DATASHEET

X98014
NS ESIG LE
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O R N C O M PA
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100%
IVE Sheet
OMM 140 IS A ERNATData
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March 8, 2006
140MHz Triple Video Digitizer with
Digital PLL
FN8217.3
Features
• 140MSPS maximum conversion rate
The X98014 3-channel, 8-bit Analog Front End (AFE)
contains all the components necessary to digitize analog
RGB or YUV graphics signals from personal computers,
workstations and video set-top boxes. The fully differential
analog design provides high PSRR and dynamic
performance to meet the stringent requirements of the
graphics display industry. The AFE’s 140MSPS conversion
rate supports resolutions up to SXGA at 75Hz refresh rate,
while the front end's high input bandwidth ensures sharp
images at the highest resolutions.
• Low PLL clock jitter (250ps p-p @ 140MSPS)
• 64 interpixel sampling positions
• 0.35Vp-p to 1.4Vp-p video input range
• Programmable bandwidth (100MHz to 780MHz)
• 2 channel input multiplexer
• RGB and YUV 4:2:2 output formats
• 5 embedded voltage regulators allow operation from
single 3.3V supply and enhance performance, isolation
To minimize noise, the X98014's analog section features 2
sets of pseudo-differential RGB inputs with programmable
input bandwidth, as well as internal DC restore clamping
(including mid-scale clamping for YUV signals). This is
followed by the programmable gain/offset stage and the
three 140MSPS Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs).
Automatic Black Level Compensation (ABLC™) eliminates
part-to-part offset variation, ensuring perfect black level
performance in every application.
• Completely independent 8 bit gain/10 bit offset control
• CSYNC and SOG support
• Trilevel sync detection
• 990mW typical PD @ 140MSPS
• Pb-free plus anneal available (RoHS compliant)
Applications
The X98014's digital PLL generates a pixel clock from the
analog source's HSYNC or SOG (Sync-On-Green) signals.
Pixel clock output frequencies range from 10MHz to 140MHz
with sampling clock jitter of 250ps peak to peak.
• LCD Monitors and Projectors
• Digital TVs
• Plasma Display Panels
• RGB Graphics Processing
• Scan Converters
Simplified Block Diagram
RGB/YPbPrIN 1
RGB/YPbPrIN 2
3
Offset
DAC
Voltage
Clamp
ABLC™
8 or 16
PGA
3
+
8 bit ADC
x3
RGB/YUVOUT
HSYNCOUT
VSYNCOUT
SOGIN1/2
HSYNCIN1/2
VSYNCIN1/2
Sync
Processing
Digital PLL
HSOUT
PIXELCLKOUT
AFE Configuration and Control
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2005, 2006. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
X98014
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER
PART MARKING
MAXIMUM PIXEL
RATE
TEMP RANGE
(°C)
PACKAGE
X98014L128-3.3
X98014L-3.3
140MHz
0 to 70
128 MQFP
X98014L128-3.3-Z (See Note)
X98014L-3.3Z
140MHz
0 to 70
128 MQFP (Pb-free)
NOTE: Intersil Pb-free plus anneal products employ special Pb-free material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100% matte tin plate
termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations. Intersil Pb-free products are MSL
classified at Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
Block Diagram
VCLAMP
RIN1
Offset
DAC
10
ABLC™
VIN+
8
RIN2
+
VCLAMP
GIN1
RGBGND1
8 bit ADC
Offset
DAC
10
8
8
VIN+
PGA
VIN-
GIN2
+
8 bit ADC
8
RGBGND2
VCLAMP
BIN1
Offset
DAC
10
ABLC™
VIN+
VIN-
BIN2
PGA
+
RP[7:0]
RS[7:0]
ABLC™
8 bit ADC
8
Output Data Formatter
PGA
VIN-
8
8
8
8
GP[7:0]
GS[7:0]
BP[7:0]
BS[7:0]
DATACLK
SOGIN1
DATACLK
SOGIN2
Sync
Processing
HSYNCIN1
HSYNCIN2
VSYNCIN1
AFE Configuration
and Control
HSOUT
VSOUT
VSYNCIN2
HSYNCOUT
VSYNCOUT
CLOCKINV
Digital PLL
XTALIN
XTALOUT
SCL
XTALCLKOUT
Serial
Interface
SDA
SADDR
2
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Recommended Operating Conditions
Voltage on VA, VD, or VX
(referenced to GNDA=GNDD=GNDX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0V
Voltage on any analog input pin
(referenced to GNDA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to VA
Voltage on any digital input pin
(referenced to GNDD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to +6.0V
Current into any output pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ±20mA
Operating Temperature range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0°C to +70°C
Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +125°C
Storage Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-65°C to +150°C
Temperature (Commercial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0°C to +70°C
Supply Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VA = VD = VX = 3.3V
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional
operation of the device (at these or any other conditions above those listed in the operational sections of this specification) is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
T
Electrical Specifications
SYMBOL
Specifications apply for VA = VD = VX = 3.3V, pixel rate = 140MHz, fXTAL = 25MHz, TA = 25°C,
unless otherwise noted
PARAMETER
COMMENT
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
FULL CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS
ADC Resolution
8
Missing Codes
Guaranteed monotonic
Conversion Rate
Per Channel
Bits
None
10
140
MHz
DNL
Differential Non-Linearity
±0.5
+1.0
-0.9
LSB
INL
Integral Non-Linearity
±1.1
±2.75
LSB
Gain Adjustment Range
±6
dB
Gain Adjustment Resolution
8
Bits
±1
%
Gain Matching Between Channels
Percent of full scale
Full Channel Offset Error, ABLC™ enabled ADC LSBs, over time and temperature
Offset Adjustment Range, ABLC™
enabled or disabled
ADC LSBs (see ABLC™ applications
information section)
Overvoltage Recovery Time
For 150% overrange, maximum bandwidth
setting
±0.125
±0.5
LSB
±127
LSB
5
ns
ANALOG VIDEO INPUT CHARACTERISTICS (RIN1, GIN1, BIN1, RIN2, GIN2, BIN2)
Input Range
0.35
Input Bias Current
DC restore clamp off
Input Capacitance
0.7
1.4
VP-P
±0.01
±1
µA
5
pF
Programmable
780
MHz
Input Threshold Voltage
Programmable - See Register Listing for
Details
0 to
-0.3
V
Hysteresis
Centered around threshold voltage
40
mV
5
pF
0.4 to 3.2
V
240
mV
1.2
kΩ
Full Power Bandwidth
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS (SOGIN1, SOGIN2)
VIH/VIL
Input capacitance
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS (HSYNCIN1, HSYNCIN2)
VIH/VIL
RIN
Input Threshold Voltage
Programmable - See Register Listing for
Details
Hysteresis
Centered around threshold voltage
Input impedance
3
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Electrical Specifications
SYMBOL
Specifications apply for VA = VD = VX = 3.3V, pixel rate = 140MHz, fXTAL = 25MHz, TA = 25°C,
unless otherwise noted (Continued)
PARAMETER
COMMENT
MIN
Input capacitance
TYP
MAX
5
UNIT
pF
DIGITAL INPUT CHARACTERISTICS (SDA, SADDR, CLOCKINVIN, RESET)
VIH
Input HIGH Voltage
VIL
Input LOW Voltage
I
2.0
V
0.8
Input leakage current
RESET has a 70kΩ pullup to VD
Input capacitance
V
±10
nA
5
pF
SCHMITT DIGITAL INPUT CHARACTERISTICS (SCL, VSYNCIN1, VSYNCIN2)
VT +
Low to High Threshold Voltage
VT-
High to Low Threshold Voltage
I
1.45
V
0.95
Input leakage current
Input capacitance
V
±10
nA
5
pF
DIGITAL OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS (DATACLK, DATACLK)
VOH
Output HIGH Voltage, IO = 16mA
VOL
Output LOW Voltage, IO = -16mA
2.4
V
0.4
V
DIGITAL OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS (RP, GP, BP, RS, GS, BS, HSOUT, VSOUT, HSYNCOUT, VSYNCOUT)
VOH
Output HIGH Voltage, IO = 8mA
VOL
Output LOW Voltage, IO = -8mA
RTRI
Pulldown to GNDD when three-state
2.4
V
0.4
RP, GP, BP, RS, GS, BS only
58
V
kΩ
DIGITAL OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS (SDA, XTALCLKOUT)
VOH
Output HIGH Voltage, IO = 4mA
VOL
Output LOW Voltage, IO = -4mA
XTALCLKOUT only; SDA is open-drain
2.4
V
0.4
V
POWER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
VA
Analog Supply Voltage
3
3.3
3.6
V
VD
Digital Supply Voltage
3
3.3
3.6
V
VX
Crystal Oscillator Supply Voltage
3
3.3
3.6
V
IA
Analog Supply Current
Operating
180
190
mA
ID
Digital Supply Current
Operating (grayscale)
120
130
mA
IX
Crystal Oscillator Supply Current
0.7
2
mA
PD
Total Power Dissipation
Operating (average)
1.0
1.15
W
Power-down mode
50
80
mW
ΘJA
Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient
30
°C/W
AC TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
PLL Jitter
250
Sampling Phase Steps
5.6° per step
fXTAL
Degrees out of 360°
HSYNC Frequency Range
10
Crystal Frequency Range
23
4
ps p-p
64
Sampling Phase Tempco
Sampling Phase Differential Nonlinearity
450
±1
ps/°C
±3
°
25
150
kHz
27
MHz
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Electrical Specifications
SYMBOL
Specifications apply for VA = VD = VX = 3.3V, pixel rate = 140MHz, fXTAL = 25MHz, TA = 25°C,
unless otherwise noted (Continued)
PARAMETER
COMMENT
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
tSETUP
DATA valid before rising edge of DATACLK 15pF DATACLK load, 15pF DATA load
(Note 1)
1.3
ns
tHOLD
DATA valid after rising edge of DATACLK
2.0
ns
15pF DATACLK load, 15pF DATA load
(Note 1)
AC TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (2 WIRE INTERFACE)
fSCL
tAA
SCL Clock Frequency
0
Maximum width of a glitch on SCL that will
be suppressed
2 XTAL periods min
SCL LOW to SDA Data Out Valid
5 XTAL periods plus SDA’s RC time
constant
400
80
kHz
ns
See
comment
µs
tBUF
Time the bus must be free before a new
transmission can start
1.3
µs
tLOW
Clock LOW Time
1.3
µs
tHIGH
Clock HIGH Time
0.6
µs
tSU:STA
Start Condition Setup Time
0.6
µs
tHD:STA
Start Condition Hold Time
0.6
µs
tSU:DAT
Data In Setup Time
100
ns
tHD:DAT
Data In Hold Time
0
ns
tSU:STO
Stop Condition Setup Time
0.6
µs
160
ns
tDH
Data Output Hold Time
4 XTAL periods min
NOTES:
1. Setup and hold times are at a 140MHz DATACLK rate.
tHIGH
tF
SCL
tR
tSU:DAT
tSU:ST
SDA IN
tLOW
tHD:DAT
tHD:STA
tSU:STO
tAA
tDH
tBUF
SDA OUT
FIGURE 1. 2 WIRE INTERFACE TIMING
DATACLK
DATACLK
tSETUP
tHOLD
Pixel Data
FIGURE 2. DATA OUTPUT SETUP AND HOLD TIMING
5
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
The HSYNC edge (programmable leading or trailing) that the DPLL is locked to.
