DATASHEET

ISL6306
®
Data Sheet
May 5, 2008
4-Phase PWM Controller with 8-Bit DAC
Code Capable of Precision rDS(ON) or DCR
Differential Current Sensing
The ISL6306 controls microprocessor core voltage regulation
by driving up to 4 synchronous-rectified buck channels in
parallel. Multiphase buck converter architecture uses
interleaved timing to multiply channel ripple frequency and
reduce input and output ripple currents. Lower ripple results in
fewer components, lower component cost, reduced power
dissipation, and smaller implementation area.
Microprocessor loads can generate load transients with
extremely fast edge rates. The ISL6306 features a high
bandwidth control loop and ripple frequencies up to >4MHz to
provide optimal response to the transients.
Today’s microprocessors require a tightly regulated output
voltage position versus load current (droop). The ISL6306
senses current by utilizing patented techniques to measure
the voltage across the on resistance, rDS(ON), of the lower
MOSFETs or DCR of the output inductor during the lower
MOSFET conduction intervals. Current sensing provides the
needed signals for precision droop, channel-current
balancing, and overcurrent protection. A programmable
internal temperature compensation function is implemented to
effectively compensate for the temperature coefficient of the
current sense element.
A unity gain, differential amplifier is provided for remote
voltage sensing. Any potential difference between remote and
local grounds can be completely eliminated using the remotesense amplifier. Eliminating ground differences improves
regulation and protection accuracy. The threshold-sensitive
enable input is available to accurately coordinate the start up
of the ISL6306 with any other voltage rail. Dynamic-VID™
technology allows seamless on-the-fly VID changes. The
offset pin allows accurate voltage offset settings that are
independent of VID setting.
FN9226.1
Features
• Precision Multiphase Core Voltage Regulation
- Differential Remote Voltage Sensing
- ±0.5% System Accuracy Over Life, Load, Line and
Temperature
- Adjustable Precision Reference-Voltage Offset
• Precision rDS(ON) or DCR Current Sensing
- Accurate Load-Line Programming
- Accurate Channel-Current Balancing
- Differential Current Sense
• Microprocessor Voltage Identification Input
- Dynamic VID™ Technology
- 8-Bit VID Input with Selectable VR11 Code and
Extended VR10 Code at 6.25mV per Bit
- 0.5V to 1.6V Operation Range
• Thermal Monitoring
• Integrated Programmable Temperature Compensation
• Threshold-Sensitive Enable Function for Power
Sequencing and VTT Enable
• Overcurrent Protection
• Overvoltage Protection
• 2-, 3- or 4-Phase Operation
• Adjustable Switching Frequency Up to 1MHz Per Phase
• Package Option
- QFN Compliant to JEDEC PUB95 MO-220 QFN - Quad
Flat No Leads - Product Outline
- QFN Near Chip Scale Package Footprint; Improves
PCB Efficiency, Thinner in Profile
• Pb-Free (RoHS Compliant)
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER
(Note)
ISL6306CRZ*
PART
MARKING
TEMP.
(°C)
PACKAGE
(Pb-Free)
PKG.
DWG. #
ISL6306 CRZ 0 to +70 40 Ld 6x6 QFN L40.6x6
ISL6306CRZ-TK ISL6306 CRZ 0 to +70 40 Ld 6x6 QFN L40.6x6
ISL6306IRZ*
ISL6306 IRZ -40 to +85 40 Ld 6x6 QFN L40.6x6
*Add “-T” suffix for tape and reel. Please refer to TB347 for details on
reel specifications.
NOTE: These Intersil Pb-free plastic packaged products employ
special Pb-free material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials
and 100% matte tin plate PLUS ANNEAL - e3 termination finish, which
is RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free
soldering operations. Intersil Pb-free products are MSL classified at
Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free
requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2006, 2007. All Rights Reserved. Dynamic VID™ is a trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
ISL6306
Pinout
VID7
TM
VR_HOT
VR_FAN
VR_RDY
SS
FS
EN_VTT
EN_PWR
PWM3
ISL6306
(40 LD QFN)
TOP VIEW
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
VID6
1
30
ISEN3+
VID5
2
29
ISEN3-
VID4
3
28
ISEN2-
VID3
4
27
ISEN2+
VID2
5
26
PWM2
GND
2
23
ISEN4-
OFS
9
22
ISEN1-
DAC
10
21
ISEN1+
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
PWM1
8
VCC
VRSEL
TCOMP
ISEN4+
VSEN
24
RGND
7
VDIFF
VID0
IDROOP
PWM4
FB
25
COMP
6
REF
VID1
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
ISL6306CR Block Diagram
VDIFF VR_RDY
VCC
0.875V
RGND
POWER-ON
x1
EN_VTT
RESET (POR)
VSEN
0.875V
EN_PWR
OVP
THREE-STATE
SOFT-START
AND
FAULT LOGIC
+175mV
CLOCK AND
SAWTOOTH
GENERATOR
∑
SS
OFS
FS
PWM1
PWM
OFFSET
∑
PWM2
PWM
REF
DAC
VRSEL
∑
PWM3
PWM
VID7
VID6
VID5
VID4
DYNAMIC
VID
VID3
D/A
∑
PWM4
PWM
VID2
E/A
VID1
CHANNEL
CURRENT
BALANCE
VID0
CHANNEL
DETECT
COMP
ISEN1+
I_TRIP
FB
ISEN1-
OC
IDROOP
1
N
∑
I_AVG
VR_HOT
MONITORING
CHANNEL
ISEN2-
CURRENT
SENSE
ISEN3+
ISEN3-
THERMAL
COMPENSATION
GAIN
THERMAL
ISEN2+
TEMPERATURE
COMPENSATION
ISEN4+
VR_FAN
ISEN4-
TM
TCOMP
3
GND
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Typical Application - 4-Phase Buck Converter with rDS(ON) Sensing and External TCOMP
+12V
VIN
VCC
BOOT
UGATE
PVCC
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
+12V
VCC
DIFF
VSEN
BOOT
UGATE
EN_VTT
PVCC
VR_RDY
ISL6306
ISEN1+
ISEN1-
VID7
VIN
VCC
RGND
VTT
NTC
THERMISTOR
GND
+5V
FB
COMP REF
IDROOP
DAC
V
LGATE
VID6
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
PWM1
GND
PWM2
VID5
LGATE
ISEN2+
VID4
ISEN2VID3
PWM3
VID2
ISEN3+
+12V
VIN
PWM4
VID0
ISEN4+
ISEN4-
µP
LOAD
VCC
ISEN3VID1
BOOT
UGATE
PVCC
PHASE
VRSEL
VR_FAN
GND
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
VR_HOT
LGATE
GND
TM
+5V
EN_PWR
TCOMP OFS FS
SS
+12V
R OFS
RT
VIN
VCC
+12V
BOOT
NTC
UGATE
PVCC
PWM
PHASE
ISL6612
DRIVER
LGATE
GND
4
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Typical Application - 4-Phase Buck Converter with rDS(ON) Sensing and Integrated TCOMP
+12V
VIN
VCC
BOOT
UGATE
PVCC
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
GND
+5V
FB
IDROOP
COMP REF
VDIFF
DAC
VSEN
VCC
LGATE
+12V
VCC
BOOT
VIN
RGND
VTT
UGATE
EN_VTT
PVCC
VR_RDY
ISL6306
ISEN1+
ISEN1-
VID7
VID6
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
PWM1
PWM2
VID5
LGATE
GND
ISEN2+
VID4
ISEN2-
VID3
PWM3
VID2
ISEN3+
+12V
VIN
PWM4
VID0
ISEN4+
ISEN4-
µP
LOAD
VCC
ISEN3VID1
BOOT
UGATE
PVCC
PHASE
VRSEL
VR_FAN
GND
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
VR_HOT
LGATE
GND
EN_PWR
TM
TCOMP OFS
+5V
FS SS
+5V
R OFS
RF
RS
+12V
VIN
VCC
BOOT
+12V
NTC
UGATE
PVCC
PWM
PHASE
ISL6612
DRIVER
LGATE
GND
5
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Typical Application - 4-Phase Buck Converter with DCR Sensing and External TCOMP
+12V
VIN
VCC
BOOT
UGATE
PVCC
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
+12V
VCC
DIFF
VSEN
BOOT
EN_VTT
UGATE
PVCC
VR_RDY
ISL6306
ISEN1+
ISEN1-
VID7
VIN
VCC
RGND
VTT
NTC
THERMISTOR
GND
+5V
FB
COMP REF
IDROOP
DAC
V
LGATE
VID6
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
PWM1
VID5
PWM2
VID4
ISEN2+
ISEN2-
VID3
PWM3
VID2
ISEN3+
+12V
VIN
BOOT
PWM4
VID0
µP
LOAD
VCC
ISEN3VID1
UGATE
ISEN4+
ISEN4-
PVCC
GND
PWM
PHASE
VRSEL
VR_FAN
LGATE
GND
ISL6612
DRIVER
VR_HOT
LGATE
GND
TM
+5V
EN_PWR
TCOMP OFS
FS
SS
+12V
R OFS
RT
VIN
VCC
+12V
BOOT
NTC
UGATE
PVCC
PWM
PHASE
ISL6612
DRIVER
LGATE
GND
6
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Typical Application - 4-Phase Buck Converter with DCR Sensing and Integrated TCOMP
+12V
VIN
VCC
BOOT
UGATE
PVCC
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
GND
+5V
FB
COMP REF
IDROOP
DAC
V
+12V
VCC
DIFF
VSEN
BOOT
EN_VTT
UGATE
PVCC
VR_RDY
ISL6306
ISEN1+
ISEN1-
VID7
VIN
VCC
RGND
VTT
LGATE
VID6
PHASE
ISL6612
PWM
DRIVER
PWM1
VID5
PWM2
VID4
VID3
ISEN2+
ISEN2PWM3
VID2
ISEN3+
+12V
VIN
VCC
ISEN3VID1
PWM4
VID0
ISEN4+
ISEN4-
PVCC
GND
PWM
µP
LOAD
BOOT
UGATE
PHASE
VRSEL
VR_FAN
LGATE
GND
ISL6612
DRIVER
LGATE
VR_HOT
TM
GND
EN_PWR
TCOMP OFS FS SS
+5V
+5V
+12V
R OFS
RF
RS
VIN
VCC
BOOT
+12V
NTC
UGATE
PVCC
PWM
PHASE
ISL6612
DRIVER
LGATE
GND
7
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
Supply Voltage (VCC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+6V
All Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND -0.3V to VCC + 0.3V
ESD Ratings
Human body model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .>2kV
Machine model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .>200V
Charged device model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >1.5kV
Thermal Resistance (Notes 1, 2)
θJA (°C/W)
θJC (°C/W)
QFN Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
6.5
Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +150°C
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . .-65°C to +150°C
Pb-free reflow profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see link below
http://www.intersil.com/pbfree/Pb-FreeReflow.asp
Operating Conditions
Supply Voltage (VCC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +5V ±5%
Ambient Temperature
ISL6306CRZ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0°C to +70°C
ISL6306IRZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-40°C to +85°C
CAUTION: Do not operate at or near the maximum ratings listed for extended periods of time. Exposure to such conditions may adversely impact product reliability and
result in failures not covered by warranty.
