DATASHEET

ISL6558
Data Sheet
August 28, 2015
Multi-Purpose Precision Multi-Phase PWM
Controller With Optional Active Voltage
Positioning
The ISL6558 is a multi-phase PWM controller, which in
combination with the HIP6601B, HIP6602B, HIP6603B, or
ISL6605 companion gate drivers form a complete solution
for high-current, high slew-rate applications. The ISL6558
regulates output voltage, balances load currents and
provides protective functions for two to four synchronous
rectified buck converter channels.
A novel approach to current sensing is used to reduce
overall solution cost and improve efficiency. The voltage
developed across the lower MOSFET during conduction is
sampled and fed back to the controller. This lossless currentsensing approach enables the controller to maintain phasecurrent balance between the power channels, provide
overcurrent protection, and permit droop compensation.
Optional output voltage “droop” or active voltage positioning
is supported via the DROOP pin. Taking advantage of this
feature reduces the size and cost of the output capacitors
required to support a load transient.
In the event of an overvoltage, the controller monitors and
responds to reduce the risk of damage to load devices.
Undervoltage conditions are indicated through a PGOOD
transition. Overcurrent conditions cause the converter to
shutdown limiting the exposure of load devices. These
integrated monitoring and protection features provide a safe
environment for microprocessors and other advanced low
voltage circuits.
FN9027.13
Features
• Pb-Free Plus Anneal Available (RoHS Compliant)
• Multi-Phase Power Conversion
- 2-, 3-, or 4-Phase Operation
• Optional Output Voltage Droop
• Precision Channel-Current Balance
• Lossless Current Sensing
• Precision Reference Voltage
- 0.8V ± 1.5% Over -40°C - 85°C Range
- 0. 8V ± 1.0% Over 0°C - 70°C Range
• Fast Transient Response
• Overcurrent and Overvoltage Protection
• Digital Soft-start
• Power Good Indication
• High Ripple Frequency (80kHz to 1.5MHz)
• QFN Package
- Compliant to JEDEC PUB95 MO-220 QFN-Quad Flat
No Leads-Product Outline
- Near Chip-Scale Package Footprint; Improves PCB
Efficiency and Thinner in Profile
Applications
• Power Supply Control for Microprocessors
• Low Output Voltage, High Current DC-DC Converters
• Voltage Regulator Modules
• Servers and Workstations
• Memory and Accelerated Graphics Port Supplies
• Communication Processor and Personal Computer
Peripherals
Pinouts
FB 5
12 PWM2
1
18
17
16
COMP
1
15 ISEN1
14 PWM1
3
13 PWM2
4
12 ISEN2
VSEN
5
11 ISEN3
6
7
8
9
10
PWM3
2
GND
N/C
11 ISEN2 DROOP
10 ISEN3
FB
9 PWM3
GND
GND 8
19
FS/EN
FS/EN 7
20
N/C
VSEN 6
ISEN4
13 PWM1
PWM4
DROOP 4
15 ISEN4
14 ISEN1
VCC
16 PWM4
VCC
VCC 1
PGOOD 2
COMP 3
PGOOD
ISL6558 (20 LEAD 5X5 QFN)
TOP VIEW
ISL6558 (16 LEAD SOIC)
TOP VIEW
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright © Intersil Americas Inc. 2001-2005. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
ISL6558
Ordering Information
TEMP.
(°C)
PART NUMBER
ISL6558CBZA (Note)
0 to 70
ISL6558CBZA-T (Note)
PACKAGE
16 Ld SOIC (Pb-free)
16 Ld SOIC Tape and Reel (Pb-free)
ISL6558CRZ (Note)
0 to 70
ISL6558CRZ-T (Note)
20 Ld 5x5 QFN (Pb-free)
20 Ld 5x5 QFN Tape and Reel
(Pb-free)
ISL6558CRZA (Note) (No longer
available, Recommended
Replacement ISL6558CRZ)
ISL6558CRZA-T (Note) (No longer
available, Recommended
Replacement ISL6558CRZ)
ISL6558IBZ (Note)
(No longer available, Recommended
Replacement ISL6558CBZA)
0 to 70
20 Ld 5x5 QFN (Pb-free)
20 Ld 5x5 QFN Tape and Reel
(Pb-free)
-40 to 85
16 Ld SOIC
(Pb-free)
16 Ld SOIC Tape and Reel
(Pb-free)
ISL6558IBZ-T
(Note) (No longer available,
Recommended Replacement
ISL6558CBZA)
ISL6558IRZ (Note)
-40 to 85
ISL6558IRZ-T (Note)
20 Ld 5x5 QFN (Pb-free)
20 Ld 5x5 QFN Tape and Reel
(Pb-free)
ISL6558IRZA (Note)
-40 to 85
20 Ld 5x5 QFN (Pb-free)
ISL6558IRZA-T (Note)
20 Ld 5x5 QFN Tape and Reel
(Pb-free)
ISL6558EVAL2Z
Evaluation Board
PKG.
DWG. #
M16.15
M16.15
L20.5x5
L20.5x5
L20.5x5
L20.5x5
M16.15
M16.15
L20.5x5
L20.5x5
L20.5x5
L20.5x5
NOTE: Intersil Pb-free plus anneal products employ special Pb-free material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100% matte tin plate
termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations. Intersil Pb-free products are MSL
classified at Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
2
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Block Diagram
VCC
PGOOD
POWER-ON
RESET (POR)
VSEN
UV
+
X 0.9
THREE-STATE
R
OV
LATCH
CLOCK AND
SAWTOOTH
GENERATOR
S
+
+

OV
-
X1.15
FS/EN
+
PWM1
PWM
-
-
+

SOFTSTART
AND FAULT
LOGIC
+
PWM2
PWM
-
COMP
+

+
PWM3
PWM
-
0.8V
-
+
REFERENCE

+
+
-
E/A
-
CURRENT
FB
CORRECTION
PWM4
PWM
-
PHASE
NUMBER
CHANNEL
DETECTOR
DROOP
ISEN1
+
ITOTAL
+
+

-
+
OC
+
ITRIP
ISEN2
ISEN3
ISEN4
GND
3
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Functional Pin Description
FS/EN (Pin 7)
NOTE: Pin numbers refer to the SOIC package. Check PINOUT
diagrams for QFN pin numbers.
