASE = 2.5V
2.0
LGATE Pull-Up Resistance
RLGPU
250mA Source Current
1.0
LGATE Source Current
ILGSRC
LGATE - VSSP = 2.5V
2.0
A
1.5
Ω
A
1.5
Ω
A
LGATE Sink Resistance
RLGPD
250mA Sink Current
0.5
LGATE Sink Current
ILGSNK
LGATE - VSSP = 2.5V
4.0
0.9
Ω
A
UGATE to LGATE Deadtime
tUGFLGR
UGATE falling to LGATE rising, no load
23
ns
LGATE to UGATE Deadtime
tLGFUGR
LGATE falling to UGATE rising, no load
28
ns
PROTECTION
Overvoltage Threshold
OVH
Undervoltage Threshold
OVH
Current Imbalance Threshold
VSEN rising above setpoint for >1µs
275
325
375
mV
VSEN falls below setpoint for >1µs
275
325
375
mV
One ISEN above another ISEN for >1.2ms
9
mV
15
µA
Way Overcurrent Trip Threshold
[IMONx Current Based Detection]
IMONxWOC
All states, IDROOP = 60µA, RIMON = 135kΩ
Overcurrent Trip Threshold
[IMONx Voltage Based Detection]
VIMONx_OCP
All states, IDROOP = 45µA,
IIMONx = 11.25µA , RIMON = 135kΩ
1.485
1.51
1.535
V
1
V
LOGIC THRESHOLDS
ENABLE Input Low
VIL
ENABLE Input High
ENABLE Leakage Current
VIH
HRZ
1.6
V
VIH
IRZ
1.65
V
IENABLE
ENABLE = 0V
-1
ENABLE = 1V
SVT Impedance
0
1
µA
18
35
µA
30
%
1
µA
50
SVC, SVD Input Low
VIL
SVC, SVD Input High
VIH
SVC, SVD Leakage
% of VDDIO
% of VDDIO
70
ENABLE = 0V, SVC, SVD = 0V and 1V
-1
ENABLE = 1V, SVC, SVD = 1V
-5
ENABLE = 1V, SVC, SVD = 0V
-35
Ω
%
-20
1
µA
-5
µA
1.0
V
0.5
µA
PWM
PWM Output Low
V0L
Sinking 5mA
PWM Output High
V0H
Sourcing 5mA
PWM Tri-State Leakage
Submit Document Feedback
PWM = 2.5V
12
3.5
V
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VDD = 5V, TA = -10°C to +100°C (HRZ), TA = -40°C to +85°C (IRZ), fSW = 300kHz, unless
otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range, -40°C to +100°C. (Continued)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
(Note 6)
TYP
MAX
(Note 6)
UNITS
27
30
33
µA
600
640
680
mV
THERMAL MONITOR
NTC Source Current
NTC = 0.6V
NTC Thermal Warning Voltage
NTC Thermal Warning Voltage
Hysteresis
20
NTC Thermal Shutdown Voltage
mV
530
580
630
mV
Maximum Programmed
16
20
24
mV/µs
Minimum Programmed
8
10
12
mV/µs
SLEW RATE
VID-on-the-Fly Slew Rate
NOTE:
6. Compliance to datasheet limits is assured by one or more methods: production test, characterization and/or design.
Gate Driver Timing Diagram
PWM
tLGFUGR
1V
UGATE
1V
LGATE
tRL
tFL
Submit Document Feedback
tFU
tRU
tUGFLGR
13
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Theory of Operation
VW
Multiphase R3™ Modulator
VCRM
The ISL6277 is a multiphase regulator implementing two voltage
regulators, CORE VR and Northbridge (NB) VR, on one chip
controlled by AMD’s™ SVI2™ protocol. The CORE VR can be
programmed for 1-, 2- or 3-phase operation. The Northbridge VR
can be configured for 1- or 2-phase operation. Both regulators use
the Intersil patented R3™ (Robust Ripple Regulator) modulator.
The R3™ modulator combines the best features of fixed frequency
PWM and hysteretic PWM while eliminating many of their
shortcomings. Figure 7 conceptually shows the multiphase R3™
modulator circuit, and Figure 8 shows the operation principles.
HYSTERETIC
WINDOW
COMP
MASTER
CLOCK
CLOCK1
PWM1
CLOCK2
PWM2
MASTER CLOCK CIRCUIT
MASTER
CLOCK
COMP
PHASE
VCRM
SEQUENCER
VW
MASTER
CLOCK
GMVO
CLOCK1
CLOCK2
CLOCK3
CLOCK3
PWM3
CRM
VW
SLAVE CIRCUIT 1
VW
CLOCK1
S
R
VCRS1
Q
PWM1
PHASE1
L1
IL1
VO
CO
GM
SLAVE CIRCUIT 2
CLOCK2
S
R
VCRS2
Q
PWM2
PHASE2
L2
IL2
GM
CRS2
SLAVE CIRCUIT 3
VW
CLOCK3
VCRS3
S
R
Q
PWM3
PHASE3
L3
IL3
GM
CRS3
FIGURE 7. R3™ MODULATOR CIRCUIT
Inside the IC, the modulator uses the master clock circuit to
generate the clocks for the slave circuits. The modulator
discharges the ripple capacitor Crm with a current source equal
to gmVo, where gm is a gain factor. Crm voltage VCRM is a
sawtooth waveform traversing between the VW and COMP
voltages. It resets to VW when it hits COMP, and generates a
one-shot master clock signal. A phase sequencer distributes the
master clock signal to the slave circuits. If the CORE VR is in
3-phase mode, the master clock signal is distributed to the three
phases, and the Clock 1~3 signals will be 120° out-of-phase. If
the Core VR is in 2-phase mode, the master clock signal is
distributed to Phases 1 and 2, and the Clock1 and Clock2 signals
will be 180° out-of-phase. If the Core VR is in 1-phase mode, the
master clock signal will be distributed to Phase 1 only and be the
Clock1 signal.
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VCRS3
VCRS1
FIGURE 8. R3™ MODULATOR OPERATION PRINCIPLES IN
STEADY STATE
CRS1
VW
VCRS2
14
Each slave circuit has its own ripple capacitor Crs, whose voltage
mimics the inductor ripple current. A gm amplifier converts the
inductor voltage into a current source to charge and discharge
Crs. The slave circuit turns on its PWM pulse upon receiving the
clock signal, and the current source charges Crs. When Crs
voltage VCrs hits VW, the slave circuit turns off the PWM pulse,
and the current source discharges Crs.
Since the controller works with Vcrs, which are large amplitude
and noise-free synthesized signals, it achieves lower phase jitter
than conventional hysteretic mode and fixed PWM mode
controllers. Unlike conventional hysteretic mode converters, the
error amplifier allows the ISL6277 to maintain a 0.5% output
voltage accuracy.
Figure 9 shows the operation principles during load insertion
response. The COMP voltage rises during load insertion,
generating the master clock signal more quickly, so the PWM
pulses turn on earlier, increasing the effective switching
frequency. This allows for higher control loop bandwidth than
conventional fixed frequency PWM controllers. The VW voltage
rises as the COMP voltage rises, making the PWM pulses wider.
During load release response, the COMP voltage falls. It takes
the master clock circuit longer to generate the next master clock
signal so the PWM pulse is held off until needed. The VW voltage
falls as the COMP voltage falls, reducing the current PWM pulse
width. This kind of behavior gives the ISL6277 excellent response
speed.
The fact that all the phases share the same VW window voltage
also ensures excellent dynamic current balance among phases.
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
current will never reach 0A, and the regulator is in CCM, although
the controller is in DE mode.
VW
Figure 11 shows the operation principle in diode emulation mode
at light load. The load gets incrementally lighter in the three cases
from top to bottom. The PWM on-time is determined by the VW
window size and therefore is the same, making the inductor
current triangle the same in the three cases. The ISL6277 clamps
the ripple capacitor voltage VCRS in DE mode to make it mimic the
inductor current. It takes the COMP voltage longer to hit VCRS,
naturally stretching the switching period. The inductor current
triangles move farther apart, such that the inductor current
average value is equal to the load current. The reduced switching
frequency helps increase light-load efficiency.
COMP
VCRM
MASTER
CLOCK
CLOCK1
PWM1
CLOCK2
PWM2
CLOCK3
VW
CCM/DCM
BOUNDARY
V CRS
PWM3
VW
IL
VW LIGHT DCM
V CRS
VCRS1
VCRS3
VCRS2
FIGURE 9. R3™ MODULATOR OPERATION PRINCIPLES IN LOAD
INSERTION RESPONSE
Diode Emulation and Period Stretching
The ISL6277 can operate in diode emulation (DE) mode to
improve light-load efficiency. In DE mode, the low-side MOSFET
conducts when the current is flowing from source to drain and
does not allow reverse current, thus emulating a diode. As
Figure 10 shows, when LGATE is on, the low-side MOSFET carries
current, creating negative voltage on the phase node due to the
voltage drop across the on-resistance. The ISL6277 monitors the
current by monitoring the phase node voltage. It turns off LGATE
when the phase node voltage reaches zero to prevent the inductor
current from reversing the direction and creating unnecessary
power loss.
PHASE
UGATE
LGATE
IL
VW
DEEP DCM
V CRS
IL
FIGURE 11. PERIOD STRETCHING
Channel Configuration
Individual PWM channels of either VR can be disabled by
connecting the ISENx pin of the channel not required to +5V. For
example, placing the controller in a 2+1 configuration, as shown
in Figure 5, requires ISEN3 of the Core VR and ISEN2 of the
Northbridge VR to be tied to +5V. This disables Channel 3 of the
Core VR and Channel 2 of the Northbridge VR. ISEN1_NB must
be tied through a 10kΩ resistor to GND to prevent this pin from
pulling high and disabling the channel. Connecting ISEN1 or
ISEN1_NB to +5V will disable the corresponding VR output. This
feature allows debug of individual VR outputs.
Power-On Reset
IL
FIGURE 10. DIODE EMULATION
If the load current is light enough, as Figure 10 shows, the
inductor current reaches and stays at zero before the next phase
node pulse, and the regulator is in discontinuous conduction
mode (DCM). If the load current is heavy enough, the inductor
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15
Before the controller has sufficient bias to guarantee proper
operation, the ISL6277 requires a +5V input supply tied to VDD
and VDDP to exceed the VDD rising power-on reset (POR)
threshold. Once this threshold is reached or exceeded, the
ISL6277 has enough bias to check the state of the SVI inputs
once ENABLE is taken high. Hysteresis between the rising and
the falling thresholds assure the ISL6277 does not inadvertently
turn off unless the bias voltage drops substantially (see
“Electrical Specifications” on page 11). Note that VIN must be
present for the controller to drive the output voltage.
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
VDD
SVC
SVD
VOTF
SVT
Telemetry
Telemetry
ENABLE
PWROK
METAL_VID
VCORE/ VCORE_NB
V_SVI
PGOOD & PGOOD_NB
Interval 1 to 2: ISL6277 waits to POR.
Interval 2 to 3: SVC and SVD are externally set to pre-Metal VID code.