NOTES:
1. θJA is measured in free air with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board with “direct attach” features. See
Tech Brief TB379
2. For θJC, the “case temp” location is the center of the exposed metal pad on the package underside.
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VCC = 5V, Unless Otherwise Specified
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
VCC SUPPLY CURRENT
Nominal Supply
VCC = 5VDC; EN_PWR = 5VDC; RT = 100kΩ,
ISEN1 = ISEN2 = ISEN3 = ISEN4 = -70µA
-
15
20
mA
Shutdown Supply
VCC = 5VDC; EN_PWR = 0VDC; RT = 100kΩ
-
10
12
mA
VCC Rising
4.3
4.5
4.7
V
VCC Falling
3.7
3.9
4.2
V
0.850
0.875
0.910
V
-
130
-
mV
Falling
0.720
0.745
0.775
V
Rising
0.850
0.875
0.910
V
-
130
-
mV
0.720
0.745
0.775
V
POWER-ON RESET AND ENABLE
POR Threshold
EN_PWR Threshold
Rising
Hysteresis
EN_VTT Threshold
Hysteresis
Falling
REFERENCE VOLTAGE AND DAC
System Accuracy of ISL6306CRZ
(VID = 1V to 1.6V, TJ = 0°C to +70°C)
(Note 3)
-0.5
-
0.5
%VID
System Accuracy of ISL6306CRZ
(VID = 0.5V to 1V, TJ = 0°C to +70°C)
(Note 3)
-0.9
-
0.9
%VID
System Accuracy of ISL6306IRZ
(VID = 1V to 1.6V, TJ = -40°C to +85°C)
(Note 3)
-0.6
-
0.6
%VID
System Accuracy of ISL6306IRZ
(VID = 0.5V to 1V, TJ = -40°C to +85°C)
(Note 3)
-1
-
1
%VID
-60
-40
-20
µA
VID Input Low Level
-
-
0.4
V
VID Input High Level
0.8
-
-
V
VRSEL Input Low Level
-
-
0.4
V
VRSEL Input High Level
0.8
-
-
V
VID Pull-up
8
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VCC = 5V, Unless Otherwise Specified (Continued)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
DAC Source Current
-
4
7
mA
DAC Sink Current
-
-
300
µA
REF Source Current
45
50
55
µA
REF Sink Current
45
50
55
µA
392
400
408
mV
1.568
1.600
1.632
V
388
400
412
mV
1.552
1.600
1.648
V
225
250
275
kHz
0.08
-
1.0
MHz
-
1.563
-
mV/µs
0.625
-
6.25
mV/µs
Sawtooth Amplitude
-
1.5
-
V
Max Duty Cycle
-
66.7
-
%
PIN-ADJUSTABLE OFFSET
Voltage at OFS Pin of ISL6306CRZ
Offset resistor connected to ground
Voltage below VCC, offset resistor connected to VCC
Voltage at OFS Pin of ISL6306IRZ
Offset resistor connected to ground
Voltage below VCC, offset resistor connected to VCC
OSCILLATORS
Accuracy of Switching Frequency Setting
RT = 100kΩ
Adjustment Range of Switching Frequency (Note 4)
Soft-Start Ramp Rate
RS = 100kΩ (Notes 5, 6)
Adjustment Range of Soft-start Ramp Rate (Note 4)
PWM GENERATOR
ERROR AMPLIFIER
Open-Loop Gain
RL = 10kΩ to ground (Note 4)
-
96
-
dB
Open-Loop Bandwidth
CL = 100pF, RL = 10kΩ to ground (Note 4)
-
20
-
MHz
Slew Rate
CL = 100pF
-
9
-
V/µs
Maximum Output Voltage
3.8
4.3
4.9
V
Output High Voltage @ 2mA
3.6
-
-
V
Output Low Voltage @ 2mA
-
-
1.2
V
-
20
-
MHz
REMOTE-SENSE AMPLIFIER
Bandwidth
(Note 4)
Output High Current
VSEN - RGND = 2.5V
-500
-
500
µA
Output High Current
VSEN - RGND = 0.6
-500
-
500
µA
PWM OUTPUT
PWM Output Voltage LOW Threshold
ILOAD = ±500µA
-
-
0.5
V
PWM Output Voltage HIGH Threshold
ILOAD = ±500µA
4.3
-
-
V
76
80
84
µA
90
100
110
µA
-
2
-
V
TM Input Voltage for VR_FAN Trip
1.6
1.65
1.69
V
TM Input Voltage for VR_FAN Reset
1.89
1.93
1.98
V
TM Input Voltage for VR_HOT Trip
1.35
1.4
1.44
V
TM Input Voltage for VR_HOT Reset
1.6
1.65
1.69
V
SENSE CURRENT OUTPUT (IDROOP and IOUT)
Sensed Current Tolerance
ISEN1 = ISEN2 = ISEN3 = ISEN4 = 80µA
Overcurrent Trip Level
Maximum Voltage at IDROOP Pin
THERMAL MONITORING AND FAN CONTROL
9
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VCC = 5V, Unless Otherwise Specified (Continued)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
Leakage Current of VR_FAN
With externally pull-up resistor connected to VCC
-
-
30
µA
VR_FAN Low Voltage
With 1.25k resistor pull-up to VCC, IVR_FAN = 4mA
-
-
0.3
V
Leakage Current of VR_HOT
With externally pull-up resistor connected to VCC
-
-
30
µA
VR_HOT Low Voltage
With 1.25k resistor pull-up to VCC, IVR_HOT = 4mA
-
-
0.3
V
VR READY AND PROTECTION MONITORS
Leakage Current of VR_RDY
With externally pull-up resistor connected to VCC
-
-
30
µA
VR_RDY Low Voltage
IVR_RDY = 4mA
-
-
0.3
V
Undervoltage Threshold
VDIFF Falling
48
50
52
%VID
VR_RDY Reset Voltage
VDIFF Rising
58
60
62
%VID
Overvoltage Protection Threshold
Before valid VID
1.250
1.275
1.300
V
150
175
200
mV
0.38
0.40
0.42
V
After valid VID, the voltage above VID
Overvoltage Protection Reset Threshold
NOTES:
3. These parts are designed and adjusted for accuracy with all errors in the voltage loop included.
4. Limits established by characterization and are not production tested.
5. During soft-start, VDAC rises from 0 to 1.1V first and then ramp to VID voltage after receiving valid VID.
6. Soft-start ramp rate is determined by the adjustable soft-start oscillator frequency at the speed of 6.25mV per cycle.
10
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Functional Pin Description
VCC
Supplies the power necessary to operate the chip. The
controller starts to operate when the voltage on this pin
exceeds the rising POR threshold and shuts down when the
voltage on this pin drops below the falling POR threshold.
Connect this pin directly to a +5V supply.
GND
Bias and reference ground for the IC. The bottom metal base
of ISL6306 is the GND.
EN_PWR
VRSEL
Use this pin to select Internal VID code. When it is connected
to GND, the extended VR10 code is selected. When it’s floated
or pulled to high, VR11 code is selected. This input can be
pulled up as high as VCC plus 0.3V.
VDIFF, VSEN, and RGND
VSEN and RGND form the precision differential remote-sense
amplifier. This amplifier converts the differential voltage of the
remote output to a single-ended voltage referenced to local
ground. VDIFF is the amplifier’s output and the input to the
regulation and protection circuitry. Connect VSEN and RGND
to the sense pins of the remote load.
This pin is a threshold-sensitive enable input for the
controller. Connecting the 12V supply to EN_PWR through
an appropriate resistor divider provides a means to
synchronize power-up of the controller and the MOSFET
driver ICs. When EN_PWR is driven above 0.875V, the
ISL6306 is active depending on status of EN_VTT, the
internal POR, and pending fault states. Driving EN_PWR
below 0.745V will clear all fault states and prime the ISL6306
to soft-start when re-enabled.
FB and COMP
EN_VTT
This pin is another threshold-sensitive enable input for the
controller. It’s typically connected to VTT output of VTT
voltage regulator in the computer mother board. When
EN_VTT is driven above 0.875V, the ISL6306 is active
depending on status of ENLL, the internal POR, and pending
fault states. Driving EN_VTT below 0.745V will clear all fault
states and prime the ISL6306 to soft-start when re-enabled.
The DAC pin is the output of the precision internal DAC
reference. The REF pin is the positive input of the Error
Amplifier. In typical applications, a 1kΩ, 1% resistor is used
between DAC and REF to generate a precision offset voltage.
This voltage is proportional to the offset current determined by
the offset resistor from OFS to ground or VCC. A capacitor is
used between REF and ground to smooth the voltage
transition during Dynamic VID™ operations.
FS
PWM1, PWM2, PWM3, PWM4
Use this pin to set up the desired switching frequency. A
resistor, placed from FS to ground will set the switching
frequency. The relationship between the value of the resistor
and the switching frequency will be described by an
approximate equation.
Pulse width modulation outputs. Connect these pins to the
PWM input pins of the Intersil driver IC. The number of active
channels is determined by the state of PWM3 and PWM4. Tie
PWM3 to VCC to configure for 2-phase operation. Tie PWM4
to VCC to configure for 3-phase operation.
SS
ISEN1+, ISEN1-; ISEN2+, ISEN2-; ISEN3+, ISEN3-;
ISEN4+ and ISEN4
Use this pin to set up the desired start-up oscillator
frequency. A resistor, placed from SS to ground will set up
the soft-start ramp rate. The relationship between the value
of the resistor and the soft-start ramp-up time will be
described by an approximate equation.
VID7, VID6, VID5, VID4, VID3, VID2, VID1 and VID0
These are the inputs to the internal DAC that generates the
reference voltage for output regulation. Connect these pins
either to open-drain outputs with or without external pull-up
resistors or to active pull-up outputs. All VID pins have 40µA
internal pull-up current sources that diminish to zero as the
voltage rises above the logic-high level. These inputs can be
pulled up externally as high as VCC plus 0.3V.
When an OFF VID code causes shut-down, the controller
needs to be reset before it starts again.
11
Inverting input and output of the error amplifier respectively.
FB can be connected to VDIFF through a resistor. A properly
chosen resistor between VDIFF and FB can set the load line
(droop), when IDROOP pin is tied to FB pin. The droop scale
factor is set by the ratio of the ISEN resistors and the inductor
DCR or the lower MOSFET rDS(ON). COMP is tied back to FB
through an external RC network to compensate the regulator.
DAC and REF
The ISEN+ and ISEN- pins are current sense inputs to
individual differential amplifiers. The sensed current is used
for channel current balancing, overcurrent protection, and
droop regulation. Inactive channels should have their
respective current sense inputs left open (for example, open
ISEN4+ and ISEN4- for 3-phase operation).
For DCR sensing, connect each ISEN- pin to the node
between the RC sense elements. Tie the ISEN+ pin to the
other end of the sense capacitor through a resistor, RISEN.
The voltage across the sense capacitor is proportional to the
inductor current. Therefore, the sense current is proportional
to the inductor current and scaled by the DCR of the inductor
and RISEN.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
When configured for rDS(ON) current sensing, the ISEN1-,
ISEN2-, ISEN3-, and ISEN4- pins are grounded at the lower
MOSFET sources. The ISEN1+, ISEN2+, ISEN3+, and
ISEN4+ pins are then held at a virtual ground. Therefore, a
resistor, connected between these current sense pins and
the drain terminals of the associated lower MOSFET, will
carry the current proportional to the current flowing through
that channel. The sensed current is determined by the
negative voltage across the lower MOSFET when it is ON,
which is the channel current scaled by rDS(ON) and RISEN.
VR_RDY
VR_RDY indicates that the soft-start is completed and the
output voltage is within the regulated range around VID
setting. It is an open-drain logic output. When OCP or OVP
occurs, VR_RDY will be pulled to low. It will also be pulled
low if the output voltage is below the undervoltage threshold.