The sampling phase setting determines its relative position to the rest of the AFE’s output signals
HSYNC IN
tHSYNCin-to-HSout = 7.5ns + (PHASE/64 +8.5)*tPIXEL
Analog
Video In
P1
P0
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
DATACLK
8.5 DATACLK Pipeline Latency
R P/G P/B P[7:0]
D0
D1
D2
D3
R S/G S/B S[7:0]
Programmable
Width and Polarity
HSOUT
FIGURE 3. 24 BIT OUTPUT MODE
Th HSYNC d (
bl l di
t ili ) th t th DPLL i l k d t
The HSYNC edge (programmable leading or trailing) that the DPLL is locked to.
The sampling phase setting determines its relative position to the rest of the AFE’s output signals
HSYNC IN
tHSYNCin-to-HSout = 7.5ns + (PHASE/64 +8.5)*tPIXEL
Analog
Video In
P1
P0
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
DATACLK
8.5 DATACLK Pipeline Latency
GP[7:0]
G 0 (Y o)
G 1 (Y1)
G 2 (Y2)
RP[7:0]
B0 (U o)
R1 (V 1)
B2 (U 2)
BP[7:0]
Programmable
Width and Polarity
HSOUT
FIGURE 4. 24 BIT 4:2:2 OUTPUT MODE (FOR YUV SIGNALS)
6
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
The HSYNC edge (programmable leading or trailing) that the DPLL is locked to.
The sampling phase setting determines its relative position to the rest of the AFE’s output signals
HSYNCIN
tHSYNCin-to-HSout = 7.5ns + (PHASE/64 +10.5)*tPIXEL
Analog
Video In
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
DATACLK
RP/GP/BP[7:0]
D0
D2
RS/GS/BS[7:0]
D1
D3
Programmable
Width and Polarity
HSOUT
FIGURE 5. 48 BIT OUTPUT MODE
The HSYNC edge (programmable leading or trailing) that the DPLL is locked to.
HSYNC
The HSYNC edge (programmable leading or trailing) that the DPLL is locked to.
The sampling phase setting determines its relative position to the rest of the AFE’s output signals
HSYNCIN
tHSYNCin-to-HSout = 7.5ns + (PHASE/64 +8.5)*tPIXEL
Analog
Video In
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
DATACLK
RP/GP/BP[7:0]
D0
RS/GS/BS[7:0]
D2
D1
Programmable
Width and Polarity
HSOUT
FIGURE 6. 48 BIT OUTPUT MODE, INTERLEAVED TIMING
7
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Pinout
RS3
RS4
R P7
112
103
R P6
113
RS2
R P5
114
104
R P4
115
RS1
R P3
116
105
R P2
117
RS0
R P1
118
106
R P0
119
G ND D
G ND D
120
107
DAT AC LK
121
V C OR E
DAT AC LK
122
108
G ND D
123
109
VD
124
VD
HS OUT
125
G ND D
V S OUT
126
110
HS Y NC OUT
127
111
V S Y NC OUT
128
X98014
(128-PIN MQFP)
TOP VIEW
NC
1
102
RS5
NC
2
101
RS6
G ND A
3
100
RS7
V B Y P AS S
4
99
VD
G ND A
5
98
G ND D
GS7
G IN 2
24
79
V C OR E
R G B G ND 2
25
78
G ND D
S OG IN 2
26
77
VD
G ND A
27
76
G ND D
B IN 2
28
75
BP0
VA
29
74
BP1
G ND A
30
73
BP2
V C OR E ADC
31
72
BP3
G ND D
32
71
BP4
HS Y NC IN 1
33
70
BP5
HS Y NC IN 2
34
69
BP6
VA
35
68
BP7
G ND A
36
67
VD
G ND X
37
66
G ND D
VX
38
65
V R E G IN
XT AL IN
64
80
V R E G OUT
23
63
GS6
G ND A
NC
81
62
22
BS0
GS5
R IN 2
61
82
BS1
21
60
GS4
G ND A
BS2
83
59
20
58
GS3
VA
BS3
84
BS4
19
57
GS2
B IN 1
BS5
85
56
18
BS6
GS1
VA
55
GS0
86
BS7
87
17
54
16
G ND A
53
V B Y P AS S
VD
G ND D
G ND D
88
52
15
V C OR E
VD
G ND A
51
89
G ND D
14
50
GP7
S OG IN 1
SCL
90
49
13
S DA
GP6
R G B G ND 1
48
91
S ADDR
12
47
GP5
G IN 1
XT ALC LOC K OUT
92
46
11
RESET
GP4
VA
45
93
V S Y NC IN 2
10
44
GP3
G ND A
V S Y NC IN 1
94
43
9
G ND D
GP2
V B Y P AS S
42
95
V P LL
8
41
GP1
G ND A
C LOC K INV IN
GP0
96
40
97
7
39
6
XT AL OUT
VA
R IN 1
8
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Pin Descriptions
SYMBOL
PIN
DESCRIPTION
RIN1
7
Analog input. Red channel 1. DC couple or AC couple through 0.1µF.
GIN1
12
Analog input. Green channel 1. DC couple or AC couple through 0.1µF.
BIN1
19
Analog input. Blue channel 1. DC couple or AC couple through 0.1µF.
RGBGND1
13
Analog input. Ground reference for the R, G, and B inputs of channel 1 in the DC coupled configuration.
Connect to the same ground as channel 1's R, G, and B termination resistors. This signal is not used in the
AC-coupled configuration, but the pin should still be tied to GNDA.
SOGIN1
14
Analog input. Sync on Green. Connect to GIN1 through a 0.01µF capacitor in series with a 500Ω resistor.
HSYNCIN1
33
Digital input, 5V tolerant, 240mV hysteresis, 1.2kΩ impedance to GNDA. Connect to channel 1's HSYNC
signal through a 680Ω series resistor.
VSYNCIN1
44
Digital input, 5V tolerant, 500mV hysteresis. Connect to channel 1's VSYNC signal.
RIN2
22
Analog input. Red channel 2. DC couple or AC couple through 0.1µF.
GIN2
24
Analog input. Green channel 2. DC couple or AC couple through 0.1µF.
BIN2
28
Analog input. Blue channel 2. DC couple or AC couple through 0.1µF.
RGBGND2
25
Analog input. Ground reference for the R, G, and B inputs of channel 2 in the DC coupled configuration.
Connect to the same ground as channel 1's R, G, and B termination resistors. This signal is not used in the
AC-coupled configuration, but the pin should still be tied to GNDA.
SOGIN2
26
Analog input. Sync on Green. Connect to GIN1 through a 0.01µF capacitor in series with a 500Ω resistor.
HSYNCIN2
34
Digital input, 5V tolerant, 240mV hysteresis, 1.2kΩ impedance to GNDA. Connect to channel 2's HSYNC
signal through a 680Ω series resistor.
VSYNCIN2
45
Digital input, 5V tolerant, 500mV hysteresis. Connect to channel 2's VSYNC signal.
CLOCKINVIN
41
Digital input, 5V tolerant. When high, changes the pixel sampling phase by 180 degrees. Toggle at frame
rate during VSYNC to allow 2x undersampling to sample odd and even pixels on sequential frames. Tie to
DGND if unused.
RESET
46
Digital input, 5V tolerant, active low, 70kΩ pull-up to VD. Take low for at least 1µs and then high again to
reset the X98014. This pin is not necessary for normal use and may be tied directly to the VD supply.
XTALIN
39
Analog input. Connect to external 23MHz to 27MHz crystal and load capacitor (see crystal spec for
recommended loading). Typical oscillation amplitude is 1.0VP-P centered around 0.5V.
XTALOUT
40
Analog output. Connect to external 23MHz to 27MHz crystal and load capacitor (see crystal spec for
recommended loading). Typical oscillation amplitude is 1.0VP-P centered around 0.5V.
XTALCLKOUT
47
3.3V digital output. Buffered crystal clock output at fXTAL or fXTAL/2. May be used as system clock for other
system components.
SADDR
48
Digital input, 5V tolerant. Address = 0x4C (0x98 including R/W bit) when tied low. Address = 0x4D (0x9A
including R/W bit) when tied high.
SCL
50
Digital input, 5V tolerant, 500mV hysteresis. Serial data clock for 2-wire interface.
SDA
49
Bidirectional Digital I/O, open drain, 5V tolerant. Serial data I/O for 2-wire interface.
RP[7:0]
112-119
3.3V digital output. Red channel, primary pixel data. 58K pulldown when three-stated.
RS[7:0]
100-107
3.3V digital output. Red channel, secondary pixel data. 58K pulldown when three-stated.
GP[7:0]
90-97
3.3V digital output. Green channel, primary pixel data. 58K pulldown when three-stated.
GS[7:0]
80-87
3.3V digital output. Green channel, secondary pixel data. 58K pulldown when three-stated.
BP[7:0]
68-75
3.3V digital output. Blue channel, primary pixel data. 58K pulldown when three-stated.