Interval 3 to 4: ENABLE locks pre-Metal VID code. Both outputs soft-start to this level.
Interval 4 to 5: PGOOD signal goes HIGH, indicating proper operation.
Interval 5 to 6: PGOOD and PGOOD_NB high is detected and PWROK is taken high. The ISL6277 is prepared for SVI commands.
Interval 6 to 7: SVC and SVD data lines communicate change in VID code.
Interval 7 to 8: ISL6277 responds to VID-ON-THE-FLY code change and issues a VOTF for positive VID changes.
Post 8: Telemetry is clocked out of the ISL6277.
FIGURE 12. SVI INTERFACE TIMING DIAGRAM: TYPICAL PRE-PWROK METAL VID START-UP
Start-up Timing
With VDD above the POR threshold, the controller start-up
sequence begins when ENABLE exceeds the logic high threshold.
Figure 13 shows the typical soft-start timing of the Core and
Northbridge VRs. Once the controller registers ENABLE as a high,
the controller checks that state of a few programming pins
during the typical 8ms delay prior to beginning soft-starting the
Core and Northbridge outputs. The pre-PWROK Metal VID is read
from the state of the SVC and SVD pins and programs the DAC,
the programming resistors on COMP, COMP_NB, and FCCM_NB
are read to configure internal drivers, switching frequency, slew
rate, output offsets. These programming resistors are discussed
in subsequent sections. The ISL6277 use a digital soft-start to
ramp up the DAC to the Metal VID level programmed. The
soft-start slew rate is programmed by the FCCM_NB resistor
which is used to set the VID-on-the-Fly slew rate as well. See the
VID-on-the-Fly Slew Rate Selection section for more details on
selecting the FCCM_NB resistor. PGOOD is asserted high at the
end of the soft-start ramp.
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16
VDD
SLEW RATE
ENABLE
8ms
MetalVID VID COMMAND
VOLTAGE
DAC
PGOOD
PWROK
VIN
FIGURE 13. TYPICAL SOFT-START WAVEFORMS
Voltage Regulation and Load Line
Implementation
After the soft-start sequence, the ISL6277 regulates the output
voltages to the pre-PWROK metal VID programmed, see Table 6.
The ISL6277 controls the no-load output voltage to an accuracy of
±0.5% over the range of 0.75V to 1.55V. A differential amplifier
allows voltage sensing for precise voltage regulation at the
microprocessor die.
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Differential Sensing
Rdroop
+
FB
VR LOCAL VO
“CATCH” RESISTOR
Idroop
+
COMP
E/A
-
VCCSENSE
Vdroop
SVC

+
DAC
VDAC
SVD
SVID[7:0]
RTN
X1
INTERNAL TO IC
+
-
Figure 14 also shows the differential voltage sensing scheme.
VCCSENSE and VSSSENSE are the remote voltage sensing signals
from the processor die. A unity gain differential amplifier senses
the VSSSENSE voltage and adds it to the DAC output. The error
amplifier regulates the inverting and non-inverting input voltages
to be equal as shown in Equation 3:
VCC SENSE + V
droop
= V DAC + VSS SENSE
Rewriting Equation 3 and substituting Equation 2 gives Equation 4
the exact equation required for load-line implementation.
VSS SENSE
VSS
5
VCC SENSE – VSS SENSE = V DAC – R droop   I droop  ---

4
“CATCH” RESISTOR
FIGURE 14. DIFFERENTIAL SENSING AND LOAD LINE
IMPLEMENTATION
As the load current increases from zero, the output voltage
droops from the VID programmed value by an amount
proportional to the load current, to achieve the load line. The
ISL6277 can sense the inductor current through the intrinsic DC
Resistance (DCR) of the inductors, as shown in Figures 3 and 4,
or through resistors in series with the inductors as shown in
Figure 5. In both methods, capacitor Cn voltage represents the
total inductor current. A droop amplifier converts Cn voltage into
an internal current source with the gain set by resistor Ri. The
current source is used for load line implementation, current
monitoring and overcurrent protection.
Figure 14 shows the load-line implementation. The ISL6277
drives a current source (Idroop) out of the FB pin, as described by
Equation 1.
Phase Current Balancing
ISEN3
PHASE3
Risen
Cisen
INTERNAL
TO IC
ISEN2
ISEN1
Idroop flows through resistor Rdroop and creates a voltage drop as
shown in Equation 2.
5
V droop = R droop   I droop  ---

4
(EQ. 2)
Vdroop is the droop voltage required to implement load line.
Changing Rdroop or scaling Idroop can change the load line slope.
Since Idroop also sets the overcurrent protection level, it is
recommended to first scale Idroop based on OCP requirement,
then select an appropriate Rdroop value to obtain the desired
load line slope.
Rdcr3
L3
(EQ. 1)
When using inductor DCR current sensing, a single NTC element
is used to compensate the positive temperature coefficient of the
copper winding, thus sustaining the load-line accuracy with
reduced cost.
(EQ. 4)
The VCCSENSE and VSSSENSE signals come from the processor die.
The feedback is open circuit in the absence of the processor. As
Figure 14 shows, it is recommended to add a “catch” resistor to feed
the VR local output voltage back to the compensator, and to add
another “catch” resistor to connect the VR local output ground to the
RTN pin. These resistors, typically 10Ω~100Ω, provide voltage
feedback if the system is powered up without a processor installed.
PHASE1
Risen
Rpcb3
IL3
Rdcr2
L2
PHASE2
Risen
Cisen
V Cn
I droop = ----------Ri
(EQ. 3)
Rpcb2
VO
IL2
Rdcr1
L1
Rpcb1
IL1
Cisen
FIGURE 15. CURRENT BALANCING CIRCUIT
The ISL6277 monitors individual phase average current by
monitoring the ISEN1, ISEN2, and ISEN3 voltages. Figure 15
shows the recommended current balancing circuit for DCR
sensing. Each phase node voltage is averaged by a low-pass filter
consisting of Risen and Cisen, and is presented to the
corresponding ISEN pin. Risen should be routed to the inductor
phase-node pad in order to eliminate the effect of phase node
parasitic PCB DCR. Equations 5 through 7 give the ISEN pin
voltages:
V ISEN1 =  R dcr1 + R pcb1   I L1
(EQ. 5)
V ISEN2 =  R dcr2 + R pcb2   I L2
(EQ. 6)
V ISEN3 =  R dcr3 + R pcb3   I L3
(EQ. 7)
where Rdcr1, Rdcr2 and Rdcr3 are inductor DCR; Rpcb1, Rpcb2
and Rpcb3 are parasitic PCB DCR between the inductor output
side pad and the output voltage rail; and IL1, IL2 and IL3 are
inductor average currents.
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17
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
The ISL6277 will adjust the phase pulse-width relative to the
other phases to make VISEN1 = VISEN2 = VISEN3, thus to achieve
IL1 = IL2 = IL3, when Rdcr1 = Rdcr2 = Rdcr3 and
Rpcb1 = Rpcb2 = Rpcb3.
Using the same components for L1, L2 and L3 provides a good
match of Rdcr1, Rdcr2 and Rdcr3. Board layout determines Rpcb1,
Rpcb2 and Rpcb3. It is recommended to have a symmetrical
layout for the power delivery path between each inductor and the
output voltage rail, such that Rpcb1 = Rpcb2 = Rpcb3.
PHASE3
R isen
ISEN3
C isen
INTERNAL
TO IC
ISEN2
C isen
Rdcr3
L3
V3p
IL3
R isen
V2p
PHASE2
R isen
IL2
R isen
Rpcb2
Vo
V2n
R isen
ISEN1
Cisen
Rdcr1
L1
PHASE1 V1p
R isen
IL1
R isen
(EQ. 13)
Rewriting Equation 12 gives Equation 14:
V 2p – V 2n = V 3p – V 3n
(EQ. 14)
Combining Equations 13 and 14 gives:
V 1p – V 1n = V 2p – V 2n = V 3p – V 3n
R dcr1  I L1 = R dcr2  I L2 = R dcr3  I L3
V3n
Rdcr2
V 1p – V 1n = V 2p – V 2n
(EQ. 15)
Therefore:
Rpcb3
R isen
L2
Rewriting Equation 11 gives Equation 13:
Rpcb1
V1n
R isen
FIGURE 16. DIFFERENTIAL-SENSING CURRENT BALANCING CIRCUIT
(EQ. 16)
Current balancing (IL1 = IL2 = IL3) is achieved when
Rdcr1 = Rdcr2 = Rdcr3. Rpcb1, Rpcb2 and Rpcb3 do not have any
effect.
Since the slave ripple capacitor voltages mimic the inductor
currents, the R3™ modulator can naturally achieve excellent
current balancing during steady state and dynamic operations.
Figure 17 shows the current balancing performance of the
evaluation board with load transient of 12A/51A at different rep
rates. The inductor currents follow the load current dynamic
change with the output capacitors supplying the difference. The
inductor currents can track the load current well at a low
repetition rate, but cannot keep up when the repetition rate gets
into the hundred-kHz range, where it is out of the control loop
bandwidth. The controller achieves excellent current balancing in
all cases installed.
Sometimes, it is difficult to implement symmetrical layout. For
the circuit shown in Figure 15, asymmetric layout causes
different Rpcb1, Rpcb2 and Rpcb3 values, thus creating a current
imbalance. Figure 16 shows a differential sensing current
balancing circuit recommended for ISL6277. The current sensing
traces should be routed to the inductor pads so they only pick up
the inductor DCR voltage. Each ISEN pin sees the average voltage
of three sources: its own, phase inductor phase-node pad, and
the other two phase inductor output side pads. Equations 8
through 10 give the ISEN pin voltages:
V ISEN1 = V 1p + V 2n + V 3n
(EQ. 8)
V ISEN2 = V 1n + V 2p + V 3n
(EQ. 9)
V ISEN3 = V 1n + V 2n + V 3p
(EQ. 10)
The ISL6277 will make VISEN1 = VISEN2 = VISEN3 as shown in
Equations 11 and 12:
V 1p + V 2n + V 3n = V 1n + V 2p + V 3n
(EQ. 11)
V 1n + V 2p + V 3n = V 1n + V 2n + V 3p
(EQ. 12)
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18
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
REP RATE = 10kHz
Modes of Operation
TABLE 1. CORE VR MODES OF OPERATION
CONFIG.
ISEN3
ISEN2
3-phase
Core VR
Config.
To Power To Power
Stage
Stage
2-phase
Core VR
Config.
Tied to 5V To Power
Stage
1-phase
Core VR
Config.
Tied to 5V Tied to
5V
REP RATE = 25kHz
PSL0_L
&
PSI1_L
MODE
11
3-phase CCM
01
1-phase DE
00
1-phase DE
11
2-phase CCM
01
1-phase DE
00
1-phase DE
11
1-phase CMM
01
1-phase DE
00
1-phase DE
OCP
THRESHOLD
(µA)
45
45
45
The Core VR can be configured for 3, 2- or 1-phase operation.
Table 1 shows Core VR configurations and operational modes,
programmed by the ISEN3 and ISEN2 pin status and the PSL0_L
& PSL1_L commands via the SVI 2 interface, see Table 9.