OFS
The OFS pin provides a means to program a DC offset
current for generating a DC offset voltage at the REF input.
The offset current is generated via an external resistor and
precision internal voltage references. The polarity of the
offset is selected by connecting the resistor to GND or VCC.
For no offset, the OFS pin should be left unterminated.
VR_HOT
VR_HOT is used as an indication of high VR temperature. It
is an open-drain logic output. It will be open when the
measured VR temperature reaches a certain level.
VR_FAN
VR_FAN is an output pin with open-drain logic output. It will
be open when the measured VR temperature reaches a
certain level.
Operation
Multiphase Power Conversion
Microprocessor load current profiles have changed to the
point that the advantages of multiphase power conversion
are impossible to ignore. The technical challenges
associated with producing a single-phase converter which is
both cost-effective and thermally viable have forced a
change to the cost-saving approach of multiphase. The
ISL6306 controller helps reduce the complexity of
implementation by integrating vital functions and requiring
minimal output components. The block diagrams on pages
4, 5, 6 and 7 provide top level views of multiphase power
conversion using the ISL6306 controller.
TCOMP
Interleaving
Temperature compensation scaling input. The voltage
sensed on the TM pin is utilized as the temperature input to
adjust ldroop and the overcurrent protection limit to
effectively compensate for the temperature coefficient of the
current sense element. To implement the integrated
temperature compensation, a resistor divider circuit is
needed with one resistor being connected from TCOMP to
VCC of the controller and another resistor being connected
from TCOMP to GND. Changing the ratio of the resistor
values will set the gain of the integrated thermal
compensation. When integrated temperature compensation
function is not used, connect TCOMP to GND.
The switching of each channel in a multiphase converter is
timed to be symmetrically out of phase with each of the other
channels. In a 3-phase converter, each channel switches 1/3
cycle after the previous channel and 1/3 cycle before the
following channel. As a result, the 3-phase converter has a
combined ripple frequency three times greater than the
ripple frequency of any one phase. In addition, the peak-topeak amplitude of the combined inductor currents is reduced
in proportion to the number of phases (Equations 1 and 2).
Increased ripple frequency and lower ripple amplitude mean
that the designer can use less per-channel inductance and
lower total output capacitance for any performance
specification.
IDROOP
IDROOP is the output pin of sensed average channel
current which is proportional to load current. In the
application which does not require loadline, leave this pin
open. In the application which requires load line, connect
this pin to FB so that the sensed average current will flow
through the resistor between FB and VDIFF to create a
voltage drop which is proportional to load current.
TM
Figure 1 illustrates the multiplicative effect on output ripple
frequency. The three channel currents (IL1, IL2, and IL3)
combine to form the AC ripple current and the DC load
current. The ripple component has three times the ripple
frequency of each individual channel current. Each PWM
pulse is terminated 1/3 of a cycle after the PWM pulse of the
previous phase. The peak-to-peak current for each phase is
about 7A, and the DC components of the inductor currents
combine to feed the load.
TM is an input pin for VR temperature measurement.
Connect this pin through NTC thermistor to GND and a
resistor to VCC of the controller. The voltage at this pin is
reverse proportional to VR temperature. ISL6306 monitors
the VR temperature based on the voltage at TM pin and
outputs VR_HOT and VR_FAN signals.
12
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
( V IN – N V OUT ) V OUT
I C, P-P = ----------------------------------------------------------L fS V
IL1 + IL2 + IL3, 7A/DIV
Another benefit of interleaving is to reduce input ripple
current. Input capacitance is determined in part by the
maximum input ripple current. Multiphase topologies can
improve overall system cost and size by lowering input ripple
current and allowing the designer to reduce the cost of input
capacitance. The example in Figure 2 illustrates input
currents from a 3-phase converter combining to reduce the
total input ripple current.
IL1, 7A/DIV
PWM1, 5V/DIV
IL2, 7A/DIV
PWM2, 5V/DIV
IL3, 7A/DIV
PWM3, 5V/DIV
1µs/DIV
FIGURE 1. PWM AND INDUCTOR-CURRENT WAVEFORMS
FOR 3-PHASE CONVERTER
To understand the reduction of ripple current amplitude in the
multiphase circuit, examine Equation 1 which represents an
individual channel’s peak-to-peak inductor current.
( V IN – V OUT ) V OUT
I P-P = ----------------------------------------------------L fS V
(EQ. 1)
IN
In Equation 1, VIN and VOUT are the input and output
voltages respectively, L is the single-channel inductor value,
and fS is the switching frequency.
INPUT-CAPACITOR CURRENT, 10A/DIV
CHANNEL 1
INPUT CURRENT
10A/DIV
CHANNEL 2
INPUT CURRENT
10A/DIV
CHANNEL 3
INPUT CURRENT
10A/DIV
1µs/DIV
FIGURE 2. CHANNEL INPUT CURRENTS AND INPUTCAPACITOR RMS CURRENT FOR THREE-PHASE
CONVERTER
The output capacitors conduct the ripple component of the
inductor current. In the case of multiphase converters, the
capacitor current is the sum of the ripple currents from each of
the individual channels. Compare Equation 1 to the expression
for the peak-to-peak current after the summation of N
symmetrically phase-shifted inductor currents in Equation 2.
Peak-to-peak ripple current decreases by an amount
proportional to the number of channels. Output voltage ripple is
a function of capacitance, capacitor equivalent series
resistance (ESR), and inductor ripple current. Reducing the
inductor ripple current allows the designer to use fewer or less
costly output capacitors.
13
(EQ. 2)
IN
The converter depicted in Figure 2 delivers 36A to a 1.5V load
from a 12V input. The RMS input capacitor current is 5.9A.
Compare this to a single-phase converter also stepping down
12V to 1.5V at 36A. The single-phase converter has 11.9A
RMS input capacitor current. The single-phase converter
must use an input capacitor bank with twice the RMS current
capacity as the equivalent 3-phase converter.
Figures 21, 22 and 23 in the section entitled “Input Capacitor
Selection” on page 30, can be used to determine the inputcapacitor RMS current based on load current, duty cycle,
and the number of channels. They are provided as aids in
determining the optimal input capacitor solution. Figure 23
shows the single-phase input-capacitor RMS current for
comparison.
PWM Operation
The timing of each channel is set by the number of active
channels. The default channel setting for the ISL6306 is four.
The switching cycle is defined as the time between PWM
pulse termination signals of each channel. The pulse
termination signal is an internally generated clock signal
which triggers the falling edge of PWM signal. The cycle time
of the pulse termination signal is the inverse of the switching
frequency set by the resistor between the FS pin and
ground. Each cycle begins when the clock signal commands
the channel PWM signal to go low. The PWM signals
command the MOSFET driver to turn on/off the channel
MOSFETs.
For 4-channel operation, the channel firing order is 4-3-2-1:
PWM3 pulse terminates 1/4 of a cycle after PWM4, PWM2
output follows another 1/4 of a cycle after PWM3, and
PWM1 terminates another 1/4 of a cycle after PWM2. For
3-channel operation, the channel firing order is 3-2-1.
Connecting PWM4 to VCC selects three channel operation
and the pulse-termination times are spaced in 1/3 cycle
increments. If PWM3 is connected to VCC, two channel
operation is selected and the PWM2 pulse terminates 1/2 of
a cycle later.
Once a PWM signal transitions low, it is held low for a
minimum of 1/3 cycle. This forced off time is required to
ensure an accurate current sample. Current sensing is
described in the next section. After the forced off time
expires, the PWM output is enabled. The PWM output state
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
is driven by the position of the error amplifier output signal,
VCOMP, minus the current correction signal relative to the
sawtooth ramp as illustrated in Figure 7. When the modified
VCOMP voltage crosses the sawtooth ramp, the PWM output
transitions high. The MOSFET driver detects the change in
state of the PWM signal and turns off the synchronous
MOSFET and turns on the upper MOSFET. The PWM signal
will remain high until the pulse termination signal marks the
beginning of the next cycle by triggering the PWM signal low.
INDUCTOR DCR SENSING
An inductor’s winding is characteristic of a distributed
resistance as measured by the DCR (Direct Current
Resistance) parameter. Consider the inductor DCR as a
separate lumped quantity, as shown in Figure 4. The
channel current (IL) flowing through the inductor, will also
pass through the DCR. Equation 3 shows the s-domain
equivalent voltage across the inductor VL.
V L = I L ⋅ ( s ⋅ L + DCR )
During the forced off-time following a PWM transition low,
the associated channel current sense amplifier uses the
ISEN inputs to reproduce a signal proportional to the inductor
current (IL). This current gets sampled starting
1/6 period after each PWM goes low and continuously gets
sampled for 1/3 period, or until the PWM goes high,
whichever comes first. No matter the current sense method,
the sense current (ISEN) is simply a scaled version of the
inductor current. Coincident with the falling edge of the PWM
signal, the sample and hold circuitry samples the sensed
current signal (ISEN) as illustrated in Figure 3.
Therefore, the sample current (In) is proportional to the
output current and held for one switching cycle. The sample
current is used for current balance, load-line regulation, and
overcurrent protection.
(EQ. 3)
A simple RC network across the inductor extracts the DCR
voltage, as shown in Figure 4.
The voltage on the capacitor (VC) can be shown to be
proportional to the channel current (IL) see Equation 4.
L
⎛ s ⋅ ------------+ 1⎞ ⋅ ( DCR ⋅ I L )
⎝ DCR
⎠
V C = --------------------------------------------------------------------( s ⋅ RC + 1 )
(EQ. 4)
If the RC network components are selected such that the RC
time constant (= R*C) matches the inductor time constant
(= L/DCR), the voltage across the capacitor (VC) is equal to
the voltage drop across the DCR (i.e., proportional to the
channel current).
VIN
IL ( s )
L
IL
ISL6605
DCR
+
INDUCTOR
VL
VOUT
COUT
-
Current Sampling
PWM
+
R
-
VC(s)
C
PWM(n)
ISEN
ISL6306 INTERNAL CIRCUIT
0.5Tsw
SAMPLE CURRENT, In
SWITCHING PERIOD
RISEN(n)
(PTC)
In
SAMPLE
AND
HOLD
ISEN-(n)
+
TIME
-
FIGURE 3. SAMPLE AND HOLD TIMING
Current Sensing
The ISL6306 supports inductor DCR sensing, MOSFET
rDS(ON) sensing, or resistive sensing techniques. The
internal circuitry, shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6, represents
one channel of an N-channel converter. This circuitry is
repeated for each channel in the converter, but may not be
active depending on the status of the PWM3 and PWM4
pins, as described in “PWM Operation” on page 13.
14
ISEN+(n)
DCR
I SEN = I ----------------LR
ISEN
FIGURE 4. DCR SENSING CONFIGURATION
With the internal low-offset current amplifier, the capacitor
voltage (VC) is replicated across the sense resistor (RISEN).
Therefore the current out of ISEN+ pin (ISEN) is proportional
to the inductor current.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Equation 5 shows that the ratio of the channel current to the
sensed current (ISEN) is driven by the value of the sense
resistor and the DCR of the inductor.
DCR
I SEN = I L ⋅ -----------------R
(EQ. 5)
I
VIN
R DS ( ON )
SEN = I L --------------------------R
ISEN
In
IL
ISEN
SAMPLE
AND
HOLD
RESISTIVE SENSING
For accurate current sense, a dedicated current-sense
resistor (RSENSE) in series with each output inductor can
serve as the current sense element (see Figure 5). This
technique is more accurate, but reduces overall converter
efficiency due to the additional power loss on the current
sense element (RSENSE).