Connecting a resistor from this pin to ground sets the
internal oscillator frequency. The switching frequency, FSW,
of the converter is adjustable between 80kHz and 1.5MHz.
Pulling this pin to ground disables the converter and threestates the PWM outputs.
VCC (Pin 1)
Supplies all the power necessary to operate the chip. The IC
starts to operate when the voltage on this pin exceeds the
rising POR threshold and shuts down when the voltage on
this pin drops below the falling POR threshold. Connect this
pin to a 5V (±5%) supply.
PGOOD (Pin 2)
Power good is an open drain output used to indicate the
status of the output voltage. This pin is pulled low when the
converter output voltage is either 10% below or 15% above
the reference voltage.
COMP (Pin 3)
Output of the internal error amplifier. Connect this pin to the
external feedback compensation network.
DROOP (Pin 4)
Output voltage droop or active voltage positioning is
provided by connecting this pin to the FB pin. An internal
current source creates the droop across an external
feedback resistor, RFB. If no droop is desired, this pin MUST
be left open.
FB (Pin 5)
The FB pin is the inverting input of the internal error
amplifier. Connect this pin to the external feedback
compensation network and a resistor divider from the output
for proper control and protection of converter load.
VSEN (Pin 6)
This pin is connected through a resistor divider to the
converter’s output voltage to provide remote sensing. The
undervoltage and overvoltage protection comparators trigger
off this input.
4
GND (Pin 8)
Bias and reference ground for all controller signals.
PWM1 (Pin 13), PWM2 (Pin 12), PWM3 (Pin 9),
PWM4 (Pin 16)
The controller PWM drive signals are connected to the
individual HIP660x driver PWM input pins. The number of
active channels is determined by the state of PWM3 and
PWM4. If PWM3 is tied to VCC, this indicates to the
controller that two channel operation is desired. In this case,
PWM4 should be left open or tied to VCC. Tying PWM4 to
VCC indicates that three channel operation is desired.
ISEN1 (Pin 14), ISEN2 (Pin 11), ISEN3 (Pin 10),
ISEN4 (Pin 15)
These pins are used to monitor the voltage drop across the
lower MOSFETs for current feedback, output voltage droop
and overcurrent protection. A resistor must be placed in
series with each of these inputs and their respective PHASE
node. The resistor is sized such that the current feedback is
50A at full load. Sense lines corresponding to inactive
channels should be left open. Inactive channels are those in
which the PWM pin has been tied to VCC or left open.
Thermal Pad (in QFN only)
In the QFN package, the pad underneath the center of the
IC is a thermal substrate. The PCB “thermal land” design
for this exposed die pad should include thermal vias that
drop down and connect to one or more buried copper
plane(s). This combination of vias for vertical heat escape
and buried planes for heat spreading allows the QFN to
achieve its full thermal potential. This pad should be either
grounded or floating, and it should not be connected to
other nodes. Refer to TB389 for design guidelines.
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Typical Application - 3 Phase Converter
+12V
+5V
VOUT = 0.8V(RFB + ROS)/ROS
BOOT
PVCC
RC
RFB
+5V
CC
ROS
UGATE
VCC
PHASE
DRIVER
HIP6601B
PWM
RFB
LGATE
FB
DROOP COMP
RISEN3
GND
VCC
VSEN
PWM4
ROS
VOUT
+12V
PWM3
PGOOD
PWM2
PWM1
+5V
PVCC
PWM
CONTROL
ISL6558
UGATE
PHASE
ISEN4
ISEN3
FS/EN
BOOT
NC
VCC
DRIVER
HIP6601B
PWM
ISEN2
RT
LGATE
RISEN2
GND
ISEN1
GND
+12V
+5V
BOOT
PVCC
PHASE
VCC
PWM
UGATE
DRIVER
HIP6601B
RISEN1
LGATE
GND
5
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
Supply Voltage, VCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+7V
Input, Output, or I/O Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . GND -0.3V to VCC +0.3V
ESD Classification
Human Body Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3kV
Machine Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250V
Thermal Resistance (Typical Notes 1, 2, 3) JA(°C/W)
JC(°C/W)
SOIC Package (Note 1) . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
N/A
QFN Package (Notes 2, 3). . . . . . . . . .
35
5
Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150°C
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . -65°C to 150°C
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300°C
(SOIC - Lead Tips Only)
Recommended Operating Conditions
Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +5V 5%
Ambient Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-40°C to 85°C
Maximum Operating Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125°C
CAUTION: Stress above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational section of this specification is not implied.
NOTES:
1. JA is measured with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board in free air. See Tech Brief TB379 for details.
2. JA is measured in free air with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board with “direct attach” features. See
Tech Brief TB379 for details.