BS[7:0]
55-62
3.3V digital output. Blue channel, secondary pixel data. 58K pulldown when three-stated.
DATACLK
121
3.3V digital output. Data clock output. Equal to pixel clock rate in 24 bit mode, one half pixel clock rate in 48
bit mode.
DATACLK
122
3.3V digital output. Inverse of DATACLK.
9
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Pin Descriptions (Continued)
SYMBOL
PIN
DESCRIPTION
HSOUT
125
3.3V digital output. HSYNC output aligned with pixel data. Use this output to frame the digital output data.
This output is always purely horizontal sync (without any composite sync signals)
VSOUT
126
3.3V digital output.Artificial VSYNC output aligned with pixel data. VSYNC is generated 8 pixel clocks after
the trailing edge of HSOUT. This signal is usually not needed - use VSYNCOUT as VSYNC source.
HSYNCOUT
127
3.3V digital output. Buffered HSYNC (or SOG or CSYNC) output. This is typically used to measure HSYNC
period. HSOUT should be used to detect the beginning of a line. This output will pass composite sync signals
and Macrovision signals if present on HSYNCIN or SOGIN.
VSYNCOUT
128
3.3V digital output. Buffered VSYNC output. For composite sync signals, this output will be asserted for the
duration of the disruption of the normal HSYNC pattern. This is typically used to detect the beginning of a
frame and measure the VSYNC period.
VA
6, 11, 18, 20,
29, 35
Power supply for the analog section. Connect to a 3.3V supply and bypass each pin to GNDA with 0.1µF.
GNDA
3, 5, 8, 10, 15,
17, 21, 23, 27,
30, 36
Ground return for VA and VBYPASS.
VD
54, 67, 77, 89,
99, 111, 124
Power supply for all digital I/Os. Connect to a 3.3V supply and bypass each pin to GNDD with 0.1µF.
GNDD
32, 43, 51, 53,
66, 76, 78, 88,
98, 108, 110,
120, 123
Ground return for VD, VCORE, VCOREADC, and VPLL.
VX
38
Power supply for crystal oscillator. Connect to a 3.3V supply and bypass to GNDX with 0.1µF.
GNDX
37
Ground return for VX.
VBYPASS
4, 9, 16
VREGIN
65
3.3V input voltage for VCORE voltage regulator. Connect to a 3.3V source, and bypass to GNDD with 0.1µF.
VREGOUT
64
Regulated output voltage for VPLL, VCOREADC and VCORE; typically 1.9V. Connect only to VPLL,
VCOREADC and VCORE and bypass at input pins as instructed below. Do not connect to anything else - this
output can only supply power to VPLL, VCOREADC and VCORE.
VCOREADC
31
Internal power for the ADC’s digital logic. Connect to VREGOUT through a 10Ω resistor and bypass to GNDD
with 0.1µF.
VPLL
42
Internal power for the PLL’s digital logic. Connect to VREGOUT through a 10Ω resistor and bypass to GNDD
with 0.1µF.
VCORE
52, 79, 109
NC
1, 2, 63
10
Bypass these pins to GNDA with 0.1µF. Do not connect these pins to each other or anything else.
Internal power for core logic. Connect to VREGOUT and bypass each pin to GNDD with 0.1µF.
Reserved. Do not connect anything to these pins.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Register Listing
ADDRESS
0x01
0x02
0x03
0x04
REGISTER (DEFAULT VALUE)
SYNC Status
(read only)
SYNC Polarity
(read only)
HSYNC Slicer (0x44)
SOG Slicer (0x08)
11
BIT(s)
FUNCTION NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
HSYNC1 Active
0: HSYNC1 is Inactive
1: HSYNC1 is Active
1
HSYNC2 Active
0: HSYNC2 is Inactive
1: HSYNC2 is Active
2
VSYNC1 Active
0: VSYNC1 is Inactive
1: VSYNC1 is Active
3
VSYNC2 Active
0: VSYNC2 is Inactive
1: VSYNC2 is Active
4
SOG1 Active
0: SOG1 is Inactive
1: SOG1 is Active
5
SOG2 Active
0: SOG2 is Inactive
1: SOG2 is Active
6
PLL Locked
0: PLL is unlocked
1: PLL is locked to incoming HSYNC
7
CSYNC Detected at
Sync Splitter Output
0: Composite Sync signal not detected
1: Composite Sync signal is detected
0
HSYNC1
Polarity
0: HSYNC1 is Active High
1: HSYNC1 is Active Low
1
HSYNC2
Polarity
0: HSYNC2 is Active High
1: HSYNC2 is Active Low
2
VSYNC1
Polarity
0: VSYNC1 is Active High
1: VSYNC1 is Active Low
3
VSYNC2
Polarity
0: VSYNC2 is Active High
1: VSYNC2 is Active Low
4
HSYNC1
Trilevel
0: HSYNC1 is Standard Sync
1: HSYNC1 is Trilevel Sync
5
HSYNC2
Trilevel
0: HSYNC2 is Standard Sync
1: HSYNC2 is Trilevel Sync
7:6
N/A
Returns 0
2:0
HSYNC1 Threshold
000 = lowest (0.4V) All values referred to
100 = default (2.0V) voltage at HSYNC input
111 = highest (3.2V) pin, 240mV hysteresis
3
Reserved
Set to 00
6:4
HSYNC2 Threshold
See HSYNC1
7
Disable Glitch Filter
0: HSYNC/VSYNC Digital Glitch Filter Enabled (default)
1: HSYNC/VSYNC Digital Glitch Filter Disabled
3:0
SOG1 and SOG2
Threshold
0x0 = lowest (0mV)
40mV hysteresis at
0x8 = default (160mV) all settings
0xF = highest (300mV) 20mV step size
4
SOG Filter
Enable
0: SOG low pass filter disabled (default)
1: SOG low pass filter enabled, 14MHz corner
5
SOG Hysteresis
Disable
0: 40mV SOG hysteresis enabled
1: 40mV SOG hysteresis disabled (default)
7:6
Reserved
Set to 00.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Register Listing (Continued)
ADDRESS
0x05
REGISTER (DEFAULT VALUE)
Input configuration (0x00)
BIT(s)
FUNCTION NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
Channel Select
0: VGA1
1: VGA2
1
Input Coupling
0: AC coupled (positive input connected to clamp DAC
during clamp time, negative input disconnected from outside
pad and always internally tied to appropriate clamp DAC)
1: DC coupled (+ and - inputs are brought to pads and never
connected to clamp DACs). Analog clamp signal is turned off
in this mode.
2
RGB/YUV
0: RGB inputs (Clamp DAC = 300mV for R, G, B, half scale
analog shift for R, G, and B, base ABLC™ target code = 0x00
for R, G, and B)
1: YUV inputs (Clamp DAC = 600mV for R and B, 300mV for
G, half scale analog shift for G channel only, base ABLC™
target code = 0x00 for G, = 0x80 for R and B)
3
Sync Type
0: Separate HSYNC/VSYNC
1: Composite (from SOG or CSYNC on HSYNC)
4
Composite Sync
Source
0: SOGIN
1: HSYNCIN
Note: If Sync Type = 0, the multiplexer will pass HSYNCIN
regardless of the state of this bit.
5
COAST CLAMP
enable
0: DC restore clamping and ABLC™ suspended during
COAST
1: DC restore clamping and ABLC™ continue during COAST
7:6
Reserved
Set to 00.
Channel gain, where:
gain (V/V) = 0.5 + [7:0]/170
0x06
Red Gain (0x55)
7:0
Red Gain
0x07
Green Gain (0x55)
7:0
Green Gain
0x08
Blue Gain (0x55)
7:0
Blue Gain
0x00: gain = 0.5 V/V
(1.4VP-P input = full range of ADC)
0x55: gain = 1.0 V/V
(0.7VP-P input = full range of ADC)
0xFF: gain = 2.0 V/V
(0.35VP-P input = full range of ADC)
0x09
Red Offset (0x80)
7:0
Red Offset
0x0A
Green Offset (0x80)
7:0
Green Offset
0x0B
Blue Offset (0x80)
7:0
Blue Offset
0x0C
Offset DAC Configuration (0x00)
0
Offset DAC Range
0: ±1/2 ADC fullscale (1 DAC LSB ~ 1 ADC LSB)
1: ±1/4 ADC fullscale (1 DAC LSB ~ 1/2 ADC LSB)
1
Reserved
Set to 0.
3:2
Red Offset DAC LSBs These bits are the LSBs necessary for 10 bit manual offset
DAC control.
Green Offset DAC
Combine with their respective MSBs in registers 0x09, 0x0A,
LSBs
and 0x0B to achieve 10 bit offset DAC control.
5:4
7:6
12
ABLC™ enabled: digital offset control. A 1 LSB change in
this register will shift the ADC output by 1 LSB.
ABLC™ disabled: analog offset control. These bits go to the
upper 8 bits of the 10 bit offset DAC. A 1LSB change in this
register will shift the ADC output approximately 1 LSB (Offset
DAC range = 0) or 0.5LSBs (Offset DAC range = 1).
0x00 = min DAC value or -0x80 digital offset,
0x80 = mid DAC value or 0x00 digital offset,
0xFF = max DAC value or +0x7F digital offset
Blue Offset DAC
LSBs
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Register Listing (Continued)
ADDRESS
0x0D
REGISTER (DEFAULT VALUE)
AFE Bandwidth (0x0E)
BIT(s)
FUNCTION NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
Unused
Value doesn’t matter
3:1
AFE BW
3dB point for AFE lowpass filter
000: 100MHz
111: 780MHz (default)
7:4
Peaking
0000: Disabled (default) See Bandwidth and Peaking
Control section for more information
14 bit HTOTAL (number of active pixels) value
The minimum HTOTAL value supported is 0x200.
HTOTAL to PLL is updated on LSB write only.
0x0E
PLL Htotal MSB (0x03)
5:0
PLL Htotal MSB
0x0F
PLL Htotal LSB (0x20)
7:0
PLL Htotal LSB
0x10
PLL Sampling Phase (0x00)
5:0
PLL Sampling Phase
Used to control the phase of the ADC’s sample point relative
to the period of a pixel. Adjust to obtain optimum image
quality. One step = 5.625° (1.56% of pixel period).