REP RATE = 50kHz
For a 2-phase configuration, tie the ISEN3 pin to 5V. In this
configuration, phases 1 and 2 are active. To select a 1-phase
configuration, tie the ISEN3 pin and the ISEN2 pin to 5V. In this
configuration, only phase-1 is active.
In a 3-phase configuration, the Core VR operates in 3-phase CCM,
with PSI0_L and PSI_L both high. If PSI0_L is taken low via the
SVI 2 interface, the Core VR sheds Phase 2 and Phase 3. Phase 1
enters Diode Emulation (DE) mode. When both PSI0_L and
PSI1_L are taken low, the Core VR continues to operate in
1-phase DE mode.
REP RATE = 100kHz
For 2-phase configurations, the Core VR operates in 2-phase CCM
with PSI0_L and PSI_L both high. If PSI0_L is taken low via the
SVI 2 interface, the Core VR sheds Phase 2 and the Core VR
enters 1-phase DE mode. When both PSI0_L and PSI1_L are
taken low, the Core VR continues to operate in 1-phase DE mode.
In a 1-phase configuration, the Core VR operates in 1-phase CCM
and enters 1-phase DE when PSI0_L is taken low and continues
to operate in this mode when both PSI0_l and PSI1_L are taken
low.
The Core VR can be disabled completely by connecting ISEN1 to
+5V.
REP RATE = 200kHz
ISL6277 Northbridge VR can be configured for 2- or 1-phase
operation. Table 2 shows the Northbridge VR configurations and
operational modes, which are programmed by the ISEN2_NB pin
status and the PSI0_L and PSI1_L bits of the SVI 2 command.
TABLE 2. NORTHBRIDGE VR MODES OF OPERATION
ISEN2_NB
FIGURE 17. CURRENT BALANCING DURING DYNAMIC OPERATION.
CH1: IL1 , CH2: ILOAD, CH3: IL2, CH4: IL3
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19
CONFIG.
To Power
Stage
2-phase NB
VR Config.
Tied to 5V
1-phase NB
VR Config.
PSL0_L &
PSI1_L
MODE
11
2-phase CCM
01
1-phase DE
00
1-phase DE
11
1-phase CCM
01
1-phase DE
00
1-phase DE
OCP
THRESHOLD
45µA
45µA
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
In a 1-phase configuration, the ISEN2_NB pin is tied to +5V. The
Northbridge VR operates in 1-phase CCM and enters 1-phase DE
when both PSI0_L and PSI1_L are low.
The Northbridge VR can be disabled completely by tieing
ISEN1_NB to 5V.
Dynamic Operation
Core VR and Northbridge VR behave the same during dynamic
operation. The controller responds to VID-on-the-fly changes by
slewing to the new voltage at the slew rate programmed, see
Table 4. During negative VID transitions, the output voltage
decays to the lower VID value at the slew rate determined by the
load.
The R3™ modulator intrinsically has voltage feed-forward. The
output voltage is insensitive to a fast slew rate input voltage
change.
FB2 Function
The Core VR features an FB2 pin. The FB2 function is only
available when the Core VR is in a 2-phase configuration.
C1 R2
CONTROLLER
IN
2-PHASE MODE
C2 R3
VSEN
C3.1
CONTROLLER
IN
1-PHASE MODE
FB2 C3.2
C2 R3
R1
E/A
FB
VREF
VSEN
C1 R2
C3.1
FB
VREF
E/A
COMP
FIGURE 18. FB2 FUNCTION
Figure 18 shows the FB2 function. A switch (called FB2 switch)
turns on to short the FB and the FB2 pins when the controller is in
2-phase mode. Capacitors C3.1 and C3.2 are in parallel, serving
as part of the compensator. When the controller enters 1-phase
mode, the FB2 switch turns off, removing C3.2 and leaving only
C3.1 in the compensator. The compensator gain increases with
the removal of C3.2. By properly sizing C3.1 and C3.2, the
compensator can be optimal for both 2-phase mode and 1-phase
mode.
When the FB2 switch is off, C3.2 is disconnected from the FB pin.
However, the controller still actively drives the FB2 pin voltage to
follow the FB pin voltage such that C3.2 voltage always follows
C3.1 voltage. When the controller turns on the FB2 switch, C3.2
is reconnected to the compensator smoothly.
The FB2 function ensures excellent transient response in both
2-phase and 1-phase mode. If the FB2 function is not used,
populate C3.1 only.
Adaptive Body Diode Conduction Time
Reduction
In DCM, the controller turns off the low-side MOSFET when the
inductor current approaches zero. During on-time of the low-side
MOSFET, phase voltage is negative, and the amount is the
MOSFET rDS(ON) voltage drop, which is proportional to the
inductor current. A phase comparator inside the controller
monitors the phase voltage during on-time of the low-side
MOSFET and compares it with a threshold to determine the zero
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20
Resistor Configuration Options
The ISL6277 uses the COMP, COMP_NB and FCCM_NB pins to
configure some functionality within the IC. Resistors from these
pins to GND are read during the first portion of the soft-start
sequence. The following sections outline how to select the
resistor values for each of these pins to correctly program the
output voltage offset of each output, the configuration of the
floating DriverX and PWM_Y output, VID-on-the-Fly slew rate, and
switching frequency used for both VRs.
VR Offset Programming
FB2 C3.2
R1
COMP
crossing point of the inductor current. If the inductor current has
not reached zero when the low-side MOSFET turns off, it will flow
through the low-side MOSFET body diode, causing the phase
node to have a larger voltage drop until it decays to zero. If the
inductor current has crossed zero and reversed the direction
when the low-side MOSFET turns off, it will flow through the
high-side MOSFET body diode, causing the phase node to have a
spike until it decays to zero. The controller continues monitoring
the phase voltage after turning off the low-side MOSFET. To
minimize the body diode-related loss, the controller also adjusts
the phase comparator threshold voltage accordingly in iterative
steps such that the low-side MOSFET body diode conducts for
approximately 40ns.
A positive or negative offset is programmed for the Core VR using
a resistor to ground from the COMP pin and the Northbridge in a
similar manner from the COMP_NB pin. Table 3 provides the
resistor value to select the desired output voltage offset
TABLE 3. COMP & COMP_NB OUTPUT VOLTAGE OFFSET SELECTION
RESISTOR VALUE
[kΩ]
COMP
VCORE OFFSET [mV]
COMP_NB
OFFSET [mV]
5.62
-43.75
18.75
9.53
-37.5
31.25
13.3
-31.25
43.76
16.9
-25
50
21.0
-18.75
37.5
26.7
-12.5
25
34.0
-6.25
12.5
41.2
6.25
0
57.6
18.75
18.75
73.2
31.25
31.25
95.3
43.76
43.76
121
50
50
154
37.5
37.5
182
25
25
221
12.5
12.5
OPEN
0
0
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Floating DriverX & PWM_Y Configuration
The ISL6277 allows for one internal driver and one PWM output
to be configured to opposite VRs depending on the desired
configuration of the Northbridge VR. Internal DriverX can be used
as Channel 1 of the Northbridge VR with PWM_Y used for
Channel 3 of the Core VR. Using this partitioning, a 2+1 or 1+1
configured ISL6277 would not require an external driver.
If routing of the driver signals would be a cause of concern due to
having an internal driver on the Northbridge VR, then the
ISL6277 can be configured to use PWM_Y as Channel 1 on the
Northbridge VR. DriverX would then be used as Channel 3 of the
Core VR. This allows the placement of the external drivers for the
Northbridge VR to be closer to the output stage(s) depending on
the number of active Phases, providing placement and layout
flexibility to the Northbridge VR.
TABLE 4. FCCM_NB RESISTOR SELECTION
RESISTOR VALUE
[kΩ]
SLEW RATE FOR CORE
AND NORTHBRIDGE
[mV/µs]
5.62
20
9.53
15
13.3
12.5
16.9
10
21.0
20
26.7
15
34.0
12.5
41.2
10
57.6
20
73.2
15
95.3
12.5
121
10
154
20
182
15
221
12.5
OPEN
10
DriverX
Core VR
Channel 3
frequency is not absolutely constant due to the nature of the R3™
modulator. As explained in “Multiphase R3™ Modulator” on
page 14, the effective switching frequency increases during load
insertion and decreases during load release to achieve fast
response. Thus, the switching frequency is relatively constant at
steady state. Variation is expected when the power stage
condition, such as input voltage, output voltage, load, etc.
changes. The variation is usually less than 10% and does not
have any significant effect on output voltage ripple magnitude.
Table 5 defines the switching frequency based on the resistor
values used to program the COMP_NB and FCCM_NB pins. Use
the previous tables related to COMP_NB and FCCM_NB to
determine the correct resistor value in these ranges to program
the desired output offset, Slew Rate and DriverX/PWM_Y
configuration.
TABLE 5. SWITCHING FREQUENCY SELECTION
FREQUENCY
[kHz]
COMP_NB
RANGE [kΩ]
FCCM_NB
RANGE [kΩ]
300
57.6 to OPEN
21.0 to 41.2
or
154 to OPEN
350
5.62 to 41.2
21.0 to 41.2
or
154 to OPEN
400
57.6 to OPEN
5.62 to 16.9
or
57.6 to 121
450
5.62 to 41.2
5.62 to 16.9
or
57.6 to 121
PWM_Y
NB VR
Channel 1
The controller monitors SVI commands to determine when to
enter power-saving mode, implement dynamic VID changes, and
shut down individual outputs.
NB VR
Channel 1
Core VR
Channel 3
VID-on-the-Fly Slew Rate Selection
The FCCM_NB resistor is also used to select the slew rate for VID
changes commanded by the processor. Once selected, the slew
rate is locked in during soft-start and is not adjustable during
operation. The lowest slew rate which can be selected is
10mV/µs which is above the minimum of 7.5mV/µs required by
the SVI2 specification. The slew rate selected sets the slew rate
for both Core and Northbridge VRs; they cannot be independently
selected.
AMD Serial VID Interface 2.0
The on-board Serial VID Interface 2.0 (SVI 2) circuitry allows the
AMD processor to directly control the Core and Northbridge
voltage reference levels within the ISL6277. Once the PWROK
signal goes high, the IC begins monitoring the SVC and SVD pins
for instructions. The ISL6277 uses a digital-to-analog converter
(DAC) to generate a reference voltage based on the decoded SVI
value. See Figure 12 for a simple SVI interface timing diagram.
Pre-PWROK Metal VID
Typical motherboard start-up begins with the controller decoding
the SVC and SVD inputs to determine the pre-PWROK Metal VID
setting (see Table 6). Once the ENABLE input exceeds the rising
threshold, the ISL6277 decodes and locks the decoded value into
an on-board hold register.