3. JC, "case temperature" location is at the center of the exposed metal pad on the package underside.
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VCC = 5V, TA = -40°C to 85°C. Unless Otherwise Specified.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
-
10
15
mA
VCC Rising Threshold
4.25
4.38
4.5
V
VCC Falling Threshold
3.75
3.88
4.00
V
ISL6558CB, ISL6558CR, TA = 0°C to 70°C
0.792
0.8
0.808
V
ISL6558IB, ISL6558IR, TA = -40°C to 85°C
0.788
0.8
0.812
V
ISL6558CB, ISL6558CR, TA = 0°C to 70°C
-1.0
-
1.0
%
ISL6558IB, ISL6558IR, TA = -40°C to 85°C
-1.5
-
1.5
%
Channel Frequency Accuracy
RT = 100k ±1%
224
280
336
kHz
Adjustment Range
See Figure 3
0.08
-
1.5
MHz
Disable Voltage
Maximum voltage at FS/EN to disable controller. IFS/EN = 1mA
-
1.2
1.0
V
Sawtooth Amplitude
-
1.33
-
VP-P
Channel Maximum Duty Cycle, by Design
(GBD)
-
75
-
%
INPUT SUPPLY POWER
Input Supply Current
VCC = 5VDC; RT = 100k ±1%
POWER-ON RESET (POR)
REFERENCE VOLTAGE
Reference Voltage
System Accuracy
OSCILLATOR
ERROR AMPLIFIER
DC Gain (GNT)
RL = 10K to ground
-
72
-
dB
Gain-Bandwidth Product (GNT)
CL = 100pF, RL = 10K to ground
-
18
-
MHz
Slew Rate
CL = 100pF, Load = 400A
-
5.3
-
V/s
Maximum Output Voltage
RL = 10K to ground
3.6
4.1
-
V
-
50
-
A
67
-
85
A
ISEN
Recommended Full Scale Input Current
Overcurrent Trip Level
6
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Electrical Specifications
Operating Conditions: VCC = 5V, TA = -40°C to 85°C. Unless Otherwise Specified. (Continued)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
POWER GOOD MONITOR
Undervoltage Threshold
VSEN Rising
-
0.92
-
VREF
Undervoltage Threshold
VSEN Falling
-
0.90
-
VREF
PGOOD Low Output Voltage
IPGOOD = 4mA
-
0.18
0.4
V
VSEN Rising, ISL6558CB, ISL6558CR, TA = 0°C to 70°C
1.12
1.15
1.2
VREF
VSEN Rising, ISL6558IB, ISL6558IR, TA = -40°C to 85°C
1.085
1.15
1.2
VREF
-
2
-
%
PROTECTION
Overvoltage Threshold
Percent Overvoltage Hysteresis (GNT)
VSEN Falling after Overvoltage
GBD = Guaranteed By Design
GNT = Guranteed Not Tesed
RFB
FB
ROS
VIN
ERROR
AMPLIFIER
0.8V
+
Q1
CORRECTION

+
-
VERROR1
PWM
CIRCUIT
L01
PWM1
HIP6601B
IL1
Q2
PHASE
+

CURRENT
ISEN1
RISEN1
SENSING
-
DROOP
IDROOP
ITOTAL
CURRENT
AVERAGING
VOUT
+

CURRENT
ISEN2
COUT
RISEN2
SENSING
RLOAD
VIN
PHASE
+
-

VERROR2
CORRECTION
Q3
PWM
CIRCUIT
L02
PWM2
HIP6601B
IL2
Q4
FIGURE 1. SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE ISL6558 VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CONTROL LOOPS CONFIGURED FOR A TWO
CHANNEL CONVERTER
7
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Operation
Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the voltage regulation
and current control loops for a two-phase converter. Both
voltage and current feedback are used to precisely regulate
output voltage and tightly control phase currents, IL1 and IL2,
of the two power channels.
Voltage Loop
Output voltage feedback is applied via the resistor
combination of RFB and ROS to the inverting input of the
error amplifier. This signal drives the error amplifier output
high or low, depending upon the scaled output voltage in
relation to the reference voltage of 0.8V. The amplifier output
voltage is distributed among the active PWM channels and
summed with their individual current correction signals. The
resultant signal, VERROR, is fed into the PWM control
circuitry for each channel. Within this block, the signal is
compared with a sawtooth ramp signal. The sawtooth ramp
signal applied to each channel is out-of-phase with the
others. The resulting duty cycle signal for each channel is
determined by the movement of the correction voltage,
VERROR, relative to the sawtooth ramp. The individual duty
cycle signals are sent to their respective HIP660x gate
drivers from the PWM pins. The HIP660x gate drivers then
switch their upper and lower MOSFETs in accordance to this
PWM signal.
pulse width to lower the output current contribution by
Channel 2, while doing the opposite to Channel 1.
Droop Compensation
Microprocessors and other peripherals tend to change their
load current demands often from near no-load to full load
during operation. These same devices require minimal
output voltage deviation from nominal during a load step.
A high di/dt load step will cause an output voltage spike. The
amplitude of the spike is dictated by the output capacitor
ESR (effective series resistance) multiplied by the load step
magnitude and output capacitor ESL (equivalent series
inductance) times the load step di/dt. A positive load step
produces a negative output voltage spike and visa versa.
The overall output voltage deviation could exceed the
tolerance of some devices. One widely accepted solution to
this problem is output voltage “droop” or active voltage
positioning.
Droop is set relative to the output voltage tolerance
specifications of the load device. Most device tolerance
specifications straddle the nominal output voltage. At noload, the output voltage is set to a slightly higher than
nominal level, VOUT,NL. At full load, the output voltage is set
to a slightly lower than nominal level, VOUT,FL. The result is
a desire to have an output voltage characteristic as shown
by the load line in Figure 2.
Current Loop
The current control loop keeps the channel currents in
balance. During the PWM off-time of each channel, the
voltage developed across the rDS(ON) of the lower MOSFET
is sampled. The current is scaled by the RISEN resistor and
provides feedback proportional to the output current of each
channel. The scaled output current from all active channels
are combined to create an average current reference,
ITOTAL, relative to the converter’s total output current. This
signal is then subtracted from the individual channel scaled
output currents to produce a current correction signal for
each channel. The current correction signal keeps each
channel’s output current contribution balanced relative to the
other active channels. Each current correction signal is then
subtracted from the error amplifier output and fed to the
individual channel PWM circuits.