0x11
PLL Pre-coast (0x08)
7:0
Pre-coast
Number of lines the PLL will coast prior to the start of
VSYNC. Applies only to internally generated COAST
signals.
0x12
PLL Post-coast (0x00)
7:0
Post-coast
Number of lines the PLL will coast after the end of VSYNC.
Applies only to internally generated COAST signals.
0x13
PLL Misc (0x00)
0
PLL Lock Edge
HSYNC1
0: Lock on trailing edge of HSYNC1 (default)
1: Lock on leading edge of HSYNC1
1
PLL Lock Edge
HSYNC2
0: Lock on trailing edge of HSYNC2 (default)
1: Lock on leading edge of HSYNC2
2
Reserved
Set to 0.
3
CLKINVIN Pin
Disable
0: CLKINVIN pin enabled (default)
1: CLKINVIN pin disabled (internally forced low)
5:4
CLKINVIN Pin
Function
00: CLKINV (default)
01: External CLAMP (see Note)
10: External COAST
11: External PIXCLK
Note: the CLAMP pulse is used to
- perform a DC restore (if enabled)
- start the ABLC™ function (if enabled), and
- update the data to the Offset DACs (always).
When in the default internal CLAMP mode, the X98014
automatically generates the CLAMP pulse. If External
CLAMP is selected, the Offset DAC values will only change
on the leading edge of CLAMP. If there is no internal clamp
signal, there will be up to a 100ms delay between when the
PGA gain or offset DAC register is written to, and when the
PGA or offset DAC is actually updated.
6
XTALCLKOUT
Frequency
0: XTALCLKOUT= fCRYSTAL (default)
1: XTALCLKOUT= fCRYSTAL/2
7
Disable
XTALCLKOUT
0 = XTALCLKOUT enabled
1 = XTALCLKOUT is logic low
Pixel after HSYNCIN trailing edge to begin
DC restore and ABLC™ functions. 13 bits.
Set this register to the first stable black pixel following the
trailing edge of HSYNCIN.
0x14
DC Restore and ABLC™ starting
pixel MSB (0x00)
4:0
DC Restore and
ABLC™ starting
pixel (MSB)
0x15
DC Restore and ABLC™ starting
pixel LSB (0x00)
7:0
DC Restore and
ABLC™ starting
pixel (LSB)
0x16
DC Restore Clamp Width
(0x10)
7:0
DC Restore clamp
width (pixels)
13
Width of DC restore clamp used in AC-coupled
configurations. Has no effect on ABLC™. Minimum value is
0x02 (a setting of 0x01 or 0x00 will not generate a clamp
pulse).
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Register Listing (Continued)
ADDRESS
0x17
0x18
REGISTER (DEFAULT VALUE)
ABLC™ Configuration (0x40)
Output Format (0x00)
BIT(s)
FUNCTION NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
ABLC™ disable
0: ABLC™ enabled (default)
1: ABLC™ disabled
1
Reserved
Set to 0.
3:2
ABLC™ pixel width
Number of black pixels averaged every line for ABLC™
function
00: 16 pixels [default]
01: 32 pixels
10: 64 pixels
11: 128 pixels
6:4
ABLC™ bandwidth
ABLC™ Time constant (lines) = 2(5+[6:4])
000 = 32 lines
100 = 512 lines (default)
111 = 4096 lines
7
Reserved
Set to 0.
0
Bus Width
0: 24 bits: Data output on RP, GP, BP only; RS, GS, BS are all
driven low (default)
1: 48 bits: Data output on RP, GP, BP, RS, GS, BS
1
Interleaving
(48 bit mode only)
0: No interleaving: data changes on same edge of DATACLK
(default)
1: Interleaved: Secondary databus data changes on
opposite edge of DATACLK from primary databus
2
Bus Swap
(48 bit mode only)
0: First data byte after trailing edge of HSOUT appears on
RP, GP, BP (default)
1: First data byte after trailing edge of HSOUT appears on
RS, GS, BS (primary and secondary busses are reversed)
3
Reserved
Set to 0.
4
422
(24 bit mode only)
0: Data is formatted as 4:4:4 (RGB, default)
1: Data is decimated to 4:2:2 (YUV), blue channel is driven
low
5
DATACLK
Polarity
0: HSOUT, VSOUT, and Pixel Data change on falling edge of
DATACLK (default)
1: HSOUT, VSOUT, and Pixel Data change on rising edge of
DATACLK
6
VSOUT Polarity
0: Active High (default)
1: Active Low
7
HSOUT Polarity
0: Active High (default)
1: Active Low
0x19
HSOUT Width (0x10)
7:0
HSOUT Width
HSOUT width, in pixels. Minimum value is 0x01 for 24 bit
modes, 0x02 for 48 bit modes.
0x1A
Output Signal Disable (0x00)
0
Three-state RP[7:0]
1
Three-state RS[7:0]
2
Three-state GP[7:0]
0 = Output byte enabled
1 = Output byte three-stated
These bits override all other I/O settings
Output data pins have 58kΩ pulldown resistors to GNDD.
3
Three-state GS[7:0]
4
Three-state BP[7:0]
5
Three-state BS[7:0]
6
Three-state
DATACLK
0 = DATACLK enabled
1 = DATACLK three-stated
7
Three-state
DATACLK
0 = DATACLK enabled
1 = DATACLK three-stated
14
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Register Listing (Continued)
ADDRESS
0x1B
REGISTER (DEFAULT VALUE)
Power Control (0x00)
BIT(s)
FUNCTION NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
Red
Power Down
0 = Red ADC operational (default)
1 = Red ADC powered down
1
Green
Power Down
0 = Green ADC operational (default)
1 = Green ADC powered down
2
Blue
Power Down
0 = Blue ADC operational (default)
1 = Blue ADC powered down
3
PLL
Power Down
0 = PLL operational (default)
1 = PLL powered down
7:4
Reserved
Set to 0
0x1C
Reserved (0x47)
7:0
Reserved
Set to 0x49 for best performance with NTSC and PAL video
0x23
DC Restore Clamp (0x08)
3:0
Reserved
Set to 1000
6:4
DC Restore Clamp
Impedance
DC Restore clamp's ON resistance.
Shared for all three channels
0: Infinite (clamp disconnected) (default)
1: 1600Ω
2: 800Ω
3: 533Ω
4: 400Ω
5: 320Ω
6: 267Ω
7: 228Ω
7
Reserved
Set to 0
Technical Highlights
The X98014 provides all the features of traditional triple
channel video AFEs, but adds several next-generation
enhancements, bringing performance and ease of use to
new levels.
DPLL
All video AFEs must phase lock to an HSYNC signal,
supplied either directly or embedded in the video stream
(Sync On Green). Historically this function has been
implemented as a traditional analog PLL. At SXGA and
lower resolutions, an analog PLL solution has proven
adequate, if somewhat troublesome (due to the need to
adjust charge pump currents, VCO ranges and other
parameters to find the optimum trade-off for a wide range of
pixel rates).
As display resolutions and refresh rates have increased,
however, the pixel period has decreased. An XGA pixel at a
60Hz refresh rate has 15.4ns to change and settle to its new
value. But at UXGA 75Hz, the pixel period is 4.9ns. Most
consumer graphics cards spend most of that time slewing to
the new pixel value. The pixel may settle to its final value
with 1ns or less before it begins slewing to the next pixel. In
many cases it never settles at all. So precision, low-jitter
sampling is a fundamental requirement at these speeds, and
a difficult one for an analog PLL to meet.
The X98014's DPLL has less than 250ps of jitter, peak to
peak, and independent of the pixel rate. The DPLL
15
generates 64 phase steps per pixel (vs. the industry
standard 32), for fine, accurate positioning of the sampling
point. The crystal-locked NCO inside the DPLL completely
eliminates drift due to charge pump leakage, so there is
inherently no frequency or phase change across a line. An
intelligent all-digital loop filter/controller eliminates the need
for the user to have to program or change anything (except
for the number of pixels) to lock over a range from interlaced
video (10MHz or higher) to SXGA 75Hz (140MHz).
The DPLL eliminates much of the performance limitations
and complexity associated with noise-free digitization of high
speed signals.
Automatic Black Level Compensation (ABLC™)
and Gain Control
Traditional video AFEs have an offset DAC prior to the ADC,
to both correct for offsets on the incoming video signals and
add/subtract an offset for user “brightness control”. This
solution is adequate, but it places significant requirements
on the system's firmware, which must execute a loop that
detects the black portion of the signal and then servos the
offset DACs until that offset is nulled (or produces the
desired ADC output code). Once this has been
accomplished, the offset (both the offset in the AFE and the
offset of the video card generating the signal) is subject to
drift - the temperature inside a monitor or projector can
easily change 50°C between power-on/offset calibration on a
cold morning and the temperature reached once the monitor
and the monitor's environment have reached steady state.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Offset can drift significantly over 50°C, reducing image
quality and requiring that the user do a manual calibration
once the monitor has warmed up.
In addition to drift, many AFEs exhibit interaction between
the offset and gain controls. When the gain is changed, the
magnitude of the offset is changed as well. This again
increases the complexity of the firmware as it tries to
optimize gain and offset settings for a given video input
signal. Instead of adjusting just the offset, then the gain, both
have to be adjusted interactively until the desired ADC
output is reached.
The X98014 simplifies offset and gain adjustment and
completely eliminates offset drift using its Automatic Black
Level Compensation (ABLC™) function. ABLC™ monitors
the black level and continuously adjusts the X98014's 10 bit
offset DACs to null out the offset. Any offset, whether due to
the video source or the X98014's analog amplifiers, is
eliminated with 10 bit (1/4 of an 8 bit ADC LSB) accuracy.
Any drift is compensated for well before it can have a visible
effect. Manual offset adjustment control is still available - an
8 bit register allows the firmware to adjust the offset ±64
codes in exactly 1 ADC LSB increments. And gain is now
completely independent of offset - adjusting the gain no
longer affects the offset, so there is no longer a need to
program the firmware to cope with interactive offset and gain
controls.