ISEN+(n)
RISEN
(PTC)
+
N-CHANNEL
MOSFETs
ISL6306 INTERNAL CIRCUIT
Equation 6 shows the ratio of the channel current to the
sensed current (ISEN).
R SENSE
I SEN = I L ⋅ ----------------------R
(EQ. 6)
ISEN
L
IL
RSENSE VOUT
ISEN-(n)
I x R λ DS ( ON )
L
+
EXTERNAL CIRCUIT
FIGURE 6. MOSFET rDS(ON) CURRENT-SENSING CIRCUIT
Equation 7 shows the ratio of the channel current to the
sensed current ISEN.
R DS ( ON )
I SEN = I L -----------------------R ISEN
(EQ. 7)
COUT
ISL6306 INTERNAL CIRCUIT
RISEN(n)
In
SAMPLE
AND
HOLD
ISEN-(n)
+
-
ISEN+(n)
R
SENSE
I SEN = I ------------------------L R
ISEN
Both inductor DCR and MOSFET rDS(ON) value will
increase as the temperature increases. Therefore the
sensed current will increase as the temperature of the
current sense element increases. In order to compensate
the temperature effect on the sensed current signal, a
Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) resistor can be
selected for the sense resistor (RISEN), or the integrated
temperature compensation function of ISL6306 should be
utilized. The integrated temperature compensation function
is described in “Temperature Compensation” on page 25.
Channel-Current Balance
FIGURE 5. SENSE RESISTOR IN SERIES WITH INDUCTORS
MOSFET rDS(ON) SENSING
The controller can also sense the channel load current by
sampling the voltage across the lower MOSFET rDS(ON)
(see Figure 6). The amplifier is ground-reference by
connecting the ISEN- pin to the source of the lower
MOSFET. ISEN+ pin is connected to the PHASE node
through the current sense resistor (RISEN). The voltage
across RISEN is equivalent to the voltage drop across the
rDS(ON) of the lower MOSFET while it is conducting. The
resulting current out of the ISEN+ pin is proportional to the
channel current IL.
15
The sensed current (IN) from each active channel are
summed together and divided by the number of active
channels. The resulting average current (IAVG) provides a
measure of the total load current. Channel current balance is
achieved by comparing the sampled current of each channel
to the average current to make an appropriate adjustment to
the WPM duty cycle of each channel. Intersil’s patented
current-balance method is illustrated in Figure 7. In the
figure, the average current combines with the Channel 1
current (I1) to create an error signal (IER). The filtered error
signal modifies the pulse width commanded by VCOMP to
correct any unbalance and force IER toward zero. The same
method for error signal correction is applied to each active
channel.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
VCOMP
+
+
-
FILTER
PWM1
SAWTOOTH SIGNAL
f(jω)
I4 *
IER
IAVG
-
÷N
+
Σ
I3 *
I2
I1
NOTE: *Channels 3 and 4 are optional for 2 or 3 phase designs.
FIGURE 7. CHANNEL 1 PWM FUNCTION AND CURRENTBALANCE ADJUSTMENT
Channel current balance is essential in achieving the
thermal advantage of multiphase operation. With good
current balance, the power loss is equally dissipated over
multiple devices and a greater area.
Voltage Regulation
The ISL6306 incorporates an internal differential remotesense amplifier in the feedback path. The amplifier removes
the voltage error encountered when measuring the output
voltage relative to the local controller ground reference point
resulting in a more accurate means of sensing output
voltage. Connect the microprocessor sense pins to the noninverting input, VSEN, and inverting input, RGND, of the
remote-sense amplifier. The remote-sense output (VDIF), is
connected to the inverting input of the error amplifier through
an external resistor.
A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a reference
voltage based on the state of logic signals at pins VID7
through VID0. The DAC decodes the 8 6-bit logic signal
(VID) into one of the discrete voltages shown in Table 1.
Each VID input offers a 45µA pull-up to an internal 2.5V
source for use with open-drain outputs. The pull-up current
diminishes to zero above the logic threshold to protect
voltage-sensitive output devices. External pull-up resistors
can augment the pull-up current sources if case leakage into
the driving device is greater than 45µA.
The compensation network shown in Figure 8 assures that
the steady-state error in the output voltage is limited only to
the error in the reference voltage (output of the DAC) and
offset errors in the OFS current source, remote-sense and
error amplifiers. Intersil specifies the guaranteed tolerance of
the ISL6306 to include the combined tolerances of each of
these elements.
The output of the error amplifier (VCOMP) is compared to the
sawtooth waveform to generate the PWM signals. The PWM
signals control the timing of the Intersil MOSFET drivers and
regulate the converter output to the specified reference
voltage. The internal and external circuitry, which control
voltage regulation, are illustrated in Figure 8.
EXTERNAL CIRCUIT
R C CC
COMP
ISL6306 INTERNAL CIRCUIT
DAC
RREF
REF
CREF
+
-
FB
RFB
IDROOP
+
VDROOP
VDIFF
VOUT+
VOUT-
IAVG
VCOMP
ERROR AMPLIFIER
VSEN
+
RGND
DIFFERENTIAL
REMOTE-SENSE
AMPLIFIER
FIGURE 8. OUTPUT VOLTAGE AND LOAD-LINE
REGULATION WITH OFFSET ADJUSTMENT
16
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
TABLE 1. VR10 VID TABLE (WITH 6.25mV EXTENSION)
VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VID5
VID6 VOLTAGE
400mV 200mV 100mV 50mV 25mV 12.5mV 6.25mV
(V)
TABLE 1. VR10 VID TABLE (WITH 6.25mV EXTENSION)
(Continued)
VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VID5
VID6 VOLTAGE
400mV 200mV 100mV 50mV 25mV 12.5mV 6.25mV
(V)
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1.60000
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1.36250
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1.59375
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1.35625
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1.58750
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1.35000
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1.58125
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1.34375
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1.57500
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1.33750
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1.56875
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1.33125
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1.56250
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1.32500
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1.55625
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1.31875
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1.55000
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1.31250
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1.54375
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1.30625
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1.53750
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1.30000
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1.53125
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1.29375
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1.52500
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1.28750
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1.51875
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1.28125
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1.51250
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1.27500
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1.50625
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1.26875
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1.50000
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1.26250
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1.49375
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1.25625
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1.48750
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1.25000
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1.48125
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1.24375
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.47500
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1.23750
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1.46875
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1.23125
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1.46250
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1.22500
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.45625
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1.21875
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1.45000
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1.21250
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1.44375
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1.20625
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1.43750
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1.20000
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1.43125
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1.19375
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1.42500
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1.18750
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1.41875
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1.18125
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1.41250
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1.17500
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1.40625
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1.16875
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1.40000
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1.16250
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1.39375
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1.15625
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1.38750
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1.15000
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1.38125
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1.14375
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1.37500
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1.13750
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1.36875
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1.13125
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1.12500
17
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
TABLE 1. VR10 VID TABLE (WITH 6.25mV EXTENSION)
(Continued)
VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VID5
VID6 VOLTAGE
400mV 200mV 100mV 50mV 25mV 12.5mV 6.25mV
(V)
TABLE 1. VR10 VID TABLE (WITH 6.25mV EXTENSION)
(Continued)
VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VID5
VID6 VOLTAGE
400mV 200mV 100mV 50mV 25mV 12.5mV 6.25mV
(V)
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1.11875
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0.90000
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1.11250
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0.89375
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1.10625
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0.88750
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1.10000
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.88125
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1.09375
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0.87500
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
OFF
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0.86875
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
OFF
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0.86250
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
OFF
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0.85625
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
OFF
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0.85000
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1.08750
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0.84375
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.08125
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0.83750
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1.07500
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.83125
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1.06875
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1.06250
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1.05625
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1.05000
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1.04375
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1.03750
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1.03125
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1.02500
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1.01875
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1.01250
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1.00625
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1.00000
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0.99375
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0.98750
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.98125
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0.97500
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0.96875
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0.96250
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0.95625
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0.95000
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0.94375
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0.93750
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0.93125
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0.92500
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0.91875
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0.91250
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0.90625
18
TABLE 2. VR11 VID 8 BIT
VID7 VID6 VID5 VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VOLTAGE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OFF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
OFF
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1.60000
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1.59375
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1.58750
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1.58125
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1.57500
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1.56875
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1.56250
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1.55625
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1.55000
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1.54375
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1.53750
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1.53125
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1.52500
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1.51875
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1.51250
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1.50625
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1.50000
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1.49375
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1.48750
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1.48125
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1.47500
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1.46875
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
TABLE 2. VR11 VID 8 BIT (Continued)
TABLE 2. VR11 VID 8 BIT (Continued)
VID7 VID6 VID5 VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VOLTAGE
VID7 VID6 VID5 VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VOLTAGE
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1.46250
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.21250
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1.45625
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1.20625
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1.45000
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1.20000
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1.44375
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1.19375
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1.43750
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1.18750
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1.43125
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1.18125
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1.42500
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1.17500
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1.41875
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1.16875
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1.41250
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1.16250
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1.40625
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1.15625
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1.40000
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1.15000
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1.39375
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1.14375
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1.38750
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1.13750
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1.38125
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1.13125
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1.37500
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1.12500
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1.36875
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1.11875
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1.36250
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1.11250
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1.35625
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1.10625
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1.35000
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1.10000
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1.34375
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1.09375
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1.33750
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1.08750
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1.33125
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1.08125
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1.32500
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1.07500
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1.31875
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1.06875
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1.31250
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1.06250
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1.30625
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1.05625
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1.30000
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1.05000
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1.29375
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1.04375
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1.28750
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1.03750
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1.28125
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1.03125
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1.27500
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1.02500
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1.26875
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1.01875
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1.26250
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1.01250
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1.25625
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1.00625
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1.25000
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1.00000
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1.24375
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0.99375
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1.23750
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0.98750
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1.23125
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0.98125
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1.22500
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0.97500
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.21875
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0.96875
19
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
TABLE 2. VR11 VID 8 BIT (Continued)
TABLE 2. VR11 VID 8 BIT (Continued)
VID7 VID6 VID5 VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VOLTAGE
VID7 VID6 VID5 VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 VOLTAGE
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.96250
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.71250
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0.95625
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0.70625
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0.95000
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0.70000
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0.94375
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0.69375
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0.93750
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0.68750
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0.93125
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0.68125
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0.92500
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0.67500
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0.91875
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0.66875
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.91250
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0.66250
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0.90625
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0.65625
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0.90000
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0.65000
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0.89375
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0.64375
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0.88750
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0.63750
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0.88125
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0.63125
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0.87500
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0.62500
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0.86875
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0.61875
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0.86250
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.61250
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0.85625
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0.60625
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0.85000
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0.60000
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0.84375
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0.59375
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0.83750
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0.58750
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0.83125
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0.58125
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0.82500
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0.57500
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.81875
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0.56875
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.81250
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.56250
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0.80625
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0.55625
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0.80000
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0.55000
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0.79375
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0.54375
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0.78750
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0.53750
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0.78125
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0.53125
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0.77500
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0.52500
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0.76875
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0.51875
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.76250
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.51250
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0.75625
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0.50625
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0.75000
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0.50000
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0.74375
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
OFF
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0.73750
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
OFF
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0.73125
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0.72500
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0.71875
20
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Load-Line Regulation
Output-Voltage Offset Programming
Some microprocessor manufacturers require a preciselycontrolled output resistance. This dependence of output
voltage on load current is often termed “droop” or “load line”
regulation. By adding a well controlled output impedance,
the output voltage can effectively be level shifted in a
direction which works to achieve the load-line regulation
required by these manufacturers.