For example, assume the voltage sampled across Q4 in
Figure 1 is higher than that sampled across Q2. The ISEN2
current would be higher then ISEN1. When the two
reference currents are averaged, they still accurately
represent the total output current of the converter. The
reference current ITOTAL is then subtracted from the ISEN
currents. This results in a positive offset for Channel 2 and a
negative offset for Channel 1. These offsets are subtracted
from the error amplifier signal and perform phase balance
correction. The VERROR2 signal is reduced, while VERROR1
would be increased. The PWM circuit would then reduce the
8
VOUT,NL
VOUT,NOM
VOUT,FL
IOUT,NL
NOMINAL LOAD LINE
IOUT,MID
IOUT,MAX
DROOP LOAD LINE
FIGURE 2. SIMPLE OUTPUT DEVICE LOAD LINE
With droop implemented and a positive load step, the
resulting negative output voltage spike begins from the slightly
elevated level of VOUT,NL. Similarly, if the load steps from full
load, IOUT,MAX, back to no-load, IOUT,NL, the output voltage
starts from the slightly lower VOUT,FL position. These few
millivolts of offset help reduce the size and cost of output
capacitors required to handle a given load step.
Droop is an optional feature of the ISL6558. It is
implemented by connecting the DROOP and FB pins as
shown in Figure 1. An internal current source, IDROOP, feeds
out of the DROOP pin. The magnitude of IDROOP is
controlled by the scaled representation of the total output
current created from the individual ISEN currents. IDROOP
creates a voltage drop across RFB and offsets the output
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
voltage feedback seen at the FB pin, effectively creating the
output voltage droop desired as a function of load current.
ATX supplies control the rise times of the individual voltage
outputs and insure proper sequencing.
SELECTING RFB AND ROS
Soft-Start Interval
If output droop compensation is not required the DROOP pin
must be left open. Simply select a value for RFB and
calculate ROS based on the following equation:
Before a soft-start cycle is initiated, the controller holds the
active channel PWM drive signals in three-state as long as
the FS/EN pin is held at ground or the voltage applied to
VCC remains below the POR rising threshold.
0.8V
R OS = R FB x ---------------------------------V OUT – 0.8V
(EQ. 1)
In applications where droop compensation is desired, tie the
DROOP and FB pins together. Select RFB first given the
following equation, where VDROOP is the desired amount of
output voltage droop at full load. This equation is contingent
upon the correct selection of the ISEN resistors discussed in
the Fault Protection section.
V DROOP
3
- = 20 10 xV DROOP
R FB = -----------------------50A
(EQ. 2)
Calculate ROS based on RFB using the following equation.
Where VOUT,NL is the desired output voltage under no-load
conditions.
0.8V
R OS = R FB x -------------------------------------------– 0.8V
V
(EQ. 3)
OUT NL
Initialization
Many functions are initiated by a rising supply voltage
applied to the VCC pin of the ISL6558. Until the supply
voltage reaches the Power-On Reset (POR) VCC rising
threshold, the PWM drive signals are held in three-state.
This results in no gate drive generation by the HIP660x gate
drivers to the output MOSFETs. Once the supply voltage
exceeds the POR rising threshold, the soft-start interval is
initiated. If the supply voltage drops below the POR falling
threshold, POR shutdown is triggered and the PWM outputs
are again driven to three-state.
The FS/EN pin can also be used to initialize the converter.
Holding this pin to ground overrides the onset of soft-start.
Once this pin is released, soft-start is initialized and the
converter output will begin to ramp. If FS/EN is grounded
during operation, a POR shutdown is triggered and the PWM
outputs are three-stated. Toggling this pin after an overvoltage
event will not reset the controller; VCC must be cycled.
Sequencing of the input supplies is recommended. An
overcurrent spike due to supply voltage sequencing could
occur if the controller becomes active before the drivers. If
the POR rising threshold of the controller is met before that
of the drivers, then a soft-start interval is started and could
be completed before the drivers are active. Once the drivers
become active the controller will be demanding maximum
duty cycle due to the lack of output voltage and could cause
an overcurrent trip. A soft-start interval would be initiated
shortly after this event and normal PWM operation would
result. The supply voltages should be sequenced such that
the controller and gate drivers are initialized simultaneously
or the drivers become active just before the controller. Most
9
Once VCC rises above the POR rising threshold and the
FS/EN pin is released from ground, a soft-start interval is
initiated. PWM operation begins and the resulting slow
ramp-up of output voltage avoids hitting an overcurrent trip
by slowly charging the discharged output capacitors. The
soft-start interval ends when the PGOOD signal transitions
to indicate the output voltage is within specification.
The soft-start interval is digitally controlled by the selection of
switching frequency. The maximum soft-start interval,
SSInterval, can be estimated for a given application:
2048
SS Interval = ------------F SW
(EQ. 4)
where FSW is the channel switching frequency.
The converter used to create the waveforms in Figure 3 has
a switching frequency of 125kHz. The soft-start interval
calculated for this converter is just over 16ms. From the
waveforms, the actual soft-start interval is just under 16ms.
VCC, 2V/DIV
POR RISING THRESHOLD
VOUT, 0.5V/DIV
0V
0V
PGOOD, 2V/DIV
0V
FB, 0.5V/DIV
0V
2ms/DIV
FIGURE 3. SOFT-START WAVEFORMS
PWM Drive Signals
The ISL6558 provides PWM channel drive signals for control
of 2-, 3-, or 4-phase converters. The PWM signals drive the
associated HIP660x gate drivers for each power channel.