TABLE 6. PRE-PWROK METAL VID CODES
SVC
SVD
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
CCM Switching Frequency
0
0
1.1
The Core and Northbridge VR switching frequency is set by the
programming resistors on COMP_NB and FCCM_NC. When the
ISL6277 is in continuous conduction mode (CCM), the switching
0
1
1.0
1
0
0.9
1
1
0.8
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ISL6277
Once the programming pins are read, the internal DAC circuitry
begins to ramp Core and Northbridge VRs to the decoded
pre-PWROK Metal VID output level. The digital soft-start circuitry
ramps the internal reference to the target gradually at a fixed
rate of approximately 5mV/µs until the output voltage reaches
~250mV and then at the programmed slew rate. The controlled
ramp of all output voltage planes reduces in-rush current during
the soft-start interval. At the end of the soft-start interval, the
PGOOD and PGOOD_NB outputs transition high, indicating both
output planes are within regulation limits.
If the ENABLE input falls below the enable falling threshold, the
ISL6277 tri-states both outputs. PGOOD and PGOOD_NB are
pulled low with the loss of ENABLE. The Core and Northbridge VR
output voltages decay, based on output capacitance and load
leakage resistance. If bias to VDD falls below the POR level, the
ISL6277 responds in the manner previously described. Once VDD
and ENABLE rise above their respective rising thresholds, the
internal DAC circuitry re-acquires a pre-PWROK metal VID code,
and the controller soft-starts.
VID-on-the-Fly Transition
Once PWROK is high, the ISL6277 detects this flag and begins
monitoring the SVC and SVD pins for SVI instructions. The
microprocessor follows the protocol outlined in the following
sections to send instructions for VID-on-the-fly transitions. The
ISL6277 decodes the instruction and acknowledges the new VID
code. For VID codes higher than the current VID level, the
ISL6277 begins stepping the commanded VR outputs to the new
VID target with the slew rate programmed by the FCCM_NB
resistor.
When the VID codes are lower than the current VID level, the
ISL6277 checks the state of power state bits in the SVI
command. If power state bits are not active, the controller begins
stepping the regulator output to the new VID target. If the power
state bits are active, the controller allows the output voltage to
decay and slowly steps the DAC down with the natural decay of
the output. This allows the controller to quickly recover and move
to a high VID code if commanded.
SVI Data Communication Protocol
SVI Interface Active
Once the Core and Northbridge VRs have successfully soft-started
and PGOOD and PGOOD_NB signals transition high, PWROK can
be asserted externally to the ISL6277. Once PWROK is asserted
to the IC, SVI instructions can begin as the controller actively
monitors the SVI interface. Details of the SVI Bus protocol are
provided in the “AMD Serial VID Interface 2.0 (SVI2)
Specification”. See AMD publication #48022.
Once a VID change command is received, the ISL6277 decodes
the information to determine which VR is affected and the VID
target is determined by the byte combinations in Table 7. The
internal DAC circuitry steps the output voltage of the VR
commanded to the new VID level. During this time, one or more
of the VR outputs could be targeted. In the event either VR is
commanded to power-off by serial VID commands, the PGOOD
signal remains asserted.
The SVI WIRE protocol is based on the I2C bus concept. Two wires
[serial clock (SVC) and serial data (SVD)], carry information
between the AMD processor (master) and VR controller (slave) on
the bus. The master initiates and terminates SVI transactions
and drives the clock, SVC, during a transaction. The AMD
processor is always the master, and the voltage regulators are
the slaves. The slave receives the SVI transactions and acts
accordingly. Mobile SVI WIRE protocol timing is based on
high-speed mode I2C. See AMD publication #48022 for
additional details.
If the PWROK input is de-asserted, then the controller steps both
the Core and the Northbridge VRs back to the stored pre-PWROK
metal VID level in the holding register from initial soft-start. No
attempt is made to read the SVC and SVD inputs during this time.
If PWROK is re-asserted, then the ISL6277 SVI interface waits for
instructions.
If ENABLE goes low during normal operation, all external
MOSFETs are tri-stated and both PGOOD and PGOOD_NB are
pulled low. This event clears the pre-PWROK metal VID code and
forces the controller to check SVC and SVD upon restart, storing
the pre-PWROK metal VID code found on restart.
A POR event on either VCC or VIN during normal operation shuts
down both regulators, and both PGOOD outputs are pulled low.
The pre-PWROK metal VID code is not retained.
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ISL6277
.
TABLE 7. SERIAL VID CODES
SVID[7:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
SVID[6:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
SVID[6:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
SVID[6:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
0000_0000
1.55000
0010_0000
1.35000
0100_0000
1.15000
0110_0000
0.95000
0000_0001
1.54375
0010_0001
1.34375
0100_0001
1.14375
0110_0001
0.94375
0000_0010
1.53750
0010_0010
1.33750
0100_0010
1.13750
0110_0010
0.93750
0000_0011
1.53125
0010_0011
1.33125
0100_0011
1.13125
0110_0011
0.93125
0000_0100
1.52500
0010_0100
1.32500
0100_0100
1.12500
0110_0100
0.92500
0000_0101
1.51875
0010_0101
1.31875
0100_0101
1.11875
0110_0101
0.91875
0000_0110
1.51250
0010_0110
1.31250
0100_0110
1.11250
0110_0110
0.91250
0000_0111
1.50625
0010_0111
1.30625
0100_0111
1.10625
0110_0111
0.90625
0000_1000
1.50000
0010_1000
1.30000
0100_1000
1.10000
0110_1000
0.90000
0000_1001
1.49375
0010_1001
1.29375
0100_1001
1.09375
0110_1001
0.89375
0000_1010
1.48750
0010_1010
1.28750
0100_1010
1.08750
0110_1010
0.88750
0000_1011
1.48125
0010_1011
1.28125
0100_1011
1.08125
0110_1011
0.88125
0000_1100
1.47500
0010_1100
1.27500
0100_1100
1.07500
0110_1100
0.87500
0000_1101
1.46875
0010_1101
1.26875
0100_1101
1.06875
0110_1101
0.86875
0000_1110
1.46250
0010_1110
1.26250
0100_1110
1.06250
0110_1110
0.86250
0000_1111
1.45625
0010_1111
1.25625
0100_1111
1.05625
0110_1111
0.85625
0001_0000
1.45000
0011_0000
1.25000
0101_0000
1.05000
0111_0000
0.85000
0001_0001
1.44375
0011_0001
1.24375
0101_0001
1.04375
0111_0001
0.84375
0001_0010
1.43750
0011_0010
1.23750
0101_0010
1.03750
0111_0010
0.83750
0001_0011
1.43125
0011_0011
1.23125
0101_0011
1.03125
0111_0011
0.83125
0001_0100
1.42500
0011_0100
1.22500
0101_0100
1.02500
0111_0100
0.82500
0001_0101
1.41875
0011_0101
1.21875
0101_0101
1.01875
0111_0101
0.81875
0001_0110
1.41250
0011_0110
1.21250
0101_0110
1.01250
0111_0110
0.81250
0001_0111
1.40625
0011_0111
1.20625
0101_0111
1.00625
0111_0111
0.80625
0001_1000
1.40000
0011_1000
1.20000
0101_1000
1.00000
0111_1000
0.80000
0001_1001
1.39375
0011_1001
1.19375
0101_1001
0.99375
0111_1001
0.79375
0001_1010
1.38750
0011_1010
1.18750
0101_1010
0.98750
0111_1010
0.78750
0001_1011
1.38125
0011_1011
1.18125
0101_1011
0.98125
0111_1011
0.78125
0001_1100
1.37500
0011_1100
1.17500
0101_1100
0.97500
0111_1100
0.77500
0001_1101
1.36875
0011_1101
1.16875
0101_1101
0.96875
0111_1101
0.76875
0001_1110
1.36250
0011_1110
1.16250
0101_1110
0.96250
0111_1110
0.76250
0001_1111
1.35625
0011_1111
1.15625
0101_1111
0.95625
0111_1111
0.75625
1000_0000
0.75000
1010_0000
0.55000*
1100_0000
0.35000*
1110_0000
0.15000*
1000_0001
0.74375
1010_0001
0.54375*
1100_0001
0.34375*
1110_0001
0.14375*
1000_0010
0.73750
1010_0010
0.53750*
1100_0010
0.33750*
1110_0010
0.13750*
1000_0011
0.73125
1010_0011
0.53125*
1100_0011
0.33125*
1110_0011
0.13125*
1000_0100
0.72500
1010_0100
0.52500*
1100_0100
0.32500*
1110_0100
0.12500*
1000_0101
0.71875
1010_0101
0.51875*
1100_0101
0.31875*
1110_0101
0.11875*
1000_0110
0.71250
1010_0110
0.51250*
1100_0110
0.31250*
1110_0110
0.11250*
1000_0111
0.70625
1010_0111
0.50625*
1100_0111
0.30625*
1110_0111
0.10625*
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ISL6277
TABLE 7. SERIAL VID CODES (Continued)
SVID[7:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
SVID[6:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
SVID[6:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
SVID[6:0]
VOLTAGE (V)
1000_1000
0.70000
1010_1000
0.50000*
1100_1000
0.30000*
1110_1000
0.10000*
1000_1001
0.69375
1010_1001
0.49375*
1100_1001
0.29375*
1110_1001
0.09375*
1000_1010
0.68750
1010_1010
0.48750*
1100_1010
0.28750*
1110_1010
0.08750*
1000_1011
0.68125
1010_1011
0.48125*
1100_1011
0.28125*
1110_1011
0.08125*
1000_1100
0.67500
1010_1100
0.47500*
1100_1100
0.27500*
1110_1100
0.07500*
1000_1101
0.66875
1010_1101
0.46875*
1100_1101
0.26875*
1110_1101
0.06875*
1000_1110
0.66250
1010_1110
0.46250*
1100_1110
0.26250*
1110_1110
0.06250*
1000_1111
0.65625
1010_1111
0.45625*
1100_1111
0.25625*
1110_1111
0.05625*
1001_0000
0.65000
1011_0000
0.45000*
1101_0000
0.25000*
1111_0000
0.05000*
1001_0001
0.64375
1011_0001
0.44375*
1101_0001
0.24375*
1111_0001
0.04375*
1001_0010
0.63750
1011_0010
0.43750*
1101_0010
0.23750*
1111_0010
0.03750*
1001_0011
0.63125
1011_0011
0.43125*
1101_0011
0.23125*
1111_0011
0.03125*
1001_0100
0.62500
1011_0100
0.42500*
1101_0100
0.22500*
1111_0100
0.02500*
1001_0101
0.61875
1011_0101
0.41875*
1101_0101
0.21875*
1111_0101
0.01875*
1001_0110
0.61250
1011_0110
0.41250*
1101_0110
0.21250*
1111_0110
0.01250*
1001_0111
0.60625
1011_0111
0.40625*
1101_0111*
0.20625*
1111_0111
0.00625*
1001_1000
0.60000*
1011_1000
0.40000*
1101_1000
0.20000*
1111_1000
OFF*
1001_1001
0.59375*
1011_1001
0.39375*
1101_1001
0.19375*
1111_1001
OFF*
1001_1010
0.58750*
1011_1010
0.38750*
1101_1010
0.18750*
1111_1010
OFF*
1001_1011
0.58125*
1011_1011
0.38125*
1101_1011
0.18125*
1111_1011
OFF*
1001_1100
0.57500*
1011_1100
0.37500*
1101_1100
0.17500*
1111_1100
OFF*
1001_1101
0.56875*
1011_1101
0.36875*
1101_1101
0.16875*
1111_1101
OFF*
1001_1110
0.56250*
1011_1110
0.36250*
1101_1110
0.16250*
1111_1110
OFF*
1001_1111
0.55625*
1011_1111
0.35625*
1101_1111
0.15625*
1111_1111
OFF*
NOTE:
*Indicates a VID not required for AMD Family 10h processors. Loosened AMD requirements at these levels.