The ISL6306 allows the designer to accurately adjust the
offset voltage. When a resistor (ROFS) is connected
between OFS to VCC, the voltage across it is regulated to
1.6V. This causes a proportional current (IOFS) to flow into
OFS. If ROFS is connected to ground, the voltage across it is
regulated to 0.4V, and IOFS flows out of OFS. A resistor
between DAC and REF (RREF) is selected so that the
product (IOFS x ROFS) is equal to the desired offset voltage.
These functions are shown in Figure 9.
In other cases, the designer may determine that a more
cost-effective solution can be achieved by adding droop.
Droop can help to reduce the output-voltage spike that
results from fast load-current demand changes.
The magnitude of the spike is dictated by the ESR and ESL
of the output capacitors selected. By positioning the no-load
voltage level near the upper specification limit, a larger
negative spike can be sustained without crossing the lower
limit. By adding a well controlled output impedance, the
output voltage under load can effectively be level shifted
down so that a larger positive spike can be sustained without
crossing the upper specification limit.
Once the desired output offset voltage has been determined,
use Equations 11 and 12 to set ROFS:
For Positive Offset (connect ROFS to VCC):
1.6 × R REF
R OFS = -----------------------------V OFFSET
(EQ. 11)
For Negative Offset (connect ROFS to GND):
0.4 × R REF
R OFS = -----------------------------V OFFSET
(EQ. 12)
As shown in Figure 8, a current proportional to the average
current of all active channels (IAVG) flows from FB through a
load-line regulation resistor RFB. The resulting voltage drop
across RFB is proportional to the output current, effectively
creating an output voltage droop with a steady-state value
defined as Equation 8:
V DROOP = I AVG R FB
FB
DYNAMIC
VID D/A
DAC
RREF
(EQ. 8)
E/A
REF
The regulated output voltage is reduced by the droop voltage
(VDROOP). The output voltage as a function of load current
is derived by combining Equation 8 with the appropriate
sample current expression defined by the current sense
method employed.
⎛ I OUT R X
⎞
- ------------------ R FB⎟
V OUT = V REF – V OFS – ⎜ -----------⎝ N R ISEN
⎠
VCC
OR
GND
(EQ. 9)
-
Where VREF is the reference voltage, VOFS is the
programmed offset voltage, IOUT is the total output current
of the converter, RISEN is the sense resistor connected to
the ISEN+ pin, and RFB is the feedback resistor, N is the
active channel number, and RX is the DCR, rDS(ON), or
RSENSE depending on the sensing method.
Therefore the equivalent loadline impedance, i.e. Droop
impedance, is equal to Equation 10:
R FB R X
-----------------R LL = -----------N R ISEN
(EQ. 10)
21
ROFS
1.6V
+
+
0.4V
VCC
-
OFS
ISL6306
GND
FIGURE 9. OUTPUT VOLTAGE OFFSET PROGRAMMING
Dynamic VID
Modern microprocessors need to make changes to their
core voltage as part of normal operation. They direct the
core-voltage regulator to do this by making changes to the
VID inputs during regulator operation. The power
management solution is required to monitor the DAC inputs
and respond to on-the-fly VID changes in a controlled
manner. Supervising the safe output voltage transition within
the DAC range of the processor without discontinuity or
disruption is a necessary function of the core-voltage regulator.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
The ISL6306 checks the VID inputs six times every switching
cycle. If the VID code is found to have been changed, the
controller waits for half of a switching cycle before executing a
6.25mV step change. If the difference between DAC level and
the new VID code changes during the half-cycle waiting period,
no change to the DAC output is made. If the VID code is more
than 1 bit higher or lower than the DAC (not recommended),
the controller will execute 6.26mV step change six times per
cycle until VID and DAC are equal. Therefore it is important to
carefully control the rate of VID stepping in 1-bit increments.
In order to ensure the smooth transition of output voltage during
VID change, a VID step change smoothing network, composed
of RREF and CREF, can be used. The selection of RREF is
based on the desired offset voltage as detailed in “OutputVoltage Offset Programming” on page 21. The selection of
CREF is based on the time duration for 1 bit VID change and
the allowable delay time.
Assuming the microprocessor controls the VID change at 1-bit
every TVID, the relationship between the time constant of RREF
and CREF network and TVID is given by Equation 13.
(EQ. 13)
C REF R REF = T VID
Operation Initialization
Prior to converter initialization, proper conditions must exist on
the enable inputs and VCC. When the conditions are met, the
controller begins soft-start. Once the output voltage is within the
proper window of operation, VR_RDY asserts logic high.
ISL6306 INTERNAL CIRCUIT
EXTERNAL CIRCUIT
+12V
VCC
POR
CIRCUIT
ENABLE
COMPARATOR
+
10kΩ
EN_PWR
910Ω
0.875V
+
EN_VTT
-
Enable and Disable
While in shutdown mode, the PWM outputs are held in a
high-impedance state to assure the drivers remain off. The
following input conditions must be met before the ISL6306 is
released from shutdown mode.
1. The bias voltage applied at VCC must reach the internal
power-on reset (POR) rising threshold. Once this
threshold is reached, proper operation of all aspects of
the ISL6306 is guaranteed. Hysteresis between the rising
and falling thresholds assure that once enabled, the
ISL6306 will not inadvertently turn off unless the bias
voltage drops substantially (see “Electrical
Specifications” on page 8).
2. The ISL6306 features an enable input (EN_PWR) for
power sequencing between the controller bias voltage
and another voltage rail. The enable comparator holds
the ISL6306 in shutdown until the voltage at EN_PWR
rises above 0.875V. The enable comparator has about
130mV of hysteresis to prevent bounce. It is important
that the driver ICs reach their POR level before the
ISL6306 becomes enabled. The schematic in Figure 10
demonstrates sequencing the ISL6306 with the ISL66xx
family of Intersil MOSFET drivers, which require 12V
bias.
3. The voltage on EN_VTT must be higher than 0.875V to
enable the controller. This pin is typically connected to the
output of VTT VR.
When all conditions above are satisfied, ISL6306 begins the
soft-start and ramps the output voltage to 1.1V first. After
remaining at 1.1V for some time, ISL6306 reads the VID
code at VID input pins. If the VID code is valid, ISL6306 will
regulate the output to the final VID setting. If the VID code is
OFF code, ISL6306 will shut down, and cycling VCC,
EN_PWR or EN_VTT is needed to restart.
Soft-Start
ISL6306 based VR has 4 periods during soft-start as shown
in Figure 11. After VCC, EN_VTT and EN_PWR reach their
POR/enable thresholds, The controller will have fixed delay
period TD1. After this delay period, the VR will begin first
soft-start ramp until the output voltage reaches 1.1V VBOOT
voltage. Then, the controller will regulate the VR voltage at
1.1V for another fixed period TD3. At the end of TD3 period,
ISL6306 reads the VID signals. If the VID code is valid,
ISL6306 will initiate the second soft-start ramp until the
voltage reaches the VID voltage minus offset voltage.
0.875V
The soft-start time is the sum of the 4 periods as shown in
Equation 14.
SOFT-START
AND
FAULT LOGIC
T SS = TD1 + TD2 + TD3 + TD4
FIGURE 10. POWER SEQUENCING USING THRESHOLDSENSITIVE ENABLE (EN) FUNCTION
22
(EQ. 14)
TD1 is a fixed delay with the typical value as 1.36ms. TD3 is
determined by the fixed 85µs plus the time to obtain valid
VID voltage. If the VID is valid before the output reaches the
1.1V, the minimum time to validate the VID input is 500ns.
Therefore the minimum TD3 is about 86µs.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
During TD2 and TD4, ISL6306 digitally controls the DAC
voltage change at 6.25mV per step. The time for each step is
determined by the frequency of the soft-start oscillator which
is defined by the resistor Rss from SS pin to GND. The
second soft-start ramp time TD2 and TD4 can be calculated
based on Equations 15 and 16:
Undervoltage Detection
1.1xR SS
TD2 = ------------------------ ( μs )
6.25x25
(EQ. 15)
( V VID – 1.1 )xR SS
TD4 = ------------------------------------------------ ( μs )
6.25x25
(EQ. 16)
Regardless of the VR being enabled or not, the ISL6306
overvoltage protection (OVP) circuit will be active after its
POR. The OVP thresholds are different under different
operation conditions. When VR is not enabled and before
the second soft-start, the OVP threshold is 1.275V. Once the
controller detects valid VID input, the OVP trip point will be
changed to VID plus 175mV.
For example, when VID is set to 1.5V and the Rss is set at
100kΩ, the first soft-start ramp time TD2 will be 704µs and
the second soft-start ramp time TD4 will be 256µs.
After the DAC voltage reaches the final VID setting,
VR_RDY will be set to high with the fixed delay TD5. The
typical value for TD5 is 85µs.
VOUT, 500mV/DIV
TD1
TD2
TD3 TD4
TD5
EN_VTT
VR_REDY
500µs/DIV
FIGURE 11. SOFT-START WAVEFORMS
The undervoltage threshold is set at 50% of the VID code.
When the output voltage at VSEN is below the undervoltage
threshold, VR_RDY is pulled low.
Overvoltage Protection
Two actions are taken by the ISL6306 to protect the
microprocessor load when an overvoltage condition occurs.
At the inception of an overvoltage event, all PWM outputs
are commanded low instantly (less than 20ns) until the
voltage at VDIFF falls below 0.4V. This causes the Intersil
drivers to turn on the lower MOSFETs and pull the output
voltage below a level that might cause damage to the load.
The PWM outputs remain low until VDIFF falls below 0.4V,
and then PWM signals enter a high-impedance state. The
Intersil drivers respond to the high-impedance input by
turning off both upper and lower MOSFETs. If the
overvoltage condition reoccurs, the ISL6306 will again
command the lower MOSFETs to turn on. The ISL6306 will
continue to protect the load in this fashion as long as the
overvoltage condition occurs.
Once an overvoltage condition is detected, normal PWM
operation ceases until the ISL6306 is reset. Cycling the
voltage on EN_PWR, EN_VTT or VCC below the PORfalling threshold will reset the controller. Cycling the VID
codes will not reset the controller.
Fault Monitoring and Protection
VR_RDY
The ISL6306 actively monitors output voltage and current to
detect fault conditions. Fault monitors trigger protective
measures to prevent damage to a microprocessor load. One
common power good indicator is provided for linking to
external system monitors. The schematic in Figure 12
outlines the interaction between the fault monitors and the
VR_RDY signal.
DELAY
50%
DAC
VR_RDY Signal
The VR_RDY pin is an open-drain logic output to indicate
that the soft-start period is completed and the output voltage
is within the regulated range. VR_RDY is pulled low during
shutdown and releases high after a successful soft-start and
a fixed delay TD5. VR_RDY will be pulled low when an
undervoltage or overvoltage condition is detected, or the
controller is disabled by a reset from EN_PWR, EN_VTT,
POR, or VID OFF-code.
OC
-
+
UV
SOFT-START, FAULT
AND CONTROL LOGIC
-
100µA
+
I1
REPEAT FOR
EACH CHANNEL
-
100µA
OC
+
IAVG
+
VDIFF
OV
VID + 0.175V
FIGURE 12. VR_RDY AND PROTECTION CIRCUITRY
23
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Overcurrent Protection
Thermal Monitoring (VR_HOT/VR_FAN)
ISL6306 has two levels of overcurrent protection. Each
phase is protected from a sustained overcurrent condition on
a delayed basis, while the combined phase currents are
protected on an instantaneous basis.
