DN485 - Complete Energy Utilization Improves Run Time of a Supercap Ride-Through Application by 40%

Complete Energy Utilization Improves Run Time of a Supercap
Ride-Through Application by 40% – Design Note 485
George H. Barbehenn
Introduction
Many electronic systems require a local power source that
allows them to ride through brief main power interruptions without shutting down. Some local power sources
must be available to carry out a controlled shutdown if
the main power input is abruptly removed.
Complete Energy Utilization Maximizes Run Time
of Supercap Ride-Through Application
Figure 1 shows a complete 3.3V/200mA ride-through application that maximizes the amount of power extracted
from the supercap to support the load.
A battery backup can supply power in the event of a
mains shutdown, but batteries are not well suited to
this particular application. Although batteries can store
significant amounts of energy, they cannot deliver much
power due to their significant source impedance. Also,
batteries have finite lives of ~2 to 3 years, and the maintenance required for rechargeable batteries is substantial.
• The LTC ®4425 complete 2A supercapacitor charger. It
clamps the individual cell voltages to ensure that the
cells do not overvoltage during charging and balances
the cells throughout charge and discharge.
The main components of the ride-through application
include:
• The LTC3606 micropower buck regulator produces
the regulated 3.3V output.
Supercapacitors are well suited to such ride-through
applications. Their low source impedance allows them
to supply significant power for a relatively short time,
and they are considerably more reliable and durable
than batteries.
• The LTC4416 dual ideal diode switches the supercap
in and out depending on need.
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owners.
VDD
M1A
Si7913DN
R2
47k
10
9
2
3
4
7
R6
1.5M
9
R7
1.2M
7
6
4
3
5
C6
10μF
12
11
V1
G1
H1
VS
E1
LTC4416EMS
H2
GND
1
VOUT
2
VOUT1
LTC4425EMSE
V2
VMID
PFI_RET
10 2
+
EN
SEL
+
C11* +
550mF
5.5V
HS206F 2
+
13
ICHARGE =1000/R
ICHARGE = 2A
*SUPERCAP 550mF
3
C8*
550mF
5.5V
HS206F
OPT
3
5
OPT
3
2
INSERT JUMPER TO BYPASS
BOOST CONVERTER
1
J1
1
t
4
R9
47k
3
J2
2
7
6
SHDN
VIN
H2
SW
G2
L2
2.2μH
LPS4018-222MLC
VOUT
3
2
5
7
2
R5
54.9k
8
VIN
RUN
SW
4
LTC3606BEDD
RLIM
PGOOD
FB
6
L1
1μH
LPS4018102MLC
3V3
t
C4
22μF
R3
1.21M
GND GND1 EPAD
1
3
9
DN485 F01
8
C3
22μF
FB
GND PGND EPAD
C1
10μF
R4
267k
1
LTC3539EDCB
MODE
VIN_BUCK
VDD
OR
34V
C5
1000pF
M1A
Si7913DN
C7
10μF
+
OPT
3
PROG
8
FB
PFO
EPAD
R8
499Ω
C10* +
550mF
5.5V
HS206F 2
8
5
6
VSC
C9*
+
550mF
5.5V
HS206F 2
+
H1
1
E2
VIN VIN1
PFI
R1
47k
C2
22μF
R11
1.02M
9
R10
562k
Figure 1. This Supercap-Based Power Ride-Through Circuit Maximizes Run Time Using an Energy Scavenging Scheme
12/10/485
• The LTC3539 micropower boost regulator with output disconnect recovers nearly all the energy in the
supercap and it keeps the input to the LTC3606 above
dropout as the supercap voltage drops. This boost
regulator operates down to 0.5V.
40% Improvement in Run Time
Figure 2 shows the waveforms if the LTC3539 boost
circuit is disabled. Run time from input power off to
output regulator voltage dropping to 3V is 4.68 seconds.
Figure 3 shows the waveforms if the LTC3539 boost
circuit is operational. Run time from input power off
to the output regulator dropping to 3V is 7.92 seconds.
Note in Figure 3 that the output is a steady 3.3V voltage
with a sharp cutoff.
How it Works
When the LTC3539 boost regulator is disabled, as soon
as input power falls, the LTC4416 ideal diodes switch the
input energy supply for the LTC3606 buck regulator to the
supercap. In Figure 2, the voltage across the supercap
(VSC) is seen to linearly decrease due to the constant power
load of 200mA at 3.3V on the buck regulator output (3V3).
VSC AND
VIN_BUCK
VDD
3V3
DN485 F02
1 SECOND/DIV
Figure 2. Power Ride-Through Application Results
without Boost Circuit
VIN_BUCK
VDD
VSC
3V3
1 SECOND/DIV
DN485 F03
Figure 3. Power Ride-Through Application Results with
Boost Circuit Enabled. The Boost Circuit Yields a 40%
Improvement in Run Time
In Figure 3, when the LTC3539 boost regulator is enabled,
the voltage across the supercap (VSC) is seen to linearly
decrease due to the constant power load of 200mA at The output power is 3.33V • 0.2A = 0.67W, so the per3.3V on the buck regulator. When the voltage at VSC centage of energy extracted from the full supercap when
reaches 3.4V, the regulation point of the boost regulator, the boost regulator is disabled is 45.1%:
the boost regulator begins switching. This shuts off the
εLOAD 0.67 • 4.68s
ideal diode and disconnects the buck regulator from the
=
= 45.1%
6.875
ε CAP
supercapacitor. The energy input to the buck regulator
is now the boost regulator’s output of 3.4V.
The percentage of the energy extracted from the suBecause the input of the buck regulator remains at 3.4V,
percap’s available storage when the boost regulator is
its output remains in regulation. When the boost reguenabled is 77%:
lator reaches its input UVLO and shuts off, its output
immediately collapses, and the buck regulator shuts off.
εLOAD 0.67 • 7.92s
=
= 77%
6.875
ε CAP
Maximizing Usage of the Energy in the Supercap
Because each power conversion lowers the overall efficiency, the boost circuit should be held off as long as
possible. Therefore, set the boost regulator output voltage
as close to the buck regulator input dropout voltage as
possible, in this case, 3.4V.
This represents a 40% improvement in ride-through run
time—significant when seconds count.
Conclusion
The run time of any given supercapacitor-based power
If the supercapacitor is initially charged to 5V, then the ride-through system can be extended by 40% if energy is
energy in the supercapacitor is 6.875J:
utilized from the discharging supercap. This is particularly
relevant if the supercapacitor charge voltage is reduced
1 2 1
to ensure high temperature reliability.
CV = 0.55F • 52 = 6.875J
2
2
0.67W (3.33 • 0.2A)
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