The number of active channels is determined by the status
of PWM3 and PWM4. If PWM3 is tied to VCC, then the
controller will interpret this as two channel operation and
only PWM1 and PWM2 will be active. Since PWM4 is not
active under these conditions, simply tie it to VCC or leave it
open. If only PWM4 is tied to VCC, then the remaining three
channels are all considered active by the controller.
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
ISEN1
ISL6558
PWM1, 5V/DIV
+
0V
+
PWM2, 5V/DIV
OC
-
0V
ITOTAL
+

+ ISEN3
n
ITRIP
+
ISEN4
82.5A
PWM3, 5V/DIV
ISEN2
0V
PWM4, 5V/DIV
n = ACTIVE CHANNELS
FIGURE 6. INTERNAL OVERCURRENT DETECTION
CIRCUITRY
0V
1ms/DIV
FIGURE 4. FOUR ACTIVE CHANNEL PWM DRIVE SIGNALS
The PWM drive signals are switched out of phase. The PWM
drive signal phase relationship is 360° divided by the number
of active channels. Figure shows the PWM drive signals for
a four channel converter running at 125kHz. Each PWM
drive signal is 90° out of phase with the other.
VOUT (1V/DIV)
0V
SHORT APPLIED
IOUT (5A/DIV)
Frequency Setting
A resistor, RT, connected between the FS/EN pin and ground
sets the frequency of the internal oscillator. Tying the FS/EN
pin to ground disables the oscillator, thus shutting down the
converter. The resistor can be calculated given the desired
channel switching frequency, FSW.
R T = 10
10.9 – 1.1 log F
0V
10ms/DIV
FIGURE 7. OVERCURRENT OPERATION
Reference Voltage
1,000
An internal 0.8V reference is used for both PWM duty cycle
determination as well as output voltage protection. The
reference is trimmed such that the system, including
amplifier offset voltages, is accurate to ± 1% over
temperature range.
500
200
100
RT - kW
SHORT REMOVED
PGOOD (5V/DIV)
(EQ. 5)
SW
Figure 5 provides a graph of oscillator frequency vs RT. The
maximum recommended channel frequency is 1.5MHz.
Fault Protection
50
The ISL6558 protects the load device from damaging stress
levels. The overcurrent trip point is integral in preventing
output shorts of varying degrees from causing current spikes
which would damage a load device. The output voltage
detection features insure a safe window of operation for the
load device.
20
10
5
2
1
10
0A
Overcurrent
20
50
100 200
500 1,000 2,000
CHANNEL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY, FSW, [kHz]
FIGURE 5. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs RT
10
The RISEN resistor scales the voltage sampled across the
lower MOSFET and provides current feedback proportional
to the output current of each active channel. The ISEN
currents from all the active channels are averaged together
to form a scaled version of the total output current, ITOTAL.
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
See Figure 6. ITOTAL is compared with an internally
generated overcurrent trip current, ITRIP. The overcurrent
trip current source is trimmed to 82.5A. If ITOTAL exceeds
the ITRIP level, then the controller forces all PWM outputs
into three-state. This condition results in the HIP660x gate
drivers removing drive to the MOSFETs. The VSEN voltage
will begin to fall and once it descends below the PGOOD falling
threshold, the PGOOD signal transitions low.
A delay time, equal to the soft-start interval, is entered to
allow the disturbance to clear. After the delay time, the
controller then initiates a second soft-start interval. If the
output voltage comes up and regulation is achieved,
PGOOD transitions high. If the OC trip current is exceeded
during the soft start interval, the controller will again shut
down PWM operation and three-state the drivers. The
PGOOD signal will remain low and the soft-start interval will
be allowed to expire. Another soft-start interval will be
initiated after the delay interval. If an overcurrent trip occurs
again, this same cycle repeats until the fault is removed. The
OC function is shown in Figure 7 for a hard short of the
output which is applied for only a brief moment. The
converter quickly detects the short and attempts to restart
twice before the short is removed.
Overcurrent protection reduces the regulator RMS output
current under worst case conditions to 95% of the full load
current.
SELECTING RISEN
The procedure for determining the value of RISEN is to
insure that it scales a channel’s maximum output current to
50A. This will insure that the overcurrent trip point is
properly detected when a current limit of 165% of the
converter’s full load current is breached. The ISEN resistor
can be calculated as follows:
I FL r DS  ON 
R ISEN = --------- x ------------------------50A
n
(EQ. 6)
where IFL is the maximum output current demanded by the
load device and ‘n’ is the number of active channels.
OC TRIP LEVEL ADJUSTMENT
Setting the full load reference current, ITOTAL, to 50A is
recommended for most applications. The ratio between the
desired full load reference current and the internally set
overcurrent trip current is the overcurrent trip ratio, KOC. For
those applications where an OC trip level of 1.65 times
ITOTAL is insufficient, the full load reference current can be
scaled differently. Care must be taken in selection of certain
components once the desired OC trip ratio is determined.
82.5A
K OC = ----------------------I TOTAL
(EQ. 7)
11
The new overcurrent trip ratio is then used to calculate the
ISEN resistors for the new full load reference current.
I FL r DS  ON  xK OC
R ISEN = --------- x ------------------------------------------n
82.5A
(EQ. 8)
One commonly over looked component which will change
due to the new overcurrent trip ratio is the feedback resistor,
RFB.
V DROOP xK OC
R FB = --------------------------------------------82.5A
(EQ. 9)
Temperature effects of the MOSFET rDS(ON) must be
reviewed when changing the overcurrent trip level.
Output Voltage Monitoring
The output voltage must be tied to the VSEN pin to provide
feedback used to create a window of operation. If the output
voltage is not the reference voltage of 0.8V, it must be scaled
externally down to this level. The VSEN voltage is then
compared with two set voltage levels which indicate an
overvoltage or undervoltage condition of the output. Violating
either of these conditions results in the PGOOD pin output
toggling low to indicate a problem with the output voltage.