There are two thermal signals to indicate the temperature
status of the voltage regulator: VR_HOT and VR_FAN. Both
VR_FAN and VR_HOT are open-drain outputs, and external
pull-up resistors are required.
In instantaneous protection mode, the ISL6306 utilizes the
sensed average current IAVG to detect an overcurrent
condition. See “Channel-Current Balance” on page 15 for
more detail on how the average current is measured. The
average current is continually compared with a constant
100μA reference current as shown in Figure 12. Once the
average current exceeds the reference current, a
comparator triggers the converter to shutdown.
VR_FAN signal indicates that the temperature of the voltage
regulator is high and more cooling airflow is needed.
VR_HOT signal can be used to inform the system that the
temperature of the voltage regulator is too high and the CPU
should reduce its power consumption. VR_HOT signal may
be tied to the CPU’s PROC_HOT signal.
In individual overcurrent protection mode, the ISL6306
continuously compares the current of each channel with the
same 100μA reference current. If any channel current
exceeds the reference current continuously for eight
consecutive cycles, the comparator triggers the converter to
shutdown.
The diagram of thermal monitoring function block is shown in
Figure 14. One NTC resistor should be placed close to the
power stage of the voltage regulator to sense the operational
temperature, and one pull-up resistor is needed to form the
voltage divider for TM pin. As the temperature of the power
stage increases, the resistance of the NTC will reduce,
resulting in the reduced voltage at TM pin. Figure 15 shows
the TM voltage over the temperature for a typical design with
a recommended 6.8kΩ NTC (P/N: NTHS0805N02N6801
from Vishay) and 1kΩ resistor RTM1. We recommend using
those resistors for the accurate temperature compensation.
OUTPUT CURRENT
0A
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
0V
There are two comparators with hysteresis to compare the
TM pin voltage to the fixed thresholds for VR_FAN and
VR_HOT signals respectively. VR_FAN signal is set to high
when TM voltage is lower than 33% of VCC voltage, and is
pulled to GND when TM voltage increases to above 39% of
VCC voltage. VR_FAN is set to high when TM voltage goes
below 28% of VCC voltage, and is pulled to GND when TM
voltage goes back to above 33% of VCC voltage. Figure 16
shows the operation of those signals.
2ms/DIV
FIGURE 13. OVERCURRENT BEHAVIOR IN HICCUP MODE.
FSW = 500kHz
At the beginning of overcurrent shutdown, the controller
places all PWM signals in a high-impedance state within
20ns commanding the Intersil MOSFET driver ICs to turn off
both upper and lower MOSFETs. The system remains in this
state a period of 4096 switching cycles. If the controller is still
enabled at the end of this wait period, it will attempt a softstart. If the fault remains, the trip-retry cycles will continue
indefinitely (as shown in Figure 13) until either controller is
disabled or the fault is cleared. Note that the energy
delivered during trip-retry cycling is much less than during
full-load operation, so there is no thermal hazard during this
kind of operation.
24
VCC
VR_FAN
R
TM1
0.33VCC
VR_HOT
TM
oc
R
NTC
0.28VCC
FIGURE 14. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THERMAL MONITORING
FUNCTION
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Temperature Compensation
VTM/VCC vs TEMPERATURE
ISL6306 supports inductor DCR sensing, MOSFET rDS(ON)
sensing, or resistive sensing techniques. Both inductor DCR
and MOSFET rDS(ON) have the positive temperature
coefficient, which is about +0.38%/°C. Because the voltage
across inductor or MOSFET is sensed for the output current
information, the sensed current has the same positive
temperature coefficient as the inductor DCR or MOSFET
rDS(ON).
100
90
VTM/VCC (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
TEMPERATURE (°C)
In order to obtain the correct current information, there
should be a way to correct the temperature impact on the
current sense component. ISL6306 provides two methods:
integrated temperature compensation and external
temperature compensation.
Integrated Temperature Compensation
FIGURE 15. THE RATIO OF TM VOLTAGE TO NTC
TEMPERATURE WITH RECOMMENDED PARTS
When TCOMP voltage is equal or greater than VCC/15,
ISL6306 will utilize the voltage at TM and TCOMP pins to
compensate the temperature impact on the sensed current.
The block diagram of this function is shown in Figure 17.
TM
0.39*VCC
0.33*VCC
0.28*VCC
V CC
Isen4
CHANNEL
R TM1
VR_FAN
TM
VR_HOT
TEMPERATURE (°C)
T1
T2
Based on the NTC temperature characteristics and the
desired threshold of VR_HOT signal, the pull-up resistor
RTM1 of TM pin is given by:
(EQ. 17)
RNTC(T3) is the NTC resistance at the VR_HOT threshold
temperature T3.
The NTC resistance at the set point T2 and release point T1
of VR_FAN signal can be calculated as:
R NTC ( T2 ) = 1.267xR NTC ( T3 )
(EQ. 18)
R NTC ( T1 ) = 1.644xR NTC ( T3 )
(EQ. 19)
With the NTC resistance value obtained from Equations 18
and 19, the temperature value T2 and T1 can be found from
the NTC datasheet.
25
SENSE
Non-linear
NON-LINEAR
A/D
A/D
Isen1
I4
I3
I2
I1
R NTC
T3
FIGURE 16. VR_HOT AND VR_FAN SIGNAL vs TM VOLTAGE
R TM1 = 2.75xR NTC ( T3 )
oc
Isen3
Isen2
Channel current
CURRENT
sense
D/A
V CC
ki
R TC1
TCOMP
4-bit
4-BIT
A/D
A/D
DROOP AND
OVERCURRENT
Droop
&
PROTECTION
Over current
protection
R TC2
FIGURE 17. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF INTEGRATED
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION
When the TM NTC is placed close to the current sense
component (inductor or MOSFET), the temperature of the
NTC will track the temperature of the current sense
component. Therefore the TM voltage can be utilized to
obtain the temperature of the current sense component.
Based on VCC voltage, ISL6306 converts the TM pin voltage
to a 6-bit TM digital signal for temperature compensation.
With the non-linear A/D converter of ISL6306, TM digital
signal is linearly proportional to the NTC temperature. For
accurate temperature compensation, the ratio of the TM
voltage to the NTC temperature of the practical design
should be similar to that in Figure 15.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Depending on the location of the NTC and the airflow, the
NTC may be cooler or hotter than the current sense
component. TCOMP pin voltage can be utilized to correct
the temperature difference between NTC and the current
sense component. When a different NTC type or different
voltage divider is used for the TM function, TCOMP voltage
can also be used to compensate for the difference between
the recommended TM voltage curve in Figure 16 and that of
the actual design. According to the VCC voltage, ISL6306
converts the TCOMP pin voltage to a 4-bit TCOMP digital
signal as TCOMP factor N.
TCOMP factor N is an integer between 0 and 15. The
integrated temperature compensation function is disabled for
N = 0. For N = 4, the NTC temperature is equal to the
temperature of the current sense component. For N < 4, the
NTC is hotter than the current sense component. The NTC is
cooler than the current sense component for N > 4. When
N > 4, the larger TCOMP factor N, the larger the difference
between the NTC temperature and the temperature of the
current sense component.
ISL6306 multiplexes the TCOMP factor N with the TM digital
signal to obtain the adjustment gain to compensate the
temperature impact on the sensed channel current. The
compensated channel current signal is used for droop and
overcurrent protection functions.
9. Run the actual board under full load again with the proper
resistors connected to the TCOMP pin.
10. Record the output voltage as V1 immediately after the
output voltage is stable with the full load. Record the
output voltage as V2 after the VR reaches the thermal
steady state.
11. If the output voltage increases over 2mV as the
temperature increases, i.e. V2 - V1 > 2mV, reduce N and
redesign RTC2; if the output voltage decreases over 2mV
as the temperature increases, i.e. V1 - V2 > 2mV,
increase N and redesign RTC2.
The design spreadsheet is available for those calculations.
External Temperature Compensation
By setting the voltage of TCOMP pin to 0, the integrated
temperature compensation function is disabled. And one
external temperature compensation network, shown in
Figure 18, can be used to cancel the temperature impact on
the droop (i.e. load line).
COMP
FB
IDROOP
Design Procedure
1. Properly choose the voltage divider for TM pin to match
the TM voltage VS temperature curve with the
recommended curve in Figure 15.
2. Run the actual board under the full load and the desired
cooling condition.
3. After the board reaches the thermal steady state, record
the temperature (TCSC) of the current sense component
(inductor or MOSFET) and the voltage at TM and VCC
pins.
4. Use Equation 20 to calculate the resistance of the TM
NTC, and find out the corresponding NTC temperature
TNTC from the NTC datasheet.
R NTC ( T
V TM xR
TM1
= ------------------------------)
V CC – V
NTC
TM
(EQ. 20)
5. Use Equation 21 to calculate the TCOMP factor N:
209x ( T CSC – T
)
NTC
N = -------------------------------------------------------- + 4
3xT NTC + 400
(EQ. 21)
6. Choose an integral number close to the above result for
the TCOMP factor. If this factor is higher than 15, use
N = 15. If it is less than 1, use N = 1.
7. Choose the pull-up resistor RTC1 (typical 10kΩ).
8. If N = 15, do not need the pull-down resistor RTC2,
otherwise obtain RTC2 by Equation 22:
NxR TC1
R TC2 = ----------------------15 – N
(EQ. 22)
26
oc
VDIFF
FIGURE 18. VOLTAGE AT IDROOP PIN WITH A RESISTOR
PLACED FROM IDROOP PIN TO GND WHEN
LOAD CURRENT CHANGES
The sensed current will flow out of IDROOP pin and develop
the droop voltage across the resistor equivalent (RFB)
between FB and VDIFF pins. If RFB resistance reduces as
the temperature increases, the temperature impact on the
droop can be compensated. An NTC resistor can be placed
close to the power stage and used to form RFB. Due to the
non-linear temperature characteristics of the NTC, a resistor
network is needed to make the equivalent resistance
between FB and VDIFF pin is reverse proportional to the
temperature.
The external temperature compensation network can only
compensate the temperature impact on the droop, while it
has no impact to the sensed current inside ISL6306.
Therefore this network cannot compensate for the
temperature impact on the overcurrent protection function.
Current Sense Output
The current from IDROOP pin is the sensed average current
inside ISL6306. In typical application, IDROOP pin is
connected to FB pin for the application where load line is
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
required. When load line function is not needed, IDROOP
pin can used to obtain the load current information: with one
resistor from IDROOP pin to GND, the voltage at IDROOP
pin will be proportional to the load current. The resistor from
IDROOP to GND should be chosen to ensure that the
voltage at IDROOP pin is less than 2V under the maximum
load current.
General Design Guide
This design guide is intended to provide a high-level
explanation of the steps necessary to create a multiphase
power converter. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with
many of the basic skills and techniques referenced below. In
addition to this guide, Intersil provides complete reference
designs that include schematics, bills of materials, and
example board layouts for all common microprocessor
applications.
Power Stages
The first step in designing a multiphase converter is to
determine the number of phases. This determination
depends heavily on the cost analysis which in turn depends
on system constraints that differ from one design to the next.
Principally, the designer will be concerned with whether
components can be mounted on both sides of the circuit
board; whether through-hole components are permitted; and
the total board space available for power-supply circuitry.
Generally speaking, the most economical solutions are
those in which each phase handles between 15A and 20A.