Finally, there should be no concerns over ABLC™ itself
introducing visible artifacts; it doesn't. ABLC™ operates at a
very low frequency, changing the offset in 1/4 LSB
increments, so it doesn't cause visible brightness
fluctuations. And once ABLC™ is locked, if the offset doesn't
drift, the DACs won't change. If desired, ABLC™ can be
disabled, allowing the firmware to work in the traditional way,
with 10 bit offset DACs under the firmware's control.
Functional Description
Inputs
The X98014 digitizes analog video inputs in both RGB and
Component (YPbPr) formats, with or without embedded sync
(SOG).
RGB Inputs
For RGB inputs, the black/blank levels are identical and
equal to 0V. The range for each color is typically 0V to 0.7V
from black to white. HSYNC and VSYNC are separate
signals.
Component YUV Inputs
In addition to RGB and RGB with SOG, the X98014 has an
option that is compatible with the component YPbPr and
YCbCr video inputs typically generated by DVD players.
While the X98014 digitizes signals in these color spaces, it
does not perform color space conversion; if it digitizes an
RGB signal, it outputs digital RGB, while if it digitizes a
YPbPr signal, it outputs digital YPbPr. For simplicity’s sake
we will call these non-RGB signals YUV.
The Luminance (Y) signal is applied to the Green Channel
and is processed in a manner identical to the Green input
with SOG described previously. The color difference signals
U and V are bipolar and swing both above and below the
black level. When the YUV mode is enabled, the black level
output for the color difference channels shifts to a mid scale
value of 0x80. Setting configuration register 0x05[2] = 1
enables the YUV signal processing mode of operation.
TABLE 1. YUV MAPPING (4:4:4)
INPUT
SIGNAL
X98014
INPUT
CHANNEL
X98014
OUTPUT
ASSIGNMENT
OUTPUT
SIGNAL
Y
Green
Green
Y0Y1Y2Y3
Gain and Offset Control
U
Blue
Blue
U0U1U2U3
To simplify image optimization algorithms, the X98014
features fully-independent gain and offset adjustment.
Changing the gain does not affect the DC offset, and the
weight of an Offset DAC LSB does not vary depending on
the gain setting.
V
Red
Red
V0V1V2V3
The full-scale gain is set in the three 8-bit registers (0x060x08). The X98014 can accept input signals with amplitudes
ranging from 0.35VP-P to 1.4VP-P.
The offset controls shift the entire RGB input range,
changing the input image brightness. Three separate
registers provide independent control of the R, G, and B
channels. Their nominal setting is 0x80, which forces the
ADC to output code 0x00 (or 0x80 for U and V channels in
YUV mode) during the back porch period when ABLC™ is
enabled.
16
The X98014 can optionally decimate the incoming data to
provide a 4:2:2 output stream (configuration register
0x18[4] = 1) as shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2. YUV MAPPING (4:2:2)
INPUT
SIGNAL
X98014
INPUT
CHANNEL
X98014
OUTPUT
ASSIGNMENT
OUTPUT
SIGNAL
Y
Green
Green
Y0Y1Y2Y3
U
Blue
Blue
driven low
V
Red
Red
U0V1U2V3
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Input Coupling
Inputs can be either AC-coupled (default) or DC-coupled
(see register 0x05[1]). AC coupling is usually preferred since
it allows video signals with substantial DC offsets to be
accurately digitized. The X98014 provides a complete
internal DC-restore function, including the DC restore clamp
(See Figure 7) and programmable clamp timing (registers
0x14, 0x15, 0x16, and 0x23).
When AC-coupled, the DC restore clamp is applied every
line, a programmable number of pixels after the trailing edge
of HSYNC. If register 0x05[5] = 0 (the default), the clamp will
not be applied while the DPLL is coasting, preventing any
clamp voltage errors from composite sync edges,
equalization pulses, or Macrovision signals.
After the trailing edge of HSYNC, the DC restore clamp is
turned on after the number of pixels specified in the DC
Restore and ABLC™ Starting Pixel registers (0x14 and
0x15) has been reached. The clamp is applied for the
number of pixels specified by the DC Restore Clamp Width
Register (0x16). The clamp can be applied to the back porch
of the video, or to the front porch (by increasing the DC
Restore and ABLC™ Starting Pixel registers so all the active
video pixels are skipped).
If DC-coupled operation is desired, the input to the ADC will
be the difference between the input signal (RIN1, for
example) and that channel’s ground reference (RGBGND1 in
that example).
SOG
For component YUV signals, the sync signal is embedded
on the Y channel’s video, which is connected to the green
input, hence the name SOG (Sync on Green). The horizontal
sync information is encoded onto the video input by adding
the sync tip during the blanking interval. The sync tip level is
typically 0.3V below the video black level.
To minimize the loading on the green channel, the SOG
input for each of the green channels should be AC-coupled
to the X98014 through a series combination of a 10nF
capacitor and a 500Ω resistor. Inside the X98014, a window
comparator compares the SOG signal with an internal 4 bit
programmable threshold level reference ranging from 0mV
to 300mV below the minimum sync level. The SOG
threshold level, hysteresis, and low-pass filter is
programmed via register 0x04. If the Sync-On-Green
function is not needed, the SOGIN pin(s) may be left
unconnected.
Automatic Black Level
Compensation (ABLC™) Loop
DC Restoration
CLAMP
GENERATION
DC Restore
Clamp DAC
VCLAMP
To
ABLC
Block
Fixed
Offset
Offset
ADC
10
Offset
Control
Registers
10
ABLC™
10
0x00
8
8
ABLC™
ABLC™
R(GB)IN1
R(GB)GND1
VGA1
8
VIN+
PGA
VIN–
R(GB)IN2
R(GB)GND2
Fixed
Offset
VGA2
Input
Bandwidth
8 bit ADC
8
8
To Output
Formatter
Bandwidth
Control
FIGURE 7. VIDEO FLOW (INCLUDING ABLC™)
17
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
ACTIVITY 0x01[6:0]
&
POLARITY 0x02[5:0]
DETECT
HSYNCIN1
HSYNC1
SLICER
0x03[2:0]
0:
VGA1
VSYNCIN1
SOGIN1
HSYNCIN2
SOG
SLICER
0x1C
HSYNCIN
0x05[0]
HSYNC2
SLICER
0x03[6:4]
SOGIN
00, 10,
11:
HSYNCIN
0x05[4:3]
SYNC
TYPE
SYNC
SPLITTER
VSYNC
01:
SOGIN
1:
VGA2
VSYNCIN2
SOGIN2
HSYNCOUT
CSYNC
SOURCE
0x05[3]
VSYNCIN
COAST
GENERATION
0x11, 0x12, 0x13[2]
RP[7:0]
Pixel Data
from AFE
CLOCKINVIN
HS
PLL
0x0E through 0x13
PIXCLK
0: ÷1
XTALOUT
24
RS[7:0]
GP[7:0]
Output
Formatter
0x18,
0x19,
0x1A
GS[7:0]
BP[7:0]
BS[7:0]
DATACLK
DATACLK
0x13
[6]
÷2
VSYNCOUT
0:
VSYNCIN
SOG
SLICER
0x1C
XTALIN
1:
SYNC
SPLTR
HSOUT
VSOUT
1: ÷2
XTALCLOCKOUT
FIGURE 8. SYNC FLOW
SYNC Processing
The X98014 can process sync signals from 3 different
sources: discrete HSYNC and VSYNC, composite sync on
the HSYNC input, or composite sync from a Sync-On-Green
(SOG) signal embedded on the Green video input. The
X98014 has SYNC activity detect functions to help the
firmware determine which sync source is available.
PGA
The X98014’s Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) has a
nominal gain range from 0.5V/V (-6dB) to 2.0V/V (+6dB).
The transfer function is:
V
GainCode
Gain  ----  = 0.5 + ---------------------------- V
170
where GainCode is the value in the Gain register for that
particular color. Note that for a gain of 1 V/V for GainCode
should be 85 (0x55). This is a different center value than the
128 (0x80) value used by some other AFEs, so the firmware
should take this into account when adjusting gains.
18
The PGAs are updated by the internal clamp signal once per
line. In normal operation this means that there is a maximum
delay of one HSYNC period between a write to a Gain
register for a particular color and the corresponding change
in that channel’s actual PGA gain. If there is no regular
HSYNC/SOG source, or if the external clamp option is
enabled (register 0x13[5:4]) but there is no external clamp
signal being generated, it may take up to 100ms for a write
to the Gain register to update the PGA. This is not an issue
in normal operation with RGB and YUV signals.
Bandwidth and Peaking Control
Register 0x0D[3:1] controls a low pass filter allowing the
input bandwidth to be adjusted with three bit resolution
between its default value (0x0E = 780MHz) and its minimum
bandwidth (0x00, for 100MHz). Typically the higher the
resolution, the higher the desired input bandwidth. To
minimize noise, video signals should be digitized with the
minimum bandwidth setting that passes sharp edges.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Table 3 shows the corner frequency for different register
settings.
TABLE 3. BANDWIDTH CONTROL
0x0D[3:0] VALUE
(LSB = “x” = “don’t care”)
AFE BANDWIDTH
000x
100MHz
001x
130MHz
010x
150MHz
011x
180MHz
100x
230MHz
101x
320MHz
110x
480MHz
111x
780MHz
Register 0x0D[7:4] controls a programmable zero, allowing
high frequencies to be boosted, restoring some of the
harmonics lost due to excessive EMI filtering, cable losses, etc.
This control has a very large range, and can introduce high
frequency noise into the image, so it should be used judiciously,
or as an advanced user adjustment.
Table 4 shows the corner frequency of the zero for different
peaking register settings.
TABLE 4. PEAKING CORNER FREQUENCIES
interaction between the PGA (controlling “contrast”) and the
Offset DAC (controlling “brightness”).
In normal operation, the Offset DAC is controlled by the
ABLC™ circuit, ensuring that the offset is always reduced
to sub-LSB levels (See the following ABLC™ section for
more information). When ABLC™ is enabled, the Offset
registers (0x09, 0x0A, 0x0B) control a digital offset added
to or subtracted from the output of the ADC. This mode
provides the best image quality and eliminates the need for
any offset calibration.