OVERVOLTAGE
The VSEN voltage is compared with an internal overvoltage
protection (OVP) reference set to 115% of the internal
reference. If the VSEN voltage exceeds the OVP reference,
the comparator simultaneously sets the OV latch and
triggers the PWM output low. The drivers turn on the lower
MOSFETs, shunting the converter output to ground. Once
the output voltage falls below the nominal output voltage, the
PWM outputs are placed in three-state. This prevents
dumping of the output capacitors back through the lower
MOSFETs. If the overvoltage conditions persist, the PWM
outputs are cycled between the two states similar to a
hysteretic regulator. The OV latch can only be reset by
cycling the VCC supply voltage to initiate a POR and begin a
soft-start interval.
UNDERVOLTAGE
The VSEN voltage is also compared to a undervoltage (UV)
reference which is set to 90% of the internal reference. If the
VSEN voltage is below the UV reference, the power good
monitor triggers PGOOD to go low. The UV comparator does
not influence converter operation.
VSEN SCALING
The output voltage, VOUT, must be fed back to the VSEN pin
separately from the feedback components to the FB pin. If
VSEN and FB are tied together, the error amplifier will hold
the VSEN voltage at the reference level while the actual
output voltage level could be much different. This would
mask the output voltage and prevent the protection features
from reacting to undervoltage or overvoltage conditions at
the proper time.
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
If the output voltage is not the same as the internal 0.8V
reference, then a resistor divider scaled like the FB resistors
is required as shown is Figure 8. Otherwise, the output
voltage should be tied directly back to the VSEN pin without
a resistor divider.
VOUT
RFB
FB
ROS
DROOP
RFB
VSEN
ROS
ISL6558
FIGURE 8. VSEN RESISTOR DIVIDER CONFIGURATION
PGOOD SIGNAL
The undervoltage comparator and overvoltage latch feed
into the power good monitor and are NOR’d together. If
either indicates a fault, the power good monitor triggers the
PGOOD output low. A high on this open drain pin indicates
proper output voltage.
Application Guidelines
Layout Considerations
Layout is very important in high frequency switching
converter design. With MOSFETs switching efficiently at
greater than 100kHz, the resulting current transitions from
one device to another cause voltage spikes across the
interconnecting impedances and parasitic circuit elements.
These voltage spikes can degrade efficiency, radiate noise
into the circuit, and lead to device overvoltage stress.
Careful component layout and printed circuit design
minimizes the voltage spikes in the converter.
As an example, consider the turnoff transition of the PWM
upper MOSFET. Prior to turnoff, the upper MOSFET was
carrying the channel current. During turnoff, current stops
flowing in the upper MOSFET and is picked up by the lower
MOSFET. Any inductance in the switched current path
generates a large voltage spike during the switching interval.
Careful component selection, tight layout of the critical
components, and short, wide circuit traces minimize the
magnitude of voltage spikes.
12
There are two sets of critical components in a DC-DC
converter using a ISL6558 controller and HIP660x gate
drivers. The switching components are the most critical
because they switch large amounts of energy, and therefore
tend to generate equally large amounts of noise. Next are
the small signal components which connect to sensitive
nodes or supply critical bypassing current and signal
coupling.
A multi-layer printed circuit board is recommended. Figure 9
shows the connections of the critical components for one
output channel of the converter. Note that capacitors CIN
and COUT could each represent numerous physical
capacitors. Dedicate one solid layer, usually the middle layer
of the PC board, for a ground plane and make all critical
component ground connections with vias to this layer.
Dedicate another solid layer as a power plane and break this
plane into smaller islands of common voltage levels. Keep
the metal runs from the PHASE terminal to the output
inductor short. The power plane should support the input
power and output power nodes. Use copper filled polygons
on the top and bottom circuit layers for the phase nodes.
Use the remaining printed circuit layers for small signal
wiring. The wiring traces from the HIP660x driver to the
power MOSFET gates and source should be sized to carry
at least 1A of current.
The switching components and HIP660x gate drivers should
be placed first. Locate the input capacitors close to the
power switches. Minimize the length of the connections
between the input capacitors, CIN, and the power switches.
Position both the ceramic and bulk input capacitors as close
to the upper MOSFET drain as possible. Locate the output
inductors and output capacitors between the MOSFETs and
the load. Place the HIP660x gate drivers close to their
respective channel MOSFETs.
The critical small signal components include the bypass
capacitors for VCC on the ISL6558 controller as well as
those on VCC and PVCC of the HIP660x gate drivers.
Position the bypass capacitors, CBP , close to the device
pins. It is especially important to place the feedback
resistors, RFB and ROS, and compensation components, RC
and CC, associated with the input to the error amplifier close
to the FB and COMP pins. Care should be taken in routing
the current sense lines such that the ISEN resistors are
close to their respective pins on the controller. Resistor RT,
which sets the oscillator frequency, should be positioned
near the FS/EN pin.
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
+5VIN
USE INDIVIDUAL METAL RUNS
FOR EACH CHANNEL TO HELP
ISOLATE OUTPUT STAGES
+12V
CBP
VCC PVCC
BOOT
VCC
CBP
PWM
PWM
CBOOT
CIN
LO1
VOUT
PHASE
COMP
FS/EN
CC
ISL6558
COUT
RT
HIP6601B
RC
ROS
FB
RISEN
VSEN
ISEN
RFB
ISLAND ON POWER PLANE LAYER
ISLAND ON CIRCUIT PLANE LAYER
VIA CONNECTION TO GROUND PLANE
FIGURE 9. PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD POWER PLANES AND ISLANDS
Component Selection Guidelines
OUTPUT CAPACITOR SELECTION
Output capacitors are required to filter the output inductor
current ripple and supply the load transient current. The
filtering requirements are a function of the channel switching
frequency and the output ripple current. The load transient
requirements are a function of the slew rate (di/dt) and the
magnitude of the transient load current. These requirements
are generally met with a mix of capacitors and careful layout.