All surface-mount designs will tend toward the lower end of
this current range. If through-hole MOSFETs and inductors
can be used, higher per-phase currents are possible. In
cases where board space is the limiting constraint, current
can be pushed as high as 40A per phase, but these designs
require heat sinks and forced air to cool the MOSFETs,
inductors and heat-dissipating surfaces.
MOSFETs
The choice of MOSFETs depends on the current each
MOSFET will be required to conduct; the switching
frequency; the capability of the MOSFETs to dissipate heat;
and the availability and nature of heat sinking and air flow.
dead time when inductor current is flowing through the
lower-MOSFET body diode. This term is dependent on the
diode forward voltage at IM, VD(ON); the switching
frequency, fS; and the length of dead times, td1 and td2, at
the beginning and the end of the lower-MOSFET conduction
interval respectively.
⎛I
⎞
IM I
M I P-P
P-P-⎞ t
P LOW, 2 = V D ( ON ) f S ⎛ ----d1 + ⎜ ------ – -----------⎟ t d2
⎝ N- + ---------2 ⎠
2 ⎠
⎝N
(EQ. 24)
Thus the total maximum power dissipated in each lower
MOSFET is approximated by the summation of PLOW,1 and
PLOW,2.
UPPER MOSFET POWER CALCULATION
In addition to rDS(ON) losses, a large portion of the upperMOSFET losses are due to currents conducted across the
input voltage (VIN) during switching. Since a substantially
higher portion of the upper-MOSFET losses are dependent
on switching frequency, the power calculation is more
complex. Upper MOSFET losses can be divided into
separate components involving the upper-MOSFET
switching times; the lower-MOSFET body-diode reverserecovery charge (Qrr) and the upper MOSFET rDS(ON)
conduction loss.
When the upper MOSFET turns off, the lower MOSFET does
not conduct any portion of the inductor current until the
voltage at the phase node falls below ground. Once the
lower MOSFET begins conducting, the current in the upper
MOSFET falls to zero as the current in the lower MOSFET
ramps up to assume the full inductor current. In Equation 25,
the required time for this commutation is t1 and the
approximated associated power loss is PUP,1.
I M I P-P⎞ ⎛ t 1 ⎞
P UP,1 ≈ V IN ⎛ ----- ⎜ ---- ⎟ f
⎝ N- + ---------2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ S
(EQ. 25)
At turn on, the upper MOSFET begins to conduct and this
transition occurs over a time t2. In Equation 26, the
approximate power loss is PUP,2.
⎛ I M I P-P⎞ ⎛ t 2 ⎞
P UP, 2 ≈ V IN ⎜ ----- – -----------⎟ ⎜ ---- ⎟ f S
2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠
⎝N
(EQ. 26)
LOWER MOSFET POWER CALCULATION
The calculation for heat dissipated in the lower MOSFET is
simple, since virtually all of the heat loss in the lower
MOSFET is due to current conducted through the channel
resistance (rDS(ON)). In Equation 23, IM is the maximum
continuous output current; IPP is the peak-to-peak inductor
current (see Equation 1); d is the duty cycle (VOUT/VIN); and
L is the per-channel inductance.
P LOW, 1 = r DS ( ON )
I L, 2P-P ( 1 – d )
⎛ I M⎞ 2
⎜ ⎟ ( 1 – d ) + --------------------------------------⎝ N⎠
(EQ. 23)
12
An additional term can be added to the lower-MOSFET loss
equation to account for additional loss accrued during the
27
A third component involves the lower MOSFET’s reverserecovery charge (Qrr). Since the inductor current has fully
commutated to the upper MOSFET before the lowerMOSFET’s body diode can draw all of Qrr, it is conducted
through the upper MOSFET across VIN. The power
dissipated as a result is PUP,3 and is approximately
P UP,3 = V IN Q rr f S
(EQ. 27)
Finally, the resistive part of the upper MOSFET’s is given in
Equation 28 as PUP,4.
The total power dissipated by the upper MOSFET at full load
can now be approximated as the summation of the results
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
from Equations 25, 26, and 27. Since the power equations
depend on MOSFET parameters, choosing the correct
MOSFETs can be an iterative process involving repetitive
solutions to the loss equations for different MOSFETs and
different switching frequencies.
2
2
I P-P
⎛ I M⎞
P UP,4 ≈ r DS ( ON ) ⎜ -----⎟ d + ----------- d
12
⎝ N⎠
(EQ. 28)
Current Sensing Resistor
The resistors connected between these pins and the
respective phase nodes determine the gains in the load-line
regulation loop and the channel-current balance loop as well
as setting the overcurrent trip point. Select values for these
resistors based on the room temperature rDS(ON) of the
lower MOSFETs, DCR of inductor or additional resistor; the
full-load operating current, IFL; and the number of phases, N
using Equation 29.
I FL
-------N
(EQ. 29)
In certain circumstances, it may be necessary to adjust the
value of one or more ISEN resistor. When the components of
one or more channels are inhibited from effectively
dissipating their heat so that the affected channels run hotter
than desired, choose new, smaller values of RISEN for the
affected phases (see the section entitled “Channel-Current
Balance” on page 15). Choose RISEN2 in proportion to the
desired decrease in temperature rise in order to cause
proportionally less current to flow in the hotter phase.
ΔT
R ISEN ,2 = R ISEN ----------2
ΔT 1
∑ RISEN ( n )
(EQ. 32)
n
Compensation
The two opposing goals of compensating the voltage
regulator are stability and speed. Depending on whether the
regulator employs the optional load-line regulation as
described in Load-Line Regulation, there are two distinct
methods for achieving these goals.
COMPENSATING LOAD-LINE REGULATED
CONVERTER
The load-line regulated converter behaves in a similar
manner to a peak-current mode controller because the two
poles at the output-filter LC resonant frequency split with the
introduction of current information into the control loop. The
final location of these poles is determined by the system
function, the gain of the current signal, and the value of the
compensation components, RC and CC.
Since the system poles and zero are affected by the values
of the components that are meant to compensate them, the
solution to the system equation becomes fairly complicated.
Fortunately there is a simple approximation that comes very
close to an optimal solution. Treating the system as though it
were a voltage-mode regulator by compensating the LC
poles and the ESR zero of the voltage-mode approximation
yields a solution that is always stable with very close to ideal
transient performance.
C2 (OPTIONAL)
(EQ. 30)
RC
In Equation 30, make sure that ΔT2 is the desired temperature
rise above the ambient temperature, and ΔT1 is the measured
temperature rise above the ambient temperature. While a
single adjustment according to Equation 30 is usually
sufficient, it may occasionally be necessary to adjust RISEN
two or more times to achieve optimal thermal balance
between all channels.
CC
COMP
FB
+
RFB
VDROOP
IDROOP
ISL6306
RX
R ISEN = ---------------------70 ×10 – 6
V DROOP
R FB = -------------------------------I FL r DS ( ON )
VDIFF
Load-Line Regulation Resistor
The load-line regulation resistor is labelled RFB in Figure 8.
Its value depends on the desired full load droop voltage
(VDROOP in Figure 8). If Equation 29 is used to select each
ISEN resistor, the load-line regulation resistor is as shown in
Equation 31.
V DROOP
R FB = -----------------------–6
70 ×10
(EQ. 31)
If one or more of the ISEN resistors is adjusted for thermal
balance, as in Equation 30, the load-line regulation resistor
should be selected according to Equation 32 where IFL is the
full-load operating current and RISEN(n) is the ISEN resistor
connected to the nth ISEN pin.
28
FIGURE 19. COMPENSATION CONFIGURATION FOR
LOAD-LINE REGULATED ISL6306 CIRCUIT
The feedback resistor, RFB, has already been chosen as
outlined in “Load-Line Regulation Resistor” on page 28.
Select a target bandwidth for the compensated system, f0.
The target bandwidth must be large enough to assure
adequate transient performance, but smaller than 1/3 of the
per-channel switching frequency. The values of the
compensation components depend on the relationships of f0
to the LC pole frequency and the ESR zero frequency. For
each of the three cases which follow, there is a separate set
of equations for the compensation components.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
1
------------------- > f 0
2π LC
C2
2πf 0 V P-P LC
R C = R FB -------------------------------------0.75V
RC
CC
IN
0.75V IN
C C = ------------------------------------2πV P-P R FB f 0
COMP
FB
C1
Case 2:
1
1
------------------- ≤ f 0 < ----------------------------2πC ( ESR )
2π LC
V P-P ( 2π ) 2 f 02 LC
R C = R FB --------------------------------------------0.75 V
RFB
R1
IDROOP
ISL6306
Case 1:
VDIFF
(EQ. 33)
IN
0.75V IN
C C = -------------------------------------------------------------2
( 2π ) f 02 V P-P R FB LC
Case 3:
1
f 0 > -----------------------------2πC ( ESR )
2π f 0 V P-P L
R C = R FB ----------------------------------------0.75 V IN ( ESR )
0.75V IN ( ESR ) C
C C = -----------------------------------------------2πV P-P R FB f 0 L
In Equation 33, L is the per-channel filter inductance divided
by the number of active channels; C is the sum total of all
output capacitors; ESR is the equivalent-series resistance of
the bulk output-filter capacitance; and VPP is the peak-topeak sawtooth signal amplitude as described in Figure 7 and
“Electrical Specifications” on page 8.
The optional capacitor C2, is sometimes needed to bypass
noise away from the PWM comparator (see Figure 20). Keep
a position available for C2, and be prepared to install a highfrequency capacitor of between 22pF and 150pF in case any
leading-edge jitter problem is noted.
Once selected, the compensation values in Equation 33
assure a stable converter with reasonable transient
performance. In most cases, transient performance can be
improved by making adjustments to RC. Slowly increase the
value of RC while observing the transient performance on an
oscilloscope until no further improvement is noted. Normally,
CC will not need adjustment. Keep the value of CC from
Equation 33 unless some performance issue is noted.
COMPENSATION WITHOUT LOAD-LINE REGULATION
The non load-line regulated converter is accurately modeled
as a voltage-mode regulator with two poles at the LC
resonant frequency and a zero at the ESR frequency. A
type III controller, as shown in Figure 20, provides the
necessary compensation.
29
FIGURE 20. COMPENSATION CIRCUIT FOR ISL6306 BASED
CONVERTER WITHOUT LOAD-LINE
REGULATION
The first step is to choose the desired bandwidth, f0, of the
compensated system. Choose a frequency high enough to
assure adequate transient performance but not higher than
1/3 of the switching frequency. The type-III compensator has
an extra high-frequency pole, fHF. This pole can be used for
added noise rejection or to assure adequate attenuation at
the error-amplifier high-order pole and zero frequencies. A
good general rule is to choose fHF = 10f0, but it can be
higher if desired. Choosing fHF to be lower than 10f0 can
cause problems with too much phase shift below the system
bandwidth.
In the solutions to the compensation equations, there is a
single degree of freedom. For the solutions presented in
Equation 34, RFB is selected arbitrarily. The remaining
compensation components are then selected according to
Equation 34.