If desired, ABLC™ can be disabled (0x17[0]=1) and the
Offset DAC programmed manually, with the 8 most
significant bits in registers 0x09, 0x0A, 0x0B, and the 2 least
significant bits in register 0x0C[7:2].
The default Offset DAC range is ±127 ADC LSBs. Setting
0x0C[0]=1 reduces the swing of the Offset DAC by 50%,
making 1 Offset DAC LSB the weight of 1/8th of an ADC
LSB. This provides the finest offset control and applies to
both ABLC™ and manual modes.
Automatic Black Level Compensation (ABLC™)
ABLC is a function that continuously removes all offset
errors from the incoming video signal by monitoring the
offset at the output of the ADC and servoing the 10 bit
analog DAC to force those errors to zero. When ABLC is
enabled, the user offset control is a digital adder, with 8 bit
resolution (See Table 5).
0X0D[7:4] VALUE
ZERO CORNER FREQUENCY
0x0
Peaking disabled
0x1
800MHz
0x2
400MHz
0x3
265MHz
0x4
200MHz
0x5
160MHz
0x6
135MHz
0x7
115MHz
0x8
100MHz
0x9
90MHz
0xA
80MHz
0xB
70MHz
0xC
65MHz
0xD
60MHz
0xE
55MHz
The default values provide excellent results with offset
stability and absolute accuracy better than 1 ADC LSB for
most input signals. Increasing the ABLC pixel width or the
ABLC bandwidth settings decreases the ABLC’s absolute
DC error further.
0xF
50MHz
ADC
Offset DAC
The X98014 features a 10 bit Digital-to-Analog Converter
(DAC) to provide extremely fine control over the full channel
offset. The DAC is placed after the PGA to eliminate
19
When the ABLC function is enabled (0x17[0]=0), the ABLC
function is executed every line after the trailing edge of
HSYNC. If register 0x05[5] = 0 (the default), the ABLC
function will not be triggered while the DPLL is coasting,
preventing any composite sync edges, equalization pulses,
or Macrovision signals from corrupting the black data and
potentially adding a small error in the ABLC accumulator.
After the trailing edge of HSYNC, the start of ABLC is delayed
by the number of pixels specified in registers 0x14 and 0x15.
After that delay, the number of pixels specified by register
0x17[3:2] are averaged together and added to the ABLC’s
accumulator. The accumulator stores the average black levels
for the number of lines specified by register 0x17[6:4], which
is then used to generate a 10 bit DAC value.
The X98014 features 3 fully differential, 140MSPS 8 bit
ADCs.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
TABLE 5. OFFSET DAC RANGE AND OFFSET DAC ADJUSTMENT
ABLC™
0x17[0]
USER OFFSET CONTROL
RESOLUTION USING REGISTERS
0x09 - 0x0B ONLY
(8 BIT OFFSET CONTROL)
USER OFFSET CONTROL
RESOLUTION USING REGISTERS
0x09 - 0x0B AND 0x0C[7:2]
(10 BIT OFFSET CONTROL)
0.25 ADC LSBs
(0.68mV)
0
(ABLC on)
1 ADC LSB
(digital offset control)
N/A
1
0.125 ADC LSBs
(0.34mV)
0
(ABLC on)
1 ADC LSB
(digital offset control)
N/A
0
0.25 ADC LSBs
(0.68mV)
1
(ABLC off)
1.0 ADC LSB
(analog offset control)
0.25 ADC LSB
(analog offset control)
1
0.125 ADC LSBs
(0.34mV)
1
(ABLC off)
0.5 ADC LSB
(analog offset control)
0.125 ADC LSB
(analog offset control)
OFFSET DAC
RANGE
0x0C[0]
10 BIT
OFFSET DAC
RESOLUTION
0
Clock Generation
SOG Slicer
A Digital Phase Lock Loop (DPLL) is employed to generate
the pixel clock frequency. The HSYNC input and the external
XTAL provide a reference frequency to the PLL. The PLL
then generates the pixel clock frequency that is equal to the
incoming HSYNC frequency times the HTOTAL value
programmed into registers 0x0E and 0x0F.
The SOG input has programmable threshold, 40mV of
hysteresis, and an optional low pass filter than can be used
to remove high frequency video spikes (generated by
overzealous video peaking in a DVD player, for example)
that can cause false SOG triggers. The SOG threshold sets
the comparator threshold relative to the sync tip (the bottom
of the SOG pulse). A good default SOG slicer threshold
setting is 0x16 (hysteresis and low pass filter enabled,
threshold lowered slightly to accommodate weak sync tips).
The stability of the clock is very important and correlates
directly with the quality of the image. During each pixel time
transition, there is a small window where the signal is
slewing from the old pixel amplitude and settling to the new
pixel value. At higher frequencies, the pixel time transitions
at a faster rate, which makes the stable pixel time even
smaller. Any jitter in the pixel clock reduces the effective
stable pixel time and thus the sample window in which pixel
sampling can be made accurately.
Sampling Phase
The X98014 provides 64 low-jitter phase choices per pixel
period, allowing the firmware to precisely select the optimum
sampling point. The sampling phase register is 0x10.
HSYNC Slicer
To further minimize jitter, the HSYNC inputs are treated as
analog signals, and brought into a precision slicer block with
thresholds programmable in 400mV steps with 240mV of
hysteresis, and a subsequent digital glitch filter that ignores
any HSYNC transitions within 100ns of the initial transition.
This processing greatly increases the AFE’s rejection of
ringing and reflections on the HSYNC line and allows the
AFE to perform well even with pathological HSYNC signals.
Voltages given above and in the HSYNC Slicer register
description are with respect to a 3.3V sync signal at the
HSYNCIN input pin. To achieve 5V compatibility, a 680Ω
series resistor should be placed between the HSYNC source
and the HSYNCIN input pin. Relative to a 5V input, the
hysteresis will be 240mV*5V/3.3V = 360mV, and the slicer
step size will be 400mV*5V/3.3V = 600mV per step.
The best HSYNC slicer threshold is generally 800mV (001b)
when locking on the rising edge of an HSYNC signal, or 2.4V
(110b) when locking on the falling edge.
20
SYNC Status and Polarity Detection
The SYNC Status register (0x01) and the SYNC Polarity
register (0x02) continuously monitor all 6 sync inputs
(VSYNCIN, HSYNCIN, and SOGIN for each of 2 channels)
and report their status. However, accurate sync activity
detection is always a challenge. Noise and repetitive video
patterns on the Green channel may look like SOG activity
when there actually is no SOG signal, while non-standard
SOG signals and trilevel sync signals may have amplitudes
below the default SOG slicer levels and not be easily
detected. As a consequence, not all of the activity detect bits
in the X980xx are correct under all conditions.
Table 6 shows how to use the SYNC Status register (0x01)
to identify the presence of and type of a sync source. The
firmware should go through the table in the order shown,
stopping at the first entry that matches the activity indicators
in the SYNC Status register.
Final validation of composite sync sources (SOG or
Composite sync on HSYNC) should be done by setting the
Input Configuration register (0x05) to the composite sync
source determined by this table, and confirming that the
CSYNC detect bit is set.
The accuracy of the Trilevel Sync detect bit can be increased
by multiple reads of the Trilevel Sync detect bit. See the
Trilevel Sync Detect section for more details.
For best SOG operation, the SOG low pass filter (register
0x04[4]) should always be enabled to reject the high
frequency peaking often seen on video signals.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
TABLE 6. SYNC SOURCE DETECTION TABLE
HSYNC
DETECT
VSYNC
DETECT
SOG
DETECT
TRILEVEL
DETECT
1
1
X
X
Sync is on HSYNC and VSYNC
1
0
X
X
Sync is composite sync on HSYNC. Set Input configuration register to CSYNC on HSYNC
and confirm that CSYNC detect bit is set.
0
0
1
0
Sync is composite sync on SOG. It is possible that trilevel sync is present but amplitude
is too low to set trilevel detect bit. Use video mode table to determine if this video mode is
likely to have trilevel sync, and set clamp start, width values appropriately if it is.
0
0
1
1
Sync is composite sync on SOG. Sync is likely to be trilevel.
0
0
0
X
No valid sync sources on any input.
RESULT
HSYNC and VSYNC Activity Detect
Activity on these bits always indicates valid sync pulses, so
they should have the highest priority and be used even if the
SOG activity bit is also set.
SOG Activity Detect
The SOG activity detect bit monitors the output of the SOG
slicer, looking for 64 consecutive pulses with the same
period and duty cycle. If there is no signal on the Green
(or Y) channel, the SOG slicer will clamp the video to a DC
level and will reject any sporadic noise. There should be no
false positive SOG detects if there is no video on Green
(or Y).
If there is video on Green (or Y) with no valid SOG signal,
the SOG activity detect bit may sometimes report false
positives (it will detect SOG when no SOG is actually
present). This is due to the presence of video with a
repetitive pattern that creates a waveform similar to SOG.
For example, the desktop of a PC operating system is black
during the front porch, horizontal sync, and back porch, then
increases to a larger value for the visible portion of the
screen. This creates a repetitive video waveform very
similar to SOG that may falsely trigger the SOG Activity
detect bit. However, in these cases where there is active
video without SOG, the SYNC information will be provided
either as separate H and V sync on HSYNCIN and
VSYNCIN, or composite sync on HSYNCIN. HSYNCIN and
VSYNCIN should therefore be used to qualify SOG. The
SOG Active bit should only be considered valid if HSYNC
Activity Detect = 0. Note: Some pattern generators can
output HSYNC and SOG simultaneously, in which case both
the HSYNC and the SOG activity bits will be set, and valid.
Even in this case, however, the monitor should still choose
HSYNC over SOG.
TriLevel Sync Detect
Unlike SOG detect, the TriLevel Sync detect function does
not check for 64 consecutive trilevel pulses in a row, and is
therefore less robust than the SOG detect function. It will
report false positives for SOG-less video for the same
reasons the SOG activity detect does, and should therefore
be qualified with both HSYNC and SOG. TriLevel Sync
21
Detect should only be considered valid if HSYNC Activity
Detect = 0 and SOG Activity Detect = 1.