Some modern microprocessors can produce transient load
rates above 200A/s. High frequency capacitors are used to
supply the initial transient current and slow the rate-of-change
seen by the bulk capacitors. Bulk filter capacitor values are
generally determined by the ESR and voltage rating
requirements rather than actual capacitance requirements.
High frequency decoupling capacitors should be placed as
close to the power pins of the load as physically possible. Be
careful not to add inductance in the circuit board wiring that
could cancel the usefulness of these low inductance
components. Consult with the manufacturer of the load
device for any specific decoupling requirements.
Specialized low-ESR capacitors intended for switching
regulator applications are recommended for the bulk
capacitors. The bulk capacitor’s ESR determines the output
ripple voltage and the initial voltage drop following a high
slew-rate transient edge. Aluminum electrolytic capacitor ESR
values are related to case size with lower ESR available in
larger case sizes. However, the ESL of these capacitors
increases with case size and can reduce the usefulness of the
capacitor to high slew-rate transient loading. Unfortunately,
13
ESL is not a specified parameter. Work with your capacitor
supplier and measure the capacitor’s impedance with
frequency to select a suitable component. In most cases,
multiple electrolytic capacitors of small case size perform
better than a single large case capacitor.
OUTPUT INDUCTOR SELECTION
The output inductor is selected to meet the voltage ripple
requirements and minimize the converter response time to a
load transient. In a multi-phase converter topology, the ripple
current of one active channel partially cancels with the other
active channels to reduce the overall ripple current. The
reduction in total output ripple current results in a lower
overall output voltage ripple.
The inductor selected for the power channels determines the
channel ripple current. Increasing the value of inductance
reduces the total output ripple current and total output
voltage ripple. However, increasing the inductance value will
slow the converter response time to a load transient.
One of the parameters limiting the converter’s response time
to a load transient is the time required to slew the inductor
current from its initial current level to the transient current
level. During this interval, the difference between the two
levels must be supplied by the output capacitance.
Minimizing the response time can minimize the output
capacitance required.
The channel ripple current is approximated by the following
equation:
V IN – V OUT V OUT
DI CH = ---------------------------------- x ----------------F SW xL
V IN
(EQ. 10)
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
The total output ripple current can be determined from the
curves in Figure 10. They provide the total ripple current as a
function of duty cycle and number of active channels,
normalized to the parameter KNORM at zero duty cycle.
V OUT
K NORM = --------------------LxF SW
0.5
CURRENT MULTIPLIER
(EQ. 11)
where L is the channel inductor value.
1.0
CURRENT MULTIPLIER, KCM
and the result is the RMS input current which must be
supported by the input capacitors.
SINGLE
CHANNEL
0.8
SINGLE
CHANNEL
0.4
0.3
2 CHANNEL
0.2
3 CHANNEL
0.1
4 CHANNEL
0.6
0
2 CHANNEL
0.1
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
DUTY CYCLE (VO/VIN)
0.4
3 CHANNEL
FIGURE 11. CURRENT MULTIPLIER vs DUTY CYCLE
0.2
4 CHANNEL
0
0
0.1
0.2
MOSFET SELECTION AND CONSIDERATIONS
0.3
0.4
0.5
DUTY CYCLE (VO/VIN)
FIGURE 10. RIPPLE CURRENT vs DUTY CYCLE
Find the intersection of the active channel curve and duty
cycle for your particular application. The resulting ripple
current multiplier from the y-axis is then multiplied by the
normalization factor, KNORM, to determine the total output
ripple current for the given application.
DI TOTAL = K NORM xK CM
(EQ. 12)
INPUT CAPACITOR SELECTION
Use a mix of input bypass capacitors to control the voltage
overshoot across the MOSFETs. Use ceramic capacitors for
the high frequency decoupling and bulk capacitors to supply
the RMS current. Small ceramic capacitors can be placed
very close to the upper MOSFET to suppress the voltage
induced in the parasitic circuit impedances.
Two important parameters to consider when selecting the bulk
input capacitor are the voltage rating and the RMS current
rating. For reliable operation, select a bulk capacitor with
voltage and current ratings above the maximum input voltage
and largest RMS current required by the circuit. The capacitor
voltage rating should be at least 1.25 times greater than the
maximum input voltage and a voltage rating of 1.5 times is a
conservative guideline. The RMS current requirement for a
converter design can be approximated with the aid of Figure
11. Follow the curve for the number of active channels in the
converter design. Next determine the duty cycle for the
converter and find the intersection of this value and the active
channel curve. Find the corresponding y-axis value, which is
the current multiplier. Multiply the total full load output current,
not the channel value, by the current multiplier value found
14
The ISL6558 requires two N-Channel power MOSFETs per
active channel or more if parallel MOSFETs are employed.
These MOSFETs should be selected based upon rDS(ON),
total gate charge, and thermal management requirements.
In high-current PWM applications, the MOSFET power
dissipation, package selection and heatsink are the
dominant design factors. The power dissipation includes two
loss components; conduction loss and switching loss. These
losses are distributed between the upper and lower
MOSFETs according to duty cycle of the converter (see the
equations below). The conduction losses are the main
component of power dissipation for the lower MOSFETs, Q2
and Q4 of Figure 1. Only the upper MOSFETs, Q1 and Q3
have significant switching losses, since the lower device turn
on and off into near zero voltage.