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1
SVC
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
VID
bit [0]
VID bits [7:1]
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
PSI1_L
PSI0_L
ISL6277
20
21
22
24
23
25
26
27
SVD
START
ACK
ACK
ACK
FIGURE 19. SVD PACKET STRUCTURE
SVI Bus Protocol
The AMD processor bus protocol is compliant with SMBus send
byte protocol for VID transactions. The AMD SVD packet structure
is shown in Figure 19. The description of each bit of the three
bytes that make up the SVI command are shown in Table 8.
During a transaction, the processor sends the start sequence
followed by each of the three bytes which end with an optional
acknowledge bit. The ISL6277 does not drive the SVD line during
the ACK bit. Finally, the processor sends the stop sequence. After
the ISL6277 has detected the stop, it can then proceed with the
commanded action from the transaction.
diode emulation mode to boost efficiency. When PSI1_L is
asserted the Core VR continues to operate in this mode.
For the Northbridge VR operating in 2-phase mode, when PSI0_L
is asserted Channel 2 is tri-stated and Channel 1 enters diode
emulation mode to boost efficiency. When PSI1_L is asserted the
Core VR continues to operate in this fashion.
It is possible for the processor to assert or deassert PSI0_L and
PSI1_L out of order. PSI0_L takes priority over PSI1_L. If PSI0_L
is deasserted while PSI1_L is still asserted, the ISL6277 will
return the selected VR back full channel CCM operation.
TABLE 9. PSI0_L, PSI1_L AND TFN DEFINITION
TABLE 8. SVD DATA PACKET
BITS
1:5
DESCRIPTION
Always 11000b
6
Core domain selector bit, if set then the following data byte
contains VID, power state, telemetry control, load line trim and
offset trim apply to the Core VR.
7
Northbridge domain selector bit, if set then the following data
byte contains VID, power state, telemetry control, load line trim
and offset trim apply to the Northbridge VR.
8
Always 0b
9
Acknowledge Bit
10
PSI0_L
FUNCTION
BIT
DESCRIPTION
PSI0_L
10
Power State Indicate level 0. When this signal is
asserted (active Low) the processor is in a low
enough power state for the ISL6277 to take action
to boost efficiency by dropping phases and entering
1-Phase DE.
PSI1_L
20
Power State Indicate level 1. When this signal is
asserted (active Low) the processor is in a low
enough power state for the ISL6277 to take action
to boost efficiency by dropping phases and entering
1-Phase DE.
TFN
21
Telemetry Functionality. This is an active high signal
that allows the processor to control the telemetry
functionality of the VR.
11:17 VID Code bits [7:1]
The TFN bit along with the Core and Northbridge domain selector
bits are used by the processor to change the functionality of
telemetry, see Table 10 for more information.
18
Acknowledge Bit
19
VID Code bit [0]
20
PSI1_L
21
TFN (Telemetry Functionality)
TABLE 10. TFN TRUTH TABLE
22:24 Load Line Slope Trim
25:26 Offset Trim [1:0]
27
TFN, CORE, NB
BITS [21,6,7]
1,0,1
Telemetry is in voltage and current mode. Therefore,
voltage and current are sent for VDD and VDDNB
domains by the controller.
1,0,0
Telemetry is in voltage mode only. Only the voltage of
VDD and VDDNB domains is sent by the controller.
1,1,0
Telemetry is disabled.
1,1,1
Reserved
Acknowledge Bit
Power States and Telemetry
SVI2 defines two power state indicator levels, see Table 9. As
processor current consumption reduces the power state indicator
level changes to improve VR efficiency under low power
conditions.
DESCRIPTION
For the Core VR operating in 3-phase mode, when PSI0_L is
asserted Channels 2 & 3 are tri-stated and Channel 1 enters
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ISL6277
Dynamic Load Line Slope Trim
The ISL6277 supports the SVI2 ability for the processor to
manipulate the load line slope of the Core and Northbridge VRs
independently using the serial VID interface. The slope
manipulation applies to the initial load line slope. A load line
slope trim will typically coincide with a VOTF change. See
Table 11 for more information about the load line slope trim
feature of the ISL6277.
TABLE 11. LOAD LINE SLOPE TRIM DEFINITION
LOAD LINE SLOPE TRIM [2:0]
DESCRIPTION
000
Disable LL
001
-40% mΩ Change
010
-20% mΩ Change
011
No Change
100
+20% mΩ Change
101
+40% mΩ Change
110
+60% mΩ Change
111
+80% mΩ Change
Dynamic Offset Trim
The ISL6277 supports the SVI2 ability for the processor to
manipulate the output voltage offset of the Core and Northbridge
VRs. This offset is in addition to any output voltage offset set via
the COMP resistor reader. The dynamic offset trim can disable
the COMP resistor programmed offset of either output when
Disable All Offset’ is selected.
TABLE 12. OFFSET TRIM DEFINITION
OFFSET TRIM [1:0]
DESCRIPTION
00
Disable All Offset
01
-25mV Change
10
0mV Change
11
+25mV Change
Protection Features
Core VR and Northbridge VR both provide overcurrent,
current-balance, undervoltage, and overvoltage fault protections.
The controller also provides over-temperature protection. The
following discussion is based on Core VR and also applies to the
Northbridge VR.
The ISL6277 also features a way-overcurrent [WOC] feature which
immediately takes the controller into shutdown. This protection is
also referred to as fast overcurrent protection for short-circuit
protection. If the IMON current reaches 15µA, WOC is triggered.
Active channels are tri-stated and the controller is placed in
shutdown and PGOOD is pulled low. There is no fault timer on the
WOC fault, the controller takes immediate action. The other
controller output is also shutdown within 10µs.
Designing the current feedback components and setting the OCP
level require knowing the IDDSpike value (EDC) outlined for the
AMD CPU under consideration. AMD specifications will outline a
TDC current level and an EDC current level for each CPU. The EDC
current is the maximum current the CPU can demand for a short,
thermally insignificant time. When selecting the components for
the current feedback design or using an Intersil design
spreadsheet, the EDC current is used as the full load current. The
reasoning is that the AMD CPU will view reaching the EDC current
as 100% loading. The desired droop current at full load must be
set to 45μA. The controller generates a current across the IMON
resistor that is ¼ of the average value of the ISUM current. The
droop current is 5/4 greater than the ISUM current, so for a droop
current of 45μA the ISUM current is 36μA. The recommended
IMON resistor value is 133kΩ, 1% tolerance. At full load current,
EDC level, the resulting IMON voltage will be 1.2V and telemetry
will report 100%. If the load current continues to increase, then
the IMON voltage will continue to rise, but the telemetry will still
report 100% loading. Once the ISUM current reaches 45μA, the
corresponding current out of the IMON pin is 11.25μA and the
voltage on the IMON resistor will be 1.5V and the controller will
report an OC trip. The load current at this point is 25% higher
than the EDC current used for setting full load droop current. This
additional margin allows the AMD CPU to enter and exit the
IDDSpike performance mode without issue unless the load
current is out of line with the IDDSpike expectation.
Current-Balance
The controller monitors the ISENx pin voltages to determine
current-balance protection. If the ISENx pin voltage difference is
greater than 9mV for 1ms, the controller will declare a fault and
latch off.
Undervoltage
If the VSEN voltage falls below the output voltage VID value plus
any programmed offsets by -325mV, the controller declares an
undervoltage fault. The controller de-asserts PGOOD and
tri-states the power MOSFETs.
Overcurrent
Overvoltage
Overcurrent protection is triggered when the voltage across the
IMON resistor is 1.5V. Within 2µs of detecting the IMON voltage,
the controller asserts VR_HOT_L low to communicate to the AMD
CPU to throttle back. A fault timer begins counting while IMON is at
or above the 1.5V threshold. The fault timer lasts 7.5µs to 11µs
and then flags an OCP fault. The controller then tri-states the
active channels and goes into shutdown. PGOOD is taken low and
a fault flag from this VR is sent to the other VR and it is shutdown
within 10µs. If the IMON voltage drops below the 1.5V threshold
prior to the fault timer count finishing, the fault timer is cleared
and VR_HOT_L is taken high.
If the VSEN voltage exceeds the output voltage VID value plus any
programmed offsets by +325mV, the controller declares an
overvoltage fault. The controller de-asserts PGOOD and turns on the
low-side power MOSFETs. The low-side power MOSFETs remain on
until the output voltage is pulled down below the VID set value. Once
the output voltage is below this level, the lower gate is tri-stated. If
the output voltage rises above the overvoltage threshold again, the
protection process is repeated. when all power MOSFETs are turned
off. This behavior provides the maximum amount of protection
against shorted high-side power MOSFETs while preventing output
ringing below ground.
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26
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Thermal Monitor [NTC, NTC_NB]
Table 13 summarizes the fault protections.
The ISL6277 features two thermal monitors which use an
external resistor network which includes an NTC thermistor to
monitor motherboard temperature and alert the AMD CPU of a
thermal issue. Figure 20 shows the basic thermal monitor circuit
on the Core VR NTC pin. The Northbridge VR features the same
thermal monitor. The controller drives a 30µA current out of the
NTC pin and monitors the voltage at the pin. The current flowing
out of the NTC pin creates a voltage that is compared to a
warning threshold of 640mV. When the voltage at the NTC pin
falls to this warning threshold or below, the controller asserts
VR_HOT_L to alert the AMD CPU to throttle back load current to
stabilize the motherboard temperature. A thermal fault counter
begins counting toward a minimum shutdown time of 100µs.
The thermal fault counter is an up/down counter, so if the
voltage at the NTC pin rises above the warning threshold, it will
count down and extend the time for a thermal fault to occur. The
warning threshold does have 20mV of hysteresis.
If the voltage at the NTC pin continues to fall down to the
shutdown threshold of 580mV or below, the controller goes into
shutdown and triggers a thermal fault. The PGOOD pin is pulled
low and tri-states the power MOSFETs. A fault on either side will
shutdown both VRs.
TABLE 13. FAULT PROTECTION SUMMARY
FAULT TYPE
Overcurrent
Phase Current
Unbalance
FAULT DURATION
BEFORE
PROTECTION
PROTECTION
ACTION
FAULT
RESET
7.5µs to 11.5µs
PWM tri-state,
PGOOD latched
low
1ms
Way-Overcurrent
(1.5xOC)
Undervoltage
-325mV
Immediately
Overvoltage
+325mV
NTC Thermal
PGOOD latched
low.
PWM tri-state.
PGOOD latched
low.
Actively pulls the
output voltage to
below VID value,
then tri-state.
100µs min
ENABLE
toggle or
VDD toggle
PGOOD latched
low.