If there is a SOG signal, the TriLevel Detect bit will operate
correctly for standard trilevel sync levels (600mVp-p). In
some real-world situations, the peak-to-peak sync amplitude
may be significantly smaller, sometimes 300mVp-p or less.
In these cases the sync slicer will continue to operate
correctly, but the TriLevel Detect bit may not be set. Trilevel
detection accuracy can be enhanced by polling the trilevel
bit multiple times. If HSYNC is inactive, SOG is present, and
the TriLevel Sync Detect bit is read as a 1, there is a high
likelihood there is trilevel sync.
CSYNC Present
If a composite sync source (either CSYNC on HSYNC or
SOG) is selected through bits 3 and 4 of register 0x05, the
CSYNC Present bit in register 0x01 should be set. CSYNC
Present detects the presence of a low frequency, repetitive
signal inside HSYNC, which indicates a VSYNC signal. The
CSYNC Present bit should be used to confirm that the signal
being received is a reliable composite sync source.
SYNC Output Signals
The X98014 has 2 pairs of HSYNC and VSYNC output
signals, HSYNCOUT and VSYNCOUT, and HSOUT and
VSOUT.
HSYNCOUT and VSYNCOUT are buffered versions of the
incoming sync signals; no synchronization is done. These
signals should be used for mode detection.
HSOUT and VSOUT are generated by the X98014’s logic
and are synchronized to the output DATACLK and the digital
pixel data on the output databus. HSOUT is used to signal
the start of a new line of digital data. VSOUT is not needed in
most applications.
Both HSYNCOUT and VSYNCOUT (including the sync
separator function) remain active in power down mode. This
allows them to be used in conjunction with the Sync Status
registers to detect valid video without powering up the
X98014.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
HSYNCOUT
TABLE 7. HSOUT WIDTH
HSYNCOUT is an unmodified, buffered version of the
incoming HSYNCIN or SOGIN signal of the selected
channel, with the incoming signal’s period, polarity, and
width to aid in mode detection. HSYNCOUT will be the same
format as the incoming sync signal: either horizontal or
composite sync. If a SOG input is selected, HSYNCOUT will
output the entire SOG signal, including the VSYNC portion,
pre-/post-equalization pulses if present, and Macrovision
pulses if present. HSYNCOUT remains active when the
X98014 is in power down mode. HSYNCOUT is generally
used for mode detection.
VSYNCOUT
VSYNCOUT is an unmodified, buffered version of the
incoming VSYNCIN signal of the selected channel, with the
original VSYNC period, polarity, and width to aid in mode
detection. If a SOG input is selected, this signal will output
the VSYNC signal extracted by the X98014’s sync slicer.
Extracted VSYNC will be the width of the embedded VSYNC
pulse plus pre- and post-equalization pulses (if present).
Macrovision pulses from an NTSC DVD source will lengthen
the width of the VSYNC pulse. Macrovision pulses from
other sources (PAL DVD or videotape) may appear as a
second VSYNC pulse encompassing the width of the
Macrovision. See the Macrovision section for more
information. VSYNCOUT (including the sync separator
function) remains active in power down mode. VSYNCOUT
is generally used for mode detection, start of field detection,
and even/odd field detection.
HSOUT
HSOUT is generated by the X98014’s control logic and is
synchronized to the output DATACLK and the digital pixel
data on the output databus. Its trailing edge is aligned with
pixel 0. Its width, in units of pixels, is determined by register
0x19, and its polarity is determined by register 0x18[7]. As
the width is increased, the trailing edge stays aligned with
pixel 0, while the leading edge is moved backwards in time
relative to pixel 0. HSOUT is used by the scaler to signal the
start of a new line of pixels.
The HSOUT Width register (0x19) controls the width of the
HSOUT pulse. The pulse width is nominally 1 pixel clock
period times the value in this register. In the 48 bit output
mode (register 0x18[0] = 1), or the YUV input mode (register
0x05[2] = 1), the HSOUT width is incremented in 2 pixel clock
(1 DATACLK) increments (see Table 7).
HSOUT WIDTH (PIXEL CLOCKS)
REGISTER
0x19 VALUE
24 BIT MODE,
RGB
24 BIT MODE,
YUV
ALL 48 BIT
MODES
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
2
2
3
2
3
3
3
2
4
4
5
4
5
5
5
4
6
6
7
6
7
7
7
6
VSOUT
VSOUT is generated by the X98014’s control logic and is
synchronized to the output DATACLK and the digital pixel
data on the output databus. Its leading and trailing edges are
aligned with pixel 7 (8 pixels after HSYNC trailing edge). Its
width, in units of lines, is equal to the width of the incoming
VSYNC (see the VSYNCOUT description). Its polarity is
determined by register 0x18[6]. This output is not needed in
most applications.
Macrovision
The X98014 will synchronize to and digitize Macrovisionencoded YUV video if the source is an NTSC DVD.
Macrovision from PAL DVD, or from all video tape sources,
is incompatible with the sync slicer, requiring that the
Macrovision pulses either be stripped from the video prior to
the SOGIN input, or an external COAST signal be generated
and applied to the CLKINV pin that will coast the X98014’s
PLL during the VSYNC and Macrovision period.
Standby Mode
The X98014 can be placed into a low power standby mode
by writing a 0x0F to register 0x1B, powering down the triple
ADCs, the DPLL, and most of the internal clocks.
To allow input monitoring and mode detection during power
down, the following blocks remain active:
• Serial interface (including the crystal oscillator) to enable
register read/write activity
• Activity and polarity detect functions (registers 0x01 and
0x02)
• The HSYNCOUT and VSYNCOUT pins (for mode
detection)
22
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
HSYNCIN
(to A and B)
Analog Video In
(to A and B)
DPLL Lock Edge
PN-3 PN-2 PN-1 PN P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10 P11 P12
DATACLK (A)
DATA (A)
DN-3
HSOUT (A)
DN-1
D0
D2
CLKINVIN (A) = GNDD
½ DATACLK Delay
DATACLK (B)
DATA (B)
DN-2
HSOUT (B)
DN
D1
D3
CLKINVIN (B) = VD
FIGURE 9. ALTERNATE PIXEL SAMPLING (24 BIT MODE)
Crystal Oscillator
An external 23MHz to 27MHz crystal supplies the low-jitter
reference clock to the DPLL. The absolute frequency of this
crystal within this range is unimportant, as is the crystal’s
temperature coefficient, allowing use of less expensive,
lower-grade crystals.
EMI Considerations
There are two possible sources of EMI on the X98014:
• Crystal oscillator. The EMI from the crystal oscillator is
negligible. This is due to an amplitude-regulated, low
voltage sine wave oscillator circuit, instead of the typical
high-gain square wave inverter-type oscillator, so there
are no harmonics. The crystal oscillator is not a significant
source of EMI.
If EMI is a problem in the final design, increase the value of
the digital output series resistors to reduce slew rates on the
bus. This can only be done as long as the scaler’s setup and
hold timing requirements continue to be met.
Alternate Pixel Sampling
Two X98014s (AFEA and AFEB) may be used
simultaneously to achieve effective sample rates greater
than 140MHz. Each AFE is programmed with an HTOTAL
value equal to one-half of the total number of pixels in a line.
The CLOCKINVIN pin for AFEA is tied to ground, AFEB is
tied to VD. Both AFEs are otherwise programmed identically,
though some minor phase adjustment may be needed to
compensate for any propagation delay mismatch between
the two AFEs.
• Digital output switching. This is the largest potential
source of EMI. However, the EMI is determined by the
PCB+ layout and the loading on the databus. The way to
control this is to put series resistors on the output of all the
digital pins. These resistor values should be adjusted to
optimize signal quality on the bus. Intersil recommends
starting with 22Ω and adjusting as necessary for the
particular PCB layout and device loading.
The CLOCKINVIN setting shifts the phase of AFEB by 180
degrees from AFEA. AFEA now samples the even pixels on
the rising edge of its DATACLK, while AFEB samples the odd
pixels on the rising edge of its clock. With each AFE in 24 bit
mode, two 24 bit data streams are generated (Figure 9).
Recommendations for minimizing EMI are:
In both cases, AFEA and AFEB are on different DATACLK
domains. In 24 bit mode, the data from each AFE must be
latched on the rising edge of that AFE’s DATACLK. In 48 bit
mode, the frequencies are low enough that the rising edge of
AFE B can be used to capture both AFEB and AFEA data.
• Minimize the databus trace length
• Minimize the databus capacitive loading.
23
With both AFEs configured for 48 bit mode, a 96 bit
datastream is generated (Figure 10).
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
HSYNCIN
(to A and B)
Analog Video In
(to A and B)
DPLL Lock Edge
PN-3 PN-2 PN-1 PN P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10 P11 P12
PIXELCLK (A)
(Internal)
DATACLK (A)
DATAPRI (A)
DN-3
D0
DATASEC (A)
DN-1
D2
HSOUT (A)
CLKINVIN (A) = GNDD
½ PIXELCLK = ¼ DATACLK Delay
PIXELCLK (B)
(Internal)
DATACLK (B)
DATAPRI (B)
DN-2
D1
DATASEC (B)
DN
D3
HSOUT (B)
CLKINVIN (B) = GNDD
FIGURE 10. ALTERNATE PIXEL SAMPLING (48 BIT MODE)
Initialization
.
The X98014 initializes with default register settings for an
AC-coupled, RGB input on the VGA1 channel, with a 24 bit
output.
The following registers should be written to fully enable the
chip:
• Register 0x1C should be set to 0x49 to improve DPLL
performance in video modes
• Register 0x23 should be set to 0x78 to enable the DC
Restore function
Reset
The X98014 has a Power-On Reset (POR) function that
resets the chip to its default state when power is initially
applied, including resetting all the registers to their default
settings as described in the Register Listing. The external
RESET pin duplicates the reset function of the POR without
24
having to cycle the power supplies. The RESET pin does not
need to be used in normal operation and can be tied high.
Rare CSYNC Considerations
Intersil has discovered one anomaly in its sync separator
function. If the CSYNC signal shown in Figure 11 is present
on the HSYNC input, and the sync source is set to CSYNC
on HSYNC, HSOUT may sporadically lock to the wrong edge
of HSYNCIN. This will cause the HSOUT to have the wrong
position relative to pixel 0, resulting in the image shifting left
or right by the width of the HSYNCIN signal for about 1
second before it corrects itself.