The following equations assume linear voltage-current
transitions and do not model power loss due to the reverserecovery of the lower MOSFETs body diode. The gatecharge losses are dissipated in the HIP660x drivers and
don’t heat the MOSFETs. However, large gate-charge
increases the switching time, tSW which increases the upper
MOSFET switching losses. Ensure that both MOSFETs are
within their maximum junction temperature at high ambient
temperature by calculating the temperature rise according to
package thermal-resistance specifications. A separate
heatsink may be necessary depending upon MOSFET
power, package type, ambient temperature and air flow.
2
I O  r DS  ON   V OUT I O  V IN  t SW  F SW
P UPPER = ------------------------------------------------------------ + ---------------------------------------------------------V IN
2
(EQ. 13)
2
I O  r DS  ON    V IN – V OUT 
P LOWER = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------V IN
(EQ. 14)
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Revision History
The revision history provided is for informational purposes only and is believed to be accurate, but not warranted. Please go to the web to make
sure that you have the latest revision.
DATE
REVISION
CHANGE
August 28, 2015
FN9027.13
Added Revision History beginning with Rev 13
Added About Intersil Verbiage
Updated Ordering Information Table on page 2
Updated POD M16.15 to most recent revision. Removed "u" symbol from drawing (overlaps the "a" on Side
View). Changes were made to some values in table.
About Intersil
Intersil Corporation is a leading provider of innovative power management and precision analog solutions. The company's products
address some of the largest markets within the industrial and infrastructure, mobile computing and high-end consumer markets.
For the most updated datasheet, application notes, related documentation and related parts, please see the respective product
information page found at www.intersil.com.
You may report errors or suggestions for improving this datasheet by visiting www.intersil.com/ask.
Reliability reports are also available from our website at www.intersil.com/support.
15
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Quad Flat No-Lead Plastic Package (QFN)
Micro Lead Frame Plastic Package (MLFP)
L20.5x5
20 LEAD QUAD FLAT NO-LEAD PLASTIC PACKAGE
MILLIMETERS
SYMBOL
MIN
NOMINAL
MAX
NOTES
A
0.80
0.90
1.00
-
A1
-
0.02
0.05
-
A2
-
0.65
1.00
9
0.38
5, 8
A3
b
0.20 REF
0.23
0.30
9
D
5.00 BSC
-
D1
4.75 BSC
9
D2
2.95
E
E1
E2
3.10
3.25
7, 8
5.00 BSC
-
4.75 BSC
2.95
e
3.10
9
3.25
7, 8
0.65 BSC
-
k
0.20
-
-
-
L
0.35
0.60
0.75
8
N
20
2
Nd
5
3
Ne
5
3
P
-
-
0.60
9

-
-
12
9
Rev. 4 11/04
NOTES:
1. Dimensioning and tolerancing conform to ASME Y14.5-1994.
2. N is the number of terminals.
3. Nd and Ne refer to the number of terminals on each D and E.
4. All dimensions are in millimeters. Angles are in degrees.
5. Dimension b applies to the metallized terminal and is measured
between 0.15mm and 0.30mm from the terminal tip.
6. The configuration of the pin #1 identifier is optional, but must be
located within the zone indicated. The pin #1 identifier may be
either a mold or mark feature.
7. Dimensions D2 and E2 are for the exposed pads which provide
improved electrical and thermal performance.
8. Nominal dimensions are provided to assist with PCB Land Pattern
Design efforts, see Intersil Technical Brief TB389.
9. Features and dimensions A2, A3, D1, E1, P &  are present when
Anvil singulation method is used and not present for saw
singulation.
10. Compliant to JEDEC MO-220VHHC Issue I except for the "b"
dimension.
16
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
ISL6558
Small Outline Plastic Packages (SOIC)
M16.15 (JEDEC MS-012-AC ISSUE C)
N
INDEX
AREA
H
0.25(0.010) M
16 LEAD NARROW BODY SMALL OUTLINE PLASTIC PACKAGE
B M
INCHES
E
-B-
1
2
3
L
SEATING PLANE
-A-
A
D
h x 45°
-C-
e
A1
B
C
0.10(0.004)
0.25(0.010) M
C A M
SYMBOL
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
NOTES
A
0.0532
0.0688
1.35
1.75
-
A1
0.0040
0.0098
0.10
0.25
-
B
0.013
0.020
0.33
0.51
9
C
0.0075
0.0098
0.19
0.25
-
D
0.3859
0.3937
9.80
10.00
3
E
0.1497
0.1574
3.80
4.00
4
e

B S
0.050 BSC
1.27 BSC
-
H
0.2284
0.2440
5.80
6.20
-
h
0.0099
0.0196
0.25
0.50
5
L
0.016
0.050
0.40
1.27
6
N

NOTES:
MILLIMETERS
16
0°
16
8°
0°
7
8°
1. Symbols are defined in the “MO Series Symbol List” in Section 2.2 of
Publication Number 95.
Rev. 1 6/05
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Dimension “D” does not include mold flash, protrusions or gate burrs.
Mold flash, protrusion and gate burrs shall not exceed 0.15mm (0.006
inch) per side.
4. Dimension “E” does not include interlead flash or protrusions. Interlead
flash and protrusions shall not exceed 0.25mm (0.010 inch) per side.
5. The chamfer on the body is optional. If it is not present, a visual index
feature must be located within the crosshatched area.
6. “L” is the length of terminal for soldering to a substrate.
7. “N” is the number of terminal positions.
8. Terminal numbers are shown for reference only.
9. The lead width “B”, as measured 0.36mm (0.014 inch) or greater above
the seating plane, shall not exceed a maximum value of 0.61mm
(0.024 inch).
10. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch dimensions are
not necessarily exact.
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9001 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
17
FN9027.13
August 28, 2015
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