PWM tri-state.
Fault Recovery
All of the previously described fault conditions can be reset by
bringing ENABLE low or by bringing VDD below the POR
threshold. When ENABLE and VDD return to their high operating
levels, the controller resets the faults and soft-start occurs.
INTERNAL TO
ISL6277
+V
30µA
VR_HOT_L
R
NTC
Rp
MONITOR
+
VNTC
-
RNTC
Rs
WARNING SHUTDOWN
640mV
580mV
Interface Pin Protection
The SVC and SVD pins feature protection diodes which must be
considered when removing power to VDD and VDDIO, but leaving
it applied to these pins. Figure 21 shows the basic protection on
the pins. If SVC and/or SVD are powered but VDD is not, leakage
current will flow from these pins to VDD.
INTERNAL TO
ISL6277
FIGURE 20. CIRCUITRY ASSOCIATED WITH THE THERMAL MONITOR
FEATURE OF THE ISL6277
VDD
As the board temperature rises, the NTC thermistor resistance
decreases and the voltage at the NTC pin drops. When the
voltage on the NTC pin drops below the over-temperature trip
threshold, then VR_HOT is pulled low. The VR_HOT signal is used
to change the CPU operation and decrease power consumption.
With the reduction in power consumption by the CPU, the board
temperature decreases and the NTC thermistor voltage rises.
Once the over-temperature threshold is tripped and VR_HOT is
taken low, the over-temperature threshold changes to the reset
level. The addition of hysteresis to the over-temperature
threshold prevents nuisance trips. Once both pin voltages exceed
the over-temperature reset threshold, the pull-down on VR_HOT
is released. The signal changes state and the CPU resumes
normal operation. The over-temperature threshold returns to the
trip level.
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27
SVC, SVD
GND
FIGURE 21. PROTECTION DEVICES ON THE SVC AND SVD PINS
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Key Component Selection
DCR
 L = ------------L
Inductor DCR Current-Sensing Network
1
 sns = -------------------------------------------------------R sum
R ntcnet  --------------N
------------------------------------------  C n
R sum
R ntcnet + --------------N
PHASE1 PHASE2 PHASE3
RSUM
RSUM
ISUM+
RSUM
L
L
L
RNTCS
+
RP
DCR
DCR
DCR
CNVCN
RNTC
RO
RI
ISUM-
RO
IO
FIGURE 22. DCR CURRENT-SENSING NETWORK
Figure 22 shows the inductor DCR current-sensing network for a
3-phase solution. An inductor current flows through the DCR and
creates a voltage drop. Each inductor has two resistors in Rsum
and Ro connected to the pads to accurately sense the inductor
current by sensing the DCR voltage drop. The Rsum and Ro
resistors are connected in a summing network as shown, and feed
the total current information to the NTC network (consisting of
Rntcs, Rntc and Rp) and capacitor Cn. Rntc is a negative
temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor, used to temperature
compensate the inductor DCR change.
The inductor output side pads are electrically shorted in the
schematic but have some parasitic impedance in actual board
layout, which is why one cannot simply short them together for the
current-sensing summing network. It is recommended to use
1Ω~10ΩRo to create quality signals. Since Ro value is much smaller
than the rest of the current sensing circuit, the following analysis
ignores it.
The summed inductor current information is presented to the
capacitor Cn. Equations 17 thru 21 describe the frequency
domain relationship between inductor total current Io(s) and Cn
voltage VCn(s):


R ntcnet

DCR
-----------------------------------------------------V Cn  s  = 

  I  s   A cs  s 
N  o
R sum

 R ntcnet + -------------
N
(EQ. 17)
 R ntcs + R ntc   R p
R ntcnet = ---------------------------------------------------R ntcs + R ntc + R p
(EQ. 18)
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(EQ. 19)
28
(EQ. 21)
where N is the number of phases.
Transfer function Acs(s) always has unity gain at DC. The inductor
DCR value increases as the winding temperature increases,
giving higher reading of the inductor DC current. The NTC Rntc
value decrease as its temperature decreases. Proper selection of
Rsum, Rntcs, Rp and Rntc parameters ensures that VCn
represents the inductor total DC current over the temperature
range of interest.
There are many sets of parameters that can properly
temperature-compensate the DCR change. Since the NTC
network and the Rsum resistors form a voltage divider, Vcn is
always a fraction of the inductor DCR voltage. It is recommended
to have a higher ratio of Vcn to the inductor DCR voltage so the
droop circuit has a higher signal level to work with.
RO
s
1 + ------L
A cs  s  = ----------------------s
1 + ------------ sns
(EQ. 20)
A typical set of parameters that provide good temperature
compensation are: Rsum = 3.65kΩ, Rp = 11kΩ, Rntcs = 2.61kΩ
and Rntc = 10kΩ (ERT-J1VR103J). The NTC network parameters
may need to be fine tuned on actual boards. One can apply full
load DC current and record the output voltage reading
immediately; then record the output voltage reading again when
the board has reached the thermal steady state. A good NTC
network can limit the output voltage drift to within 2mV. It is
recommended to follow the Intersil evaluation board layout and
current sensing network parameters to minimize engineering
time.
VCn(s) also needs to represent real-time Io(s) for the controller to
achieve good transient response. Transfer function Acs(s) has a
pole wsns and a zero wL. One needs to match wL and wsns so
Acs(s) is unity gain at all frequencies. By forcing wL equal to wsns
and solving for the solution, Equation 22 gives Cn value.
L
C n = --------------------------------------------------------------R sum
R ntcnet  --------------N
------------------------------------------  DCR
R sum
R ntcnet + --------------N
(EQ. 22)
For example, given N = 3, Rsum = 3.65kΩ, Rp = 11kΩ,
Rntcs = 2.61kΩ, Rntc = 10kΩ, DCR = 0.88mΩ and L = 0.36µH,
Equation 22 gives Cn = 0.406µF.
Assuming the compensator design is correct, Figure 23 shows the
expected load transient response waveforms if Cn is correctly
selected. When the load current Icore has a square change, the
output voltage Vcore also has a square response.
If Cn value is too large or too small, VCn(s) does not accurately
represent real-time Io(s) and worsens the transient response.
Figure 24 shows the load transient response when Cn is too
small. Vcore sags excessively upon load insertion and may create
a system failure. Figure 25 shows the transient response when
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Cn is too large. Vcore is sluggish in drooping to its final value.
There is excessive overshoot if load insertion occurs during this
time, which may negatively affect the CPU reliability.
ISUM+
Rntcs
io
Cn.1
Cn.2 Vcn
Rp
Rntc
Rn
OPTIONAL
ISUM-
Ri
Vo
Rip
Cip
FIGURE 23. DESIRED LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE WAVEFORMS
OPTIONAL
FIGURE 27. OPTIONAL CIRCUITS FOR RING-BACK REDUCTION
io
Vo
FIGURE 24. LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE WHEN Cn IS TOO SMALL
io
Vo
FIGURE 25. LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE WHEN Cn IS TOO LARGE
io
iL
Vo
RING
BACK
FIGURE 26. OUTPUT VOLTAGE RING-BACK PROBLEM
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29
Figure 26 shows the output voltage ring-back problem during load
transient response. The load current io has a fast step change, but
the inductor current iL cannot accurately follow. Instead, iL
responds in first-order system fashion due to the nature of the
current loop. The ESR and ESL effect of the output capacitors
makes the output voltage Vo dip quickly upon load current change.
However, the controller regulates Vo according to the droop current
idroop, which is a real-time representation of iL; therefore, it pulls
Vo back to the level dictated by iL, causing the ring-back problem.
This phenomenon is not observed when the output capacitor has
very low ESR and ESL, as is the case with all ceramic capacitors.
Figure 27 shows two optional circuits for reduction of the
ring-back. Cn is the capacitor used to match the inductor time
constant. It usually takes the parallel of two (or more) capacitors
to get the desired value. Figure 27 shows that two capacitors
(Cn.1 and Cn.2) are in parallel. Resistor Rn is an optional
component to reduce the Vo ring-back. At steady state, Cn.1 +
Cn.2 provides the desired Cn capacitance. At the beginning of io
change, the effective capacitance is less because Rn increases
the impedance of the Cn.1 branch. As Figure 24 shows, Vo tends
to dip when Cn is too small, and this effect reduces the Vo
ring-back. This effect is more pronounced when Cn.1 is much
larger than Cn.2. It is also more pronounced when Rn is bigger.
However, the presence of Rn increases the ripple of the Vn signal
if Cn.2 is too small. It is recommended to keep Cn.2 greater than
2200pF. Rn value usually is a few ohms. Cn.1, Cn.2 and Rn values
should be determined through tuning the load transient response
waveforms on an actual board.
Rip and Cip form an R-C branch in parallel with Ri, providing a
lower impedance path than Ri at the beginning of io change. Rip
and Cip do not have any effect at steady state. Through proper
selection of Rip and Cip values, idroop can resemble io rather than
iL, and Vo will not ring back. The recommended value for Rip is
100Ω. Cip should be determined through tuning the load
transient response waveforms on an actual board. The
recommended range for Cip is 100pF~2000pF. However, it
should be noted that the Rip -Cip branch may distort the idroop
waveform. Instead of being triangular as the real inductor
current, idroop may have sharp spikes, which may adversely
affect idroop average value detection and therefore may affect
OCP accuracy. User discretion is advised.
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Resistor Current-Sensing Network
For inductor DCR sensing, Equation 26 gives the DC relationship
of Vcn(s) and Io(s):
PHASE1 PHASE2 PHASE3
L
L
L
DCR
DCR
DCR


R ntcnet

DCR
-----------------------------------------------------V Cn = 

 I
N  o
R sum

 R ntcnet + -------------
N
Substitution of Equation 26 into Equation 1 gives Equation 27:
RSUM
RSUM
ISUM+
RSUM
RSEN
RSEN
+
RSEN
VCN
RO
-
CN
RI
ISUM-
RO
IO
Figure 28 shows the resistor current-sensing network for a
3-phase solution. Each inductor has a series current sensing
resistor, Rsen. Rsum and Ro are connected to the Rsen pads to
accurately capture the inductor current information. The Rsum
and Ro resistors are connected to capacitor Cn. Rsum and Cn
form a filter for noise attenuation. Equations 23 thru 25 give the
VCn(s) expression.
(EQ. 23)
(EQ. 24)
(EQ. 28)
 R ntcs + R ntc   R p
----------------------------------------------------  DCR  I omax
R ntcs + R ntc + R p
R i = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  R ntcs + R ntc   R p R sum
N   ---------------------------------------------------- + ---------------  I droopmax
N 
 R ntcs + R ntc + R p
(EQ. 29)
where Iomax is the full load current and Idroopmax is the
corresponding droop current. For example, given N = 3,
Rsum = 3.65kΩ, Rp = 11kΩ, Rntcs = 2.61kΩ, Rntc = 10kΩ,
DCR = 0.9mΩ, Iomax = 65A and Idroopmax = 45μA. Equation 29
gives Ri = 359Ω.
For resistor sensing, Equation 30 gives the DC relationship of
Vcn(s) and Io(s).