This only happens with the exact waveshape shown in
Figure 11. If the polarity of the sync signal is inverted from
that shown in Figure 11, the problem will not occur. If there
are any serrations during the VSYNC period, the problem
will not occur. The problem also will not occur if the sync
signal is on the SOG input.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Conditions required: negative polarity VSYNC, with no serrations, and t1 = t2
t1
t2
HSYNCIN
FIGURE 11. CSYNC ON HSYNC THAT MAY CAUSE SPORADIC IMAGE SHIFTS
This is a rarely used composite sync format; in most
applications it will never be encountered. However if this
CSYNC waveform must be supported, there is a simple
applications solution using an XOR gate.
The output of the XOR gate is connected to the HSYNCIN
input of the X98014. One of the XOR inputs is connected to
the HSYNC/CSYNC source, and the other input is
connected to a general purpose I/O. For all sync sources
except the CSYNC shown in Figure 11, the input connected
to the GPIO should be driven low.
If the system microcontroller detects a mode corresponding
to the sync type and polarity shown in Figure 11, it should
drive the GPIO pin high. This will invert the CSYNC signal
seen by the X98014 and prevent any spontaneous image
shifting.
X98014 Serial Communication
Overview
The X98014 uses a 2 wire serial bus for communication with
its host. SCL is the Serial Clock line, driven by the host, and
SDA is the Serial Data line, which can be driven by all
devices on the bus. SDA is open drain to allow multiple
devices to share the same bus simultaneously.
Communication is accomplished in three steps:
1. The Host selects the X98014 it wishes to communicate
with.
2. The Host writes the initial X98014 Configuration Register
address it wishes to write to or read from.
3. The Host writes to or reads from the X98014’s
Configuration Register. The X98014’s internal address
pointer auto increments, so to read registers 0x00
through 0x1B, for example, one would write 0x00 in step
2, then repeat step 3 28 times, with each read returning
the next register value.
The X98014 has a 7 bit address on the serial bus. The upper
6 bits are permanently set to 100110, with the lower bit
determined by the state of pin 48. This allows 2 X98014s to
be independently controlled while sharing the same bus.
25
The bus is nominally inactive, with SDA and SCL high.
Communication begins when the host issues a START
command by taking SDA low while SCL is high (Figure 12).
The X98014 continuously monitors the SDA and SCL lines
for the start condition and will not respond to any command
until this condition has been met. The host then transmits the
7 bit serial address plus a R/W bit, indicating if the next
transaction will be a Read (R/W = 1) or a Write (R/W = 0). If
the address transmitted matches that of any device on the
bus, that device must respond with an ACKNOWLEDGE
(Figure 13).
Once the serial address has been transmitted and
acknowledged, one or more bytes of information can be
written to or read from the slave. Communication with the
selected device in the selected direction (read or write) is
ended by a STOP command, where SDA rises while SCL is
high (Figure 12), or a second START command, which is
commonly used to reverse data direction without
relinquishing the bus.
Data on the serial bus must be valid for the entire time SCL
is high (Figure 14). To achieve this, data being written to the
X98014 is latched on a delayed version of the rising edge of
SCL. SCL is delayed and deglitched inside the X98014 for 3
crystal clock periods (120ns for a 25MHz crystal) to eliminate
spurious clock pulses that could disrupt serial
communication.
When the contents of the X98014 are being read, the SDA
line is updated after the falling edge of SCL, delayed and
deglitched in the same manner.
Configuration Register Write
Figure 15 shows two views of the steps necessary to write
one or more words to the Configuration Register.
Configuration Register Read
Figure 16 shows two views of the steps necessary to read
one or more words from the Configuration Register.
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
SCL
SDA
Start
Stop
FIGURE 12. VALID START AND STOP CONDITIONS
SCL from
Host
1
8
9
Data Output
from Transmitter
Data Output
from Receiver
Start
Acknowledge
FIGURE 13. ACKNOWLEDGE RESPONSE FROM RECEIVER
SCL
SDA
Data Stable
Data Change
Data Stable
FIGURE 14. VALID DATA CHANGES ON THE SDA BUS
26
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Signals the beginning of serial I/O
START Command
X98014 Serial Bus Address
R/W
A
0
X98014 Serial Bus Address Write
This is the 7 bit address of the X98014 on the 2 wire bus. The
address is 0x4C if pin 48 is low, 0x4D if pin 48 is high. Shift this
value to left when adding the R/W bit
0
1
0
0
1
1
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
(pin 48)
X98014 Register Address Write
This is the address of the X98014’s configuration register that
the following byte will be written to.
X98014 Register Data Write(s)
This is the data to be written to the X98014’s configuration register.
Note: The X98014’s Configuration Register’s address pointer auto
increments after each data write: repeat this step to write multiple
sequential bytes of data to the Configuration Register.
(Repeat if desired)
Signals the ending of serial I/O
STOP Command
Signals from
the Host
SDA Bus
Signals from
the X98014
S
T Serial Bus
A
R Address
T
Register
Address
aaaaaaaa
1 0 0 1 1 0A0
A
C
K
S
T
O
P
Data
Write*
* The data write step may be repeated to write to the X98014’s
Configuration Register sequentially, beginning at the Register
Address written in the previous step.
dddddddd
A
C
K
A
C
K
FIGURE 15. CONFIGURATION REGISTER WRITE
27
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
Signals the beginning of serial I/O
START Command
X98014 Serial Bus Address
R/W
A
0
1
0
0
1
1
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
0
(pin 48)
X98014 Serial Bus Address Write
This is the 7 bit address of the X98014 on the 2 wire bus. The
address is 0x4C if pin 48 is low, 0x4D if pin 48 is high. R/W = 0,
indicating next transaction will be a write.
X98014 Register Address Write
A2
A1
A0
This sets the initial address of the X98014’s configuration
register for subsequent reading
Ends the previous transaction and starts a new one
R/W
X98014 Serial Bus Address Write
START Command
X98014 Serial Bus Address
A
0
1
0
0
1
1
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
1
(pin 48)
D2
D1
D0
SDA Bus
Signals from
the X98014
R
E
S
T Serial Bus
A Address
R
T
1 0 0 1 1 0A1
Register
Address
1 0 0 1 1 0A0
aaaaaaaa
A
C
K
This is the data read from the X98014’s configuration register.
Signals the ending of serial I/O
STOP Command
S
T Serial Bus
A
R Address
T
X98014 Register Data Read(s)
Note: The X98014’s Configuration Register’s address pointer auto
increments after each data read: repeat this step to read multiple
sequential bytes of data from the Configuration Register.
(Repeat if desired)
Signals from
the Host
This is the 7 bit address of the X98014 on the 2 wire bus. The
address is 0x4C if pin 48 is low, 0x4D if pin 48 is high. R/W = 1,
indicating next transaction(s) will be a read.
A
C
K
Data
Read*
S
T
O
AP
C
K
* The data read step may be repeated to read
from the X98014’s Configuration Register
sequentially, beginning at the Register
Address written in the two steps previous.
Adddddddd
C
K
FIGURE 16. CONFIGURATION REGISTER READ
28
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
X98014
128-Lead Metric Quad Flat Pack (MQFP)
R0.25 TYP
ALL AROUND
D
D1
128
PIN 1
0.200 MIN.
1
C
0 ° MIN.
IN.
3M
0.25 BASE
a
GAGE PLANE
0.13~0.30
.
20.000±0.100
(E1)
19.870±0.100
E
E1
18.500 REF.
A
ccc
A2
R0.1
C0.600X0.350
(4X)
12.500 REF.
12° ALL AROUND
b
L1
ddd
13.870±0.100
T
L
e
C
A1
SEATING
PLANE
C
DETAIL Y
A
DIMENSION LIST ( FOOTPRINT: 3.200)
1
14.000±0.100
A
12°
Y
(D1)
ALL AROUND
b1
1
T1
T
b
S/N
SYM
DIMENSIONS
1
A
MAX. 3.40
OVERALL HEIGHT
2
A1
0.250~0.500
STANDOFF
3
A2
2.750±0.250
PKG THICKNESS
4
D
17.200±0.250
LEAD TIP TO TIP
5
D1
14.000±0.100
PKG LENGTH
6
E
23.200±0.250
LEAD TIP TO TIP
7
E1
20.000±0.100
PKG WIDTH
8
L
0.880±0.150
FOOT LENGTH
REMARKS
NOTES :
S/N
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
1
GENERAL TOLERANCE.
2
MATTE FINISH ON PACKAGE BODY SURFACE
EXCEPT EJECTION AND PIN 1 MARKING.
DISTANCE
±0.100
ANGLE
±2.5°
Ra 0.8~2.0um
9
L1
1.600 REF.
LEAD LENGTH
1
1
10
T
0.170±0.060
FRAME THICKNESS
11
T1
FRAME BASE METAL THICKNESS
3
a
ALL MOLDED BODY SHARP CORNER RADII
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.
MAX. R0.200
12
0.152±0.040
0°~7°
1
1
13
b
LEAD WIDTH
4
PACKAGE/LEADFRAME MISALIGNMENT ( X, Y ):
MAX. 0.127
14
b1
LEAD BASE METAL WIDTH
5
TOP/BTM PACKAGE MISALIGNMENT ( X, Y ):
MAX. 0.127
15
e
0.220±0.050
0.200±0.030
0.500 BASE
LEAD PITCH
6
16
ccc
0.100
FOOT COPLANARITY
DRAWING DOES NOT INCLUDE PLASTIC OR METAL PROTRUSION
OR CUTTING BURR.
17
ddd
0.100
FOOT POSITION
7
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARD:
1
FOOT ANGLE
2
MS-022
SECTION A-A
PACKAGE OUTLINE DRAWING
DROP IN HEAT SPREADER
4 STAND POINTS EXPOSED
14 x 20 mm 128 LEAD MQFP (with or without Heat spreader)
3.2 mm FOOTPRINT
Drawing #: MDP0055
Rev: 1
Date: 09/26/05
Units: mm
SOLUTIONS IN SILICON
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
29
FN8217.3
March 8, 2006
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