C ( ESR )
R 1 = R FB ----------------------------------------LC – C ( ESR )
LC – C ( ESR )
C 1 = ----------------------------------------R FB
0.75V IN
C 2 = -------------------------------------------------------------------( 2π ) 2 f 0 f HF LCR FB V P-P
2
V P-P ⎛ 2π⎞ f 0 f HF LCR FB
⎝ ⎠
R C = -------------------------------------------------------------------⎛2πf
⎞
0.75 V
⎝ HF LC – 1⎠
IN
⎞
0.75V IN ⎛2πf
⎝ HF LC – 1⎠
C C = --------------------------------------------------------------------( 2π ) 2 f 0 f HF LCR FB V P-P
(EQ. 34)
In Equation 34, L is the per-channel filter inductance divided
by the number of active channels; C is the sum total of all
output capacitors; ESR is the equivalent-series resistance of
the bulk output-filter capacitance; and VP-P is the peak-topeak sawtooth signal amplitude as described in Figure 7 and
“Electrical Specifications” on page 8.
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Output Filter Design
The output inductors and the output capacitor bank together
to form a low-pass filter responsible for smoothing the
pulsating voltage at the phase nodes. The output filter also
must provide the transient energy until the regulator can
respond. Because it has a low bandwidth compared to the
switching frequency, the output filter necessarily limits the
system transient response. The output capacitor must
supply or sink load current while the current in the output
inductors increases or decreases to meet the demand.
In high-speed converters, the output capacitor bank is
usually the most costly (and often the largest) part of the
circuit. Output filter design begins with minimizing the cost of
this part of the circuit. The critical load parameters in
choosing the output capacitors are the maximum size of the
load step, ΔI; the load-current slew rate, di/dt; and the
maximum allowable output-voltage deviation under transient
loading, ΔVMAX. Capacitors are characterized according to
their capacitance (ESR) and ESL (equivalent series
inductance).
At the beginning of the load transient, the output capacitors
supply all of the transient current. The output voltage will
initially deviate by an amount approximated by the voltage
drop across the ESL. As the load current increases, the
voltage drop across the ESR increases linearly until the load
current reaches its final value. The capacitors selected must
have sufficiently low ESL and ESR so that the total outputvoltage deviation is less than the allowable maximum.
Neglecting the contribution of inductor current and regulator
response, the output voltage initially deviates by an amount:
di
ΔV ≈ ( ESL ) ----- + ( ESR ) ΔI
dt
(EQ. 35)
The filter capacitor must have sufficiently low ESL and ESR
so that ΔV < ΔVMAX.
Most capacitor solutions rely on a mixture of high-frequency
capacitors with relatively low capacitance in combination
with bulk capacitors having high capacitance but limited
high-frequency performance. Minimizing the ESL of the
high-frequency capacitors allows them to support the output
voltage as the current increases. Minimizing the ESR of the
bulk capacitors allows them to supply the increased current
with less output voltage deviation.
The ESR of the bulk capacitors also creates the majority of
the output-voltage ripple. As the bulk capacitors sink and
source the inductor AC ripple current (see “Interleaving” on
page 12 and Equation 2), a voltage develops across the
bulk-capacitor ESR equal to IC,P-P (ESR). Thus, once the
output capacitors are selected, the maximum allowable
ripple voltage, VP-P(MAX), determines the lower limit on the
inductance.
⎛V – N V
⎞
OUT⎠ V OUT
⎝ IN
L ≥ ( ESR ) -----------------------------------------------------------f S V IN V PP( MAX )
(EQ. 36)
transient, the capacitor voltage becomes slightly depleted.
The output inductors must be capable of assuming the entire
load current before the output voltage decreases more than
ΔVMAX. This places an upper limit on inductance.
Equation 37 gives the upper limit on L for the cases when
the trailing edge of the current transient causes a greater
output-voltage deviation than the leading edge. Equation 38
addresses the leading edge. Normally, the trailing edge
dictates the selection of L because duty cycles are usually
less than 50%. Nevertheless, both inequalities should be
evaluated, and L should be selected based on the lower of
the two results. In each equation, L is the per-channel
inductance, C is the total output capacitance, and N is the
number of active channels.
2NCVO
- ΔV MAX – ΔI ( ESR )
L ≤ -------------------( ΔI ) 2
( 1.25 ) NC
L ≤ -------------------------- ΔV MAX – ΔI ( ESR ) ⎛ V IN – V O⎞
⎝
⎠
( ΔI ) 2
(EQ. 37)
(EQ. 38)
Switching Frequency
There are a number of variables to consider when choosing
the switching frequency, as there are considerable effects on
the upper-MOSFET loss calculation. These effects are
outlined in “MOSFETs” on page 27, and they establish the
upper limit for the switching frequency. The lower limit is
established by the requirement for fast transient response
and small output-voltage ripple as outlined in “Output Filter
Design” on page 30. Choose the lowest switching frequency
that allows the regulator to meet the transient-response
requirements.
Switching frequency is determined by the selection of the
frequency-setting resistor, RT (see the figures labelled
Typical Applications on pages 4, 5, 6, and 7). Equation 39 is
provided to assist in selecting the correct value for RT.
10
2.5X10
R T = -------------------------FS
(EQ. 39)
Input Capacitor Selection
The input capacitors are responsible for sourcing the AC
component of the input current flowing into the upper
MOSFETs. Their RMS current capacity must be sufficient to
handle the AC component of the current drawn by the upper
MOSFETs which is related to duty cycle and the number of
active phases.
Since the capacitors are supplying a decreasing portion of
the load current while the regulator recovers from the
.
30
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
For a two phase design, use Figure 21 to determine the
input-capacitor RMS current requirement given the duty
cycle, maximum sustained output current (IO), and the ratio
of the per-phase peak-to-peak inductor current (IL,P-P) to IO.
Select a bulk capacitor with a ripple current rating which will
minimize the total number of input capacitors required to
support the RMS current calculated. The voltage rating of
the capacitors should also be at least 1.25 times greater
than the maximum input voltage.
.
INPUT-CAPACITOR CURRENT (IRMS/IO)
0.3
0.2
0.1
Figures 22 and 23 provide the same input RMS current
information for three and four phase designs respectively.
Use the same approach to selecting the bulk capacitor type
and number as described above.
IL,P-P = 0
IL,P-P = 0.5 IO
IL,P-P = 0.75 IO
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
DUTY CYCLE (VO/VIN)
FIGURE 21. NORMALIZED INPUT-CAPACITOR RMS CURRENT
vs DUTY CYCLE FOR 2-PHASE CONVERTER
INPUT-CAPACITOR CURRENT (IRMS/IO)
0.3
IL,P-P = 0
IL,P-P = 0.5 IO
IL,P-P = 0.25 IO
IL,P-P = 0.75 IO
MULTIPHASE RMS IMPROVEMENT
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
DUTY CYCLE (VO/VIN)
FIGURE 22. NORMALIZED INPUT-CAPACITOR RMS CURRENT
vs DUTY CYCLE FOR 3-PHASE CONVERTER
Figure 23 is provided as a reference to demonstrate the
dramatic reductions in input-capacitor RMS current upon the
implementation of the multiphase topology. For example,
compare the input RMS current requirements of a two-phase
converter versus that of a single phase. Assume both
converters have a duty cycle of 0.25, maximum sustained
output current of 40A, and a ratio of IL,P-P to IO of 0.5. The
single phase converter would require 17.3ARMS current
capacity while the two-phase converter would only require
10.9ARMS. The advantages become even more pronounced
when output current is increased and additional phases are
added to keep the component cost down relative to the
single phase approach.
Layout Considerations
The following layout strategies are intended to minimize the
impact of board parasitic impedances on converter
performance and to optimize the heat-dissipating capabilities
of the printed-circuit board. These sections highlight some
important practices which should not be overlooked during the
layout process.
0.6
INPUT-CAPACITOR CURRENT (IRMS/IO)
Low capacitance, high-frequency ceramic capacitors are
needed in addition to the bulk capacitors to suppress leading
and falling edge voltage spikes. The result from the high
current slew rates produced by the upper MOSFETs turn on
and off. Select low ESL ceramic capacitors and place one as
close as possible to each upper MOSFET drain to minimize
board parasitic impedances and maximize suppression.
0.4
Component Placement
0.2
IL,P-P = 0
IL,P-P = 0.5 IO
IL,P-P = 0.75 IO
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
DUTY CYCLE (VO/VIN)
FIGURE 23. NORMALIZED INPUT-CAPACITOR RMS
CURRENT vs DUTY CYCLE FOR SINGLE-PHASE
CONVERTER
31
Within the allotted implementation area, orient the switching
components first. The switching components are the most
critical because they carry large amounts of energy and tend
to generate high levels of noise. Switching component
placement should take into account power dissipation. Align
the output inductors and MOSFETs such that space between
the components is minimized while creating the PHASE
plane. Place the Intersil MOSFET driver IC as close as
possible to the MOSFETs they control to reduce the parasitic
impedances due to trace length between critical driver input
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
and output signals. If possible, duplicate the same
placement of these components for each phase.
Next, place the input and output capacitors. Position one
high-frequency ceramic input capacitor next to each upper
MOSFET drain. Place the bulk input capacitors as close to
the upper MOSFET drains as dictated by the component
size and dimensions. Long distances between input
capacitors and MOSFET drains result in too much trace
inductance and a reduction in capacitor performance. Locate
the output capacitors between the inductors and the load,
while keeping them in close proximity to the microprocessor
socket.
The ISL6306 can be placed off to one side or centered
relative to the individual phase switching components.
Routing of sense lines and PWM signals will guide final
placement. Critical small signal components to place close
to the controller include the ISEN resistors, RT resistor,
feedback resistor, and compensation components.
Bypass capacitors for the ISL6306 and ISL66XX driver bias
supplies must be placed next to their respective pins. Trace
parasitic impedances will reduce their effectiveness.
Plane Allocation and Routing
Dedicate one solid layer, usually a middle layer, for a ground
plane. Make all critical component ground connections with
vias to this plane. Dedicate one additional layer for power
planes; breaking the plane up into smaller islands of
common voltage. Use the remaining layers for signal wiring.
Route phase planes of copper filled polygons on the top and
bottom once the switching component placement is set. Size
the trace width between the driver gate pins and the
MOSFET gates to carry 4A of current. When routing
components in the switching path, use short wide traces to
reduce the associated parasitic impedances.
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
32
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
ISL6306
Package Outline Drawing
L40.6x6
40 LEAD QUAD FLAT NO-LEAD PLASTIC PACKAGE
Rev 3, 10/06
4X 4.5
6.00
36X 0.50
A
B
6
PIN 1
INDEX AREA
6
PIN #1 INDEX AREA
40
31
30
1
6.00
4 . 10 ± 0 . 15
21
10
0.15
(4X)
11
20
0.10 M C A B
TOP VIEW
40X 0 . 4 ± 0 . 1
4 0 . 23 +0 . 07 / -0 . 05
BOTTOM VIEW
SEE DETAIL "X"
0.10 C
0 . 90 ± 0 . 1
(
C
BASE PLANE
( 5 . 8 TYP )
SEATING PLANE
0.08 C
SIDE VIEW
4 . 10 )
( 36X 0 . 5 )
C
0 . 2 REF
5
( 40X 0 . 23 )
0 . 00 MIN.
0 . 05 MAX.
( 40X 0 . 6 )
DETAIL "X"
TYPICAL RECOMMENDED LAND PATTERN
NOTES:
1. Dimensions are in millimeters.
Dimensions in ( ) for Reference Only.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing conform to AMSE Y14.5m-1994.
3. Unless otherwise specified, tolerance : Decimal ± 0.05
4. Dimension b applies to the metallized terminal and is measured
between 0.15mm and 0.30mm from the terminal tip.
5. Tiebar shown (if present) is a non-functional feature.
6. The configuration of the pin #1 identifier is optional, but must be
located within the zone indicated. The pin #1 indentifier may be
either a mold or mark feature.
33
FN9226.1
May 5, 2008
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