(EQ. 30)
(EQ. 25)
Substitution of Equation 30 into Equation 1 gives Equation 31:
Transfer function ARsen(s) always has unity gain at DC.
Current-sensing resistor Rsen value does not have significant
variation over-temperature, so there is no need for the NTC
network.
The recommended values are Rsum = 1kΩ and Cn = 5600pF.
Overcurrent Protection
Refer to Equation 1 on page 17 and Figures 22, 26 and 28;
resistor Ri sets the droop current, Idroop. Tables 1 and 2 show the
internal OCP threshold. It is recommended to design Idroop
without using the Rcomp resistor.
For example, the OCP threshold is 1.5V on the IMON pin. This
translates to 45μA of ISUM current or 56.25μA of droop current.
Idroop is designed to be 45μA at full load, so the OCP trip level is
1.25x of the full load current.
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Therefore:
R sen
V Cn = -------------  I o
N
1
 Rsen = ----------------------------R sum
---------------  C n
N
(EQ. 27)
Substitution of Equation 18 and application of the OCP condition
in Equation 28 gives Equation 29:
FIGURE 28. RESISTOR CURRENT-SENSING NETWORK
1
A Rsen  s  = ----------------------s
1 + ------------ sns
R ntcnet
DCR
1
I droop = -----  ------------------------------------------  -------------  I o
R sum
N
Ri
R ntcnet + --------------N
R ntcnet  DCR  I o
R i = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------R sum
N   R ntcnet + ---------------  I droop

N 
RO
R sen
V Cn  s  = -------------  I o  s   A Rsen  s 
N
(EQ. 26)
30
1 R sen
I droop = -----  -------------  I o
N
Ri
(EQ. 31)
Therefore:
R sen  I o
R i = --------------------------N  I droop
(EQ. 32)
Substitution of Equation 32 and application of the OCP condition
in Equation 28 gives Equation 33:
R sen  I omax
R i = -------------------------------------N  I droopmax
(EQ. 33)
where Iomax is the full load current and Idroopmax is the
corresponding droop current. For example, given N = 3,
Rsen = 1mΩ, Iomax = 65A and Idroopmax = 45µA, Equation 33
gives Ri = 481Ω.
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Load Line Slope
See Figure 14 for load-line implementation.
For inductor DCR sensing, substitution of Equation 27 into
Equation 2 gives the load-line slope expression:
R droop
R ntcnet
V droop
DCR
LL = ------------------- = -------------------  ------------------------------------------  ------------Io
Ri
R sum
N
R ntcnet + --------------N
(EQ. 34)
shows T2(s) measurement set-up. The VR senses the inductor
current, multiplies it by a gain of the load-line slope, adds it on top
of the sensed output voltage, and then feeds it to the
compensator. T1 is measured after the summing node, and T2 is
measured in the voltage loop before the summing node. The
spreadsheet gives both T1(s) and T2(s) plots. However, only T2(s)
can actually be measured on an ISL6277 regulator.
VO
L
For resistor sensing, substitution of Equation 31 into Equation 2
gives the load line slope expression:
R sen  R droop
V droop
LL = ------------------- = --------------------------------------N  Ri
Io
Q1
VIN
Q2
GATE
DRIVER
iO
COUT
(EQ. 35)
LOAD LINE SLOPE
Substitution of Equation 28 and rewriting Equation 34, or
substitution of Equation 32 and rewriting Equation 35, gives the
same result as in Equation 36:
MOD.
+
COMP
Io
R droop = ----------------  LL
I droop
+
20

EA
VID
+
ISOLATION
TRANSFORMER
(EQ. 36)
CHANNEL B
LOOP GAIN =
CHANNEL A
One can use the full-load condition to calculate Rdroop. For
example, given Iomax = 65A, Idroopmax = 45µA and LL = 2.1mΩ,
Equation 36 gives Rdroop = 3.03kΩ.
It is recommended to start with the Rdroop value calculated by
Equation 36 and fine-tune it on the actual board to get accurate
load-line slope. One should record the output voltage readings at
no load and at full load for load-line slope calculation. Reading
the output voltage at lighter load instead of full load will increase
the measurement error.
Compensator
Figure 23 shows the desired load transient response waveforms.
Figure 29 shows the equivalent circuit of a voltage regulator (VR)
with the droop function. A VR is equivalent to a voltage source
(= VID) and output impedance Zout(s). If Zout(s) is equal to the
load-line slope LL, i.e., a constant output impedance, then in the
entire frequency range, Vo will have a square response when Io
has a square change.
i
Zout(s) = LL
CHANNEL A
NETWORK
ANALYZER
CHANNEL B
EXCITATION OUTPUT
FIGURE 30. LOOP GAIN T1(s) MEASUREMENT SET-UP
T1(s) is the total loop gain of the voltage loop and the droop loop.
It always has a higher crossover frequency than T2(s), therefore
has a higher impact on system stability.
T2(s) is the voltage loop gain with closed droop loop, thus having
a higher impact on output voltage response.
Design the compensator to get stable T1(s) and T2(s) with sufficient
phase margin and an output impedance equal to or smaller than
the load-line slope.
L
VO
Q1
VIN
GATE Q2
DRIVER
IO
CO
o
LOAD LINE SLOPE
VID
VR
LOAD
V
o
EA
MOD.
+
COMP
FIGURE 29. VOLTAGE REGULATOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Intersil provides a Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet to help
design the compensator and the current sensing network so that
VR achieves constant output impedance as a stable system.
A VR with active droop function is a dual-loop system consisting of
a voltage loop and a droop loop, which is a current loop. However,
neither loop alone is sufficient to describe the entire system. The
spreadsheet shows two loop gain transfer functions, T1(s) and
T2(s), that describe the entire system. Figure 30 conceptually
shows T1(s) measurement set-up, and Figure 31 conceptually
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31
LOOP GAIN =
+
+
VID
20

ISOLATION
TRANSFORMER
CHANNEL B
CHANNEL A
CHANNEL A
NETWORK
ANALYZER
CHANNEL B
EXCITATION OUTPUT
FIGURE 31. LOOP GAIN T2(s) MEASUREMENT SET-UP
Current Balancing
Refer to Figures 15 through 22 for information on current
balancing. The ISL6277 achieves current balancing through
matching the ISEN pin voltages. Risen and Cisen form filters to
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
remove the switching ripple of the phase node voltages. It is
recommended to use a rather long RisenCisen time constant such
that the ISEN voltages have minimal ripple and represent the DC
current flowing through the inductors. Recommended values are
Rs = 10kΩ and Cs = 0.22µF.
Thermal Monitor Component Selection
The ISL6277 features two pins, NTC and NTC_NB, which are used
to monitor motherboard temperature and alert the AMD CPU if a
thermal issues arises. The basic function of this circuitry is
outlined in the Thermal Monitor section. Figure 32 shows the
basic configuration of the NTC resistor, RNTC, and offset resistor,
RS, used to generate the warning and shutdown voltages at the
NTC pin.
INTERNAL TO
ISL6277
+V
VR_HOT_L
30µA
R
The NTC thermistor value correlates to the resistance change
between the warning and shutdown thresholds and the required
temperature change. If the warning level is designed to occur at a
board temperature of +100°C and the thermal shutdown level at
a board temperature of +105°C, then the resistance change of
the thermistor can be calculated. For example, a Panasonic NTC
thermistor with B = 4700 has a resistance ratio of 0.03939 of its
nominal value at +100°C and 0.03308 of its nominal value at
+105°C. Taking the required resistance change between the
thermal warning threshold and the shutdown threshold and
dividing it by the change in resistance ratio of the NTC thermistor
at the two temperatures of interest, the required resistance of
the NTC is defined in Equation 39.
 21.3k – 19.3k 
------------------------------------------------------ = 317k
 0.03939 – 0.03308 
(EQ. 39)
The closest standard thermistor to the value calculated with
B = 4700 is 330kΩ. The NTC thermistor part number is
ERTJ0EV334J. The actual resistance change of this standard
thermistor value between the warning threshold and the
shutdown threshold is calculated in Equation 40.
 330k  0.03939  –  330k  0.03308  = 2.082k
NTC
(EQ. 40)
MONITOR
330k
8.45k
Since the NTC thermistor resistance at +105°C is less than the
required resistance from Equation 38, additional resistance in
series with the thermistor is required to make up the difference.
A standard resistor, 1% tolerance, added in series with the
thermistor will increase the voltage seen at the NTC pin. The
additional resistance required is calculated in Equation 41.
RNTC
Rs
Warning
640mV
Shutdown
580mV
FIGURE 32. THERMAL MONITOR FEATURE OF THE ISL6277
As the board temperature rises, the NTC thermistor resistance
decreases and the voltage at the NTC pin drops. When the
voltage on the NTC pin drops below the thermal warning
threshold of 0.640V, then VR_HOT_L is pulled low. When the
AMD CPU detects VR_HOT_L has gone low, it will begin throttling
back load current on both outputs to reduce the board
temperature.
If the board temperature continues to rise, the NTC thermistor
resistance will drop further and the voltage at the NTC pin could
drop below the thermal shutdown threshold of 0.580V. Once this
threshold is reached, the ISL6277 shuts down both Core and
Northbridge VRs indicating a thermal fault has occurred prior to
the thermal fault counter triggering a fault.
Selection of the NTC thermistor can vary depending on how the
resistor network is configured. The equivalent resistance at the
typical thermal warning threshold voltage of 0.64V is defined in
Equation 37.
0.64V
---------------- = 21.3k
30A
(EQ. 37)
The equivalent resistance at the typical thermal shutdown
threshold voltage of 0.58V required to shutdown both outputs is
defined in Equation 38.
0.58V
---------------- = 19.3k
30A
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(EQ. 38)
32
(EQ. 41)
19.3k – 10.916k = 8.384k
The closest, standard 1% tolerance resistor is 8.45kΩ.
The NTC thermistor is placed in a hot spot on the board, typically
near the upper MOSFET of Channel 1 of the respective output.
The standard resistor is placed next to the controller.
Layout Guidelines
PCB Layout Considerations
POWER AND SIGNAL LAYERS PLACEMENT ON THE PCB
As a general rule, power layers should be close together, either
on the top or bottom of the board, with the weak analog or logic
signal layers on the opposite side of the board. The ground-plane
layer should be adjacent to the signal layer to provide shielding.
COMPONENT PLACEMENT
There are two sets of critical components in a DC/DC converter;
the power components and the small signal components. The
power components are the most critical because they switch
large amount of energy. The small signal components connect to
sensitive nodes or supply critical bypassing current and signal
coupling.
The power components should be placed first and these include
MOSFETs, input and output capacitors, and the inductor. It is
important to have a symmetrical layout for each power train,
preferably with the controller located equidistant from each
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
power train. Symmetrical layout allows heat to be dissipated
equally across all power trains. Keeping the distance between
the power train and the control IC short helps keep the gate drive
traces short. These drive signals include the LGATE, UGATE,
PGND, PHASE and BOOT.
GND
VIAS TO
GROUND
PLANE
VOUT
PHASE
NODE
INDUCTOR
HIGH-SIDE
MOSFETS
VIN
OUTPUT
CAPACITORS
SCHOTTKY
DIODE
LOW-SIDE
MOSFETS
INPUT
CAPACITORS
When placing MOSFETs, try to keep the source of the upper
MOSFETs and the drain of the lower MOSFETs as close as
thermally possible (see Figure 33). Input high-frequency
capacitors should be placed close to the drain of the upper
MOSFETs and the source of the lower MOSFETs. Place the output
inductor and output capacitors between the MOSFETs and the
load. High-frequency output decoupling capacitors (ceramic)
should be placed as close as possible to the decoupling target
(microprocessor), making use of the shortest connection paths to
any internal planes. Place the components in such a way that the
area under the IC has less noise traces with high dV/dt and di/dt,
such as gate signals and phase node signals.
Table 14 shows layout considerations for the ISL6277 controller
by pin.
FIGURE 33. TYPICAL POWER COMPONENT PLACEMENT
TABLE 14. LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ISL6277 CONTROLLER
ISL6277 PIN
SYMBOL
BOTTOM PAD
GND
1
ISEN2_NB
Each ISEN pin has a capacitor (Cisen) decoupling it to VSUMN_NB, then through another capacitor (Cvsumn_nb)
to GND. Place Cisen capacitors as close as possible to the controller and keep the following loops small:
1. ISEN1_NB pin to ISEN2_NB pin
2. Any ISENx_NB pin to GND
2
NTC_NB
The NTC thermistor must be placed close to the thermal source that is monitored to determine Northbridge
thermal throttling. Placement at the hottest spot of the Northbridge VR is recommended. Additional standard
resistors in the resistor network on this pin should be placed near the IC.
3
IMON_NB
4
SVC
5
VR_HOT_L
6
SVD
Use good signal integrity practices and follow AMD recommendations.
7
VDDIO
Use good signal integrity practices and follow AMD recommendations.
8
SVT
Use good signal integrity practices and follow AMD recommendations.
9
ENABLE
No special considerations.
10
PWROK
Use good signal integrity practices and follow AMD recommendations.
11
IMON
12
NTC
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LAYOUT GUIDELINES
Connect this ground pad to the ground plane through a low impedance path. A minimum of 5 vias are
recommended to connect this pad to the internal ground plane layers of the PCB
Place the IMON_NB resistor close to this pin and make keep a tight GND connection.
Use good signal integrity practices and follow AMD recommendations.
Follow AMD recommendations. Placement of the pull-up resistor near the IC is recommended.
Place the IMON resistor close to this pin and make keep a tight GND connection.
The NTC thermistor must be placed close to the thermal source that is monitored to determine Core thermal
throttling. Placement at the hottest spot of the Core VR is recommended. Additional standard resistors in the
resistor network on this pin should be placed near the IC.
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ISL6277
TABLE 14. LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ISL6277 CONTROLLER (Continued)
ISL6277 PIN
SYMBOL
LAYOUT GUIDELINES
13
ISEN3
14
ISEN2
Each ISEN pin has a capacitor (Cisen) decoupling it to VSUMN and then through another capacitor (Cvsumn) to
GND. Place Cisen capacitors as close as possible to the controller and keep the following loops small:
1. Any ISEN pin to another ISEN pin
15
ISEN1
2. Any ISEN pin to GND
The red traces in the following drawing show the loops to be minimized.
Phase1
L3
Ro
Risen
ISEN3
Cisen
Phase2
Vo
L2
Ro
Risen
ISEN2
Cisen
Phase3
Risen
ISEN1
GND
16
ISUMP
17
ISUMN
L1
Ro
Vsumn
Cisen
Cvsumn
Place the current sensing circuit in general proximity of the controller.
Place capacitor Cn very close to the controller.
Place the NTC thermistor next to Core VR Channel 1 inductor so it senses the inductor temperature correctly.
Each phase of the power stage sends a pair of VSUMP and VSUMN signals to the controller. Run these two
signals traces in parallel fashion with decent width (>20mil).
IMPORTANT: Sense the inductor current by routing the sensing circuit to the inductor pads. If possible, route the
traces on a different layer from the inductor pad layer and use vias to connect the traces to the center of the
pads. If no via is allowed on the pad, consider routing the traces into the pads from the inside of the inductor.
The following drawings show the two preferred ways of routing current sensing traces.
INDUCTOR
INDUCTOR
VIAS
CURRENT-SENSING TRACES
CURRENT-SENSING TRACES
18
VSEN
19
RTN
20
FB2
21
FB
22
COMP
23
PGOOD
No special consideration.
24
BOOT1
Use a wide trace width (>30mil). Avoid routing any sensitive analog signal traces close to or crossing over this
trace.
25
UGATE1
26
PHASE1
These two signals should be routed together in parallel. Each trace should have sufficient width (>30mil). Avoid
routing these signals near sensitive analog signal traces or crossing over them. Routing PHASE1 to the Core VR
Channel 1 high-side MOSFET source pin instead of a general connection to PHASE1 copper is recommended for
better performance.
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Place the filter on these pins in close proximity to the controller for good coupling.
Place the compensation components in general proximity of the controller.
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March 8, 2012
ISL6277
TABLE 14. LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ISL6277 CONTROLLER (Continued)
ISL6277 PIN
SYMBOL
LAYOUT GUIDELINES
27
LGATE1
Use sufficient trace width (>30mil). Avoid routing this signal near any sensitive analog signal traces or crossing
over them.
28
PWM_Y
No special considerations.
29
VDD
A high quality, X7R dielectric MLCC capacitor is recommended to decouple this pin to GND. Place the capacitor
in close proximity to the pin with the filter resistor nearby the IC.
30
VDDP
A high quality, X7R dielectric MLCC capacitor is recommended to decouple this pin to GND. Place the capacitor
in close proximity to the pin.
31
LGATE2
Use sufficient trace width (>30mil). Avoid routing this signal near any sensitive analog signal traces or crossing
over them.
32
PHASE2
33
UGATE2
These two signals should be routed together in parallel. Each trace should have sufficient width (>30mil). Avoid
routing these signals near sensitive analog signal traces or crossing over them. Routing PHASE2 to the Core VR
Channel 2 high-side MOSFET source pin instead of a general connection to PHASE2 copper is recommended for
better performance.
34
BOOT2
Use a wide trace width (>30mil). Avoid routing any sensitive analog signal traces close to or crossing over this
trace.
35
VIN
Place the decoupling capacitor in close proximity to the pin with a short connection to the internal GND plane.
36
BOOTX
Use a wide trace width (>30mil). Avoid routing any sensitive analog signal traces close to or crossing over this
trace.
37
UGATEX
38
PHASEX
These two signals should be routed together in parallel. Each trace should have sufficient width (>30mil). Avoid
routing these signals near sensitive analog signal traces or crossing over them. Routing PHASEX to the high-side
MOSFET source pin instead of a general connection to the PHASEX copper is recommended for better
performance.
39
LGATEX
40
PWM2_NB
41
FCCM_NB
42
PGOOD_NB
No special consideration.
43
COMP_NB
Place the compensation components in general proximity of the controller.
44
FB_NB
45
VSEN_NB
Place the filter on this pin in close proximity to the controller for good coupling.
46
ISUMN_NB
47
ISUMP_NB
Place the current sensing circuit in general proximity of the controller.
Place capacitor Cn very close to the controller.
Place the NTC thermistor next to Core VR Channel 1 inductor so it senses the inductor temperature correctly.
Each phase of the power stage sends a pair of VSUMP and VSUMN signals to the controller. Run these two
signals traces in parallel fashion with decent width (>20mil).
IMPORTANT: Sense the inductor current by routing the sensing circuit to the inductor pads. If possible, route the
traces on a different layer from the inductor pad layer and use vias to connect the traces to the center of the
pads. If no via is allowed on the pad, consider routing the traces into the pads from the inside of the inductor.
The following drawings show the two preferred ways of routing current sensing traces.
Use sufficient trace width (>30mil). Avoid routing this signal near any sensitive analog signal traces or crossing
over them.
No special considerations.
INDUCTOR
INDUCTOR
VIAS
CURRENT-SENSING TRACES
48
CURRENT-SENSING TRACES
ISEN1_NB
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35
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Revision History
The revision history provided is for informational purposes only and is believed to be accurate, but not warranted. Please go to web to make sure you
have the latest revision.
DATE
REVISION
CHANGE
March 8, 2012
FN8270.1
Page 22 - Reworded the 2nd paragraph of the “Pre-PWROK Metal VID” section.
Page 11, Recommended Operating Conditions and Electrical Specification table note, listed both temperature
ranges: -40°C to +85°C (IRZ) and -10°C to +100°C (HRZ)
March 1, 2012
FN8270.0
Initial Release
Products
Intersil Corporation is a leader in the design and manufacture of high-performance analog semiconductors. The Company's products
address some of the industry's fastest growing markets, such as, flat panel displays, cell phones, handheld products, and notebooks.
Intersil's product families address power management and analog signal processing functions. Go to www.intersil.com/products for a
complete list of Intersil product families.
For a complete listing of Applications, Related Documentation and Related Parts, please see the respective device information page on
intersil.com: ISL6277
You may report errors or suggestions for improving this datasheet by visiting www.intersil.com/ask
FITs are available from our website at http://rel.intersil.com/reports/search.php
For additional products, see www.intersil.com/en/products.html
Intersil products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9001 quality systems as noted
in the quality certifications found at www.intersil.com/en/support/qualandreliability.html
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time
without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be
accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third
parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
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36
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
ISL6277
Package Outline Drawing
L48.6x6B
48 LEAD QUAD FLAT NO-LEAD PLASTIC PACKAGE
Rev 0, 9/09
4X 4.4
6.00
44X 0.40
A
B
6
PIN 1
INDEX AREA
6
PIN #1 INDEX AREA
48
37
1
6.00
36
4 .40 ± 0.15
25
12
0.15
(4X)
13
24
0.10 M C A B
0.05 M C
TOP VIEW
48X 0.45 ± 0.10
4 48X 0.20
BOTTOM VIEW
SEE DETAIL "X"
0.10 C
BASE PLANE
MAX 1.00
(
SEATING PLANE
0.08 C
( 44 X 0 . 40 )
( 5. 75 TYP )
C
SIDE VIEW
4. 40 )
C
0 . 2 REF
5
( 48X 0 . 20 )
( 48X 0 . 65 )
0 . 00 MIN.
0 . 05 MAX.
DETAIL "X"
TYPICAL RECOMMENDED LAND PATTERN
NOTES:
1. Dimensions are in millimeters.
Dimensions in ( ) for Reference Only.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing conform to AMSE Y14.5m-1994.
3. Unless otherwise specified, tolerance : Decimal ± 0.05
4. Dimension applies to the metallized terminal and is measured
between 0.15mm and 0.30mm from the terminal tip.
5. Tiebar shown (if present) is a non-functional feature.
6. The configuration of the pin #1 identifier is optional, but must be
located within the zone indicated. The pin #1 indentifier may be
either a mold or mark feature.
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37
FN8270.1
March 8, 2012
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